An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of beta-aspartyl phosphate from aspartic acid and ATP. Threonine serves as an allosteric regulator of this enzyme to control the biosynthetic pathway from aspartic acid to threonine. EC 2.7.2.4.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of aspartic beta-semialdehyde to homoserine, which is the branch point in biosynthesis of methionine, lysine, threonine and leucine from aspartic acid. EC 1.1.1.3.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.

Aspartate kinase-independent lysine synthesis in an extremely thermophilic bacterium, Thermus thermophilus: lysine is synthesized via alpha-aminoadipic acid not via diaminopimelic acid. (1/103)

An aspartate kinase-deficient mutant of Thermus thermophilus, AK001, was constructed. The mutant strain did not grow in a minimal medium, suggesting that T. thermophilus contains a single aspartate kinase. Growth of the mutant strain was restored by addition of both threonine and methionine, while addition of lysine had no detectable effect on growth. To further elucidate the lysine biosynthetic pathway in T. thermophilus, lysine auxotrophic mutants of T. thermophilus were obtained by chemical mutagenesis. For all lysine auxotrophic mutants, growth in a minimal medium was not restored by addition of diaminopimelic acid, whereas growth of two mutants was restored by addition of alpha-aminoadipic acid, a precursor of lysine in biosynthetic pathways of yeast and fungi. A BamHI fragment of 4.34 kb which complemented the lysine auxotrophy of a mutant was cloned. Determination of the nucleotide sequence suggested the presence of homoaconitate hydratase genes, termed hacA and hacB, which could encode large and small subunits of homoaconitate hydratase, in the cloned fragment. Disruption of the chromosomal copy of hacA yielded mutants showing lysine auxotrophy which was restored by addition of alpha-aminoadipic acid or alpha-ketoadipic acid. All of these results indicated that in T. thermophilus, lysine was not synthesized via the diaminopimelic acid pathway, believed to be common to all bacteria, but via a pathway using alpha-aminoadipic acid as a biosynthetic intermediate.  (+info)

The site-specific integration of genetic elements may modulate thermostable protease production, a virulence factor in Dichelobacter nodosus, the causative agent of ovine footrot. (2/103)

The gram-negative anaerobe Dichelobacter nodosus is the causative agent of footrot in sheep. The authors have previously characterized two genetic elements, the intA (vap) and intB elements, which integrate into the genome of D. nodosus. In the virulent strain A198 there are two copies of the intA element. One copy is integrated into the 3' end of the tRNA-serGCU gene, close to the aspartokinase (askA) gene, and the second copy is integrated into the 3' end of the tRNA-serGGA gene, next to the polynucleotide phosphorylase (pnpA) gene. In this study, a new genetic element was identified in the benign strain C305, the intC element, integrated into the 3' end of the tRNA-serGCU gene, next to askA. The intC element was found in most D. nodosus strains, both benign and virulent, which were examined, and was integrated into tRNA-serGCU in most strains. Between the askA and tRNA-serGCU genes, a gene (designated glpA), was identified whose predicted protein product has very high amino acid identity with RsmA from the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora. RsmA acts as a global repressor of pathogenicity in E. carotovora, by repressing the production of extracellular enzymes. In virulent strains of D. nodosus the intA element was found to be integrated next to pnpA, and either the intA or intC element was integrated next to glpA. By contrast, all but one of the benign strains had intB at one or both of these two positions, and the one exception had neither intA, intB nor intC at one position. The loss of the intC element from the virulent strain 1311 resulted in loss of thermostable protease activity, a virulence factor in D. nodosus. A model for virulence is proposed whereby integration of the intA and intC genetic elements modulates virulence by altering the expression of glpA, pnpA, tRNA-serGCU and tRNA-serGGA.  (+info)

Organization of threonine biosynthesis genes from the obligate methylotroph Methylobacillus flagellatus. (3/103)

The genes encoding aspartate kinase (ask), homoserine dehydrogenase (hom), homoserine kinase (thrB) and threonine synthase (thrC) from the obligate methylotroph Methylobacillus flagellatus were cloned. In maxicells hom and thrC directed synthesis of 51 and 48 kDa polypeptides, respectively. The hom, thrB and thrC genes and adjacent DNA areas were sequenced. Of the threonine biosynthesis genes, only hom and thrC were tightly linked in the order hom-thrC. The gene for thymidylate synthase (thyA) followed thrC and the gene for aspartate aminotransferase (aspC) preceded hom. All four genes (aspC-hom-thrC-thyA) were transcribed in the same direction. mRNA analysis indicated that hom-thrC are apparently transcribed in one 7.5 kb transcript in M. flagellatus. Promoter analysis showed the presence of a functional promoter between aspC and hom. No functional promoter was found to be associated with the DNA stretch between hom and thrC. The thrB gene encoded an unusual type of homoserine kinase and was not linked to other threonine biosynthesis genes.  (+info)

