Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Aspartic Acid Proteases: A subclass of peptide hydrolases that depend on an ASPARTIC ACID residue for their activity.Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases: A sub-subclass of endopeptidases that depend on an ASPARTIC ACID residue for their activity.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Asparagine: A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Pepstatins: N-acylated oligopeptides isolated from culture filtrates of Actinomycetes, which act specifically to inhibit acid proteases such as pepsin and renin.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Isoaspartic Acid: An ASPARTIC ACID residue in polypeptide chains that is linked at the beta-carboxyl group instead of at the normal, alpha-carboxyl group, polypeptide linkage. It is a result of the spontaneous decomposition of aspartic acid or ASPARAGINE residues.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cathepsin E: An aspartic endopeptidase that is similar in structure to CATHEPSIN D. It is found primarily in the cells of the immune system where it may play a role in processing of CELL SURFACE ANTIGENS.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Pepsin A: Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Aspartate-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates aspartic acid with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.12.Cathepsin D: An intracellular proteinase found in a variety of tissue. It has specificity similar to but narrower than that of pepsin A. The enzyme is involved in catabolism of cartilage and connective tissue. EC 3.4.23.5. (Formerly EC 3.4.4.23).Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Aspartate-Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-aspartate 4-semialdehyde, orthophosphate, and NADP+ to yield L-4-aspartyl phosphate and NADPH. EC 1.2.1.11.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Forensic Sciences: Disciplines that apply sciences to law. Forensic sciences include a wide range of disciplines, such as FORENSIC TOXICOLOGY; FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY; FORENSIC MEDICINE; FORENSIC DENTISTRY; and others.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Keratin-2: A type II keratin found expressed in the upper spinous layer of epidermal KERATINOCYTES. Mutations in genes that encode keratin-2A have been associated with ICHTHYOSIS BULLOSA OF SIEMENS.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Radiometric Dating: Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Homoserine Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of aspartic beta-semialdehyde to homoserine, which is the branch point in biosynthesis of methionine, lysine, threonine and leucine from aspartic acid. EC 1.1.1.3.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Chymosin: The predominant milk-clotting enzyme from the true stomach or abomasum of the suckling calf. It is secreted as an inactive precursor called prorennin and converted in the acid environment of the stomach to the active enzyme. EC 3.4.23.4.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Enzyme Precursors: Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Ketosteroids: Steroid derivatives formed by oxidation of a methyl group on the side chain or a methylene group in the ring skeleton to form a ketone.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Pepsinogens: Proenzymes secreted by chief cells, mucous neck cells, and pyloric gland cells, which are converted into pepsin in the presence of gastric acid or pepsin itself. (Dorland, 28th ed) In humans there are 2 related pepsinogen systems: PEPSINOGEN A (formerly pepsinogen I or pepsinogen) and PEPSINOGEN C (formerly pepsinogen II or progastricsin). Pepsinogen B is the name of a pepsinogen from pigs.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Neuraminic AcidsHydroxylamines: Organic compounds that contain the (-NH2OH) radical.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Ethyldimethylaminopropyl Carbodiimide: Carbodiimide cross-linking reagent.RNA, Transfer, Asp: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying aspartic acid to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Protein PrecursorsChromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Bacteriorhodopsins: Rhodopsins found in the PURPLE MEMBRANE of halophilic archaea such as HALOBACTERIUM HALOBIUM. Bacteriorhodopsins function as an energy transducers, converting light energy into electrochemical energy via PROTON PUMPS.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Aspartate Ammonia-Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of aspartic acid to ammonia and fumaric acid in plants and some microorganisms. EC 4.3.1.1.HexosaminesAspartate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of beta-aspartyl phosphate from aspartic acid and ATP. Threonine serves as an allosteric regulator of this enzyme to control the biosynthetic pathway from aspartic acid to threonine. EC 2.7.2.4.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.HexosesBiochemical Phenomena: The chemical processes, enzymatic activities, and pathways of living things and related temporal, dimensional, qualitative, and quantitative concepts.Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.EstersTyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Chymotrypsin: A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Muramidase: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.Mucor: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order Mucorales. It is primarily saprophytic, but may cause MUCORMYCOSIS in man from spores germinating in the lungs.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.HLA-DQ beta-Chains: Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DQ antigens.Halobacterium: A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE whose growth requires a high concentration of salt. Binary fission is by constriction.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Cathepsins: A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.Pronase: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Ketoglutaric Acids: A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Biochemistry: The study of the composition, chemical structures, and chemical reactions of living things.Mutant Proteins: Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Hemoglobins, Abnormal: Hemoglobins characterized by structural alterations within the molecule. The alteration can be either absence, addition or substitution of one or more amino acids in the globin part of the molecule at selected positions in the polypeptide chains.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectTransferases (Other Substituted Phosphate Groups): A class of enzymes that transfers substituted phosphate groups. EC 2.7.8.Hydro-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.Rhizopus: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, a common saprophyte and facultative parasite of mature fruits and vegetables. It may cause cerebral mycoses in diabetes and cutaneous infection in severely burned patients.Aminobutyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.Casein Kinase II: A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Norleucine: An unnatural amino acid that is used experimentally to study protein structure and function. It is structurally similar to METHIONINE, however it does not contain SULFUR.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Metschnikowia: A genus of ascomycetous yeast in the family Metschnikowiaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES. Its antifungal activity is used to inhibit postharvest decay of fruit.GlucosamineNitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Manganese: A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Intramolecular Transferases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl-, phospho-, amino- or other groups from one position within a molecule to another. EC 5.4.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Isoelectric Point: The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Papain: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC 3.4.22.2.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Spodoptera: A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.

Activation of c-Abl tyrosine kinase requires caspase activation and is not involved in JNK/SAPK activation during apoptosis of human monocytic leukemia U937 cells. (1/4935)

Genotoxic stress triggers the activation of several sensor molecules, such as p53, JNK1/SAPK and c-Abl, and occasionally promotes the cells to apoptosis. We previously reported that JNK1/SAPK regulates genotoxic stress-induced apoptosis in p53-negative U937 cells by activating caspases. c-Abl is expected to act upstream of JNK1/SAPK activation upon treatment with genotoxic stressors, but its involvement in apoptosis development is still unclear. We herein investigated the kinase activities of c-Abl and JNK1/SAPK during apoptosis elicited by genotoxic anticancer drugs and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in U937 cells and their apoptosis-resistant variant UK711 cells. We found that the activation of JNK1/SAPK and c-Abl correlated well with apoptosis development in these cell lines. Unexpectedly, however, the JNK1/SAPK activation preceded the c-Abl activation. Moreover, the caspase inhibitor Z-Asp suppressed c-Abl activation and the onset of apoptosis but not the JNK1/SAPK activation. Interestingly, c-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibition by CGP 57148 reduced apoptosis without interfering with JNK1/SAPK activation. These results indicate that c-Abl acts not upstream of JNK1/ SAPK but downstream of caspases during the development of p53-independent apoptosis and is possibly involved in accelerating execution of the cell death pathway.  (+info)

Hemoglobin Providence. A human hemoglobin variant occurring in two forms in vivo. (2/4935)

Hemoglobin Providence Asn and Hemoglobin Providence Asp are two abnormal hemoglobins which apparently arise from a single genetic change that substitutes asparagine for lysine at position 82 (EF6) in the beta chain of human hemoglobin. The second form appears to be thr result of a partial in vivo deamidation of the asparagine situated at position beta 82. Cellulose acetate and citrate agar electrophoresis of hemolysates from patients with this abnormality shows three bands. Globin chain electrophoresis at acid and alkaline pH shows three beta chains. These three chains correspond to the normal beta A chain and two abnormal beta chains. Sequence analysis indicates that the two abnormal chains differ from beta A at only position beta 82. In the two abnormal chains, the residue which is normally lysine is substituted either by asparagine or by aspartic acid. These substitutions are notable because beta 82 lysine is one of the residues involved in 2,3-diphosphoglycerate binding. Additionally, beta 82 lysine is typically invariant in hemoglobin beta chain sequences. Sequence data on the two forms of Hemoglobin Providence are given in this paper. The functional properties of these two forms are described in the next paper.  (+info)

N-Acetylaspartate distribution in rat brain striatum during acute brain ischemia. (3/4935)

Brain N-acetylaspartate (NAA) can be quantified by in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and is used in clinical settings as a marker of neuronal density. It is, however, uncertain whether the change in brain NAA content in acute stroke is reliably measured by 1H-MRS and how NAA is distributed within the ischemic area. Rats were exposed to middle cerebral artery occlusion. Preischemic values of [NAA] in striatum were 11 mmol/L by 1H-MRS and 8 mmol/kg by HPLC. The methods showed a comparable reduction during the 8 hours of ischemia. The interstitial level of [NAA] ([NAA]e) was determined by microdialysis using [3H]NAA to assess in vivo recovery. After induction of ischemia, [NAA]e increased linearly from 70 micromol/L to a peak level of 2 mmol/L after 2 to 3 hours before declining to 0.7 mmol/L at 7 hours. For comparison, [NAA]e was measured in striatum during global ischemia, revealing that [NAA]e increased linearly to 4 mmol/L after 3 hours and this level was maintained for the next 4 h. From the change in in vivo recovery of the interstitial space volume marker [14C]mannitol, the relative amount of NAA distributed in the interstitial space was calculated to be 0.2% of the total brain NAA during normal conditions and only 2 to 6% during ischemia. It was concluded that the majority of brain NAA is intracellularly located during ischemia despite large increases of interstitial [NAA]. Thus, MR quantification of NAA during acute ischemia reflects primarily changes in intracellular levels of NAA.  (+info)

Distinct sensitivities of OmpF and PhoE porins to charged modulators. (4/4935)

