An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of beta-aspartyl phosphate from aspartic acid and ATP. Threonine serves as an allosteric regulator of this enzyme to control the biosynthetic pathway from aspartic acid to threonine. EC 2.7.2.4.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of aspartic beta-semialdehyde to homoserine, which is the branch point in biosynthesis of methionine, lysine, threonine and leucine from aspartic acid. EC 1.1.1.3.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.

Aspartate kinase-independent lysine synthesis in an extremely thermophilic bacterium, Thermus thermophilus: lysine is synthesized via alpha-aminoadipic acid not via diaminopimelic acid. (1/103)

An aspartate kinase-deficient mutant of Thermus thermophilus, AK001, was constructed. The mutant strain did not grow in a minimal medium, suggesting that T. thermophilus contains a single aspartate kinase. Growth of the mutant strain was restored by addition of both threonine and methionine, while addition of lysine had no detectable effect on growth. To further elucidate the lysine biosynthetic pathway in T. thermophilus, lysine auxotrophic mutants of T. thermophilus were obtained by chemical mutagenesis. For all lysine auxotrophic mutants, growth in a minimal medium was not restored by addition of diaminopimelic acid, whereas growth of two mutants was restored by addition of alpha-aminoadipic acid, a precursor of lysine in biosynthetic pathways of yeast and fungi. A BamHI fragment of 4.34 kb which complemented the lysine auxotrophy of a mutant was cloned. Determination of the nucleotide sequence suggested the presence of homoaconitate hydratase genes, termed hacA and hacB, which could encode large and small subunits of homoaconitate hydratase, in the cloned fragment. Disruption of the chromosomal copy of hacA yielded mutants showing lysine auxotrophy which was restored by addition of alpha-aminoadipic acid or alpha-ketoadipic acid. All of these results indicated that in T. thermophilus, lysine was not synthesized via the diaminopimelic acid pathway, believed to be common to all bacteria, but via a pathway using alpha-aminoadipic acid as a biosynthetic intermediate.  (+info)

The site-specific integration of genetic elements may modulate thermostable protease production, a virulence factor in Dichelobacter nodosus, the causative agent of ovine footrot. (2/103)

The gram-negative anaerobe Dichelobacter nodosus is the causative agent of footrot in sheep. The authors have previously characterized two genetic elements, the intA (vap) and intB elements, which integrate into the genome of D. nodosus. In the virulent strain A198 there are two copies of the intA element. One copy is integrated into the 3' end of the tRNA-serGCU gene, close to the aspartokinase (askA) gene, and the second copy is integrated into the 3' end of the tRNA-serGGA gene, next to the polynucleotide phosphorylase (pnpA) gene. In this study, a new genetic element was identified in the benign strain C305, the intC element, integrated into the 3' end of the tRNA-serGCU gene, next to askA. The intC element was found in most D. nodosus strains, both benign and virulent, which were examined, and was integrated into tRNA-serGCU in most strains. Between the askA and tRNA-serGCU genes, a gene (designated glpA), was identified whose predicted protein product has very high amino acid identity with RsmA from the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora. RsmA acts as a global repressor of pathogenicity in E. carotovora, by repressing the production of extracellular enzymes. In virulent strains of D. nodosus the intA element was found to be integrated next to pnpA, and either the intA or intC element was integrated next to glpA. By contrast, all but one of the benign strains had intB at one or both of these two positions, and the one exception had neither intA, intB nor intC at one position. The loss of the intC element from the virulent strain 1311 resulted in loss of thermostable protease activity, a virulence factor in D. nodosus. A model for virulence is proposed whereby integration of the intA and intC genetic elements modulates virulence by altering the expression of glpA, pnpA, tRNA-serGCU and tRNA-serGGA.  (+info)

Organization of threonine biosynthesis genes from the obligate methylotroph Methylobacillus flagellatus. (3/103)

The genes encoding aspartate kinase (ask), homoserine dehydrogenase (hom), homoserine kinase (thrB) and threonine synthase (thrC) from the obligate methylotroph Methylobacillus flagellatus were cloned. In maxicells hom and thrC directed synthesis of 51 and 48 kDa polypeptides, respectively. The hom, thrB and thrC genes and adjacent DNA areas were sequenced. Of the threonine biosynthesis genes, only hom and thrC were tightly linked in the order hom-thrC. The gene for thymidylate synthase (thyA) followed thrC and the gene for aspartate aminotransferase (aspC) preceded hom. All four genes (aspC-hom-thrC-thyA) were transcribed in the same direction. mRNA analysis indicated that hom-thrC are apparently transcribed in one 7.5 kb transcript in M. flagellatus. Promoter analysis showed the presence of a functional promoter between aspC and hom. No functional promoter was found to be associated with the DNA stretch between hom and thrC. The thrB gene encoded an unusual type of homoserine kinase and was not linked to other threonine biosynthesis genes.  (+info)

Effects of a feedback-resistant aspartokinase III gene on L-isoleucine production in Escherichia coli K-12. (4/103)

An L-isoleucine-overproducing recombinant strain of E. coli, TVD5, was also found to overproduce L-valine. The L-isoleucine productivity of TVD5 was markedly decreased by addition of L-lysine to the medium. Introduction of a gene encoding feedback-resistant aspartokinase III increased L-isoleucine productivity and decreased L-valine by-production. The resulting strain accumulated 12 g/l L-isoleucine from 40 g/l glucose, and suppression of L-isoleucine productivity by L-lysine was relieved.  (+info)

Attractant regulation of the aspartate receptor-kinase complex: limited cooperative interactions between receptors and effects of the receptor modification state. (5/103)

The manner by which the bacterial chemotaxis system responds to a wide range of attractant concentrations remains incompletely understood. In principle, positive cooperativity between chemotaxis receptors could explain the ability of bacteria to respond to extremely low attractant concentrations. By utilizing an in vitro receptor-coupled kinase assay, the attractant-dependent response curve has been measured for the Salmonella typhimurium aspartate chemoreceptor. The attractant chosen, alpha-methyl aspartate, was originally used to quantitate high receptor sensitivity at low attractant concentrations by Segall, Block, and Berg [(1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83, 8987-8991]. The attractant response curve exhibits limited positive cooperativity, yielding a Hill coefficient of 1.7-2.4, and this Hill coefficient is relatively independent of both the receptor modification state and the mole ratio of CheA to receptor. These results disfavor models in which there are strong cooperative interactions between large numbers of receptor dimers in an extensive receptor array. Instead, the results are consistent with cooperative interactions between a small number of coupled receptor dimers. Because the in vitro receptor-coupled kinase assay utilizes higher than native receptor densities arising from overexpression, the observed positive cooperativity may overestimate that present in native receptor populations. Such positive cooperativity between dimers is fully compatible with the negative cooperativity previously observed between the two symmetric ligand binding sites within a single dimer. The attractant affinity of the aspartate receptor is found to depend on the modification state of its covalent adaptation sites. Increasing the the level of modification decreases the apparent attractant affinity at least 10-fold in the in vitro receptor-coupled kinase assay. This observation helps explain the ability of the chemotaxis pathway to respond to a broad range of attractant concentrations in vivo.  (+info)

Evidence for direct interaction between enzyme I(Ntr) and aspartokinase to regulate bacterial oligopeptide transport. (6/103)

Bradyrhizobium japonicum transports oligopeptides and the heme precursor delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) by a common mechanism. Two Tn5-induced mutants disrupted in the lysC and ptsP genes were identified based on the inability to use prolyl-glycyl-glycine as a proline source and were defective in [(14)C]ALA uptake activity. lysC and ptsP were shown to be proximal genes in the B. japonicum genome. However, RNase protection and in trans complementation analysis showed that lysC and ptsP are transcribed separately, and that both genes are involved in oligopeptide transport. Aspartokinase, encoded by lysC, catalyzes the phosphorylation of aspartate for synthesis of three amino acids, but the lysC strain is not an amino acid auxotroph. The ptsP gene encodes Enzyme I(Ntr) (EI(Ntr)), a paralogue of Enzyme I of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase (PTS) system. In vitro pull-down experiments indicated that purified recombinant aspartokinase and EI(Ntr) interact directly with each other. Expression of ptsP in trans from a multicopy plasmid complemented the lysC mutant, suggesting that aspartokinase normally affects Enzyme I(Ntr) in a manner that can be compensated for by increasing the copy number of the ptsP gene. ATP was not a phosphoryl donor to purified EI(Ntr), but it was phosphorylated by ATP in the presence of cell extracts. This phosphorylation was inhibited in the presence of aspartokinase. The findings demonstrate a role for a PTS protein in the transport of a non-sugar solute and suggest an unusual regulatory function for aspartokinase in regulating the phosphorylation state of EI(Ntr).  (+info)

Aspartate kinase 2. A candidate gene of a quantitative trait locus influencing free amino acid content in maize endosperm. (7/103)

The maize (Zea mays) Oh545o2 inbred accumulates an exceptionally high level of free amino acids, especially lysine (Lys), threonine (Thr), methionine, and iso-leucine. In a cross between Oh545o2 and Oh51Ao2, we identified several quantitative trait loci linked with this phenotype. One of these is on the long arm of chromosome 2 and is linked with loci encoding aspartate (Asp) kinase 2 and Asp kinase (AK)-homoserine dehydrogenase (HSDH) 2. To investigate whether these enzymes can contribute to the high levels of Asp family amino acids, we measured their specific activity and feedback inhibition properties, as well as activities of several other key enzymes involved in Lys metabolism. We did not find a significant difference in total activity of dihydrodipicolinate synthase, HSDH, and Lys ketoglutarate reductase between these inbreds, and the feedback inhibition properties of HSDH and dihyrodipicolinate synthase by Lys and/or Thr were similar. The most significant difference we found between Oh545o2 and Oh51Ao2 is feedback inhibition of AK by Lys but not Thr. AK activity in Oh545o2 is less sensitive to Lys inhibition than that in Oh51Ao2, with a Lys I50 twice that of Oh51Ao2. AK activity in Oh545o2 endosperm is also higher than in Oh51Ao2 at 15 d after pollination, but not 20 d after pollination. The results indicate that the Lys-sensitive Asp kinase 2, rather than the Thr-sensitive AK-HSDH2, is the best candidate gene for the quantitative trait locus affecting free amino acid content in Oh545o2.  (+info)