Effects of a feedback-resistant aspartokinase III gene on L-isoleucine production in Escherichia coli K-12. (4/103)

An L-isoleucine-overproducing recombinant strain of E. coli, TVD5, was also found to overproduce L-valine. The L-isoleucine productivity of TVD5 was markedly decreased by addition of L-lysine to the medium. Introduction of a gene encoding feedback-resistant aspartokinase III increased L-isoleucine productivity and decreased L-valine by-production. The resulting strain accumulated 12 g/l L-isoleucine from 40 g/l glucose, and suppression of L-isoleucine productivity by L-lysine was relieved.  (+info)

Attractant regulation of the aspartate receptor-kinase complex: limited cooperative interactions between receptors and effects of the receptor modification state. (5/103)

The manner by which the bacterial chemotaxis system responds to a wide range of attractant concentrations remains incompletely understood. In principle, positive cooperativity between chemotaxis receptors could explain the ability of bacteria to respond to extremely low attractant concentrations. By utilizing an in vitro receptor-coupled kinase assay, the attractant-dependent response curve has been measured for the Salmonella typhimurium aspartate chemoreceptor. The attractant chosen, alpha-methyl aspartate, was originally used to quantitate high receptor sensitivity at low attractant concentrations by Segall, Block, and Berg [(1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83, 8987-8991]. The attractant response curve exhibits limited positive cooperativity, yielding a Hill coefficient of 1.7-2.4, and this Hill coefficient is relatively independent of both the receptor modification state and the mole ratio of CheA to receptor. These results disfavor models in which there are strong cooperative interactions between large numbers of receptor dimers in an extensive receptor array. Instead, the results are consistent with cooperative interactions between a small number of coupled receptor dimers. Because the in vitro receptor-coupled kinase assay utilizes higher than native receptor densities arising from overexpression, the observed positive cooperativity may overestimate that present in native receptor populations. Such positive cooperativity between dimers is fully compatible with the negative cooperativity previously observed between the two symmetric ligand binding sites within a single dimer. The attractant affinity of the aspartate receptor is found to depend on the modification state of its covalent adaptation sites. Increasing the the level of modification decreases the apparent attractant affinity at least 10-fold in the in vitro receptor-coupled kinase assay. This observation helps explain the ability of the chemotaxis pathway to respond to a broad range of attractant concentrations in vivo.  (+info)

Evidence for direct interaction between enzyme I(Ntr) and aspartokinase to regulate bacterial oligopeptide transport. (6/103)

Bradyrhizobium japonicum transports oligopeptides and the heme precursor delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) by a common mechanism. Two Tn5-induced mutants disrupted in the lysC and ptsP genes were identified based on the inability to use prolyl-glycyl-glycine as a proline source and were defective in [(14)C]ALA uptake activity. lysC and ptsP were shown to be proximal genes in the B. japonicum genome. However, RNase protection and in trans complementation analysis showed that lysC and ptsP are transcribed separately, and that both genes are involved in oligopeptide transport. Aspartokinase, encoded by lysC, catalyzes the phosphorylation of aspartate for synthesis of three amino acids, but the lysC strain is not an amino acid auxotroph. The ptsP gene encodes Enzyme I(Ntr) (EI(Ntr)), a paralogue of Enzyme I of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase (PTS) system. In vitro pull-down experiments indicated that purified recombinant aspartokinase and EI(Ntr) interact directly with each other. Expression of ptsP in trans from a multicopy plasmid complemented the lysC mutant, suggesting that aspartokinase normally affects Enzyme I(Ntr) in a manner that can be compensated for by increasing the copy number of the ptsP gene. ATP was not a phosphoryl donor to purified EI(Ntr), but it was phosphorylated by ATP in the presence of cell extracts. This phosphorylation was inhibited in the presence of aspartokinase. The findings demonstrate a role for a PTS protein in the transport of a non-sugar solute and suggest an unusual regulatory function for aspartokinase in regulating the phosphorylation state of EI(Ntr).  (+info)

Aspartate kinase 2. A candidate gene of a quantitative trait locus influencing free amino acid content in maize endosperm. (7/103)