The inhibition of the anion-selective PhoE porin by ATP and of the cation-selective OmpF porin by polyamines has been previously documented. In the present study, we have extended the comparison of the inhibitor-porin pairs by investigating the effect of anions (ATP and aspartate) and positively charged polyamines (spermine and cadaverine) on both OmpF and PhoE with the patch-clamp technique, and by comparing directly the gating kinetics of the channels modulated by their respective substrates. The novel findings reported here are (1) that the activity of PhoE is completely unaffected by polyamines, and (2) that the kinetic changes induced by ATP on PhoE or polyamines on OmpF suggest different mechanisms of inhibition. ATP induces a high degree of flickering in the PhoE-mediated current and appears to behave as a blocker of ion flow during its presumed transport through PhoE. Polyamines modulate the kinetics of openings and closings of OmpF, in addition to promoting a blocker-like flickering activity. The strong correlation between sensitivity to inhibitors and ion selectivity suggests that some common molecular determinants are involved in these two properties and is in agreement with the hypothesis that polyamines bind inside the pore of cationic porins.  (+info)

His ... Asp catalytic dyad of ribonuclease A: histidine pKa values in the wild-type, D121N, and D121A enzymes. (5/4935)

Bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A) has a conserved His ... Asp catalytic dyad in its active site. Structural analyses had indicated that Asp121 forms a hydrogen bond with His119, which serves as an acid during catalysis of RNA cleavage. The enzyme contains three other histidine residues including His12, which is also in the active site. Here, 1H-NMR spectra of wild-type RNase A and the D121N and D121A variants were analyzed thoroughly as a function of pH. The effect of replacing Asp121 on the microscopic pKa values of the histidine residues is modest: none change by more than 0.2 units. There is no evidence for the formation of a low-barrier hydrogen bond between His119 and either an aspartate or an asparagine residue at position 121. In the presence of the reaction product, uridine 3'-phosphate (3'-UMP), protonation of one active-site histidine residue favors protonation of the other. This finding is consistent with the phosphoryl group of 3'-UMP interacting more strongly with the two active-site histidine residues when both are protonated. Comparison of the titration curves of the unliganded enzyme with that obtained in the presence of different concentrations of 3'-UMP shows that a second molecule of 3'-UMP can bind to the enzyme. Together, the data indicate that the aspartate residue in the His ... Asp catalytic dyad of RNase A has a measurable but modest effect on the ionization of the adjacent histidine residue.  (+info)

Chemotactic responses of Escherichia coli to small jumps of photoreleased L-aspartate. (6/4935)

Computer-assisted motion analysis coupled to flash photolysis of caged chemoeffectors provides a means for time-resolved analysis of bacterial chemotaxis. Escherichia coli taxis toward the amino acid attractant L-aspartate is mediated by the Tar receptor. The physiology of this response, as well as Tar structure and biochemistry, has been studied extensively. The beta-2, 6-dinitrobenzyl ester of L-aspartic acid and the 1-(2-nitrophenyl)ethyl ether of 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-tris-sulfonic acid were synthesized. These compounds liberated L-aspartate and the fluorophore 8-hydroxypyrene 1,3,6-tris-sulfonic acid (pyranine) upon irradiation with near-UV light. Photorelease of the fluorophore was used to define the amplitude and temporal stability of the aspartate jumps employed in chemotaxis experiments. The dependence of chemotactic adaptation times on aspartate concentration, determined in mixing experiments, was best fit by two Tar aspartate-binding sites. Signal processing (excitation) times, amplitudes, and adaptive recovery of responses elicited by aspartate jumps producing less than 20% change in receptor occupancy were characterized in photorelease assays. Aspartate concentration jumps in the nanomolar range elicited measurable responses. The response threshold and sensitivity of swimming bacteria matched those of bacteria tethered to glass by a single flagellum. Stimuli of similar magnitude, delivered either by rapid mixing or photorelease, evoked responses of similar strength, as assessed by recovery time measurements. These times remained proportional to change in receptor occupancy close to threshold, irrespective of prior occupancy. Motor excitation responses decayed exponentially with time. Rates of excitation responses near threshold ranged from 2 to 7 s-1. These values are consistent with control of excitation signaling by decay of phosphorylated pools of the response regulator protein, CheY. Excitation response rates increased slightly with stimulus size up to values limited by the instrumentation; the most rapid was measured to be 16 +/- 3 (SE) s-1. This increase may reflect simultaneous activation of CheY dephosphorylation, together with inhibition of its phosphorylation.  (+info)

D-Aspartate stimulation of testosterone synthesis in rat Leydig cells. (7/4935)

D-Aspartate increases human chorionic gonadotropin-induced testosterone production in purified rat Leydig cells. L-Aspartate, D-,L-glutamate or D-,L-asparagine could not substitute for D-aspartate and this effect was independent of glutamate receptor activation. Testosterone production was enhanced only in cells cultured with D-aspartate for more than 3 h. The increased production of testosterone was well correlated with the amounts of D-aspartate incorporated into the Leydig cells, and L-cysteine sulfinic acid, an inhibitor of D-aspartate uptake, suppressed both testosterone production and intracellular D-aspartate levels. D-Aspartate therefore is presumably taken up into cells to increase steroidogenesis. Intracellular D-aspartate probably acts on cholesterol translocation into the inner mitochondrial membrane, the rate-limiting process in steroidogenesis.  (+info)

Deamidation and isoaspartate formation in smeared tau in paired helical filaments. Unusual properties of the microtubule-binding domain of tau. (8/4935)

