Aspartic Acid Proteases: A subclass of peptide hydrolases that depend on an ASPARTIC ACID residue for their activity.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Pepstatins: N-acylated oligopeptides isolated from culture filtrates of Actinomycetes, which act specifically to inhibit acid proteases such as pepsin and renin.Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases: A sub-subclass of endopeptidases that depend on an ASPARTIC ACID residue for their activity.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Norleucine: An unnatural amino acid that is used experimentally to study protein structure and function. It is structurally similar to METHIONINE, however it does not contain SULFUR.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Rhizopus: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, a common saprophyte and facultative parasite of mature fruits and vegetables. It may cause cerebral mycoses in diabetes and cutaneous infection in severely burned patients.Mucor: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order Mucorales. It is primarily saprophytic, but may cause MUCORMYCOSIS in man from spores germinating in the lungs.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cathepsin D: An intracellular proteinase found in a variety of tissue. It has specificity similar to but narrower than that of pepsin A. The enzyme is involved in catabolism of cartilage and connective tissue. EC 3.4.23.5. (Formerly EC 3.4.4.23).Aspergillus oryzae: An imperfect fungus present on most agricultural seeds and often responsible for the spoilage of seeds in bulk storage. It is also used in the production of fermented food or drink, especially in Japan.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Pepsin A: Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cathepsin E: An aspartic endopeptidase that is similar in structure to CATHEPSIN D. It is found primarily in the cells of the immune system where it may play a role in processing of CELL SURFACE ANTIGENS.Chymosin: The predominant milk-clotting enzyme from the true stomach or abomasum of the suckling calf. It is secreted as an inactive precursor called prorennin and converted in the acid environment of the stomach to the active enzyme. EC 3.4.23.4.Mitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.HIV Protease: Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Cathepsins: A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.Aspergillus niger: An imperfect fungus causing smut or black mold of several fruits, vegetables, etc.Saccharomycopsis: Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycopsidaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES, isolated from the stomach of rabbits and some other animals.NitrophenolsPepsinogens: Proenzymes secreted by chief cells, mucous neck cells, and pyloric gland cells, which are converted into pepsin in the presence of gastric acid or pepsin itself. (Dorland, 28th ed) In humans there are 2 related pepsinogen systems: PEPSINOGEN A (formerly pepsinogen I or pepsinogen) and PEPSINOGEN C (formerly pepsinogen II or progastricsin). Pepsinogen B is the name of a pepsinogen from pigs.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.Diazonium CompoundsCladosporium: A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including some economically important plant parasites. Teleomorphs include Mycosphaerella and Venturia.Aspergillus: A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.Azo CompoundsXylariales: An order of ascomycetous FUNGI which includes many economically important plant parasites as well as saprophytes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Pectobacterium carotovorum: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes rotting, particularly of storage tissues, of a wide variety of plants and causes a vascular disease in CARROTS; and POTATO plants.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)2S Albumins, Plant: A major class of water-soluble seed storage proteins. Many proteins from this class are major PLANT ALLERGENS.Castor Bean: Common name for Ricinus communis, a species in the family EUPHORBIACEAE. It is the source of CASTOR OIL.Fusarium: A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.Trichothecenes: Usually 12,13-epoxytrichothecenes, produced by Fusaria, Stachybotrys, Trichoderma and other fungi, and some higher plants. They may contaminate food or feed grains, induce emesis and hemorrhage in lungs and brain, and damage bone marrow due to protein and DNA synthesis inhibition.Mycotoxins: Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Zearalenone: (S-(E))-3,4,5,6,8,10-Hexahydro-14,16-dihydroxy-3-methyl-1H-2-benzoxacyclotetradecin-1,7(8H)-dione. One of a group of compounds known under the general designation of resorcylic acid lactones. Cis, trans, dextro and levo forms have been isolated from the fungus Gibberella zeae (formerly Fusarium graminearum). They have estrogenic activity, cause toxicity in livestock as feed contaminant, and have been used as anabolic or estrogen substitutes.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.alpha-Synuclein: A synuclein that is a major component of LEWY BODIES that plays a role in neurodegeneration and neuroprotection.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Tremor: Cyclical movement of a body part that can represent either a physiologic process or a manifestation of disease. Intention or action tremor, a common manifestation of CEREBELLAR DISEASES, is aggravated by movement. In contrast, resting tremor is maximal when there is no attempt at voluntary movement, and occurs as a relatively frequent manifestation of PARKINSON DISEASE.Synucleins: A family of homologous proteins of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT that are predominately expressed in the BRAIN and that have been implicated in a variety of human diseases. They were originally isolated from CHOLINERGIC FIBERS of TORPEDO.Substantia Nigra: The black substance in the ventral midbrain or the nucleus of cells containing the black substance. These cells produce DOPAMINE, an important neurotransmitter in regulation of the sensorimotor system and mood. The dark colored MELANIN is a by-product of dopamine synthesis.Neurodegenerative Diseases: Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.