The maize (Zea mays) Oh545o2 inbred accumulates an exceptionally high level of free amino acids, especially lysine (Lys), threonine (Thr), methionine, and iso-leucine. In a cross between Oh545o2 and Oh51Ao2, we identified several quantitative trait loci linked with this phenotype. One of these is on the long arm of chromosome 2 and is linked with loci encoding aspartate (Asp) kinase 2 and Asp kinase (AK)-homoserine dehydrogenase (HSDH) 2. To investigate whether these enzymes can contribute to the high levels of Asp family amino acids, we measured their specific activity and feedback inhibition properties, as well as activities of several other key enzymes involved in Lys metabolism. We did not find a significant difference in total activity of dihydrodipicolinate synthase, HSDH, and Lys ketoglutarate reductase between these inbreds, and the feedback inhibition properties of HSDH and dihyrodipicolinate synthase by Lys and/or Thr were similar. The most significant difference we found between Oh545o2 and Oh51Ao2 is feedback inhibition of AK by Lys but not Thr. AK activity in Oh545o2 is less sensitive to Lys inhibition than that in Oh51Ao2, with a Lys I50 twice that of Oh51Ao2. AK activity in Oh545o2 endosperm is also higher than in Oh51Ao2 at 15 d after pollination, but not 20 d after pollination. The results indicate that the Lys-sensitive Asp kinase 2, rather than the Thr-sensitive AK-HSDH2, is the best candidate gene for the quantitative trait locus affecting free amino acid content in Oh545o2.  (+info)

An integrated study of threonine-pathway enzyme kinetics in Escherichia coli. (8/103)

We have determined the kinetic parameters of the individual steps of the threonine pathway from aspartate in Escherichia coli under a single set of experimental conditions chosen to be physiologically relevant. Our aim was to summarize the kinetic behaviour of each enzyme in a single tractable equation that takes into account the effect of the products as competitive inhibitors of the substrates in the forward reaction and also, when appropriate (e.g. near-equilibrium reactions), as substrates of the reverse reactions. Co-operative feedback inhibition by threonine and lysine was also included as necessary. We derived the simplest rate equations that describe the salient features of the enzymes in the physiological range of metabolite concentrations in order to incorporate them ultimately into a complete model of the threonine pathway, able to predict quantitatively the behaviour of the pathway under natural or engineered conditions.  (+info)

Aspartate kinase is a type of enzyme that plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of several amino acids, including aspartate, methionine, and threonine. This enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of aspartic acid to form phosphoaspartate, which is the first step in the synthesis of these essential amino acids.

Aspartate kinase exists in different forms or isozymes in various organisms, and it can be regulated by feedback inhibition. This means that the enzyme's activity can be suppressed when the concentration of one or more of the amino acids it helps to synthesize becomes too high, preventing further production and maintaining a balanced level of these essential nutrients in the body.

In humans, aspartate kinase is involved in several metabolic pathways and is an essential enzyme for normal growth and development. Defects or mutations in the genes encoding aspartate kinase can lead to various genetic disorders and metabolic imbalances.

Homoserine dehydrogenase is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of certain amino acids. Specifically, it catalyzes the conversion of homoserine to aspartate semialdehyde, which is a key step in the biosynthesis of several essential amino acids, including threonine, methionine, and isoleucine. The reaction catalyzed by homoserine dehydrogenase involves the oxidation of homoserine to form aspartate semialdehyde, using NAD or NADP as a cofactor. There are several isoforms of this enzyme found in different organisms, and it has been studied extensively due to its importance in amino acid metabolism and potential as a target for antibiotic development.

Threonine is an essential amino acid, meaning it cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through the diet. Its chemical formula is HO2CCH(NH2)CH(OH)CH3. Threonine plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including protein synthesis, immune function, and fat metabolism. It is particularly important for maintaining the structural integrity of proteins, as it is often found in their hydroxyl-containing regions. Foods rich in threonine include animal proteins such as meat, dairy products, and eggs, as well as plant-based sources like lentils and soybeans.

Aspartate aminotransferases (ASTs) are a group of enzymes found in various tissues throughout the body, including the heart, liver, and muscles. They play a crucial role in the metabolic process of transferring amino groups between different molecules.

In medical terms, AST is often used as a blood test to measure the level of this enzyme in the serum. Elevated levels of AST can indicate damage or injury to tissues that contain this enzyme, such as the liver or heart. For example, liver disease, including hepatitis and cirrhosis, can cause elevated AST levels due to damage to liver cells. Similarly, heart attacks can also result in increased AST levels due to damage to heart muscle tissue.

It is important to note that an AST test alone cannot diagnose a specific medical condition, but it can provide valuable information when used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluation.