An integrated study of threonine-pathway enzyme kinetics in Escherichia coli. (8/103)

We have determined the kinetic parameters of the individual steps of the threonine pathway from aspartate in Escherichia coli under a single set of experimental conditions chosen to be physiologically relevant. Our aim was to summarize the kinetic behaviour of each enzyme in a single tractable equation that takes into account the effect of the products as competitive inhibitors of the substrates in the forward reaction and also, when appropriate (e.g. near-equilibrium reactions), as substrates of the reverse reactions. Co-operative feedback inhibition by threonine and lysine was also included as necessary. We derived the simplest rate equations that describe the salient features of the enzymes in the physiological range of metabolite concentrations in order to incorporate them ultimately into a complete model of the threonine pathway, able to predict quantitatively the behaviour of the pathway under natural or engineered conditions.  (+info)

In molecular biology, the amino acid kinase domain is a protein domain. It is found in protein kinases with various specificities, including the aspartate, glutamate and uridylate kinase families. In prokaryotes and plants the synthesis of the essential amino acids lysine and threonine is predominantly regulated by feed-back inhibition of aspartate kinase (AK) and dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHPS). In Escherichia coli, thrA, metLM, and lysC encode aspartokinase isozymes that show feedback inhibition by threonine, methionine, and lysine, respectively. The lysine-sensitive isoenzyme of aspartate kinase from spinach leaves has a subunit composition of 4 large and 4 small subunits. In plants although the control of carbon fixation and nitrogen assimilation has been studied in detail, relatively little is known about the regulation of carbon and nitrogen flow into amino acids. The metabolic regulation of expression of an Arabidopsis thaliana aspartate kinase/homoserine dehydrogenase (AK/HSD) gene, ...
K00928 lysC; aspartate kinase [EC:2.7.2.4] K00928 lysC; aspartate kinase [EC:2.7.2.4] K00928 lysC; aspartate kinase [EC:2.7.2.4] K12524 thrA; bifunctional aspartokinase / homoserine dehydrogenase 1 [EC:2.7.2.4 1.1.1.3] K12525 metL; bifunctional aspartokinase / homoserine dehydrogenase 2 [EC:2.7.2.4 1.1.1.3 ...
Protein phosphorylation is known to occur across all three kingdoms of life; however, the study of posttranslational modification in bacteria was neglected for a considerable amount of time. Early attempts to detect its presence were unsuccessful, generating the dogma that protein phosphorylation was a regulatory mechanism that emerged late in evolution to meet the needs of organisms composed of multiple and differentiated cells. The pioneering work of several groups in the 1970s identified protein kinase activity in both Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium ( 1 - 3 ), which soon led to the discovery of the histidine/aspartate kinases of the two-component systems ( 4 , 5 ). The first aspect of this system involves the stimulation of a histidine kinase by a particular environmental or intracellular signal resulting in autophosphorylation on a key histidine residue. The phospho-histidine can then be used as a substrate by the cognate response regulator for its own autophosphorylation on an
Staphylococcus aureus; strain: USA300_FPR3757; locus tag: SAUSA300_1225 (SAUSA300_RS06640); symbol: thrD; product: aspartate kinase
Numerous significant hits using gapped BLAST to aspartokinase III from E. coli (416597), Arabidopsis thaliana (6091740, putative), Methanococcus jannaschii (2492982), among others. HD1375 is 57% similar to residues 1-449 from AK3_ECOLI ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Arsenic atom in PDB 1pqu: Crystal Structure Of the H277N Mutant of Aspartate Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase From Haemophilus Influenzae Bound With Nadp, S-Methyl Cysteine Sulfoxide and Cacodylate
Protein target information for Chain A, Aspartate beta-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (Streptococcus pneumoniae). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
Lysine biosynthesis is one of the unique metabolic capabilities of cyst forming Coccidia such as Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. Toxoplasma and Neospora genome analysis shows that they have the unique metabolic capability to synthesise lysine, an essential amino acid in humans. This capability is absent in other Apicomplexa. It has been suggested that Toxoplasma can convert aspartate into lysine via diaminopimelate pathway [1]. This pathway takes place via four different routes in different organisms (KEGG Lysine biosynthesis pathway). Of these, three variants belong to different groups of prokaryotes and the plant variant of the pathway was identified recently in Arabidopsis thaliana [2]. The first four enzymes (aspartate kinase, aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase, dihydrodipicolinate synthase and dihydrodipicolinate reductase) and the last enzyme (diaminopimelate decarboxylase) is the same in all variants of the pathway and these five enzymes are present in T. gondii and N. caninum ...
This entry represents a motif conserved in many allosteric enzymes involved in amino acid and purine biosynthesis, called the ACT domain as the acronym for aspartate kinase, chorismate mutase, and TyrA (prephenate dehydrogenase). Several crystal structures have been determined for proteins that have ACT domains, such as 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (3PGDH),15 threonine deaminase (TD),16 acetohydroxyacid synthase III,17 and NikR, a transcriptional regulator involved in nickel uptake. The ACT domain consists of 4 beta-strands and 2 alpha-helices PMID:17350037 ...
ID AK_RICPR Reviewed; 446 AA. AC Q9ZCI7; DT 30-MAY-2000, integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot. DT 01-MAY-1999, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 95. DE RecName: Full=Aspartokinase; DE EC=2.7.2.4; DE AltName: Full=Aspartate kinase; GN Name=lysC; OrderedLocusNames=RP753; OS Rickettsia prowazekii (strain Madrid E). OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Rickettsiales; OC Rickettsiaceae; Rickettsieae; Rickettsia; typhus group. OX NCBI_TaxID=272947; RN [1] RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=Madrid E; RX PubMed=9823893; DOI=10.1038/24094; RA Andersson S.G.E., Zomorodipour A., Andersson J.O., RA Sicheritz-Ponten T., Alsmark U.C.M., Podowski R.M., Naeslund A.K., RA Eriksson A.-S., Winkler H.H., Kurland C.G.; RT The genome sequence of Rickettsia prowazekii and the origin of RT mitochondria.; RL Nature 396:133-140(1998). RN [2] RP DOMAIN RPE1. RX PubMed=11030655; DOI=10.1126/science.290.5490.347; RA Ogata H., Audic S., Barbe V., Artiguenave F., ...
The lysine, threonine, and methionine biosynthetic pathways share the three initial enzymatic steps, which are referred to as the Common Pathway (CP). In Escherichia coli three different aspartokinases (AKI, AKII, AKIII, the products of thrA, metL and lysC, respectively) can perform the first step of the CP. Moreover, two of them (AKI and AKII) are bifunctional, carrying also homoserine dehydrogenasic activity (hom product). The second step of the CP is catalyzed by a single aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASDH, the product of asd). Thus, in the CP of E. coli while a single copy of ASDH performs the same reaction for three different metabolic routes, three different AKs perfom a unique step. Why and how such a situation did emerge and maintain? How is it correlated to the different regulatory mechanisms acting on these genes? The aim of this work was to trace the evolutionary pathway leading to the extant scenario in proteobacteria. The analysis of the structure, organization, phylogeny, and
The aspartate biosynthetic pathway, essential in plants and in most bacteria and fungi, can produce the amino acids threonine, lysine, methionine, and isoleucine. The first commitment step of this pathway is catalyzed by aspartokinase (AK). The archeal thermophilic Methanococcus jannaschii has only a single, monofunctional form of AK. X-ray crystallographic studies indicate that mjAK is a tetramer in the crystalline state, which coincides with the oligomeric structure in solution. The substrate L-aspartate binds to this recombinant enzyme in two different orientations, providing the first structural evidence supporting the relaxed regiospecificity previously observed with several alternative substrates of E. coli AK.5 Binding of the nucleotide substrate triggers significant domain movements that result in a more compact quaternary structure. The allosteric inhibitor, L-threonine, cooperatively binds to two sites in each monomer of this dimer of dimers, one site in the regulatory domain interface ...
Staphylococcus aureus; strain: Newman; locus tag: NWMN_1305 (NWMN_RS07350); symbol: asd; product: aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase
Complete information for LYZ gene (Protein Coding), Lysozyme, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Manufacturer # 2094N Brand 3M™ Coban™2 Manufacturer 3M Application 2 Layer Compression Bandage System Closure Type Self-adherent / Pull On Closure Color Tan / White Dimensions 2.9 Yard X 4 Inch / 4 Inch X 5.1 Yard HCPCS A6454 (Disclaimer) Material Foam / Elastic Sterility NonSterile Type 35-40 mmHg UNSPSC Code 42311506
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Introduction: Aspartokinase (A1, A2, A3) Homoserine dehydrogenase (B1, B2) Threonine dehydratase (C1, C2) Allosteric regulation of selective isozymes some unregulated Sequential feedback inhibition Same product inhibits its biosynthetic path at multiple sites Inhibits first enzyme in pathway
cd04881 (PSSM ID: 153153): Conserved Protein Domain Family ACT_HSDH-Hom, The ACT_HSDH_Hom CD includes the C-terminal ACT domain of the NAD(P)H-dependent, homoserine dehydrogenase (HSDH) encoded by the hom gene of Bacillus subtilis and other related sequences
ID Q82EQ5_STRAW Unreviewed; 430 AA. AC Q82EQ5; DT 01-JUN-2003, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 01-JUN-2003, sequence version 1. DT 31-JAN-2018, entry version 110. DE RecName: Full=Aspartokinase {ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU003448}; DE EC=2.7.2.4 {ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU003448}; GN Name=lysC {ECO:0000313,EMBL:BAC72271.1}; GN ORFNames=SAVERM_4559 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:BAC72271.1}; OS Streptomyces avermitilis (strain ATCC 31267 / DSM 46492 / JCM 5070 / OS NBRC 14893 / NCIMB 12804 / NRRL 8165 / MA-4680). OC Bacteria; Actinobacteria; Streptomycetales; Streptomycetaceae; OC Streptomyces. OX NCBI_TaxID=227882 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:BAC72271.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000000428}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:BAC72271.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000000428} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=ATCC 31267 / DSM 46492 / JCM 5070 / NBRC 14893 / NCIMB 12804 / RC NRRL 8165 / MA-4680 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000000428}; RX PubMed=11572948; DOI=10.1073/pnas.211433198; RA Omura S., Ikeda H., Ishikawa J., ...