An extensive loss of a selected population of neurons in Alzheimer's disease is closely related to the formation of paired helical filaments (PHFs). The most striking characteristic of PHFs upon Western blotting is their smearing. According to a previously described protocol (Morishima-Kawashima, M., Hasegawa, M., Takio, K., Suzuki, M., Titani, K., and Ihara, Y. (1993) Neuron 10, 1151-1160), smeared tau was purified, and its peptide map was compared with that of soluble (normal) tau. A CNBr fragment from soluble tau (CN5; residues 251-419 according to the 441-residue isoform) containing the microtubule-binding domain migrated at 15 and 18 kDa on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, whereas that from smeared tau exhibited two larger, unusually broad bands at approximately 30 and approximately 45 kDa, presumably representing dimers and trimers of CN5. In the peptide map of smeared tau-derived CN5, distinct peaks eluting at unusual locations were noted. Amino acid sequence and mass spectrometric analyses revealed that these distinct peptides bear isoaspartate at Asn-381 and Asp-387. Because no unusual peptides other than aspartyl or isoaspartyl peptide were found in the digests of smeared tau-derived CN5, it is likely that site-specific deamidation and isoaspartate formation are involved in its dimerization and trimerization and thus in PHF formation in vivo.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of potassium- and ischemia-evoked [3H] D-aspartate release from isolated bovine retina by cannabinoids. AU - Opere, Catherine A.. AU - Zheng, Wei. AU - Zhao, Min. AU - Lee, Jin. AU - Kulkarni, Kaustubh. AU - Ohia, Sunny. PY - 2006/8/1. Y1 - 2006/8/1. N2 - We investigated the effect of cannabinoids on potassium chloride (K + )- and ischemia-induced [ 3 H]D-aspartate release from isolated bovine retinae. The superfusion method was employed for studies of [ 3 H]-neurotransmitter release. Cannabinoid receptor CB1 agonists, but not the CB2 agonist JWH 015, inhibited K + -induced [ 3 H]D-aspartate release from bovine retinae with the following rank order of activity: anandamide , ACEA , methanandamide , WIN 55,212-2. In the ischemic model, the rank order of activity was as follows: methanandamide , ACEA , WIN 55,212-2. The CB1 receptor antagonist AM 251 blocked inhibitory responses produced by cannabinoids in both experimental conditions. In conclusion, cannabinoids inhibit ...
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Author(s): Cross AJ, Slater P, Simpson M, Royston C, Deakin JFW, Perry RH, Perry EK. Publication type: Article. Publication status: Published. Journal: Neuroscience Letters. Year: 1987. Volume: 79. Issue: 1-2. Pages: 213-217. Print publication date: 18/08/1987. ISSN (print): 0304-3940. ISSN (electronic): 1872-7972 Publisher: Elsevier Ireland. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0304-3940(87)90699-9. DOI: 10.1016/0304-3940(87)90699-9. ...
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190195-65-4 - Aspartic acid, N-((1S)-1,2-dicarboxyethyl)-3-hydroxy-, sodium salt (1:4) - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
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The protein encoded by this gene was identified by its RED repeat, a stretch of repeated arginine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid residues. The…
Modeling suggested multiple possible binding modes. Crystallography for PKCθ is difficult, but the researchers were able to obtain a structure of the compound bound to a different kinase, FAK. This suggested introducing a positively charged moiety to target an aspartic acid residue in PKCθ, leading to the more potent compound 15a. Additional optimization led ultimately to compound 41, which had moderate potency in cell-based assays, good pharmacokinetics, and 74-fold selectivity against PKCα. The compound also showed activity in a mouse arthritis model, but only at high doses, and was toxic at a slightly higher dose. ...
L-ASPARTIC ACID MAGNESIUM SALT 18962-61-3 NMR spectrum, L-ASPARTIC ACID MAGNESIUM SALT H-NMR spectral analysis, L-ASPARTIC ACID MAGNESIUM SALT C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
Histidine-to-aspartate (His-Asp) phosphorelay (or two-component) systems are very common signal transduction mechanisms that are implicated in a wide variety of cellular responses to environmental stimuli. The His-Asp phosphorelay components include "sensor histidine kinase (HK)", "phosphotransfer intermediate (HPt)", and "response regulator (RR)". With special reference to three bacterial species (Mesorhizobium loti, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Sinorhizobium meliloti), each of which belongs to a different genera of Rhizobia, here we attempted to compile all of the His-Asp phosphorelay components in order to reveal a comparative genome-wide overview as to the His-Asp phosphorelay. It was revealed that M. loti has 47 HKs, 1 HPts, and 58 RRs; B. japonicum has 80 HKs, 3 HPts, and 91 RRs; whereas S. meliloti has 40 HKs, 1 HPt, and 58 RRs. These His-Asp phosphorelay components were extensively compiled and characterized. The resulting overview as to the His-Asp phosphorelay of Rhizobia will provide us ...
D Aspartic Acid can naturally boost testosterone levels in healthy men. PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTS.. What is D Aspartic Acid D-Aspartic Acid is produced naturally in.Aspartic acid Cysteine Glutamic acid Glutamine Glycine Histidine Isoleucine Leucine Lysine.NATURAL TESTOSTERONE SUPPORT. An. Do not take with whey protein in the same shake.. D-Aspartic Acid and Testosterone Levels Research D-Aspartic Acid Benefits for.Pure Protein. Diet. (3g) once daily with desired amount of water.A new study suggests the amino acid D-Aspartic Acid significantly raises testosterone ...
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The report focuses on United States major leading industry players providing information such as company profiles, product picture and specification, capacity, production, price, cost, revenue and contact information. Upstream raw materials and equipment and downstream demand analysis is also carried out. The L-aspartic acid industry development trends and marketing channels are analyzed. Finally the feasibility of new investment projects are assessed and overall research conclusions offered ...
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1. Cho SG, Lee DH, Lee KY, Ji H, Lee KH, Ros PR, Suh CH. Differentiation of Chronic Focal Pancreatitis from Pancreatic Carcinoma by in Vivo Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2005;29:163-169 ...
In this small group of patients with large cerebral infarcts, we have demonstrated that the degree of signal abnormality (hyperintensity) on T2 imaging is directly proportional to the severity of neuronal loss as determined by the NAA level: the greater the hyperintensity in a T2 image, the greater is the neuronal damage as measured by depleted NAA levels in that region of the image plane. Furthermore, there was little evidence of significant neuronal loss beyond the margins of the T2-visible lesion. The use of the alternative classification of core, inner rim, outer rim, normal allowed us to explore the possibility that there was neuronal damage beyond the edges of the T2-visible lesion that had not yet become visible on T2. This second classification demonstrated that although there was a stepwise increase in the NAA level from the core of the infarct across the edge of the T2-visible infarct to definitely normal brain, the only statistically significant increases were from core to inner edge ...
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0.05% w/v L-Citrulline, 0.05% w/v Glycine, 0.05% w/v L-(-)-Threonine, 0.05% w/v L-(+)-Lysine, 0.05% w/v L-Alanine, 0.05% w/v L-Arginine, 0.05% w/v L-Asparagine monohydrate, 0.05% w/v L-Aspartic acid, 0.05% w/v L-Glutamic acid, 0.05% w/v L-Glutamine, 0.05% w/v L-Histidine, 0.05% w/v L-Isoleucine, 0.05% w/v L-Leucine, 0.05% w/v L-Methionine, 0.05% w/v L-Phenylalanine, 0.05% w/v L-Proline, 0.05% w/v L-Serine, 0.05% w/v L-Tryptophan, 0.05% w/v L-Tyrosine, 0.05% w/v L-Valine, 0.02 M HEPES sodium pH ...
0.05% w/v Glycine, 0.05% w/v L-(-)-Threonine, 0.05% w/v L-(+)-Lysine, 0.05% w/v L-Alanine, 0.05% w/v L-Arginine, 0.05% w/v L-Asparagine, 0.05% w/v L-Aspartic acid, 0.05% w/v L-Glutamic acid, 0.05% w/v L-Glutamine, 0.05% w/v L-Histidine, 0.05% w/v L-Isoleucine, 0.05% w/v L-Leucine, 0.05% w/v L-Methionine, 0.05% w/v L-Phenylalanine, 0.05% w/v L-Proline, 0.05% w/v L-Serine, 0.05% w/v L-Tryptophan, 0.05% w/v L-Tyrosine, 0.05% w/v L-Valine, 0.02 M HEPES sodium pH ...
Synonyms Zinc dihydrogen di-L-aspartate; L-Aspartic acid zinc salt; Zinc (3S)-3-amino-4-hydroxy-4-oxobutanoate. Molecular Formula: 2(C4H6NO4).Zn. Molecular Weight: 329.60. CAS Registry Number: 36393-20-1. EINECS: 253-012-5. ...
Adenine 10 mg/L; L-Arginine HCl 50 mg/L; L-Aspartic Acid 80 mg/L; L-Histidine HCl 20 mg/L; L-Isoleucine 50 mg/L; L-Lysine HCl 50 mg/L; L-Methionine 20 mg/L; L-Phenylalanine 50 mg/L; L-Threonine 100 mg/L; L-Tyrosine 50 mg/L; L-Valine 140 mg/L ...
acid resulted in the shifting of the three Aspartic residues in direction of the poly(A) substrate, the Arg99 hydrogen bonding. Finally, mutating the Gln68
1KGG: Relocation of the catalytic carboxylate group in class A beta-lactamase: the structure and function of the mutant enzyme Glu166Gln:Asn170Asp.
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D-Aspartic Acid (DAA) is the newest natural testosterone booster on the market. DAA is the D-form of the amino acid aspartic acid. The body can produce DAA from the nonessential amino acid L-aspartic acid (the dietary form of aspartic acid). D-form amino acids, such as DAA, are found in higher concentrations in specific tissues in the body. For example, higher concentrations of DAA are found in the testes, pituitary gland, and hypothalamus (DAniello & Di Fiore 2000) all of which are areas involved in hormone production.. D-aspartic acid is a physiological amino acid occurring principally in the pituitary gland, hypothalamus, and testes. D-Aspartic Acid is a very potent sexual performance stimulator, enhancing libido, erection quality, ejaculate, duration of intercourse and perceived orgasm intensity.. D-Aspartate also induces potent elevation of neurotransmitters such as dopamine & GABA, which are implicated to be responsible for its memory enhancing, anti-depressive & nootropic effects. ...
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy lactate/N-acetylaspartate within 2 weeks of birth accurately predicts 2-year motor, cognitive and language outcomes in neonatal encephalopathy after therapeutic hypothermia ...