... or aspartokinase (AK) is an enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of the amino acid aspartate. This ... Viola RE (May 2001). "The central enzymes of the aspartate family of amino acid biosynthesis". Accounts of Chemical Research. ... "aspartate family". Aspartokinases are present only in microorganisms and plants, but not in animals, which must obtain ... aspartate-family amino acids from their diet. Consequently, methionine, lysine and threonine are essential amino acids in ...
... allosterically inhibits aspartate kinase and glutamate dehydrogenase. Glutamate dehydrogenase reversibly converts ... Threonine acts as another allosteric inhibitor of aspartate kinase and homoserine dehydrogenase, but it is a competitive ... Homoserine is produced from aspartate via aspartate-4-semialdehyde, which is produced from β-phosphoaspartate. By the action of ... and the aspartate metabolic pathway. It forms by two reductions of aspartic acid via the intermediacy of aspartate semialdehyde ...
It is found in protein kinases with various specificities, including the aspartate, glutamate and uridylate kinase families. In ... The lysine-sensitive isoenzyme of aspartate kinase from spinach leaves has a subunit composition of 4 large and 4 small ... The conversion of aspartate into either the storage amino acid asparagine or aspartate family amino acids may be subject to a ... Kochhar S, Kochhar VK, Sane PV (April 1998). "Subunit structure of lysine sensitive aspartate kinase from spinach leaves". ...
The alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase levels may be raised. The gamma- ...
At night, aspartate is converted to asparagine for storage. Additionally, the aspartate kinase-homoserine dehydrogenase gene is ... Homoserine dehydrogenase and aspartate kinase are both subject to significant regulation (refer to figure 3). HSD is inhibited ... The AK-HSD gene codes for aspartate kinase, an intermediate domain (coding for the linker region between the two enzymes in the ... Threonine acts as a competitive inhibitor for both HSD and aspartate kinase. In AK-HSD expressing organisms, one of the ...
The ACT domain is named after three of the proteins that contain it: aspartate kinase, chorismate mutase and TyrA. The ...
Dardick C, Schwessinger B, Ronald P (August 2012). "Non-arginine-aspartate (non-RD) kinases are associated with innate immune ... NODs transduce signals in the pathway of NF-κB and MAP kinases via the serine-threonine kinase called RIP2. NODs signal via N- ... Some IRAK and RIP family kinases fall into a small functional class of kinases termed non-RD, many of which do not ... revealed that despite the small number of non-RD kinases in these genomes (9%-29%), 12 of 15 kinases known or predicted to ...
... aspartokinase β-aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase homoserine dehydrogenase homoserine kinase threonine synthase. Threonine ... Threonine is synthesized from aspartate in bacteria such as E. coli. It is encoded by all the codons starting AC (ACU, ACC, ACA ... In many organisms it is O-phosphorylated by a kinase preparatory to further metabolism. This is especially important in ... In addition, threonine residues undergo phosphorylation through the action of a threonine kinase. In its phosphorylated form, ...
"Evidence for direct protein kinase-C mediated modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor current". Mol. Pharmacol. 59 (5): 960 ... The enzyme belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and to the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily ... "Entrez Gene: CAMK2B calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II beta". Walikonis RS, Oguni A, Khorosheva EM, ... of a phosphorylation site for calcium/calmodulindependent protein kinase II in the NR2B subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate ...
Kobashi N, Nishiyama M, Tanokura M (March 1999). "Aspartate kinase-independent lysine synthesis in an extremely thermophilic ... catalysed condensation reaction between the aspartate derived, L-aspartate semialdehyde, and pyruvate to form (4S)-4-hydroxy-2, ... The DAP pathway is regulated at multiple levels, including upstream at the enzymes involved in aspartate processing as well as ... The diaminopimelate (DAP) pathway belongs to the aspartate derived biosynthetic family, which is also involved in the synthesis ...
Signs of overdose include panting, trembling, vomiting, and diarrhea, as well as increased blood levels of creatinine kinase, ... aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase. Dogs who received atipamezole without first receiving dexmedetomidine have ...
The activities of the enzymes creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) are elevated due to the death of muscle ...
Blood tests such as Creatine Kinase Concentration (CK), Aspartate Transaminase Levels (AST), and/or Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH ...
fraD encodes the sugar kinase FraD that phosphorylates F-Asp into 6-phosphofuctose-aspartate (6-P-F-Asp). It is unusual in that ... fraB functions as a deglycase that cleaves 6-P-F-Asp into glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) and aspartate. Mutants lacking fraD or ... This fra locus has five genes: fraR (a regulator), fraB a fructose-asparagine deglycase, fraD a sugar kinase, fraA a fructose- ... Notably, mutations in fraB cause the buildup of the toxic intermediate 6-phosphofuctose-aspartate (6-P-F-Asp). The buildup of 6 ...
... generally on an aspartate residue, by a transmembrane kinase. Some proteins that belong to this category are: Rhizobiaceae fixJ ...
... the relative levels of creatine kinase, aldolase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate ...