subroutine unfold_positions(L, X, Xu) ! Unwinds periodic positions. It is using the positions of particles from the ! first time step as a reference and then tracks them as they evolve possibly ! outside of this box. The X and Xu arrays are of the type X(:, j, i), which ! are the (x,y,z) coordinates of the j-th particle in the i-th time step. real(dp), intent(in) :: L ! Box length ! Positions in [0, L]^3 with possible jumps: real(dp), intent(in) :: X(:, :, :) ! Unwinded positions in (-oo, oo)^3 with no jumps (continuous): real(dp), intent(out) :: Xu(:, :, :) real(dp) :: d(3), Xj(3) integer :: i, j Xu(:, :, 1) = X(:, :, 1) do i = 2, size(X, 3) do j = 1, size(X, 2) Xj = X(:, j, i-1) - X(:, j, i) + [L/2, L/2, L/2] Xj = Xj - L*floor(Xj/L) d = [L/2, L/2, L/2] - Xj Xu(:, j, i) = Xu(:, j, i-1) + d end do end do end subroutine ...
Corynebacterium glutamicum (strain ATCC 13032 / DSM 20300 / JCM 1318 / LMG 3730 / NCIMB 10025) [2020, 21, Weak + Strong, sRNA] ...
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Accepted name: UMP kinase. Reaction: ATP + UMP = ADP + UDP. Other name(s): uridylate kinase; UMPK; uridine monophosphate kinase; PyrH; UMP-kinase; SmbA Systematic name: ATP:UMP phosphotransferase Comments: This enzyme is strictly specific for UMP as substrate and is used by prokaryotes in the de novo synthesis of pyrimidines, in contrast to eukaryotes, which use the dual-specificity enzyme UMP/CMP kinase (EC 2.7.4.14) for the same purpose [2]. This enzyme is the subject of feedback regulation, being inhibited by UTP and activated by GTP [1].. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9036-23-1. References:. 1. Serina, L., Blondin, C., Krin, E., Sismeiro, O., Danchin, A., Sakamoto, H., Gilles, A.M. and B̢rzu O. Escherichia coli UMP-kinase, a member of the aspartokinase family, is a hexamer regulated by guanine nucleotides and UTP. Biochemistry 34 (1995) 5066-5074. [PMID: 7711027]. 2. Marco-Marin, C., Gil-Ortiz, F. and Rubio, V. The crystal structure of ...
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Flash Point (ASTM D93-08) Flash Point by Pensky- Martens Closed Cup Tester Flash point- tendency of the test specimen to form a flammable mixture with air under controlled laboratory conditions ~$2,000
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... allosterically inhibits aspartate kinase and glutamate dehydrogenase. Glutamate dehydrogenase reversibly converts ... Threonine acts as another allosteric inhibitor of aspartate kinase and homoserine dehydrogenase, but it is a competitive ... Homoserine is produced from aspartate via aspartate-4-semialdehyde, which is produced from β-phosphoaspartate. By the action of ... and the aspartate metabolic pathway. It forms by two reductions of aspartic acid via the intermediacy of aspartate semialdehyde ...
The alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase levels may be raised. The gamma- ...
At night, aspartate is converted to asparagine for storage. Additionally, the aspartate kinase-homoserine dehydrogenase gene is ... Homoserine dehydrogenase and aspartate kinase are both subject to significant regulation (refer to figure 3). HSD is inhibited ... The AK-HSD gene codes for aspartate kinase, an intermediate domain (coding for the linker region between the two enzymes in the ... Threonine acts as a competitive inhibitor for both HSD and aspartate kinase. In AK-HSD expressing organisms, one of the ...
"Evidence for direct protein kinase-C mediated modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor current". Mol. Pharmacol. 59 (5): 960 ... The enzyme belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and to the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily ... "Entrez Gene: CAMK2B calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II beta". Walikonis RS, Oguni A, Khorosheva EM, ... of a phosphorylation site for calcium/calmodulindependent protein kinase II in the NR2B subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate ...
The ACT domain is named after three of the proteins that contain it: aspartate kinase, chorismate mutase and TyrA. The ...
... aspartokinase β-aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase homoserine dehydrogenase homoserine kinase threonine synthase. Threonine ... Threonine is synthesized from aspartate in bacteria such as E. coli. It is encoded by all the codons starting AC (ACU, ACC, ACA ... In many organisms it is O-phosphorylated by a kinase preparatory to further metabolism. This is especially important in ... In addition, threonine residues undergo phosphorylation through the action of a threonine kinase. In its phosphorylated form, ...
Dardick C, Schwessinger B, Ronald P (August 2012). "Non-arginine-aspartate (non-RD) kinases are associated with innate immune ... NODs transduce signals in the pathway of NF-κB and MAP kinases via the serine-threonine kinase called RIP2. NODs signal via N- ... Some IRAK and RIP family kinases fall into a small functional class of kinases termed non-RD, many of which do not ... revealed that despite the small number of non-RD kinases in these genomes (9%-29%), 12 of 15 kinases known or predicted to ...
Kobashi N, Nishiyama M, Tanokura M (March 1999). "Aspartate kinase-independent lysine synthesis in an extremely thermophilic ... catalysed condensation reaction between the aspartate derived, L-aspartate semialdehyde, and pyruvate to form (4S)-4-hydroxy-2, ... The DAP pathway is regulated at multiple levels, including upstream at the enzymes involved in aspartate processing as well as ... The diaminopimelate (DAP) pathway belongs to the aspartate derived biosynthetic family, which is also involved in the synthesis ...
Signs of overdose include panting, trembling, vomiting, and diarrhea, as well as increased blood levels of creatinine kinase, ... aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase. Dogs who received atipamezole without first receiving dexmedotomidine have ...
fraD encodes the sugar kinase FraD that phosphorylates F-Asp into 6-phosphofuctose-aspartate (6-P-F-Asp). It is unusual in that ... fraB functions as a deglycase that cleaves 6-P-F-Asp into glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) and aspartate. Mutants lacking fraD or ... This fra locus has five genes: fraR (a regulator), fraB a fructose-asparagine deglycase, fraD a sugar kinase, fraA a fructose- ... Notably, mutations in fraB cause the buildup of the toxic intermediate 6-phosphofuctose-aspartate (6-P-F-Asp). The buildup of 6 ...
Blood tests such as Creatine Kinase Concentration (CK), Aspartate Transaminase Levels (AST), and/or Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH ...
... generally on an aspartate residue, by a transmembrane kinase. Some proteins that belong to this category are: Rhizobiaceae fixJ ...
... the relative levels of creatine kinase, aldolase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate ...
In phosphorelays, the "hybrid" histidine kinase contains an internal aspartate-containing receiver domain to which the ... to an aspartate on a final response regulator. In orthodox two-component signaling, a histidine kinase protein ... In some cases, a phosphorelay system is constructed from four separate proteins rather than a hybrid histidine kinase with an ... In bacteria, where two-component signaling is extremely common, about 25% of known histidine kinases are of the hybrid type. ...
... the phosphotransfer from the kinase to an aspartate of the response regulator, and (with bifunctional enzymes) the ... The kinase core has a unique fold, distinct from that of the Ser/Thr/Tyr kinase superfamily. HKs can be roughly divided into ... Histidine kinases usually have an N-terminal ligand-binding domain and a C-terminal kinase domain, but other domains may also ... Not all orthodox kinases are membrane bound, e.g., the nitrogen regulatory kinase NtrB (GlnL) is a soluble cytoplasmic HK. ...
Aspartate kinase becomes downregulated by the presence of threonine or lysine. Lysine is synthesized from aspartate via the ... The formation of aspartate kinase (AK), which catalyzes the phosphorylation of aspartate and initiates its conversion into ... The synthesis of aspartate kinase (AK), which catalyzes the phosphorylation of aspartate and initiates its conversion into ... The aspartate pathway uses L-aspartic acid as the precursor for the biosynthesis of one fourth of the building block amino ...
"Interaction of the tyrosine kinase Pyk2 with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex via the Src homology 3 domains of PSD-95 ... DLG3 is a member of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) superfamily of proteins. DLG3 has been shown to interact ... 1996). "Interaction of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex with a novel synapse-associated protein, SAP102". J. Biol. ... 1999). "Interaction of NE-dlg/SAP102, a neuronal and endocrine tissue-specific membrane-associated guanylate kinase protein, ...
"Interaction of the tyrosine kinase Pyk2 with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex via the Src homology 3 domains of PSD-95 ... "Protein tyrosine kinase PYK2 involved in Ca(2+)-induced regulation of ion channel and MAP kinase functions". Nature. 376 (6543 ... Protein tyrosine kinase 2 beta is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTK2B gene. This gene encodes a cytoplasmic ... "Entrez Gene: PTK2B PTK2B protein tyrosine kinase 2 beta". Soni D, Regmi SC, Wang DM, DebRoy A, Zhao YY, Vogel SM, Malik AB, ...
"Interaction of the tyrosine kinase Pyk2 with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex via the Src homology 3 domains of PSD-95 ... Choi J, Ko J, Park E, Lee JR, Yoon J, Lim S, Kim E (April 2002). "Phosphorylation of stargazin by protein kinase A regulates ... PSD-95 is a member of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family. With PSD-93 it is recruited into the same NMDA ... The GUK domain that they have is structurally very similar to that of the guanylate kinases, however it is known to be ...
"Interaction of the tyrosine kinase Pyk2 with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex via the Src homology 3 domains of PSD-95 ... June 1997). "DAP-1, a novel protein that interacts with the guanylate kinase-like domains of hDLG and PSD-95". Genes to Cells. ... "Entrez Gene: GRIN2A glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl D-aspartate 2A". Hamza TH, Chen H, Hill-Burns EM, Rhodes SL, ... Ma J, Zhang GY (September 2003). "Lithium reduced N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2A tyrosine phosphorylation and its ...
"Protein kinase C activation modulates alpha-calmodulin kinase II binding to NR2A subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor ...
"Identification of a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II regulatory phosphorylation site in non-N-methyl-D-aspartate ... Ripellino JA, Neve RL, Howe JR (1998). "Expression and heteromeric interactions of non-N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor ... Barria A, Derkach V, Soderling T (1998). "Identification of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II regulatory ...