In proteins and peptides, d-aspartic acid (d-Asp) and d-β-Asp residues can be spontaneously formed via racemization of the succinimide intermediate formed from l-Asp and l-asparagine (l-Asn) residues. These biologically uncommon amino acid residues are known to have relevance to aging and pathologies. Although nonenzymatic, the succinimide racemization will not occur without a catalyst at room or biological temperature. In the present study, we computationally investigated the mechanism of succinimide racemization catalyzed by dihydrogen phosphate ion, H2PO4−, by B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) density functional theory calculations, using a model compound in which an aminosuccinyl (Asu) residue is capped with acetyl (Ace) and NCH3 (Nme) groups on the N- and C-termini, respectively (Ace-Asu-Nme). It was shown that an H2PO4− ion can catalyze the enolization of the Hα-Cα-C=O portion of the Asu residue by acting as a proton-transfer mediator. The resulting complex between the enol form and H2PO4− corresponds to
Advanced imaging of veterinary cancer patients has evolved in recent years and modalities once limited to human medicine have now been described for diagnostic purposes in veterinary medicine (positron emission tomography/computed tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, whole body magnetic resonance imaging). Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive and non-ionizing technique that is well described in the human medical literature and is most frequently used to evaluate the metabolic activity of tissues with questionable malignant transformation. Differentiation of neoplastic tissue from surrounding normal tissue is dependent on variations in cellular metabolism. Choline (Cho) levels have been described as diagnostic markers for malignancy for many different tumor types in vivo and ex vivo (tissue biopsies). Monitoring of pre- and post-therapy choline metabolites in tumors has also been performed to evaluate a patients response to cancer treatment. Positive ...
AIMS: Emerging evidence shows, that distal symmetric peripheral neuropathy (DSPN) also involves alterations in the central nervous system. Hence, the aims were to investigate brain metabolites in white matter of adults with diabetes and DSPN, and to compare any cerebral disparities with peripheral nerve characteristics.. METHODS: In type 1 diabetes, brain metabolites of 47 adults with confirmed DSPN were compared with 28 matched healthy controls using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) in the parietal region including the sensorimotor fiber tracts.. RESULTS: Adults with diabetes had 9.3% lower ratio of N-acetylaspartate/creatine (NAA/cre) in comparison to healthy (p , 0.001). Lower NAA/cre was associated with lower sural (p = 0.01) and tibial (p = 0.04) nerve amplitudes, longer diabetes duration (p = 0.03) and higher age (p = 0.03). In addition, NAA/cre was significantly lower in the subgroup with proliferative retinopathy as compared to the subgroup with non-proliferative ...
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Early life stress is a potential precursor of eventual neuropsychiatric diseases and may result in altered neurodevelopment and function of the hippocampus, which thus provides a site at which potential interventions to modify the effects of early life stress may act. In this study, Sprague Dawley rat pups comprising male and female animals underwent maternal separation (MS) for 180 min from postnatal days (PND) 2 to 14, or were left with their dams. They subsequently received daily administration of saline (0.9%), escitalopram (10 mg/kg), or no treatment during adolescence (PND 43-60). All adult animals underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bilateral hippocampal proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). Neither MS nor escitalopram treatment had a significant effect on hippocampal volume. Adult rats that experienced MS displayed significantly increased choline-containing compounds (Cho) and decreased N-acetylaspartate (NAA), glutamate (Glu) and Myo-inositol (MI) relative ...
Electron-transfer dissociation allows differentiation of isoaspartic acid and aspartic acid residues using the same c + 57 and z − 57 peaks that were previously observed with electron capture...
250 µCi quantities of D-[2,3-3H]-Aspartic Acid are available for your research. Application of [3H] D-Asp can be found in: vagus nerve stimulation and in vivo release in brain research, binding of glutamate transporters in neurochemistry, the influence of nerve ending activation in brain research, release from synaptosomes in pharmacology, etc. ...
Aspartic acid is a nonessential amino acid, which means that it is manufactured from other amino acids in the liver; it does not have to be obtained directly through the diet.
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Magnesium L- aspartate is a source of magnesium, combined as an chelate with L-aspartic acid. Find this and more dietary supplements at PureBulk.
This product only contains one ingredient, and that is D-aspartic acid. D aspartic acid is one of the best known testosterone enhancing ingredients available anywhere. Therefore if you were to choose PrimaForce DAA as the testosterone booster of your choice, you will not be disappointed.. One point to note is that the price tag of $42.96 may be on the expensive side, especially considering it only contains one ingredient.. Top Rated Testosterone BoosterDiscover Why PrimeMale leaves the competition behind….. ...
Name L-Aspartate Magnesium. Synonyms Magnesium dihydrogen di-L-aspartate; L-Aspartic acid magnesium salt; Magnesium (3S)-3-amino-4-hydroxy-4-oxobutanoate. Molecular Formula: 2(C4H6NO4).Mg. Molecular Weight: 288.49. CAS Registry Number: 288.49. EINECS: 218-191-6. ...
Potassium L-aspartate 14007-45-5 NMR spectrum, Potassium L-aspartate H-NMR spectral analysis, Potassium L-aspartate C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
1C02: Insights into eukaryotic multistep phosphorelay signal transduction revealed by the crystal structure of Ypd1p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
BioAssay record AID 253508 submitted by ChEMBL: Concentration of compound inhibiting Lys103-Asn mutant HIV-1(IIIB) induced cytopathicity in CEM cell culture by 50%.
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|p|1. Ajram LA, Pereira AC, Durieux AMS, Velthius HE, Petrinovic MM, McAlonan GM. The contribution of [1H] magnetic resonance spectroscopy to the (...)|/p|
The Calorie Control Council has stated that a rat study conducted by Italys Ramazzini Institute is totally contradictory to the extensive scientific research and regulatory reviews conducted on aspartame. The U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) has said they are not recommending any changes in the use of aspartame.. ...
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The Golm Metabolome Database (GMD) facilitates the search for and dissemination of mass spectra from biologically active metabolites quantified using GC-MS.
Synonyms for alpha alpha-aminosuccinic acid in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for alpha alpha-aminosuccinic acid. 2 words related to aspartic acid: amino acid, aminoalkanoic acid. What are synonyms for alpha alpha-aminosuccinic acid?
The massive, bizarre towers of the Pala group protrude from the stony alpine plateau. Climbing here in the southernmost mountain range of the Dolom...
This article digs deep into ASP.NET validators and discusses a few case studies which may be a boon for any project; Author: Brij; Updated: 10 Apr 2010; Section: ASP.NET; Chapter: Web Development; Updated: 10 Apr 2010
This article digs deep into ASP.NET validators and discusses a few case studies which may be a boon for any project; Author: Brij; Updated: 10 Apr 2010; Section: ASP.NET; Chapter: Web Development; Updated: 10 Apr 2010
RES 1b:a-dgal-HEX-1:5 2s:n-acetyl 3b:b-dglc-HEX-1:5 4s:n-acetyl 5b:b-dgal-HEX-1:5 LIN 1:1d(2+1)2n 2:1o(3+1)3d 3:3d(2+1)4n 4:3o(3+1) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and intracranial tumours. T2 - Clinical perspectives. AU - Falini, Andrea. AU - Calabrese, Giovanna. AU - Origgi, Daniela. AU - Lipari, Susanna. AU - Triulzi, Fabio. AU - Losa, Marco. AU - Scotti, Giuseppe. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1H-MRS) was applied to characterize intracranial tumours of different hystological types. Seventy patients with intracranial neoplasms were studied before receiving surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy. All tumours were characterized by reduced or absent N-acetylaspartate and increased signal from choline-containing compounds. Distinctive patterns were observed only for primitive brain neo-plasms; high-grade gliomas were differentiated from low-grade ones by higher levels of choline-containing compounds. The metabolic aspects of metastatic lesions were similar to high-grade gliomas. These results, together with the limitations of 1H-MRS and future applications are ...
Choline-containing compounds detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the basal ganglia in bipolar disorder.: Choline-containing compounds (Cho) we
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P,Purpose: To compare relative N-acetylaspartate (NAA) measurements in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients with good response to the first trial of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) (an important prognostic factor) to TLE patients who failed the first AED monotherapy and required further AED trials with monotherapy or polytherapy. Methods: We studied 25 consecutive TLE patients who responded to first AED (responders) and 21 who did not (failure-group), as well as 27 controls. Patients were seen regularly in our Epilepsy Service and underwent electroencephalography (EEG) investigation, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and single-voxel proton MR spectroscopy. Voxels were tailored to the medial temporal region on each side and involved the anterior hippocampus. Results: Analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated significant variation of NAA/creatine (NAA/Cr) values in both hippocampi, ipsilateral and contralateral to the EEG focus (p , 0.001 and p = 0.021) across the groups. Pairwise ...
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The mechanism of release and the role of l-aspartate as a central neurotransmitter are controversial. A vesicular release mechanism for l-aspartate has been difficult to prove, as no vesicular l-aspartate transporter was identified until it was found that sialin could transport l-aspartate and l-glutamate when reconstituted into liposomes. We sought to clarify the release mechanism of l-aspartate and the role of sialin in this process by combining l-aspartate uptake studies in isolated synaptic vesicles with immunocyotchemical investigations of hippocampal slices. We found that radiolabeled l-aspartate was taken up into synaptic vesicles. The vesicular l-aspartate uptake, relative to the l-glutamate uptake, was twice as high in the hippocampus as in the whole brain, the striatum, and the entorhinal and frontal cortices and was not inhibited by l-glutamate. We further show that sialin is not essential for exocytosis of l-aspartate, as there was no difference in ATP-dependent l-aspartate uptake in ...