... aspartate kinase, work carried out during a period in the laboratory of Georges Cohen in France and, most notably, glutamine ...
In phosphorelays, the "hybrid" histidine kinase contains an internal aspartate-containing receiver domain to which the ... to an aspartate on a final response regulator. In orthodox two-component signaling, a histidine kinase protein ... In some cases, a phosphorelay system is constructed from four separate proteins rather than a hybrid histidine kinase with an ... In bacteria, where two-component signaling is extremely common, about 25% of known histidine kinases are of the hybrid type. ...
... the phosphotransfer from the kinase to an aspartate of the response regulator, and (with bifunctional enzymes) the ... The kinase core has a unique fold, distinct from that of the Ser/Thr/Tyr kinase superfamily. HKs can be roughly divided into ... Histidine kinases usually have an N-terminal ligand-binding domain and a C-terminal kinase domain, but other domains may also ... Not all orthodox kinases are membrane bound, e.g., the nitrogen regulatory kinase NtrB (GlnL) is a soluble cytoplasmic HK. ...
Aspartate kinase becomes downregulated by the presence of threonine or lysine. Lysine is synthesized from aspartate via the ... The formation of aspartate kinase (AK), which catalyzes the phosphorylation of aspartate and initiates its conversion into ... The synthesis of aspartate kinase (AK), which catalyzes the phosphorylation of aspartate and initiates its conversion into ... The aspartate pathway uses L-aspartic acid as the precursor for the biosynthesis of one fourth of the building block amino ...
... methyl-d-aspartate/extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen- and stress-activated kinase signalling pathway". European ...
The cytoplasmic domain has a juxtamembrane domain and tyrosine kinase domain that is interrupted by a kinase insert domain. At ... aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase), edema, nausea, lacrimation, and reduced appetite, but no signs of liver ... CSF1R, the protein encoded by the CSF1R gene is a tyrosine kinase transmembrane receptor and member of the CSF1/PDGF receptor ... Courtneidge SA, Dhand R, Pilat D, Twamley GM, Waterfield MD, Roussel MF (March 1993). "Activation of Src family kinases by ...
Aspartate 145 also changes position. Together these structural changes allow ATP phosphates to bind correctly. When CAK ... Lolli G, Johnson LN (April 2005). "CAK-Cyclin-dependent Activating Kinase: a key kinase in cell cycle control and a target for ... The active site of Cdk2 lies in a cleft between the two lobes of the kinase. ATP binds deep within the cleft and its phosphate ... CDK-activating kinase (CAK) activates the cyclin-CDK complex by phosphorylating threonine residue 160 in the CDK activation ...
"Interaction of the tyrosine kinase Pyk2 with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex via the Src homology 3 domains of PSD-95 ... DLG3 is a member of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) superfamily of proteins. DLG3 has been shown to interact ... 1996). "Interaction of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex with a novel synapse-associated protein, SAP102". J. Biol. ... 1999). "Interaction of NE-dlg/SAP102, a neuronal and endocrine tissue-specific membrane-associated guanylate kinase protein, ...
"Interaction of the tyrosine kinase Pyk2 with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex via the Src homology 3 domains of PSD-95 ... "Protein tyrosine kinase PYK2 involved in Ca(2+)-induced regulation of ion channel and MAP kinase functions". Nature. 376 (6543 ... Protein tyrosine kinase 2 beta is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTK2B gene. This gene encodes a cytoplasmic ... "Entrez Gene: PTK2B PTK2B protein tyrosine kinase 2 beta". Soni D, Regmi SC, Wang DM, DebRoy A, Zhao YY, Vogel SM, Malik AB, ...
"Interaction of the tyrosine kinase Pyk2 with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex via the Src homology 3 domains of PSD-95 ... Choi J, Ko J, Park E, Lee JR, Yoon J, Lim S, Kim E (April 2002). "Phosphorylation of stargazin by protein kinase A regulates ... PSD-95 is a member of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family. With PSD-93 it is recruited into the same NMDA ... The GUK domain that they have is structurally very similar to that of the guanylate kinases, however it is known to be ...
"Interaction of the tyrosine kinase Pyk2 with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex via the Src homology 3 domains of PSD-95 ... N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are a class of ionotropic glutamate receptors. NMDA channel has been shown to be involved ... June 1997). "DAP-1, a novel protein that interacts with the guanylate kinase-like domains of hDLG and PSD-95". Genes to Cells. ... "Entrez Gene: GRIN2A glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl D-aspartate 2A". Hamza TH, Chen H, Hill-Burns EM, Rhodes SL, ...
"Protein kinase C activation modulates alpha-calmodulin kinase II binding to NR2A subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor ...
"Identification of a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II regulatory phosphorylation site in non-N-methyl-D-aspartate ... Ripellino JA, Neve RL, Howe JR (1998). "Expression and heteromeric interactions of non-N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor ... Barria A, Derkach V, Soderling T (1998). "Identification of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II regulatory ...