"Identification of a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II regulatory phosphorylation site in non-N-methyl-D-aspartate ... "Entrez Gene: CAMK2G calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II gamma". Moyers JS, Bilan PJ, Zhu J, Kahn CR ( ... "Phosphorylation of smooth myosin light chain kinase by smooth muscle Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent multifunctional protein kinase ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II gamma chain is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2G gene. The ...
... or aspartokinase (AK) is an enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of the amino acid aspartate. This ... Viola RE (May 2001). "The central enzymes of the aspartate family of amino acid biosynthesis". Accounts of Chemical Research. ... "aspartate family". Aspartokinases are present only in microorganisms and plants, but not in animals, which must obtain ... aspartate-family amino acids from their diet. Consequently, methionine, lysine and threonine are essential amino acids in ...
Aspartate 145 also changes position. Together these structural changes allow ATP phosphates to bind correctly. When CAK ... Lolli G, Johnson LN (April 2005). "CAK-Cyclin-dependent Activating Kinase: a key kinase in cell cycle control and a target for ... The active site of Cdk2 lies in a cleft between the two lobes of the kinase. ATP binds deep within the cleft and its phosphate ... CDK-activating kinase (CAK) activates the cyclin-CDK complex by phosphorylating threonine residue 160 in the CDK activation ...
It is found in protein kinases with various specificities, including the aspartate, glutamate and uridylate kinase families. In ... The lysine-sensitive isoenzyme of aspartate kinase from spinach leaves has a subunit composition of 4 large and 4 small ... The conversion of aspartate into either the storage amino acid asparagine or aspartate family amino acids may be subject to a ... Kochhar S, Kochhar VK, Sane PV (April 1998). "Subunit structure of lysine sensitive aspartate kinase from spinach leaves". ...
... a phosphate group from ATP is first added to a histidine residue within the kinase, then transferred to an aspartate residue on ... Histidine-specific protein kinases are structurally distinct from other protein kinases and are found in prokaryotes, fungi, ... Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are transmembrane proteins with an intracellular kinase domain and an extracellular domain ... cAMP-dependent pathway: In humans, cAMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, cAMP-dependent protein kinase) (see picture ...
These water molecules then form hydrogen bonds to a conserved aspartate residue on the enzyme. The metal ion interaction ... This enzyme is also called NMP-kinase, or nucleoside-monophosphate kinase. A number of crystal structures have been solved for ... Following the evolution of long and short varieties of NMP-kinases, smaller changes in the amino acid sequences resulted in the ... Fukami-Kobayashi K, Nosaka M, Nakazawa A, Go M (May 1996). "Ancient divergence of long and short isoforms of adenylate kinase: ...
Two distal aspartate residues bind to the arginine network, causing the enzyme to fold and reduces its flexibility. A magnesium ... Adenylate kinase, subfamily InterPro: IPR006259 UMP-CMP kinase InterPro: IPR006266 Adenylate kinase, isozyme 1 InterPro: ... In mutated Escherichia coli that had a disrupted nucleoside diphosphate kinase, adenylate kinase performed dual enzymatic ... In mutated Escherichia coli that had a disrupted nucleoside diphosphate kinase, adenylate kinase performed dual enzymatic ...
"Importance of aspartate residues in balancing the flexibility and fine-tuning the catalysis of human 3-phosphoglycerate kinase ... Phosphoglycerate kinase (EC 2.7.2.3) (PGK 1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transfer of a phosphate group from 1,3- ... Phosphoglycerate+kinase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Illustration at arizona.edu This ... Phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) deficiency is an X-linked recessive trait associated with hemolytic anemia, mental disorders and ...
Main article: Pyruvate kinase. The final step of glycolysis is catalysed by pyruvate kinase to form pyruvate and another ATP. ... They are the malate-aspartate shuttle and the glycerol phosphate shuttle. In the former the electrons from NADH are transferred ... During fasting (no glucose available), glucagon activates protein kinase A which phosphorylates pyruvate kinase to inhibit it.[ ... Triose kinase. References[edit]. *^ Alfarouk KO, Verduzco D, Rauch C, Muddathir AK, Adil HH, Elhassan GO, et al. (18 December ...
CDK5 kinase phosphorylates APP at threonine 568 which stimulates Aβ peptide accumulation, and CDK5 activities also affect the ... It is a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) channel blocker. By binding to the NMDA receptor with a higher affinity ... including activation of kinase enzymes,[11][12] protection against oxidative stress,[13][14] regulation of cholesterol ...
Konopacka, Agnieszka; Konopacki, Filip A.; Albrecht, Jan (2009). "Protein Kinase G Is Involved in Ammonia-induced Swelling of ... Takadera, Tsuneo; Suzuki, Risa; Mohri, Tetsuro (1990). "Protection by Ethanol of Cortical Neurons from N-methyl-d-aspartate- ... within the cells which leads to Protein Kinase G-mediated (PKG) cytoskeletal modifications.[46] The resultant effect of this ... It is this intracellular calcium increase that activates protein kinase C (PKC), which manifests as learning deficits in ...
... is synthesized from aspartate in bacteria such as E. coli.[3] It is encoded by all the codons starting AC (ACU, ACC, ... In many organisms it is O-phosphorylated by a kinase preparatory to further metabolism. This is especially important in ... In addition, threonine residues undergo phosphorylation through the action of a threonine kinase. In its phosphorylated form, ... "Threonine synthesis from aspartate in Escherichia coli cell-free extracts: pathway dynamics". Biochem J. 356 (Pt 2): 425-32. ...
PLP is synthesized from pyridoxal by the enzyme pyridoxal kinase, requiring one ATP molecule. PLP is metabolized in the liver. ... The overall B6 enzymes diverged into four independent evolutionary lines: α family (i.e. aspartate aminotransferase), β family ...
Nageh T, Sherwood RA, Harris BM, Byrne JA, Thomas MR (2003). "Cardiac troponin T and I and creatine kinase-MB as markers of ... The liver transaminases aspartate transaminase (AST or SGOT) and alanine transaminase (ALT or SGPT) are useful biomarkers of ... although troponin and creatine kinase tests are preferred.[18] ... Aspartate transaminase (AST)[edit]. Main articles: Aspartate ...
The name "NMDA receptor" is derived from the ligand N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), which acts as a selective agonist at these ... which can ultimately change neuronal function through activation of various kinases and phosphatases".[14] Ligands include: * ... The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA receptor) - a type of ionotropic glutamate receptor - is a ligand-gated ion channel ... Other agonists : aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid; D-cycloserine; L-aspartate; quinolinate, etc.. *Partial agonists : N-methyl- ...
"Amphetamine Aspartate". Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals. March 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2015.. *^ "Dyanavel XR Prescribing ... and protein kinase C (PKC), which subsequently phosphorylates DAT.[70][73][74] PKA-phosphorylation causes DAT to withdraw into ... amphetamine aspartate monohydrate[105] (C9H13N)•C4H7NO4•H2O 286.32 ... "Adderall XR- dextroamphetamine sulfate, dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine sulfate and amphetamine aspartate capsule, ...
2.7.10-2.7.13: protein kinase. (PO4; protein acceptor). 2.7.10: protein-tyrosine. *see tyrosine kinases ... Two aspartate residues facilitate cation binding and nucleophilic attack.. Similar to many polymerases, the catalytic site of ...
The caspase-3 His-237 stabilizes the target Aspartate causing the break of the association of ICAD and CAD leaving the ... Some studies have shown that this differentiation is due to many CAD kinase substrates. Referring to the example of skeletal ... cells, their differentiation is associated to cleavage of the kinase MST1. Moreover, it has been seen that CAD participates in ...
Binding of the hormone to insulin receptors on cells then activates a cascade of protein kinases that cause the cells to take ... Pyrimidines, on the other hand, are synthesized from the base orotate, which is formed from glutamine and aspartate. All ...
For example, the Na⁺-K⁺ pump interacts directly with Src, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, to form a signaling receptor complex ... ATP is hydrolyzed, leading to phosphorylation of the pump at a highly conserved aspartate residue and subsequent release of ADP ... However, upon subsequent ouabain binding, the Src kinase domain is released and then activated. Based on this scenario, NaKtide ... signals through ouabain-triggered protein phosphorylation events include activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase ( ...
Kumar S, Sieghart W, Morrow AL (2002). "Association of protein kinase C with GABA(A) receptors containing alpha1 and alpha4 ... A hippocampal transcriptome analysis was profiled on knockout mice, showing the increased activity of N-methyl-D-aspartate ...
For example, group I mGluRs are known to increase the activity of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), a type of ion ... The lipophilic diacylglycerol remains in the membrane, acting as a cofactor for the activation of protein kinase C. These ... Excessive amounts of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), the selective specific agonist of NMDARs, has been found to cause more damage ... protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated endocytic trafficking". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 287 (39): 32354-66. doi:10.1074/ ...
Branscombe TL, Frankel A, Lee JH, Cook JR, Yang Z, Pestka S, Clarke S (August 2001). "PRMT5 (Janus kinase-binding protein 1) ... However, in both cases the proton stripped from the nitrogen is dispersed through a histidine-aspartate proton relay system and ...
"Hsc70 regulates accumulation of cyclin D1 and cyclin D1-dependent protein kinase". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 23 (5): 1764 ... "Structural features of the precursor to mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase responsible for binding to hsp70". The Journal ...
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor - N-methylaspartate - N-terminus - NADH - NADPH - NaKATPase - native state - nef gene product - ... ribosomal protein S6 kinase - ribosome - RNA - RNA virus - RNA-binding protein - RNA-directed DNA polymerase - rod outer ... CDC28 protein kinase - cell - cell adhesion molecule - cell biology - cell cycle protein - cell membrane - cell membrane ... kinase - kinesin - kinetic energy - kinetic exclusion assay - kinetics - knock-out mouse - Krebs cycle lactalbumin - lactic ...