This study showed the feasibility of acquiring 3D MR spectroscopic imaging of the neonatal brain. The results of this study also indicate that both metabolite intensities and ratios of metabolite intensities in the neonate vary with both anatomic location and postconceptional age. These observations are consistent with the fact that different parts of the human brain undergo biochemical maturation at different rates (23-25). The results from this MR spectroscopic imaging study highlight the importance of considering the precise anatomic location and age of the participant when interpreting clinical MR spectroscopy data of neonates.. Relatively few MR spectroscopy studies of the newborn brain have been reported (1-12). Both phosphorus and proton MR spectroscopy techniques have been applied, with the majority of the more recent studies using proton MR spectroscopy because of its greater inherent sensitivity. These studies have shown the ability of MR spectroscopy to detect differences in cellular ...
The effect of nicotine 1 nM-10 microM on the efflux of [(3)H]D-aspartate was tested in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons kept at rest and subjected to electrical field stimulation. Two trains of pulses at 20 Hz for 20 s were applied at the 60th (St(1)) and 90th (St(2)) min of perfusion. The drug slightly and transiently increased the efflux of resting cells while, when given during St(2), it greatly enhanced the electrically evoked efflux estimated as St(2)/St(1) ratio, EC(50) being 107 nM. The nicotinic receptors (nAChR) giving rise to this positive modulation were partly mecamylamine- and partly alpha-bungarotoxin-sensitive. They appeared to be located at the nerve endings since nicotine facilitation was only slightly prevented by tetrodotoxin during depolarisation with 15 mM KCl. Pretreatment with glutamate antagonists did not reveal any interaction between nAChR and ionotropic glutamate receptors. Membrane glutamate carrier involvement in the nicotine effect was ruled out. Long-term treatment
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D Aspartic Acid Review A D aspartic acid review is in order! Many conflicting studies exist on if D-Aspartic Acid (DAA) can raise testosterone and here is why: although everyone uses the term D-Aspartic Acid scientists are using Na-D-Aspartate in their experiments, Not DAA! All studies using Na- D-Aspartate result in increased Luteinizing Hormone (LH) production […]. ...
integral component of membrane, mitochondrial inner membrane, L-aspartate transmembrane transporter activity, L-glutamate transmembrane transporter activity, aspartate transport, L-glutamate transmembrane transport, malate-aspartate shuttle
In neurons, the microtubule cytoskeleton supports the formation of elaborate neuronal morphologies, facilitates axon pathfinding and synapse formation, and allows for intracellular trafficking. The alpha tubulin gene, TUBA1A, encodes the most highly expressed alpha tubulin protein in the brain. TUBA1A is expressed in developing post-mitotic neurons, and mutations to this gene in humans result in severe developmental brain malformations, called tubulinopathies. We showed that an Asparagine to Aspartic acid substitution at residue 102 (Tuba1aN102D) results in severe brain malformations and perinatal death in mice that are homozygous for this mutation. Recently we have shown that mice heterozygous for this mutation (Tuba1aN102D/+) display more subtle disruption of brain development, specifically impairing axon pathfinding through large brain commissures. Additionally, Tuba1aN102D/+ mice develop an adult-onset behavioral motor deficit, that is not accompanied by neuronal cell death. Thus, we are ...
Magnesium Potassium Aspartate is comprised of Magnesium and Potassium complexes formed from L-Aspartic Acid. Chelates of these elements have been formulated with Taurine to help support healthy heart, muscle and nerve functions. Taurine is an amino acid which can function as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator.
0054]Preferred examples of amino acid based compounds according to the invention are MGDA (methyl-glycine-diacetic acid, and salts and derivatives thereof) and GLDA (glutamic-N,N-diacetic acid and salts and derivatives thereof). GLDA (salts and derivatives thereof) is especially preferred according to the invention, with the tetrasodium salt thereof being especially preferred. Other suitable builders are described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,426,229 which is incorporated by reference herein. Particular suitable builders include; for example, aspartic acid-N-monoacetic acid (ASMA), aspartic acid-N,N-diacetic acid (ASDA), aspartic acid-N-monopropionic acid (ASMP), iminodisuccinic acid (IDA), N-(2-sulfomethyl) aspartic acid (SMAS), N-(2-sulfoethyl)aspartic acid (SEAS), N-(2-sulfomethyl)glutamic acid (SMGL), N-(2-sulfoethyl)glutamic acid (SEGL), N-methyliminodiacetic acid (MIDA), α-alanine-N,N-diacetic acid (α-ALDA), β-alanine-N,N-diacetic acid (3-ALDA), serine-N,N-diacetic acid (SEDA), ...
Wright, Michelle H., Farquhar, Michelle J., Aletrari, Mina-Olga , Ladds, Graham and Hodgkin, Matthew N.. (2008) Identification of caspase 3 motifs and critical aspartate residues in human Phospholipase D1b and Phopsholipase D2a. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Vol.369 (No.2). pp. 478-484. ISSN 0006-291x ...
A study of the sulfhydryl groups of the catalytic subunit of Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamylase. The use of enzyme--5-thio-2-nitrobenzoate mixed disulfides as intermediates in modifying enzyme sulfhydryl groups ...
METHODS Fifty-one subjects (7 weeks to 17 years of age), 22 with either hereditary (n = 16) or acquired (n = 6) neurodegenerative disorders and 29 age-matched control subjects, were studied with combined proton MR spectroscopy and MR imaging. Single-voxel (2.0-8.0 cc) MR spectra were acquired at 1.5 T, with either short-echo-stimulated echoes and/or long-echo spin echoes. ...
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Typical Amino Acid Profile contains: Essential Amino Acids: L-Isoleucine - 317 mg, L-Leucine - 508 mg, L-Lysine - 437 mg, L-Methionine - 166 mg, L-Phenylalanine - 306 mg, L-Threonine - 260 mg, L-Tryptophan - 104 mg; L-Valine - 890 mg; Non-Essential Amino Acids: L-Alanine - 287 mg, L-Arginine - 432 mg, L-Aspartic Acid - 462 mg, L-Cysteine - 45 mg, L-Glutamic Acid - 1,334 mg, L-Glycine - 289 mg, L-Histidine - 133 mg, L-Proline - 629 mg, L-Serine - 333 mg, L-Tyrosine - 263 mg ...
Injectable; Injection; Calcium Chloride Dihydrate 74 mg; Glucose Monohydrate 11 g; Glycine 0.790 g; L-Alanine 1600 g; L-Arginine 1.13 g; L-Aspartic Acid 0.34 g; L-Glutamic Acid 0.56 g; L-Histidine 0.68 g; L-Isoleucine 0.56 g; L-Leucine 0.79 g; L-Lysine Hydrochloride 0.9 g; L-Methionine 0.56 g; L-Phenylalanine 0.79 g; L-Proline 0.68 g; L-Serine 0.45 g; L-Threonine 0.56 g; L-Tryptophan 0.19 g; L-Tyrosine 0.023 g; L-Valine 0.73 g; Magnesium Sulfate Heptahydrate 0.16 g; Potassium Chloride 0.597 g; Sodium Acetate Trihydrate 0.49 g; Sodium Glycerophosphate Anhydrous 0.504 g / 100 ...
(2012) Yue et al. PLoS ONE. Background: The brain biochemical changes of social anxiety have not been clarified although there have been a limited number of MR spectroscopic studies which utilized metabolite/creatine ratios. Present study aimed to explore the alteration of absolute metabolite con...
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InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Principal Investigator:SHIGA Tohru, Project Period (FY):2008 - 2010, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Radiation science
Publication Details (including relevant citation information): Aki, K. and Okamura, E. Sci. Rep. 6, 21594; doi:10.1038/srep21594 (2016).
Biundo F, dAbramo C, Tambini MD, Zhang H, Del Prete D, Vitale F, Giliberto L, Arancio O, DAdamio L. Abolishing Tau cleavage by caspases at Aspartate421 causes memory/synaptic plasticity deficits and pre-pathological Tau alterations ...
Glutamic acid Name L-Glutamic acid Molecular Weight 147.12926 g/mol Molecular Formula XLogP -3.3 CAS No. 56-86-0m.p.205℃pK1(25℃)2.10pK2(25℃)9.47pKR(25℃)4.07 Links * Amino acid * Acidic amino acid * Aspartic acid * Glutamic acid *
Aspartate-Ammonia Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of asparagine from ammonia and aspartic acid, in the presence of ATP. EC 6.3.1.1.
Hydrolysis of an N(4)-(acetyl-beta-D- glucosaminyl)asparagine residue in which the glucosamine residue may be further glycosylated, to yield a (substituted) N-acetyl- beta-D-glucosaminylamine and a peptide containing an aspartate residue ...
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RES 1b:b-dglc-HEX-1:5 2s:n-acetyl 3b:b-dglc-HEX-1:5 4s:n-acetyl 5b:b-dman-HEX-1:5 6b:a-dman-HEX-1:5 7b:b-dglc-HEX-1:5 8s:n-acetyl 9b:b-dgal-HEX-1:5 10b:b-dglc-HEX-1:5 11s:n-acetyl 12b:a-dman-HEX-1:5 13b:b-dglc-HEX-1:5 14s:n-acetyl 15b:b-dgal-HEX-1:5 16b:a-lgal-HEX-1:5,6:d LIN 1:1d(2+1)2n 2:1o(4+1)3d 3:3d(2+1)4n 4:3o(4+1)5d 5:5o(3+1)6d 6:6o(2+1)7d 7:7d(2+1)8n 8:7o(4+1)9d 9:5o(4+1)10d 10:10d(2+1)11n 11:5o(6+1)12d 12:12o(2+1)13d 13:13d(2+1)14n 14:13o(4+1)15d 15:1o(6+1) ...
Aspartic acid. 2.200 g. Glutamic acid. 3.610 g. Glycine. 1.583 g. Proline. 1.190 g. ... At one or more points on most abattoirs, chemical sprays and baths (e.g. bleach, acids, peroxides, etc.) are used to partially ...
Aspartic acid. 1.368 g. Glutamic acid. 2.885 g. Glycine. 0.708 g. Proline. 0.571 g. ...
Aspartic acid. 2.911 g. Glutamic acid. 6.810 g. Glycine. 1.469 g. Proline. 1.032 g. ... monounsaturated oleic acid (an omega-9 fatty acid), 13% linoleic acid (a polyunsaturated omega-6 essential fatty acid), and 10 ... saturated fatty acid (mainly as palmitic acid, USDA link in table). Linolenic acid, a polyunsaturated omega-3 fat, is not ... of which is palmitic acid), 70 grams of oleic acid, and 17 grams of linoleic acid (oil table). ...
Aspartic acid. 1.222 g. Glutamic acid. 2.393 g. Glycine. 0.650 g. Proline. 0.471 g. ... "Cultivation of pili nut Canarium ovatum and the composition of fatty acids and triglycerides of the oil". Fett Wissenschaft ... It yields a light yellowish oil, mainly of glycerides of oleic (44.4 to 59.6%) and palmitic acids (32.6 to 38.2%). ...