"Identification of a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II regulatory phosphorylation site in non-N-methyl-D-aspartate ... "Entrez Gene: CAMK2G calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II gamma". Moyers JS, Bilan PJ, Zhu J, Kahn CR ( ... "Phosphorylation of smooth myosin light chain kinase by smooth muscle Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent multifunctional protein kinase ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II gamma chain is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2G gene. The ...
Aspartate kinase or aspartokinase (AK) is an enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of the amino acid aspartate. This ... Viola RE (May 2001). "The central enzymes of the aspartate family of amino acid biosynthesis". Accounts of Chemical Research. ... "aspartate family". Aspartokinases are present only in microorganisms and plants, but not in animals, which must obtain ... aspartate-family amino acids from their diet. Consequently, methionine, lysine and threonine are essential amino acids in ...
Aspartate kinase plays a key role in the control of the aspartate pathway. The enzyme is very sensitive to manipulation and ... We have optimized the assay for the determination of aspartate kinase in maize plants callus cell cultures. Among all the assay ... In the case of temperature, 35°C was shown to be the optimum temperature for aspartate kinase activity. ... Determination of aspartate kinase in maize tissues. Scientia Agricola, 62 (2). pp. 184-189. ISSN 1678-992X ...
Aspartate kinase and synthesis of aspartate-derived amino-acids in wheat. A - Papers appearing in refereed journals ... Feedback-insensitive aspartate kinase isoenzymes in barley mutants resistant to lysine plus threonine. Planta. 157 (1), pp. 32- ... Regulatory isoenzymes of aspartate kinase and control of lysine and threonine biosynthesis in carrot cell-suspension culture. A ... Intracellular-localization of aspartate kinase and the enzymes of threonine and methionine biosynthesis in green leaves. A - ...
Muscle enzyme levels (eg, creatine kinase, aldolase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase) * Myositis-specific ...
... elevated levels of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, creatinine kinase, and C-reactive protein; and diagnostic ...
... and creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase activities, were measured. For dogs with thoracolumbar IVDH, initial ... The CSF lactate, calcium, and glucose concentrations and aspartate aminotransferase activity were not predictive of long-term ...
N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor signaling-protein kinases crosstalk in cerebral ischemia. Adv Exp Med Biol. (2021) 1275:259-83. ...
... creatine kinase and triglyceride levels. The blood lactate and uric acid levels were within normal limits. PCR and direct ... The routine laboratory findings showed an elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, ... The routine laboratory findings showed an elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase ...
Muscle enzyme levels (eg, creatine kinase, aldolase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase) * Myositis-specific ...
Measured biochemical parameters included aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and ... creatine kinase activities; and glucose, lipids, proteins, electrolytes, and uric acid plasmatic concentration. All Black- ...
1997) Characterization of protein kinase A and protein kinase C phosphorylation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR1 ... 2001) Evidence for direct protein kinase-C mediated modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor current. Mol Pharmacol 59:960- ... 1999) G-protein-coupled receptors act via protein kinase C and src to regulate NMDA receptors. Nat Neurosci 2:331-338. doi: ... Protein kinase C (PKC) and CaMKII, which are activated downstream of Gq signaling (Lu et al., 1999), have been shown to ...
Horses with increased levels of the muscle enzymes creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) are the only ones ...
... in vitro assay of the first four enzymes in the fungal aspartate pathway identifies a new class of aspartate kinase inhibitor ...
One expected change is the interaction between the aspartate kinase Hom3 and the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase Fpr1 in ...
Plasma uric acid concentrations and creatine kinase or aspartate aminotransferase activities were significantly different ...
The traditional cardiac enzymes assayed for the detection of acute MI were the triad of lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate ... transaminase, and creatine kinase (CK) ([33]). The new diagnostic criteria include a characteristic rise and fall in blood ...
The researchers analyzed the blood for levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine ... kinase (CK), and myoglobin (MB), which are associated with exercise-inuduced muscle damage. ...
Interaction of the tyrosine kinase Pyk2 with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex via the Src homology 3 domains of PSD-95 ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is associated with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. Proceedings of the ... Regulation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II docking to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors by calcium/calmodulin ...
D-aspartate/extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen- and stress-activated kinase signalling pathway. Eur J Neurosci 2008; ... Roberson ED, English JD, Adams JP, Selcher JC, Kondratick C, Sweatt JD: The mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade couples ... D-aspartate receptor and the glucocorticoid receptor: relevance for c-fos induction. J Neurochem 2007;101:815-828. ...