A related motif is the asx motif which has aspartate or asparagine as the first residue. Two well conserved threonines at α- ... SPXX or STXX are frequently found at DNA-binding sites and also that they are recognized as substrates by some protein kinases ...
D-aspartate) O-methyltransferase (6q25.1) PERP: p53 apoptosis effector related to PMP-22 (6q23.3) PKIB: cAMP-dependent protein ... encoding protein Tau tubulin kinase 1 UBR2: ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component n-recognin 2 (6p21.2) UNC5CL: encoding ... kinase inhibitor beta (6p22.31) PLAGL1: (6q24.2) RCD1: retinal cone dystrophy 1 RFPL4B: Ret finger protein like 4B RP63: ...
EAAT3 also transports aspartate, and mutations in this gene are thought to cause dicarboxylic aminoaciduria, also known as ... González MI, Bannerman PG, Robinson MB (July 2003). "Phorbol myristate acetate-dependent interaction of protein kinase Calpha ... glutamate-aspartate transport defect. EAAT3 is also the major route of neuronal cysteine uptake. Cysteine is a component of the ...
Drugs that dilate canaliculi work by inhibiting MLCK or RhoA/Rho-kinase and include diclofenac, bosentan, entacapone, ... In a later stage of cholestasis aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and unconjugated bilirubin may be ... These drugs activate the RhoA/Rho-kinase pathway, which inhibits myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP), and in turn, increases ... myosin light chain phosphorylation by MLC kinase leading to constriction of bile canaliculi. ...
Hebert, A. E.; Dash, P. K. (2002). "Extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity in the entorhinal cortex is necessary for ... "Selective impairment of learning and blockade of long-term potentiation by an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor anatagonist, AP5". ... Memory consolidation in the entorhinal cortex is achieved through extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity. The medial ...
Correia SS, Duarte CB, Faro CJ, Pires EV, Carvalho AL (February 2003). "Protein kinase C gamma associates directly with the ... Ripellino JA, Neve RL, Howe JR (January 1998). "Expression and heteromeric interactions of non-N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate ... Correia SS, Duarte CB, Faro CJ, Pires EV, Carvalho AL (February 2003). "Protein kinase C gamma associates directly with the ...
Enzyme SAICAR synthetase, along with amino group from aspartate forms an amide bond to create N-succinyl-5-aminoimidazale-4- ... They are first reduced by RNR and then phosphorylated by nucleoside diphosphate kinases to dATP and dGTP. Ribonucleotide ... The formation of the pyrimidine ring begins with the conversion of Aspartate to N-Carbamoylaspartate by undergoing a ... UMP can then be converted to Uridine-5'-trisphosphate (UTP) by two kinases reaction. Formation of Cytidine-5'-trisphosphate ( ...
Thrombin recognizes PAR1 by a Lysine-Aspartate-Proline-Arginine-Serine sequence at the N-terminal, where it cuts the peptide ... This also activates protein kinase C which stimulates platelet aggregation and therefore blood coagulation further down the ... PAR1 in conjunction with PAR4 can couple to and activate G-protein G12/13 which in turn activates Rho and Rho kinase. This ... this pathway results in the stimulation of protein kinase C (PKC) which impacts platelet activation. Additionally, both PAR1 ...
CoA is a competitive inhibitor for Pantothenate Kinase, which normally binds ATP. Coenzyme A, three ADP, one monophosphate, and ... These bacteria synthesize pantothenate from the amino acid aspartate and a metabolite in valine biosynthesis. In all living ... dephospho-CoA is phosphorylated to coenzyme A by the enzyme dephosphocoenzyme A kinase (COASY, DPCK; CoaE). This final step ... phosphopantothenate by the enzyme pantothenate kinase (PanK; CoaA; CoaX). This is the committed step in CoA biosynthesis and ...
Aspartate kinase or aspartokinase (AK) is an enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of the amino acid aspartate. This ... Viola RE (May 2001). "The central enzymes of the aspartate family of amino acid biosynthesis". Accounts of Chemical Research. ... "aspartate family". Aspartokinases are present only in microorganisms and plants, but not in animals, which must obtain ... aspartate-family amino acids from their diet. Consequently, methionine, lysine and threonine are essential amino acids in ...
ALT, alanine transaminase; AN, anorexia nervosa; AP, alkaline phosphatase; AST, aspartate transferase; CK, creatine kinase; GGT ... Elevated creatinine kinase. AN. Periodic monitoring; weight restoration. Rhabdomyolisis. +. Vitamin D deficiency. AN, BN. ...
ALC, absolute lymphocyte count; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; ANC, absolute neutrophil count; AST, aspartate aminotransferase ... CK, creatinine kinase; COVID-19, coronavirus disease; CRP, C-reactive protein; GGO, ground glass opacities; IL-6, interleukin-6 ...
Muscle enzyme levels (eg, creatine kinase, aldolase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactic dehydrogenase) * Myositis-specific ...
Aspartate β-hydroxylase modulates cellular senescence through glycogen synthase kinase 3β in hepatocellular carcinoma. In: ... Aspartate β-hydroxylase modulates cellular senescence through glycogen synthase kinase 3β in hepatocellular carcinoma. ... Aspartate β-hydroxylase modulates cellular senescence through glycogen synthase kinase 3β in hepatocellular carcinoma. / ... Aspartate β-hydroxylase modulates cellular senescence through glycogen synthase kinase 3β in hepatocellular carcinoma. ...
... aspartate kinase; ASAD, aspartate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase; HSDy, homoserine dehydrogenase; HSK, homoserine kinase; THRS, ... phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK), phosphoglycerate mutase (PGM) and enolase (ENO). Especially here, it is important to state that ... phosphoglycerate kinase; PGM, phosphoglycerate mutase; ENO, enolase; PPS, phosphoenolpyruvate synthase; LDH, D-lactate ...
... and elevated levels of creatine kinase (12,000 U/L) and aspartate aminotransferase (367 U/L). Staphylococcus aureus was ...
The gene HOM3 codes for aspartokinase (aspartate kinase; EC 2.7.2.4), the first enzyme of .... ... n mammals, cell cycle progression is controlled by cyclin-dependent kinases, among which CDK1 plays important roles in the ...
Domain duplications and rearrangements led to the appearance of CYSTEINE-RICH RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN KINASES (CRKs) and ... Dardick, C., Schwessinger, B. & Ronald, P. Non-arginine-aspartate (non-RD) kinases are associated with innate immune receptors ... The CRK kinase domain is similar to the kinase domain of S-locus lectin and LRR RLKs from LRR_clade_315 (Supplementary Data 2 ... The kinase tree is rooted to atypical monocot CRKs with a Concanavalin-A type kinase domain and the ectodomain tree is rooted ...
Maximal aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and kinase levels were also significantly higher in patients with ... Maximal AST, ALT, and creatinine kinase levels were significantly higher in patients with diffuse lesions than in those with ... Laboratory abnormalities were prominent, including elevated AST, ALT, and creatinine kinase levels; hyperglycemia; and ... We investigated the following values: platelet counts; aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), ...
... the serum creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and thyroxine concentrations were higher in transported ... a severe stress on pigs that was manifested as increased serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase and ... Sera were used to detect triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and cortisol concentrations and alanine aminotransferase, aspartate ... aminotransferase, and creatine kinase activities. The heart and kidneys of anesthetized pigs were harvested and frozen in ...
There are no consistent serum biochemical changes; reduced aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activity and ... elevated creatinine kinase activity have been observed. Numerous epidemiological studies have been performed involving painters ...
Variability in serum aspartate aminotransferase activity and creatine kinase activity is considered to be due to handling. Also ... blood urea nitrogen inorganic phosphorus aspartate aminotransferase creatinine triglycerides total bilirubin creatine kinase ( ...
Other hematologic changes include increased aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and creatine kinase.1,3,24 ...
aspartate kinase. 44. SEQF3533,CP024697.1. ATV53998.1 jb [NA] [AA] 777/258. 65269-64493. phosphonate ABC transporter ATP- ... type II pantothenate kinase. 133. SEQF3533,CP024697.1. ATV54087.1 jb [NA] [AA] 279/92. 170938-171216. integration host factor ... 4-(cytidine 5-diphospho)-2-C-methyl-D-erythritol kinase. 8. SEQF3533,CP024697.1. ATV53962.1 jb [NA] [AA] 1521/506. 14332-15852 ...
... creatine kinase (CK), aspartate transaminase (AST), and alanine transaminase (ALT). Tape-immobilization increased all these ... a receptor tyrosine kinase. Drug sensitivity is mediated by ErbB2s kinase domain and occurs subsequent to the disruption of ... By studying the drug sensitivity of ErbB2/DK, a construct lacking ErbB2s cytoplasmic kinase domain, and by examining the ... normally a minor component of the total cellular pool of the kinase. Drug sensitivity of nascent ErbB2 is distinguished by 2 ...
... creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) on 3 consecutive days after admission. ...
Detection of a conserved alpha-helix in the kinase-docking region of the aspartate receptor by cysteine and disulfide scanning. ... Dimers were engineered of the cytoplasmic domain of the Escherichia coli aspartate receptor that stimulated the kinase CheA in ... Liberation of an interaction domain from the phosphotransfer region of CheA, a signaling kinase of Escherichia coli. Morrison, ... Signal transduction in bacteria: CheW forms a reversible complex with the protein kinase CheA. Gegner, J.A., Dahlquist, F.W. ...
Carbamate kinase / Acetylglutamate kinase-like / Aspartate/glutamate/uridylate kinase / Amino acid kinase family / ... isopentenyl phosphate kinase activity / isopentenyl phosphate kinase / isoprenoid biosynthetic process / kinase activity / ATP ... Streptomyces wedmorensis (unknown) / Gene: fomA, fosfomycin resistance kinase / Plasmid: pET28b / Production host: Escherichia ... Title: Structural and biochemical insights into the mechanism of fosfomycin phosphorylation by fosfomycin resistance kinase ...
homoserine kinase. 303. SEQF3500,VSEA01000013.1. TYB19774.1 jb [NA] [AA] 2448/815. 48680-46233. bifunctional aspartate kinase/ ... anhydro-N-acetylmuramic acid kinase. 385. SEQF3500,VSEA01000011.1. TYB19969.1 jb [NA] [AA] 915/304. 8464-9378. N-acetylmuramic ... YbhB/YbcL family Raf kinase inhibitor-like protein. 373. SEQF3500,VSEA01000012.1. TYB19844.1 jb [NA] [AA] 843/280. 62207-61365 ... nitrate/nitrite two-component system sensor histidine kinase NarQ. 261. SEQF3500,VSEA01000014.1. TYB19626.1 jb [NA] [AA] 816/ ...
... aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), γ-glutamyltransferase and lactate dehydrogenase have been performed in ... aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), γ-glutamyltransferase and lactate dehydrogenase have been performed in ... aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), γ-glutamyltransferase and lactate dehydrogenase have been performed in ... aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), γ-glutamyltransferase and lactate dehydrogenase have been performed in ...
Bacterial GlnD proteins contain two C-terminal ACT domains (named after aspartate kinase, chorismate mutase and TyrA) that are ... In silico analysis reveals 75 members of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase gene family in rice. DNA Res. 2010;17: ... like kinase, Os03g0564600), and WAK21 (cell wall-associate kinase 21, Os02g0807900) [59] was also rapidly induced by glutamine ... b Kinase or signal transducer genes. c Metabolic or transporter genes. d Stress response or unknown function genes. The ...
... aspartate transaminase or creatinine kinase , 2 x the upper limits of normal 2.1.2.12 Patients with a history of a psychiatric ...
Aspartate kinase Ask_LysC. 214. SEQF2502,KB891039.1. SEQF2502_00215 jb [NA] [AA] 645/214. 7515-8159. hypothetical protein. ... Thymidine kinase. 207. SEQF2502,KB891038.1. SEQF2502_00208 jb [NA] [AA] 2205/734. 203648-205852. ATP-dependent DNA helicase ... Signal transduction histidine-protein kinase ArlS. 228. SEQF2502,KB891039.1. SEQF2502_00229 jb [NA] [AA] 639/212. 22441-21803. ...
Dopamine D1-dependent trafficking of striatal N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors requires Fyn protein tyrosine kinase but ... form of the kinase. We found that the levels of active kinase were elevated (Mann-Whitney rank sum test, p = 0.02), whereas the ... Fyn kinase in total homogenates was immunoprecipitated with anti-Fyn antibodies (A, left panel) and anti-mouse IgG antibodies ... 2005) Ethanol alters trafficking and functional N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR2 subunit ratio via H-Ras. J Biol Chem 280: ...
ALC, absolute lymphocyte count; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; ANC, absolute neutrophil count; AST, aspartate aminotransferase ... CK, creatinine kinase; COVID-19, coronavirus disease; CRP, C-reactive protein; GGO, ground glass opacities; IL-6, interleukin-6 ...
Aspartate kinase Current Synonym true false 22662011 Aspartokinase Current Synonym true false ... Substance with kinase mechanism of action (substance) {304257007 , SNOMED-CT } Substance with transferase mechanism of action ( ...
Significant (p,0.05) increases in urea, creatinine, sodium, chloride, calcium, aspartate transaminase, creatine kinase, total ...
Various enzymes, such as gelatinase-B, alanine transaminase, creatine kinase, acid phosphatase, aspartate transaminase and ...
  • The primary reference measurement procedures (PRMPs) for the international standardization of catalytic concentration measurements of α-amylase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), γ-glutamyltransferase and lactate dehydrogenase have been performed in reference laboratories for several years. (elsevier.com)
  • Various enzymes, such as gelatinase-B, alanine transaminase, creatine kinase, acid phosphatase, aspartate transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase, are used as preferred biomarkers for the diagnosis of numerous ailments, including renal disease, cancer and rheumatoid arthritis. (imarcgroup.com)
  • Abnormal levels of at least 1 of the following enzymes: creatine kinase (CK), aldolase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), based on central laboratory results b. (who.int)
  • Subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg in saline) for two consecutive days caused a significant increase in serum cardiac marker enzymes (creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and aspartate transaminase (AST)), cTnI, serum TC, and TG levels. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • M-Type Pyruvate Kinase Isoforms and Lactate Dehydrogenase A in the Mammalian Retina: Metabolic Implications. (cocites.com)
  • Increased levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase MB activity, and lactate dehydrogenase were the most common laboratory abnormalities. (polymerelektronik.org)
  • Ethanolic Z. officinale (ZO) extract (200 mg/kg) pretreatment for 20 days in isoproterenol (ISO)-treated rats significantly increased the levels of endogenous myocardial antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase and tissue glutathione), decreased the levels of serum marker enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase) and increased myocardial lipid peroxides. (who.int)
  • The protective effects of aloin against DOX-induced toxicity were evident as a statistically significant inhibition of a rise in the biochemical markers of myocardial damage including lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatinine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Diagnosis of COVID-19 can be carried out by several ways like identifying the increased level of lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase, alanine and aspartate dehydrogenase in blood. (ihrjournal.com)
  • Heart function: lactate dehydrogenase LDH, creatine kinase and other CK, aspartate aminotransferase AST, etc. ★ blood lipids project: total cholesterol CHO, high-density lipoprotein HDLC, low-density lipoprotein LDLC, triglyceride TG, etc. (kindlemedical.com)
  • Furthermore, RGP1-1 possessed strong antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo, RGP1-1 could decrease cardiomyocyte apoptosis and myocardium fibrosis of mice in histopathology and it could decrease significantly the serum levels of cardiac troponin (cTnI), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malondialdehyde (MDA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Consistent with a prior report indicating that N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR) activation can promote steroid production, we observed that d -2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV), a competitive NMDAR antagonist, blocked the effects of 60 m m ethanol on staining. (jneurosci.org)
  • We seek to define the activation pathway, modulatory mechanisms and structure-function relationships of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor to better understand the roles played by this protein in the central nervous system. (buffalo.edu)
  • We are interested in understanding the roles of glutamate receptors and in particular N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and glutamate delta receptors in the central nervous system. (creighton.edu)
  • In further experiments characterizing two phenomena, the increased Fos expression in the Vo was mediated by an additive activation of both mGluR1 and mGluR5, which required the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, protein kinase C (PKC) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). (molcells.org)
  • Palmitoylation within the first cluster on a membrane-proximal region increases tyrosine phosphorylation of tyrosine-based internalization motifs by Src family protein tyrosine kinases, leading to enhanced stable surface expression of NMDA receptors. (elsevier.com)
  • Damage to the hippocampus (HPC) using the excitotoxin N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) can cause retrograde amnesia for contextual fear memory space. (bioscience2006.org)
  • here, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT)/aspartate aminotransferase (AST) because of its higher muscular activity shows a stronger response compared with glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT). (aerzteblatt.de)
  • Enzymes indicative of muscle damage, including serum creatinine kinase (CK) and aspartate transaminase (AST) are increased, whereas whole blood selenium and vitamin E concentrations are low. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Increased levels of aspartate transaminase, creatinine kinase and gamma-glutamyl transferase were consistent with the presence of liver muscle and central nervous dysfunction and reflected the generalized nature of the intoxication. (flockandherd.net.au)
  • Serologic testing yielded mildly increased serum creatine kinase (187 U/L, reference range 40-171 U/L) and alanine transaminase (50 U/L, reference range 10-40 U/L) concentrations. (aurametrix.com)
  • A diagnosis of toxic shock syndrome was considered and was supported by laboratory findings of thrombocytopenia (70,000/mm((3))), renal insufficiency (creatinine level = 2.8 mg/dL, urea nitrogen level = 40 mg/dL), hypocalcemia (Ca = 5.9 mg/dL), and elevated levels of creatine kinase (12,000 U/L) and aspartate aminotransferase (367 U/L). Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from two tracheal aspirates obtained on the day of admission. (cdc.gov)
  • There was a significant increase in the level of creatinine kinase (ck) and ck-mb. (utsuwayaakane.com)
  • To have a raised creatinine kinase (ck). (utsuwayaakane.com)
  • In Experiment 2, rhIGF-1 treated pigs had reduced blood creatine kinase, creatinine, potassium and aspartate aminotransferase levels, with no effects on organ weights (except increased spleen weight), blood chemistry values, clinical variables or NEC. (regionh.dk)
  • Finally, the structure provides a basis for rationalizing the effects of kinase mutations in FGF receptors that lead to developmental disorders in nematodes and humans. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • William Baldridge, PhD: Functional evidence for D-serine inhibition of non-N-methyl-D-aspartate ionotropic glutamate receptors in retinal neurons. (glaucoma.org)
  • Lew serum creatine kinase values in contraceptive steroid users. (utsuwayaakane.com)
  • The level of creatine kinase (ck) in serum was determined by an. (utsuwayaakane.com)
  • Serum levels of creatine kinase typically are within the reference range. (utsuwayaakane.com)
  • Subtle abnormalities in the serum creatine kinase level, aspartate aminotransferase, and serum bicarbonate led us to perform a muscle biopsy, which showed type I myofiber atrophy, increased lipid content, and reduced cytochrome c oxidase activity. (wordpress.com)
  • 0001). The serum creatine kinase level also was abnormally elevated in 22 (47%) of 47 patients with autism. (wordpress.com)
  • Serum elevations of ALT activity are rarely observed, except in parenchymal liver disease, since ALT is a more liver-specific enzyme than aspartate aminotransferase (AST). (cdc.gov)
  • Description: A sandwich ELISA kit for detection of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase 9 from Human in samples from blood, serum, plasma, cell culture fluid and other biological fluids. (scalegen.com)
  • Serum bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and C-reactive protein levels were normal. (aurametrix.com)
  • Description: A sandwich quantitative ELISA assay kit for detection of Rat Rho Associated Coiled Coil Containing Protein Kinase 2 (Rock2) in samples from serum, plasma, tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates or other biological fluids. (hiv-pharmacogenomics.org)