Aspartic acid. 2.911 g. Glutamic acid. 6.810 g. Glycine. 1.469 g. Proline. 1.032 g. ... monounsaturated oleic acid (an omega-9 fatty acid), 13% linoleic acid (a polyunsaturated omega-6 essential fatty acid), and 5% ... saturated fatty acid (USDA link in table). Linolenic acid, a polyunsaturated omega-3 fat, is not present (table). Almond oil is ... Almonds contain polyphenols in their skins consisting of flavonols, flavan-3-ols, hydroxybenzoic acids and flavanones[41] ...
Aspartic acid. 5.793 g. Glutamic acid. 8.386 g. Glycine. 3.099 g. Proline. 2.382 g. ... gamma-linolenic acid,[14][15] alpha-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, stearidonic acid,[16] eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), ... docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid.[17] In contrast to those 2003 estimates (of DHA and EPA each at 2 to 3% of ... "Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid production potential of microalgae and their heterotrophic growth" (PDF). ...
Aspartic acid. 0.417 g. Glutamic acid. 0.312 g. Glycine. 0.124 g. Proline. 0.127 g. ...
Aspartic acid. 1.550 g. Glutamic acid. 0.595 g. Glycine. 0.488 g. Proline. 0.545 g. ... The composition (by weight) of the most prevalent fatty acids in egg yolk typically is:[8] ... and pantothenic acid of the egg. In addition, yolks cover all of the fat-soluble vitamins: A, D, E, and K in the egg, as well ... as all of the essential fatty acids. A single yolk from a large egg contains roughly 22 mg of calcium, 66 mg of phosphorus, 9.5 ...
Aspartic acid. 0.325 g. Glutamic acid. 0.761 g. Glycine. 0.158 g. Proline. 0.138 g. ... It has a total fat content of 24%, most of which (89%) is saturated fat, with lauric acid as a major fatty acid.[67] When ... Coconut is also a source of lauric acid, which can be processed in a particular way to produce sodium lauryl sulfate, a ...
Aspartic acid. 1.261 g. Glutamic acid. 2.259 g. Glycine. 1.636 g. Proline. 0.698 g. ... Making up about 5% of the total fatty acids of amaranth, squalene[28] is extracted as a vegetable-based alternative to the more ... pantothenic acid, vitamin B6, folate, and several dietary minerals (table). Uncooked amaranth is particularly rich in manganese ...
Aspartic acid Asp D MT-TD 7,518-7,585 L Cysteine Cys C MT-TC 5,761-5,826 H ... those may be high energy requirements or a need for the catabolism or anabolism of a specific neurotransmitter or nucleic acid ...
Amino acid-derived. Major excitatory/inhibitory systems. Glutamate system. *Agmatine. *Aspartic acid (aspartate) ... With acid chlorides, one obtains the amidocarboxylic acid, such as hippuric acid[23] and acetylglycine.[24] With nitrous acid, ... It is the simplest amino acid (since carbamic acid is unstable), with the chemical formula NH2‐CH2‐COOH. Glycine is one of the ... Amino acid neurotransmitter. References[edit]. *^ The Merck Index: An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs, and Biologicals (11th ...
S)-2-aminopropanoic acid. Abbreviations: A, Ala. Synonyms:. 2-aminopropanoic acid. {α/2}-aminopropionic acid. AIDS{-}071780. ...
... is a methyl ester of the dipeptide of the natural amino acids L-aspartic acid and L-phenylalanine. Under strongly ... Aspartic acid (aspartate) is one of the most common amino acids in the typical diet. As with methanol and phenylalanine, intake ... Aspartame is a methyl ester of the aspartic acid/phenylalanine dipeptide. A panel of experts set up by the European Food Safety ... Mazur RH (1974). "Aspartic acid-based sweeteners". In Inglett GE. Symposium: sweeteners. Westport, CT: AVI Publishing. pp. 159- ...
"TRDMT1 tRNA aspartic acid methyltransferase 1 (Homo sapiens)". Entrez Gene. NCBI. 2010-11-01. Retrieved 2010-11-07.. ... the enzyme was shown to methylate position 38 in aspartic acid transfer RNA and does not methylate DNA.[22] The name for this ... tRNA aspartic acid methyltransferase 1) to better reflect its biological function.[23] TRDMT1 is the first RNA cytosine ... The enzyme is about 1,620 amino acids long. The first 1,100 amino acids constitute the regulatory domain of the enzyme, and the ...
Aspartic acid. 0.244 g. - Glutamic acid. 0.636 g. - Glycine. 0.127 g. - Proline. 0.292 g. ...
Aspartic acid g 0.20 Glutamic acid g 0.13 Glycine g 0.035 Proline g 0.027 ...
... aspartic acid, and methanol. At 180 °C, aspartame undergoes decomposition to form a diketopiperazine derivative. Aspartic acid ... Aspartame is a methyl ester of the dipeptide of the natural amino acids L-aspartic acid and L-phenylalanine. Under strongly ... of the daily intake of aspartic acid. There has been some speculation that aspartame, in conjunction with other amino acids ... Aspartame is a methyl ester of the aspartic acid/phenylalanine dipeptide. A panel of experts set up by the European Food Safety ...
In the case of acidic amino acids (e.g. aspartic acid) or basic amino acids (e.g. lysine), the pKa values of the two similar ... The acid dissociation constants are defined as: K. a. 1. =. c. (. H. 3. O. +. ). ⋅. c. (. Zwitterion. ). c. (. Cation. ). K. a ... and for aspartic acid: 2.09 + 3.86/2 = 2.98.[12] Related compounds[edit]. The resonance structures that are used to represent ... An amino acid contains both acidic (carboxylic acid fragment) and basic (amine fragment) centres. The isomer on the right is a ...
Asp/D) Aspartic acid GGT (Gly/G) Glycine T GTC GCC GAC GGC C ...
Aspartic acid. 3.662 g. Glutamic acid. 6.269 g. Glycine. 1.611 g. Proline. 1.597 g. ... of the energy in hempseed is in the form of fats and essential fatty acids,[19] mainly polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic, ... oleic, and alpha-linolenic acids.[20]. Hempseed's amino acid profile is comparable to other sources of protein such as meat, ... products through the use of the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score method". Journal of Agricultural and Food ...
Aspartic. acid GGT Glycine GTC GCC GAC GGC GTA GCA GAA Glutamic. acid GGA ... Had the amino acid sequences come from different ancestors, they would have been coded for by any of the redundant codons, and ... Since many species use the same codon at the same place to specify an amino acid that can be represented by more than one codon ... The way that codons (DNA triplets) are mapped to amino acids seems to be strongly optimised. Richard Egel argues that in ...
Aspartic acid. 5.112 g. Glutamic acid. 7.874 g. Glycine. 1.880 g. Proline. 2.379 g. ... Phytic acidEdit. Main article: Phytic acid. Soybeans contain a high level of phytic acid, which has many effects including ... Saturated fatty acids (g) 0.67 0.18 0.26 0.03 0.07 0.79 0.02 0.04 0.46 0.14 minimal ... Monounsaturated fatty acids (g) 1.25 0.21 0.2 0.00 0.08 1.28 0.00 0.01 0.99 0.03 22-55 ...
Amino acidsEdit. Collagen has an unusual amino acid composition and sequence: *Glycine is found at almost every third residue. ... Hydroxylation of lysine and proline amino acids occurs inside the lumen. This process is dependent on ascorbic acid (vitamin C ... Collagen contains two uncommon derivative amino acids not directly inserted during translation. These amino acids are found at ... where X is any amino acid other than glycine, proline or hydroxyproline. The average amino acid composition for fish and mammal ...
Aspartic acid. 0.244 g. Glutamic acid. 0.636 g. Glycine. 0.127 g. Proline. 0.292 g. ... Saturated fatty acids (g) 0.67 0.18 0.26 0.03 0.07 0.79 0.02 0.04 0.46 0.14 minimal ... Monounsaturated fatty acids (g) 1.25 0.21 0.2 0.00 0.08 1.28 0.00 0.01 0.99 0.03 22-55 ... Polyunsaturated fatty acids (g) 2.16 0.18 0.63 0.04 0.05 3.20 0.01 0.08 1.37 0.07 13-19 ...
... and poor in acidic amino acids like aspartic acid and glutamic acid.[42] In an aqueous solution, the transit sequence forms a ... Chloroplast transit peptides exhibit huge variation in length and amino acid sequence.[42] They can be from 20-150 amino acids ... Tic100 is a nuclear encoded protein that's 871 amino acids long. The 871 amino acids collectively weigh slightly less than 100 ... At the N-terminal end is the A-domain, which is rich in acidic amino acids and takes up about half the protein length.[38][48] ...
Electron-transfer dissociation allows differentiation of isoaspartic acid and aspartic acid residues using the same c + 57 and ... Characterization of aspartic acid and beta-aspartic acid in peptides by fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry and tandem mass ... Electron-transfer dissociation allows differentiation of isoaspartic acid and aspartic acid residues using the same c + 57 and ... Radkiewics, J. L.; Zipse, H.; Clarke, S.; Houk, K. N. Accelerated racemization of aspartic acid and asparigine residues via ...
Aspartic acid is a nonessential amino acid. Amino acids are building blocks of proteins. ... Aspartic acid is a nonessential amino acid. Amino acids are building blocks of proteins. ... "Nonessential" means that our bodies produce it, even if we do not get this amino acid from the food we eat. ...
Aspartic acid in hippocampus may be biomarker for predicting occurrence of cognitive dysfunction Postoperative cognitive ... The N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor dysfunction in the brain of aged animals has been shown. In older rodents, N- ... A team of scientists has discovered that D-aspartic acid is a novel neurotransmitter that could potentially be used in the ... Researchers have shown that a peptide (a chain of amino acids) called iRGD helps co-administered drugs penetrate deeply into ...
L-Aspartic acid; Aspartic acid, L-; «alpha»-Aminosuccinic acid, (L)-; (S)-Aspartic acid; (2S)-Aspartic acid; Asparagic acid; ... Asparaginic acid; Butanedioic acid, amino-, (S)-; L-(+)-Aspartic acid; L-Aminosuccinic acid; L-Asparagic acid; L-Asparaginic ... acid; Aminosuccinic acid; Aspatofort; L-2-Aminobutanedioic acid; (S)-Aminobutanedioic acid; H-Asp-OH; NSC 3973 ...
The name "aspartic acid" can refer to either enantiomer or a mixture of two. Of these two forms, only one, "L-aspartic acid", ... Aspartic acid". The Merck Index (11th ed.). 1989. p. 132. ISBN 0-911910-28-X. "ICSC 1439 - L-ASPARTIC ACID". inchem.org. G.,, ... Nearly all aspartic acid is manufactured in China. One area of aspartic acid market growth is biodegradable superabsorbent ... either as aspartic acid itself or salts (such as magnesium aspartate) The sweetener aspartame, an aspartic acid, ...
... is a L-aspartic acid derivative (CHEBI:83978) N-carbamoyl-L-aspartic acid (CHEBI: ... N-carbamoyl-L-aspartic acid (CHEBI:15859) is a N-carbamoyl-L-amino acid (CHEBI:21686) N-carbamoyl-L-aspartic acid (CHEBI:15859 ... CHEBI:15859 - N-carbamoyl-L-aspartic acid. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... N-carbamoyl-L-aspartate(2−) (CHEBI:32814) is conjugate base of N-carbamoyl-L-aspartic acid (CHEBI:15859). ...
Carbamoyl aspartic acid (or ureidosuccinic acid) is a carbamate derivative which serves as an intermediate in pyrimidine ... "ureidosuccinic acid - Compound Summary". PubChem Compound. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. 26 March 2005. ...