Dopamine D1-dependent trafficking of striatal N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors requires Fyn protein tyrosine kinase but ... Distribution of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4 isoazolepropionic acid and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits in the ... Identification of PSD-93 as a substrate for the Src family tyrosine kinase Fyn. Nada, S., Shima, T., Yanai, H., Husi, H., Grant ... Analysis of NMDA receptor mediated synaptic plasticity using gene targeting: roles of Fyn and FAK non-receptor tyrosine kinases ...
... creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, ... 150 ppm: increased creatine kinase (CK) activity in week 4 (+154%). - 1000 ppm: increased creatine kinase (CK) activity in week ... creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, ... Regarding clinical chemistry, males and females in the middle and high dose showed a reduction in creatine kinase activity. In ...
... equally efficient on aspartate kinase I activity (4-fold activation). The six effectors of aspartate kinase I were all ... The Arabidopsis genome contains two genes predicted to code for bifunctional aspartate kinase-homoserine dehydrogenase enzymes ... The Arabidopsis genome contains two genes predicted to code for bifunctional aspartate kinase-homoserine dehydrogenase enzymes ... Identification of six novel allosteric effectors of Arabidopsis thaliana aspartate kinase-homoserine dehydrogenase isoforms. ...
... creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) on 3 consecutive days after admission. ...
Elevated creatine kinase (CK) and aldolase *Elevated aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) * ... elevated serum creatine kinase [CK], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], aspartate aminotransferase [AST] or alanine aminotransferase ...
Creatine kinase, aspartate amino-transferase, lactate dehydrogenase and Troponin T were determined by kit methods. Results: ... Creatine kinase (CK), aspartate amino-transferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined by kit methods supplied by ... Creatine kinase (CK), CKMB, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase levels rises significantly (p,0.01) in both ... Measurement of serum troponin T, creatine kinase MB isoenzyme and total creatine kinase following ardous physical training. Ann ...
Aspartate kinase; Aspartokinase; EC 2.7.2.4 (characterized). 95%. 100%. 750.4. hi. AO353_02975. aspartate kinase. aspartate ... 1 candidates for asp-kinase: aspartate kinase. Score. Gene. Description. Similar to. Id.. Cov.. Bits. Other hit. Other id.. ... describes a monofunctional hom but the sequence of O63067 is much longer and has a close homolog of functional aspartate kinase ... Or cluster all characterized asp-kinase proteins. This GapMind analysis is from Aug 03 2021. The underlying query database was ...
210 blood samples were taken in total, they were centrifuged, and the plasma analyzed of creatine kinase (CK), aspartate ...
The release of cytoplasmic enzymes including creatine kinase (CK), aspartate transaminase (AST), and L-lactate dehydrogenase ( ... Cell injury: Plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity was measured for evaluating the cell membrane injury by a model 736-20 ... The accumulation of ADP within the cells activated adenylate kinase (AK), which catalysed the reaction (2 ADP ® ATP + AMP). ...
  • The routine laboratory findings showed an elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase and triglyceride levels. (degruyter.com)
  • Two markers of cellular metabolism, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and creatine kinase (CK), were monitored to assess improvements in mitochondrial function. (globenewswire.com)
  • Horses with increased levels of the muscle enzymes creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) are the only ones truly tying up. (thehorse.com)
  • The researchers analyzed the blood for levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), and myoglobin (MB), which are associated with exercise-inuduced muscle damage. (nutraingredients.com)
  • At the end of the experiment, fish fed the modified diet displayed skeletal muscle degeneration, decreased red blood cell count, haemoglobin content and haematocrit, and increased crythrocyte fragility and plasma enzyme activity (aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase). (alr-journal.org)
  • A la fin de l'expérience, les poissons nourris avec l'aliment modifié montrent des lésions de dégénérescence du muscle squelettique, une diminution du nombre de globules rouges, du taux d'hémoglobine et de l'hématocrite, une augmentation de la fragilité érythrocytaire et de fortes activités enzymatiques plasmatiques (aspartate, aminotransferase et créatine kinase). (alr-journal.org)
  • Serum elevations of ALT activity are rarely observed, except in parenchymal liver disease, since ALT is a more liver-specific enzyme than aspartate aminotransferase (AST). (cdc.gov)
  • aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), based on central laboratory results b. (who.int)
  • Creatine kinase, aspartate amino-transferase, lactate dehydrogenase and Troponin T were determined by kit methods. (edu.pk)
  • Creatine kinase (CK), aspartate amino-transferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined by kit methods supplied by Boehringer Mannheim. (edu.pk)
  • 210 blood samples were taken in total, they were centrifuged, and the plasma analyzed of creatine kinase (CK), aspartate transaminase (AST), glucose and lactate. (slu.se)