  • Blood tests often reveal low levels of vitamin E and mildly elevated levels of two muscle enzymes in horses with EMND: aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase. (pacificcrestequine.com)
  • Liver enzymes, i.e. aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and gamma glutamyltranspeptidase, were slightly elevated prior to therapy. (iospress.com)
  • Liver enzymes were elevated with alanine aminotransferase at 1260 U/L, aspartate aminotransferase at 499 U/L and gamma glutamyltranspeptidase 284 U/L. Creatine kinase was elevated at 405 U/L, while bilirubin and renal function parameters were within normal levels. (iospress.com)
  • The kinase domains that define this group of enzymes contain 12 conserved subdomains that fold into a common catalytic core structure, as revealed by the 3-dimensional structures of several protein-serine kinases. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • A classification scheme can be founded on a kinase domain phylogeny, which reveals families of enzymes that have related substrate specificities and modes of regulation. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • The AGC kinases regulate critical processes including metabolism, cell growth, proliferation, survival and differentiation, hence deregulation of these enzymes is a causative factor in different diseases such as cancer and diabetes. (eu.org)
  • Physical exercise or strenuous sporting activities can increase blood creatine kinase (CK) levels something to bear in mind in patients with suspected statin-associated muscle symptoms. (aerzteblatt.de)
  • In RLKs, extracellular domains are involved in signal perception and protein-protein interactions 12 while the intracellular kinase domain transduces signals to substrate proteins. (nature.com)
  • The eukaryotic protein kinases make up a large superfamily of homologous proteins. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • We show that mPins (mammalian homologue of Drosophila melanogaster partner of inscuteable) interacts with SAP102 and PSD-95 (two PDZ proteins present in neurons), and functions in the formation of the NMDAR -MAGUK (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor -membrane-associated guanylate kinase) complex. (elsevier.com)
  • The Receptor for Activated C Kinase 1 (RACK1) is a member of the tryptophan-aspartate repeat (WD-repeat) family of proteins and shares significant homology to the β subunit of G-proteins (Gβ). (ul.ie)
  • A report by Zheng and coworkers recommended that retention of TACO, a tryptophan aspartate-containing coating proteins on phagosomes, impairs fusion of phagosomes and lysosomes in macrophages contaminated with (7). (cdkkinase.com)
  • Aspartate kinase or aspartokinase (AK) is an enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of the amino acid aspartate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following inhibition of ASPH activity, phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β and p16 expression were increased to promote senescence, whereas cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen were decreased to reduce cell proliferation. (elsevier.com)
  • In vivo experiments demonstrated that small molecule inhibitor treatment of HCC bearing mice resulted in significant dose-dependent reduced tumor growth, induced phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β, enhanced p16 expression in tumor cells, and promoted cellular senescence. (elsevier.com)
  • Structural and biochemical insights into the mechanism of fosfomycin phosphorylation by fosfomycin resistance kinase FomA. (pdbj.org)
  • AspK catalyzes the phosphorylation of L-aspartate to produce 4-phospho-L-aspartate while DapDC participates in the last step of lysine biosynthesis, the conversion of meso-2,6-diaminoheptanedioate to L-lysine. (umbc.edu)
  • The cellular and compartmental profile of mouse retinal glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and ~P transferring kinases. (cocites.com)
  • A casual decision made one evening in 1976, in a bar near the Biochemistry Department at the University of Dundee, led me to start my personal research journey by following up a paper that suggested that acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) (believed to be a key regulatory enzyme of fatty acid synthesis) was inactivated by phosphorylation by what appeared to be a novel, cyclic AMP-independent protein kinase. (portlandpress.com)
  • Regulation of kinase activity is mainly achieved through phosphorylation of the activation or T-loop, located in the C-lobe and connected to the N-lobe through the alpha-C helix. (eu.org)
  • Rad53 protein, the yeast orthologue of the human checkpoint kinase Chk2, presents two highly conserved phosphorylatable threonine residues (T354 and T358) in the activation domain, whose phosphorylation is critical to allow the activation of the kinase. (unimi.it)
  • In this study we found that Rad53 protein variants in which alanine and/or aspartate replace the threonine residues 354 and/or 358 do not retain kinase activity and do not undergo auto-phosphorylation, leading to defect in the checkpoint response and iper-sensitivity to DNA damage and DNA replication stress agents. (unimi.it)
  • Here we show that cell cycle phosphorylation of the prototypical DDR mediator Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad9 depends on cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) complexes. (ul.ie)
  • Background Combined inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complexes may be an efficient treatment for acute leukemia. (researchsquare.com)
  • Schubert A, Koziol U, Cailliau K, Vanderstraete M, Dissous C, Brehm K (2014) Targeting Echinococcus multilocularis Stem Cells by Inhibition of the Polo-Like Kinase EmPlk1. (plos.org)
  • Calmodulin kinase II inhibition protects against structural heart disease. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • These data enable an estimation from the price of pyruvate development from aspartate around 1 mumol/min per kidney under circumstances of full 781661-94-7 IC50 PEPCK inhibition. (osi-930.com)
  • The protein expression degrees of p38 mitogen activated protein kinases (p38) and nuclear factor-k-gene binding (NF-κB) were assayed by western blotting. (ac.ir)
  • Increases in aminotransferase levels can be expected when the creatine kinase levels exceed 3x-4x ULN. (aerzteblatt.de)
  • In this genetic association study of 3557 children, adolescents, and young adults receiving ALL therapy, variants in UGT1A1 and PNPLA3 were associated with hyperbilirubinemia and elevated alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels, respectively. (cdc.gov)
  • This phase II trial studies how well ABL001 works in treating patients with chronic myeloid leukemia who are on therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitor. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Giving ABL001 and tyrosine kinase inhibitor together may work better than tyrosine kinase inhibitor alone in treating patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • I. To determine the clinical activity of the combination of asciminib (ABL001) and a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) but detectable BCR-ABL1 transcript. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In this diagnostic study of 171 patients with advanced NSCLC and PE (104 tyrosine kinase inhibitor [TKI]-naive and 67 with acquired resistance to first- or second-generation EGFR-TKI therapy), PE-cfDNA had high sensitivity and specificity (both 97%) and better sensitivity (97% vs 74%) than plasma for the detection of sensitizing EGFR variants. (cdc.gov)
  • The mean creatine kinase levels of the patients were 1.354±840 U/L. Fifteen (100%) of the patients had muscle weakness, 14 (93.3%) had Gottron's papules and 12 (80%) patients had a heliotrope rash. (bakirkoymedj.org)
  • Pyruvate kinase M2 regulates photoreceptor structure, function, and viability. (cocites.com)
  • While mutations of the PI3KCA gene are rare in leukemia, events upstream of PI3K are commonly implicated in causing aberrant activation of this pathway, e.g. activating mutations of the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ( FLT3 ) and KIT receptor tyrosine kinase, BCR-ABL1 fusion gene, or activating mutations in NRas and KRas . (researchsquare.com)
  • We also show that the HW1-mediated autophagic cell death occurs predominantly via the c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase pathway in a caspase-independent manner. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This led me to define and name the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signalling pathway, on which I am still working 46 years later. (portlandpress.com)
  • An important mechanism for increased cell survival in many cancers is mediated by the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt (protein kinase B) signaling pathway that is activated by receptor and oncogenic protein tyrosine kinases ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • creation from aspartate, illustrating a phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK)-3rd party pathway for the bicycling of pyruvate. (osi-930.com)
  • Two aspartate residues facilitate cation binding and nucleophilic attack . (wikipedia.org)
  • Residues in the activation loop of FGFR1K appear to interfere with substrate peptide binding but not with ATP binding, revealing a second and perhaps more general autoinhibitory mechanism for receptor tyrosine kinases. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • They are related by virtue of their kinase domains (also known as catalytic domains), which consist of approximately 250-300 amino acid residues. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Instead, this variant only consists of the first two core aromatic residues preceding this site in the other motif variants, and in this case the latter of these two aromatic residues is located at the C-terminal position of the kinase. (eu.org)
  • U0126 is a potent and selective non-competitive inhibitor of MAP kinase kinase. (tocris.com)
  • The decreased glucose tolerance caused by PX-866 was insensitive to the AMP-activated protein kinase inhibitor metformin but reversed by insulin and by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activator pioglitazone. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The present structure provides a molecular basis for clarifying the known biochemical properties of CaMKKβ and for designing novel inhibitors targeting CaMkkβ and the related protein kinases. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 14,15,16 Herein in Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) BCP-ALL PI3K signaling has been shown to be involved in mutation-independent resistance to ABL-directed tyrosine kinase inhibitors 14 and recent preclinical data also suggest a role in Philadelphia chromosome negative (Ph-) BCP-ALL. (researchsquare.com)