Cloning of the SAP6 gene of Metschnikowia reukaufii and its heterologous expression and characterization in Escherichia coli. (1/51)

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Criteria for the differentiation between young and old Onchocerca volvulus filariae. (2/51)

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Recognition of fungal protease activities induces cellular activation and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin release in human eosinophils. (3/51)

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Identification of novel aspartic proteases from Strongyloides ratti and characterisation of their evolutionary relationships, stage-specific expression and molecular structure. (4/51)

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A novel bifunctional peptidic aspartic protease inhibitor inhibits chitinase A from Serratia marcescens: Kinetic analysis of inhibition and binding affinity. (5/51)

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Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) as a model for study of lentivirus infections: parallels with HIV. (6/51)

FIV is a significant pathogen in the cat and is, in addition, the smallest available natural model for the study of lentivirus infections. Although divergent at the amino acid level, the cat lentivirus has an abundance of structural and pathophysiological commonalities with HIV and thus serves well as a model for development of intervention strategies relevant to infection in both cats and man. The following review highlights both the strengths and shortcomings of the FIV/cat model, particular as regards development of antiviral drugs.  (+info)

Neutralizing antibodies to the hookworm hemoglobinase Na-APR-1: implications for a multivalent vaccine against hookworm infection and schistosomiasis. (7/51)

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Differences in exoenzyme production and adherence ability of Candida spp. isolates from catheter, blood and oral cavity. (8/51)