... a nonessential amino acid, C4H7NO4, produced by the hydrolysis of asparagine and proteins, found chiefly in young sugar cane ... aspartic acid. in Science. aspartic acid. [ə-spär′tĭk]. *A nonessential amino acid. Chemical formula: C4H7NO4. See more at ... aspartic acid. in Medicine. aspartic acid. (ə-spär′tĭk). n.. *One of the nonessential amino acids that occur in proteins.. .css ... a nonessential amino acid, C4H7NO4, produced by the hydrolysis of asparagine and proteins, found chiefly in young sugar cane ...
New rodent findings show that PFC neuron N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors are especially sensitive to concentrations ...
... aspartic acid; Aspartic acid, N-(trimethylsilyl)-, bis(trimethylsilyl) ester, DL-; Aspartate, tri-TMS; Aspartic acid, N,O,O- ... Aspartic acid, 3TMS derivative. *Formula: C13H31NO4Si3 ... TMS; Asp, tris-TMS; Asp, TMS; ASPARTIC ACID,N,N,O-TMS ...
a CID 424 from PubChem - racemic ^a CID 83887 from PubChem - (D-aspartic acid) ^a CID 5960 from PubChem - (L-aspartic acid) ^a ...
Aspartic acid, also called asparaginic acid and alpha-aminosuccinic acid, is an acidic, α-amino acid that is found in many ... Aspartic acid is pervasive in biosynthesis and is the precursor to several amino acids. Aspartic acid is a metabolite in the ... The conversion of aspartic acid to these other amino acids begins with reduction of aspartic acid to its "semialdehyde," HO2CCH ... The 20 Common Amino Acids. Analogues of nucleic acids:. Alanine (dp) , Arginine (dp) , Asparagine (dp) , Aspartic acid (dp) , ...
N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid or N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) is an amino acid derivative that acts as a specific agonist at the NMDA ... and kynurenic acid; the latter is the only known endogenous antagonist. They are commonly referred to as NMDA receptor ...
Phospholipase A2, aspartic acid active site (IPR033112). Short name: PLipase_A2_Asp_AS ... This entry represents the PLA2 active site aspartic acid and also contains three cysteines involved in disulfide bonds. ... Phospholipase A2 (EC:3.1.1.4) (PLA2) is a small lipolytic enzyme that releases fatty acids from the second carbon group of ... It is involved in a number of physiologically important cellular processes, such as the liberation of arachidonic acid from ...
The title compound, C5H9NO4·H2O, is an isomer of the α-amino acid glutamic acid that crystallizes from water in its ... One of these extraterrestrial non-proteinogenic amino acids is 2-methylaspartic acid. The majority of meteoritic amino acids ... It is not one of the 20 proteinogenic α-amino acids that are used in living systems and differs from the natural amino acids in ... Nature uses almost exclusively the L form of the nineteen common chiral amino acids. However, there are over eighty amino acids ...
Aspartic acid. Definition Aspartic acid, also called asparaginic acid, is one of the nonessential amino acids. "Nonessential" ... Asparaginic acid References Gebhardt S, Cutrufelli R, Howe J, Haytowitz D, Pehrsson P, Lemar L, et al. USDA national nutrient ... means that our bodies produce it even if we dont get this amino acid from the food we eat. ...
Aspartic acid, N-(3-carboxy-1-oxo-sulfopropyl)-N-(C16-C18 (even numbered), C18 unsaturated alkyl) tetrasodium salts. ...
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar ... Aspartic acid or derivatives / Alpha-amino acid / L-alpha-amino acid / Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives / Fatty acid / Amino ... aspartate family amino acid, proteinogenic amino acid, L-alpha-amino acid, aspartic acid (CHEBI:17053) / Common amino acids, ... Aspartic acid and derivatives. Alternative Parents. L-alpha-amino acids / Fatty acids and conjugates / Dicarboxylic acids and ...
MMP8 WITH MALONIC AND ASPARTIC ACID BASED INHIBITOR ... MMP8 WITH MALONIC AND ASPARTIC ACID BASED INHIBITOR. *DOI: ... Among the hydroxamic acids, malonic acid derivatives have been used as MMP inhibitors, although optimization of their ... Various classes of MMP inhibitors, including hydroxamic acids, phosphinic acids, and thiols, have been previously described ... ... Various classes of MMP inhibitors, including hydroxamic acids, phosphinic acids, and thiols, have been previously described. ...
What is Amino Z D-Aspartic Acid Powder?In no other time in history have we witnessed such a plummet in the testosterone levels ... You need Amino Z D-Aspartic Acid Powder.. Clinically dosed with pharmaceutical grade D-Aspartic Acid powder, this Amino Z ... With 3 grams of clinically dosed D-Aspartic Acid, Amino Z D-Aspartic Acid Powder is the ideal testosterone, fertility, and mood ... Two phases of life - pre-aspartic acid and post-aspartic acid By Clair reviewed on 29/12/2017 ...
D-Aspartic Acid Explained (DAA) , IronMag Labs The Holy Grail for male enhancement/performance, life, or sexual enhancement, is ... D-Aspartic Acid Explained... D-Aspartic Acid Explained (DAA) , IronMag Labs. The Holy Grail for male enhancement/performance, ... Occurrence of D-aspartic acid and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid in rat neuroendocrine tissues and their role in the modulation of ... AnabolicMinds.com , Forum , Supplement Forum , Supplement Companies , IronMag Labs , D-Aspartic Acid Explained... ...
At MYPROTEIN™, we have the best value D-Aspartic Acid! ... Acid Powder is a convenient way of getting this Amino Acid into ... D-Aspartic Acid is produced naturally in the body from the non-essential amino acid L-aspartic acid. It can be a valuable ... D-Aspartic Acid is produced naturally in the body from the non-essential amino acid L-aspartic acid. It can be a valuable ... 100% D-Aspartic Acid Powder. Important amino acid that occurs naturally in the body ...
Aspartic and glutamic acid-rich protein1 Publication. ,p>Manually curated information that is based on statements in scientific ... sp,B7W112,DQRP_ACRMI Aspartic and glutamic acid-rich protein OS=Acropora millepora OX=45264 PE=1 SV=1 ... Component of the acid-soluble organic matrix of the aragonitic skeleton (at protein level).1 Publication. ,p>Manually curated ... section describes the position of regions of compositional bias within the protein and the particular amino acids that are over ...
At present the aspartic acid racemization method on teeth provides one of the best means in adult individuals. However,... ... Ohtani S, Yamamoto K (1992) Estimation of age from a tooth by means of racemization of an amino acid, especially aspartic acid ... Ohtani S, Yamamoto K (1991) Age estimation by amino acid racemization in teeth - a comparison of aspartic acid with glutamic ... Helfman PM, Bada JL (1976) Aspartic acid racemization in dentine as a measure of ageing. Nature 262:279-281PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
  • It features 3 grams of D-Aspartic Acid per serving, which is an industry leading, scientifically verified dosage. (aminoz.com.au)
  • D-Aspartic Acid from AllMax Nutrition provides 3.12 grams of D-Aspartic Acid in each teaspoon serving. (evitamins.com)
  • showed that supplementing with 3 grams of DAA as found in PrimaForce D-Aspartic Acid increased circulating luteinizing hormone (LH) levels by 33% and testosterone levels by 42% in men aged 27-37 years old (Topo & Soricelli 2009). (sportyshealth.com.au)
  • At the bottom of the page is the full list for the 6 different types of salad based on the content in different servings in grams and oz (and other serving sizes), providing a comprehensive analysis of the aspartic acid content in salad . (dietandfitnesstoday.com)
  • The nutritional aspartic acid content can be scaled by the amount in grams, oz or typical serving sizes. (dietandfitnesstoday.com)
  • Try this high potency D-Aspartic acid powder containing 3 grams per scoop. (nutritionexpress.com)
  • Injection: 20% (0.2 grams/mL), 20 grams of amino acids per 100 mL in 2000 mL flexible containers. (nih.gov)
  • D-form amino acids, such as PrimaForce D-Aspartic Acid, are found in higher concentrations in specific tissues in the body such as the testes, pituitary gland and hypothalamus (D'Aniello & Di Fiore 2000) all of which are areas involved in hormone production. (sportyshealth.com.au)
  • The N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor dysfunction in the brain of aged animals has been shown. (news-medical.net)
  • New rodent findings show that PFC neuron N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors are especially sensitive to concentrations of alcohol achieved during drinking. (news-medical.net)
  • The asymmetry of the intermediate results in two products of its hydrolysis, either aspartic acid (in black at left) or isoaspartic acid, which is a beta amino acid (in green at bottom right). (wikipedia.org)
  • When heated, aspergillomarasmine A decomposes between 225° and 236 °C. Hydrolysis produces L-aspartic acid and racemic[why? (wikipedia.org)
  • It is responsible for the hydrolysis of Lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs) to their respective monoacylglycerols and the release a free phosphate group in the process. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also arises from the condensation of pyruvate with carbonic acid, driven by the hydrolysis of ATP: CH3C(O)CO2− + HCO3− + ATP → −O2CCH2C(O)CO2− + ADP + Pi Occurring in the mesophyll of plants, this process proceeds via phosphoenolpyruvate, catalysed by pyruvate carboxylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Excitotoxicity has been identified in animal studies and found that aspartic acid loads on the same brain receptors as glutamic acid, causing brain lesions and neuroendocrine disorders, and to act in an additive fashion with glutamic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Findings suggest that this control acts via the stimulation of LXR nuclear receptors by cyclically produced oxysterols such that rhythmic cholesterol and bile acid metabolism is not just driven by alternating feeding-fasting cycles, but also by REV-ERBalpha, a component of the circadian clockwork circuitry. (wikipedia.org)
  • This entry represents the PLA2 active site aspartic acid and also contains three cysteines involved in disulfide bonds. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This is shown in the aspartic acid RDA percentage chart below, based on 100 Calories, along with the other important nutrients and macro nutrients. (dietandfitnesstoday.com)
  • Below, is the top 3 food items shown in the aspartic acid chart. (dietandfitnesstoday.com)