  • To determine the safety of the combination of asciminib and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Crystal structures of catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in complex with isoquinolinesulfonyl protein kinase inhibitors H7, H8, and H89. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Of these, the H series protein kinase inhibitors (1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H7), N-[2-(methylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (H8) N-[2-(p-Bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (H89)) are frequently used to block signaling pathways in studies of cellular regulation. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • The conservation of the ATP-binding site of protein kinases allows evaluation of factors governing general selectivity of these inhibitors among kinases. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • These results should assist efforts in the design of protein kinase inhibitors with specific properties. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Recent work shows that phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3-K) is coupled to the EGFR only in NSCLC cell lines expressing ErbB-3 and that EGFR inhibitors do not inhibit PI3-K signaling in these cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tyrosine kinase inhibitors with activity against vascular endothelial development aspect receptor 2 are actually standard treatment in most of sufferers with advanced renal cell carcinoma. (immune-source.com)
  • Immunotherapy (eg interferon α) in combination with tyrosine kinase inhibitors is currently in clinical tests for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). (cell-signaling-pathways.com)
  • Irrespective of Sokal score the typical treatment for CML is normally tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). (cell-signaling-pathways.com)
  • The present application provides bifunctional compounds of Formula (Ia) or (Ib): or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, hydrate, solvate, prodrug, stereoisomer, or tautomer thereof, which act as protein degradation inducing moieties for cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8). (justia.com)
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase is a kinase family integrating multiple signaling pathways to control either cell cycle or gene transcription. (justia.com)
  • the Targeting Ligand is capable of binding to a targeted protein, such as a cyclin-dependent kinase (e.g. (justia.com)
  • The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) / Akt / mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling axis plays an important physiologic role in protein synthesis, gene transcription, cell growth and apoptosis. (researchsquare.com)
  • Maximal aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and kinase levels were also significantly higher in patients with diffuse lesions. (ajnr.org)
  • Extremely high levels of creatine kinase resulted from. (utsuwayaakane.com)
  • in Australia in a 37-year-old man who had progressive facial, axial, and limb weakness, dysphagia, dysphonia, increased levels of creatine kinase and hepatic aminotransferases, and peripheral eosinophilia for 8 years. (cdc.gov)
  • Collagen type 3, fibronectin, phosphorylated Ser/Thr protein kinase, phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta, glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, cleaved-cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase-3 (caspase-3) and tumour necrosis factor-α levels were determined by western blot. (nih.gov)
  • However, the expression levels of AKT and glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta were not significantly different in three groups, but the expression levels of phosphorylated Ser/Thr protein kinase and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta were significantly decreased in the control diabetes mellitus and fluctuated blood glucose groups compared to control group, and levels in the fluctuated blood glucose group were significantly less than in the control diabetes mellitus group. (nih.gov)
  • The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were analyzed by ELISA. (ac.ir)
  • Several AGC kinases are involved in mediating signaling downstream of phosphatidyl-inositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) in response to a wide range of stimuli such as growth factors and hormones. (eu.org)
  • Aspartate β-hydroxylase (ASPH) is an enzyme overexpressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumors that participates in the malignant transformation process. (elsevier.com)
  • Aspartate aminotransferase (ast or sgot) - an enzyme helpful in evaluating liver function. (studiocraft.com)
  • Type III Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-Dependent Enzyme Bifunctional Aspartate Kinase/Diaminopimelate Decarboxylase. (umbc.edu)
  • Cardiac enzyme tests showed a highly elevated level of troponin Ic at 3.51 μg/L. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was at 50 U/L, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) at 202 U/L and creatine kinase (CK) at 2,275 U/L. The electrocardiogram showed a 12-lead diffuse, concave ST segment elevation without low-voltage QRS complexes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily: kinase (catalytic) domain structure and classification. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • There are two main subdivisions within the superfamily: the protein-serine/threonine kinases and the protein-tyrosine kinases. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Bacterial histidine kinases (HK) are associates from the GHKL superfamily, which share a distinctive adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding Bergerat fold. (welbourneprimary.com)
  • Characterization of the activation domain of the Rad53 checkpoint kinase / S. Fiorani, G. Mimun, L. Caleca, D. Piccini, A. Pellicioli. (unimi.it)
  • We show that the integrity of CDK consensus sites and the activity of Cdc28 are required for both the activation of the Chk1 checkpoint kinase and its interaction with Rad9. (ul.ie)
  • Connections to Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 are shown below. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Cell cycle regulation of myosin-V by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • n mammals, cell cycle progression is controlled by cyclin-dependent kinases, among which CDK1 plays important roles in the regulation of the G2/M transition, G1 progression and G1/S transition. (us.es)
  • Structural Insights into the Regulation of Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II (CaMKII). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Regulation of aspartate-derived amino acid homeostasis in potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.) by expression of E-coli homoserine kinase. (mpg.de)
  • The Warburg Effect Mediator Pyruvate Kinase M2 Expression and Regulation in the Retina. (cocites.com)
  • The mediators of the DNA damage response (DDR) are highly phosphorylated by kinases that control cell proliferation, but little is known about the role of this regulation. (ul.ie)
  • Taxonomy and function of C1 protein kinase C homology domains. (embl.de)
  • The M2 splice isoform of pyruvate kinase is important for cancer metabolism and tumour growth. (cocites.com)
  • The mechanisms involved demonstrate that ASPH binds to glycogen synthase kinase 3β and inhibits its subsequent interactions with protein kinase B and p38 upstream kinases as shown by coimmunoprecipitation. (elsevier.com)
  • Several variants of the motif exist, and for many kinases, the motif has been shown to operate in trans to bind and activate the upstream activating kinase PDK1. (eu.org)
  • PDK1 functions as a common upstream activator by phosphorylating the other AGC kinases at their activation loop. (eu.org)
  • Interestingly, we found that the rad53-T358D mutation severely affects the kinase activity and causes accumulation of the S129-phosphorylated isoform of histone H2A, even during an unperturbed cell cycle, thus indicating the accumulation of spontaneous DNA breaks. (unimi.it)
  • Pyruvate kinase and aspartate-glutamate carrier distributions reveal key metabolic links between neurons and glia in retina. (cocites.com)
  • Derek S. Welsbie, MD, PhD: Functional genomic screening identifies dual leucine zipper kinase as a key mediator of retinal ganglion cell death. (glaucoma.org)
  • 0.05) between control group and experimental group for alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, urine red blood cell and creatine kinase concentrations at immediately after the boxing match and 8 hours after the boxing match. (tci-thaijo.org)
  • In aspartate-perfused kidneys, the current presence TZFP of 3-MPA, at concentrations that totally blocked glucose build up within the perfusate, didn't affect the price of NH3 creation and had just a minor influence on the pace of aspartate uptake. (osi-930.com)
  • We demonstrate that acetyl phosphate phosphorylates OmpR at aspartate 55, the same residue phosphorylated by the kinase EnvZ. (utmb.edu)
  • The alpha-C helix is part of a hydrophobic pocket and an adjacent phosphate-binding site in the N-lobe, called the PIF pocket, which interacts with the AGCK docking motif (PDK1 Interacting Fragment (PIF) / hydrophobic motif (HM)) that is present in the C-tail of AGC kinases. (eu.org)
  • The AGC kinases constitute a large family of serine/threonine protein kinases consisting of 60 members, including the cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PKA and PKG), the protein kinase C family (PKC), PKB/Akt, ribosomal protein S6 kinases, and the 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase (PDK1). (eu.org)
  • The AGCK docking motif of some AGC kinases, including PKA, does not contain a phosphorylatable serine/threonine residue or an acidic aspartate/glutamate residue present in the DOC_AGCK_PIF_1 and DOC_AGCK_PIF_2 motif variants, respectively. (eu.org)
  • The cytoplasmic area includes two distinctive domains: a four-helical pack dimerization domains, which homes the conserved His residue, and an 1536200-31-3 IC50 ATP-binding catalytic domains.6,7 The ATP-binding theme of bacterial HKs dramatically differs from the normal eukaryotic ATP-binding domains of Ser, Thr, and Tyr kinases. (welbourneprimary.com)
  • The mutations most commonly seen in PDAC substitution of either valine or aspartate in place of glycine at codon 12 mimic the GTP-bound form or active conformation of (13 14 15 A transgenic mouse model directing oncogenic KRAS activity to the pancreas promoter sequence directs expression of human specifically to the acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas. (lifescienceexec.com)
  • We herein describe the characterization of EmPlk1, encoded by the gene emplk1 , which displays significant homologies to members of the Plk1 sub-family of Polo-like kinases that regulate mitosis in eukaryotic cells. (plos.org)
  • Both these regions are conserved in Eukaryotic AGC kinases, except for PDK1, which lacks the C-tail. (eu.org)
  • Both the PIF pocket and the C-terminal region are conserved in Eukaryotic AGC kinases, except for PDK1, which lacks the C-terminal part. (eu.org)