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  • Only a few aspartic acid proteases are known from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, proteinase A, Bar1, yapsin 1-7. (dtu.dk)
  • In modern-day enzymes, although the three-dimensional structures are very similar, the amino acid sequences are more divergent, except for the catalytic site motif, which is very conserved. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also activates platelets by cleavage of the N-terminus of protease-activated-receptors in their membranes, further contributing to the coagulation process. (lifechemicals.com)
  • The Yapsins are unique among the aspartic acid proteases because of their specificity for mono- and dibasic sites. (dtu.dk)
  • In modern-day enzymes, although the three-dimensional structures are very similar, the amino acid sequences are more divergent, except for the catalytic site motif, which is very conserved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteases and phosphatases are important enzymes in a variety of biochemical pathways in living cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • All living organisms contain proteolytic enzymes (proteases and peptidases). (thermofisher.com)
  • Thus, while numerous compounds have been identified and used to inactivate or block these enzymes, no single chemical is effective for all types of proteases and phosphatases (see table). (thermofisher.com)
  • Proteases are a ubiquitous class of enzymes that hydrolyze protein peptide bonds. (thermofisher.com)
  • Other important digestive proteases are the pancreatic enzymes trypsin and chymotrypsin . (bionity.com)
  • Serine proteases participate in a wide range of functions in the body, including blood clotting , immunity , and inflammation , as well as contributing to digestive enzymes in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. (bionity.com)
  • Protein hydrolyzing enzymes are known as protease. (reference.com)
  • This hydrolytic activity is given by a family of enzymes and zymogens present in the cell, called widely 'proteases', with the purpose to hydrolyze the peptide bond [7, (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Proteases of fungal origin can be produced cost effectively, have an advantage faster production, the ease with which the enzymes can be modified and mycelium can be easily removed by filtration. (scielo.br)
  • The production of proteases has been carried out using submerged fermentation, but conditions in solid state fermentation lead to several potential advantages for the production of fungal enzymes. (scielo.br)
  • This review focuses on the production of fungal proteases, their distribution, structural-functional aspects, physical and chemical parameters, and the use of these enzymes in industrial applications. (scielo.br)
  • Microbial proteases are among the most important hydrolytic enzymes and have been studied extensively. (scielo.br)
  • Fungal proteases have attracted the attention of environmental biotechnologists because fungi can grow on low cost substrates and secrete large amount of enzymes into culture medium which could ease downstream processing ( Anitha and Palanivelu, 2013 ). (scielo.br)
  • In this present review, some aspects of fungal proteolytic enzymes are discussed, with reference to the production of protease, their distribution and their industrial applications. (scielo.br)
  • Proteases are classified as peptide hydrolases or peptidases (EC 3.4) and constitute a large family of enzymes, divided into endopeptidases (EC 3.4.21-99) and exopeptidases (EC 3.4.11-19), classified according to the position of the peptide bond to be cleaved. (scielo.br)
  • The crystal structure of a mammalian aspartic proteinase indicates that interactions with substrate may be more extensive on the prime side of the active site cleft than in the fungal enzymes and involve Tyr189 and the loop 290 to 295, perhaps contributing to the transpeptidase activity of pepsin and the specificity of the renins. (rcsb.org)
  • Proteases that catalyse the hydrolysis of peptide bonds constitute the most abundant group of enzymes. (embopress.org)
  • In addition to this substitution, a number of viral enzymes (also found in adenovirus and some picornaviruses) utilize glutamic acid, instead of the catalytic aspartic acid ( 9 , 22 ). (asm.org)
  • The HIV Protease is an enzyme with two symmetrical subunits. (middlebury.edu)
  • Located very near one another near the heart of the enzyme, these three key amino acids each play an essential role in the cleaving ability of the proteases. (bionity.com)
  • About.com Chemistry specifically defines protease as an enzyme that initiates the hydrolysis of a peptide bond to form polypeptide chains. (reference.com)
  • The active dimeric enzyme is then liberated from the DISC and free to activate downstream apoptotic proteases. (genecards.org)
  • A panel of eleven human cancer cell lines, glioblastoma and carcinoma, were exposed to serial dilutions of ascorbic acid (5-100 mmol/L). The purpose of this study was to analyse the impact of catalase, an important hydrogen peroxide-detoxifying enzyme, on the resistance of cancer cells to ascorbic acid mediated oxidative stress. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The polyprotein of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), a birnavirus, is processed by the viral protease VP4 (also named NS) to generate three polypeptides: pVP2, VP4, and VP3. (asm.org)
  • Pepsin is expressed as a pro-form zymogen, pepsinogen , whose primary structure has an additional 44 amino acids . (bionity.com)
  • Pepsin will digest up to 20% of ingested carbon bonds by cleaving preferentially after the N-terminal of aromatic amino acids such as phenylalanine and tyrosine . (bionity.com)
  • Therefore processing of Shh in the normal stomach is hormonally regulated, acid-dependent, and mediated by the aspartic protease pepsin A. Moreover parietal cell atrophy, a known pre-neoplastic lesion, correlates with loss of Shh processing. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The human pathogenic bacterium group A Streptococcus produces an extracellular cysteine protease [streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB)] that is a critical virulence factor for invasive disease episodes. (pnas.org)
  • GAS isolates produce a highly conserved extracellular cysteine protease known as streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB) (reviewed in ref. 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Proteases are required for many cellular functions, including cellular repair and the digestion of extracellular material. (thermofisher.com)
  • Furthermore, due to the accumulation of lactic acid from Warburg's effect, the acidification of extracellular microenvironment favors the progression and metastases of tumor via upregulation of metallo-proteinase and cysteine proteinase activity and secretion [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Receptors within the cytoplasm can bind to virus-derived signature molecules, such as different types of nucleic acid and signal that infection is present. (portlandpress.com)
  • Nucleic Acids Research , 26 (8), 2008-2015. (elsevier.com)
  • Characterization of the role of proteases in disease and also their precise mechanism of action was essential for these drug discoveries. (embopress.org)
  • A representative group of novel venom transcripts exhibiting similarity to lysosomal acid lipase were identified from the E. coloratus transcriptome, whilst novel metallopeptidases exhibiting similarity to neprilysin and dipeptidyl peptidase III were identified from E. p. leakeyi and E. coloratus respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An Internal Standard-Assisted Synthesis and Degradation Proteomic Approach Reveals the Potential Linkage between VPS4B Depletion and Activation of Fatty Acid β-Oxidation in Breast Cancer Cells. (umn.edu)
  • Peptides may be further digested by other proteases (in the duodenum ) and eventually absorbed by the body. (bionity.com)