  • The non- carbohydrate , non-nutritive artificial sweetener and flavor enhancer aspartame (aspartyl-phenylalanine-1-methyl ester) is synthesized from aspartic acid and the essential amino acid, phenylalanine . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Biomimetic L-aspartic acid-derived functional poly(ester amide)s for vascular tissue engineering. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In this study, l-phenylalanine and l-aspartic acid were used to synthesize poly(ester amide)s (PEAs) with pendant carboxylic acid groups through an interfacial polycondensation approach. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The report generally describes n-benzyloxycarbonyl-l-aspartic acid 4-allyl ester, examines its uses, production methods, patents. (marketpublishers.com)
  • n-benzyloxycarbonyl-l-aspartic acid 4-allyl ester manufacturers and suppliers with contacts and product range are mentioned in the study. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Furthermore, n-benzyloxycarbonyl-l-aspartic acid 4-allyl ester prices in regional markets can be found in the report with regards to countries and companies. (marketpublishers.com)
  • The report also focuses on n-benzyloxycarbonyl-l-aspartic acid 4-allyl ester consumers by providing data on companies that use it. (marketpublishers.com)
  • N-Benzyloxycarbonyl-L-aspartic acid 4-allyl ester (CAS 99793-10-9) Market Research Report 2018 contents were prepared and placed on the website in February, 2018. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Please note that N-Benzyloxycarbonyl-L-aspartic acid 4-allyl ester (CAS 99793-10-9) Market Research Report 2018 is a half ready publication and contents are subject to change. (marketpublishers.com)
  • L-Aspartic acid di-tert-butyl ester hydrochloride may be used in neurological comparison studies with structurally similar compounds such as L-Glutamic acid di-tert-butyl ester. (alfa.com)
  • Convulsant properties of L-glutamic acid di-tert butyl ester. (alfa.com)
  • N-tert-Butoxycarbonyl-L-aspartic acid τ-(9-fluorenylmethyl) ester (CAS 117014-32-1) Market Research Report 2017 aims at providing comprehensive data on n-tert-butoxycarbonyl-l-aspartic acid τ-(9-fluorenylmethyl) ester market globally and regionally (Europe, Asia, North America, Latin America etc. (marketpublishers.com)
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  • In addition to the above the report determines n-tert-butoxycarbonyl-l-aspartic acid τ-(9-fluorenylmethyl) ester consumers. (marketpublishers.com)
  • N-tert-Butoxycarbonyl-L-aspartic acid τ-(9-fluorenylmethyl) ester (CAS 117014-32-1) Market Research Report 2017 contents were worked out and placed on the website in December, 2017. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Nα-9-Fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-L-aspartic acid α-benzyl ester (CAS 86060-83-5) Market Research Report 2018 aims at providing comprehensive data on nα-9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-l-aspartic acid α-benzyl ester market globally and regionally (Europe, Asia, North America, Latin America etc. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Nα-9-Fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-L-aspartic acid α-benzyl ester (CAS 86060-83-5) Market Research Report 2018 contents were prepared and placed on the website in March, 2018. (marketpublishers.com)
  • We provide independent and unbiased information on manufacturers, prices, production news and consumers for the global and regional (North America, Asia and Europe) market of Z-L-aspartic acid 4-methyl ester. (reportsnreports.com)
  • Aspartame is a methyl ester of the aspartic acid/phenylalanine dipeptide. (wikipedia.org)
  • AllMax Nutrition D-Aspartic Acid is the best ingredient-based way to naturally increase testosterone! (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Get the purest D-Aspartic Acid on the market with AllMax Nutrition D-Aspartic Acid. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • https://www.mrsupplement.com.au/elemental-nutrition-d-aspartic-acid Elemental D-Aspartic Acid D Aspartic Acid is the newest testosterone enhancing ingredient which has been shown in real human scientific studies to raise testosterone levels in healthy males an average of 42% in 12 days. (mrsupplement.com.au)
  • It particully may be beneficial for trainers or bodybuilders seeking increases in strength, libido, performance, recovery, muscle hypertrophy or for PCT use - Elemental Nutrition D Aspartic Acid. (mrsupplement.com.au)
  • Elemental Nutrition D Aspartic Acid (DAA) is made using the highest quality Pharmaceutical Grade D Aspartic Acid which is the best of its kind. (mrsupplement.com.au)
  • Elemental Nutrition D Aspartic Acid is free of fillers, binders, artificial colours or artificial flavours. (mrsupplement.com.au)
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  • DAA from LiveLong™ Nutrition D-Aspartic Acid which has been clinically studied for its ability to support LH (Luteinizing Hormone) in the Pituitary gland. (bodybuilding.com)
  • Mix 1 teaspoon (3.12 g) of AllMax D-Aspartic Acid in water or juice once daily upon waking on an empty stomach. (evitamins.com)
  • The level of aspartic acid can be affected by the method of storage for example canned or frozen and also by the method of preparation for example either raw, cooked or fried. (dietandfitnesstoday.com)
  • L-aspartic acid is a metabolite in the citric acid cycle, the urea cycle, as well as participating in gluconeogenesis. (purebulk.com)
  • Aspartic acid is interconvertible with oxaloacetic acid from the citric acid cycle. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A principal route is upon oxidation of L-malate, catalysed by malate dehydrogenase, in the citric acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxaloacetate is an intermediate of the citric acid cycle, where it reacts with acetyl-CoA to form citrate, catalysed by citrate synthase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The glyoxylate cycle is a variant of the citric acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • This reaction usually initiates the citric acid cycle, but when there is no need of energy it is transported to the cytoplasm where it is broken down to cytoplasmatic acetyl -CoA and oxaloacetate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kinetics of oxidation of DL-aspartic acid was studied at 30°C with Au(III) in sodium acetate-acetic acid buffer medium to investigate the mechanism of oxidation the presence and absence of nonionic micelle, Triton X-100. (springer.com)
  • Sodium D-Aspartic Acid Market Report contains detail information about Sodium D-Aspartic Acid Industry overview, growth, demand and forecast research report in all over the world related to Sodium D-Aspartic Acid Industry Share. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • This report offers some penetrating overview and solution in the complex world Sodium D-Aspartic Acid Market in global market. (beforeitsnews.com)
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  • The Sodium D-Aspartic Acid Market research report is a resource, which provides technical, growth and financial details of the industry. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • To begin with, the report elaborates the Sodium D-Aspartic Acid Market overview. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • Present day status of the Sodium D-Aspartic Acid Industry in key regions is stated and industry policies and news are analysed. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • After the basic information, the Sodium D-Aspartic Acid Market report sheds light on the production. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • Also, the Sodium D-Aspartic Acid Market growth in various regions and R&D status are also covered. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • What are the key market trends impacting the growth of the Sodium D-Aspartic Acid Industry? (beforeitsnews.com)
  • Market Forecast of Sodium D-Aspartic Acid Industry (2016-2021)? (beforeitsnews.com)
  • What are Economic Impact on Sodium D-Aspartic Acid Industry? (beforeitsnews.com)
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  • Company Sodium D-Aspartic Acid Product Capacity, Production, and Production Value etc. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • The first isolation of synthetic oligomeric sodium polyaspartate, obtained by thermal polycondensation of aspartic acid, was reported by Hugo Schiff in late 19th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polyaspartic acid is produced industrially in both the acid form and as the sodium polyaspartate salt. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium polyaspartate is a sodium salt of polyaspartic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Green Polymerization of Aspartic Acid for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory" (Abstract). (wikipedia.org)
  • The linear tripeptide δ-(L-α-aminoadipoyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine (LLD-ACV) must first be assembled from its component amino acids by N-(5-amino-5-carboxypentanoyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine synthase (ACV synthase). (wikipedia.org)
  • The amino acid sequence is D-tryptamine-D-aspartic acid-L-proline-D-valine-L-leucine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carboxylic acids other than AA are also expected to catalyze the succinimide formation by a similar mechanism. (mdpi.com)
  • Manabe, N. Acetic Acid Can Catalyze Succinimide Formation from Aspartic Acid Residues by a Concerted Bond Reorganization Mechanism: A Computational Study. (mdpi.com)
  • The polymerization reaction is an example of a step-growth polymerization to a polyamide and in one practical procedure aspartic acid is simply heated to 180 °C resulting in water release and the formation of a poly(succinimide). (wikipedia.org)
  • The nature of the building blocks should allow for a modular approach which could lead to the facile preparation of a small collection of glycolipids of different fatty acids chain lengths, such as 1 - 4 , shown in Figure 1 b. (mdpi.com)
  • In previous stages acetyl-CoA is transferred from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm where fatty acid synthase resides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Below critical micellar concentrations (CMCs) the fatty acid tail can extend freely into solution, and then participate in hydrophobic interactions within micelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • When surfactin penetrates the outer sheet, its fatty acid chain interacts with the acyl chains of the phospholipids, with its headgroup in proximity to the phospholipids polar heads. (wikipedia.org)
  • The headgroup aligns itself with the phospholipids of the inner sheet and the fatty acid chain interacts with the phospholipids acyl chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The detergent effect draws on surfactin's ability to insert its fatty acid chain into the bilipidic layer causing disorganization leading to membrane permeability. (wikipedia.org)