  • Damaged muscles release creatine kinase and aspartate transaminase. (finishlinehorse.com)
  • Measurements of creatine kinase are used in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction, skeletal muscle diseases, and diseases of the central nervous system. (cdc.gov)
  • U0126 is a potent and selective non-competitive inhibitor of MAP kinase kinase. (rndsystems.com)
  • Identification of a novel inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase. (rndsystems.com)
  • 3-NP reduced the level of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 in striatum but not in cerebral cortex. (nih.gov)
  • Regulation of aspartate family amino acid biosynthesis in Brevibacterium flavum. (rhea-db.org)
  • Interaction of the tyrosine kinase Pyk2 with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex via the Src homology 3 domains of PSD-95 and SAP102. (neurotree.org)
  • Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (Ph+ CML) in chronic phase (CP), previously treated with two or more tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). (nih.gov)
  • HPts function in histidine-aspartate phosphorelays in which they mediate the signal from sensory kinases (usually membrane proteins) to RRs in the nucleus. (rcsb.org)
  • Prokaryotes commonly use a histidine-aspartate phosphorelay (HAP) system consisting of a histidine protein kinase (HPK) and a response regulator (RR). (igem.org)
  • he domain organization of selected histidine-aspartate-phosphorelay systems. (igem.org)
  • Regulation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II docking to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors by calcium/calmodulin and alpha-actinin. (neurotree.org)
  • Aspartate kinase or aspartokinase (AK) is an enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of the amino acid aspartate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lysine, threonine, methionine and isoleucine are synthesized from aspartate in a branched pathway in higher plants. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Overproduction, purification, and characterization of recombinant bifunctional threonine-sensitive aspartate kinase-homoserine dehydrogenase from Arabidopsis thaliana. (rhea-db.org)
  • In plant, the first and the third steps of the synthesis of methionine and threonine are catalyzed by a bifunctional enzyme, aspartate kinase-homoserine dehydrogenase (AK-HSDH). (rhea-db.org)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is associated with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. (neurotree.org)
  • Protein kinase C regulates human pluripotent stem cell self-renewal. (rndsystems.com)
  • Specificity and mechanism of action of some commonly used protein kinase inhibitors. (rndsystems.com)
  • Protein kinase A anchor protein, nuclear localisation signal domain [Interproscan]. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Additionally, we detected increased levels of active glycogen synthase kinase 3 β, a physiological kinase of TAU, in neurons derived from AD iPSCs, as well as significant upregulation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) synthesis and APP carboxy-terminal fragment cleavage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It demonstrated phosphorylation by the intracellular kinase domain of the cytokinin receptor MtCRE1. (rcsb.org)
  • Pharmacological experiments revealed that cyclin-dependent kinase activity and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor were cooperatively involved in cell death by 3-NP in striatal neurons, whereas only NMDA receptor was involved in 3-NP-induced neurotoxicity in cortical neurons. (nih.gov)
  • Aspartokinases are present only in microorganisms and plants, but not in animals, which must obtain aspartate-family amino acids from their diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aspartate kinase plays a key role in the control of the aspartate pathway. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • The enzyme is very sensitive to manipulation and storage and the hydroxamate assay normally used to determine aspartate kinase activity has to be altered according to the plant species and tissue to be analyzed. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • We have optimized the assay for the determination of aspartate kinase in maize plants callus cell cultures. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Parallèlement, de faibles valeurs en DL-alpha-tocophérol et une augmentation des teneurs en substances réagissant à l'acide thiobarbiturique sont observées dans le muscle et le foie. (alr-journal.org)
  • In the case of temperature, 35°C was shown to be the optimum temperature for aspartate kinase activity. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Dimerisation and phosphoacceptor domain of histidine kinases. (embl.de)
  • This entry represents the dimerisation and phosphoacceptor domain found in some histidine kinases. (embl.de)
  • Histidine kinases usually have an N-terminal ligand-binding domain and a C-terminal kinase domain, but other domains may also be present. (embl.de)
  • These residues form a putative docking interface for either the receiver domain of the sensory kinase, or for the RR. (rcsb.org)
  • O63067 -- the paper describes a monofunctional hom but the sequence of O63067 is much longer and has a close homolog of functional aspartate kinase (due to alternative splicing? (lbl.gov)
  • Les dossiers de 622 patients âgés en moyenne de 58,3 ans (écart type 12,9) ont été étudiés. (who.int)
  • Des stratégies préventives doivent être mises en œuvre afin d'améliorer le pronostic à long terme des patients libyens et de réduire la morbidité et la mortalité globales dues à la coronaropathie. (who.int)