Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting acidic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, ACIDIC).
The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.
A group of diseases related to a deficiency of the enzyme ARGININOSUCCINATE SYNTHASE which causes an elevation of serum levels of CITRULLINE. In neonates, clinical manifestations include lethargy, hypotonia, and SEIZURES. Milder forms also occur. Childhood and adult forms may present with recurrent episodes of intermittent weakness, lethargy, ATAXIA, behavioral changes, and DYSARTHRIA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p49)
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
Proteins involved in the transport of specific substances across the membranes of the MITOCHONDRIA.
Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
Toluenes in which one hydrogen of the methyl group is substituted by an amino group. Permitted are any substituents on the benzene ring or the amino group.
A monomeric calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that is primarily expressed in neuronal tissues; T-LYMPHOCYTES and TESTIS. The activity of this enzyme is regulated by its phosphorylation by CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Traumatic or experimentally induced separation of the head from the body in an animal or human.
The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Natural or synthetic dyes used as coloring agents in processed foods.
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The family of agile, keen-sighted mongooses of Asia and Africa that feed on RODENTS and SNAKES.
Abnormal development of cartilage and bone.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.
Organic compounds that contain the (-NH2OH) radical.
A colorless inorganic compound (HONH2) used in organic synthesis and as a reducing agent, due to its ability to donate nitric oxide.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that is similar to CONYZA. Members contain SESQUITERPENES.
An aurora kinase that localizes to the CENTROSOME during MITOSIS and is involved in centrosome regulation and formation of the MITOTIC SPINDLE. Aurora A overexpression in many malignant tumor types suggests that it may be directly involved in NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION.
A 12-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide hormone secreted by FAT CELLS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is the founding member of the resistin-like molecule (RELM) hormone family. Resistin suppresses the ability of INSULIN to stimulate cellular GLUCOSE uptake.
Hormones released from neoplasms or from other cells that are not the usual sources of hormones.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.
A class of ligand-gated ion channel receptors that have specificity for GLUTAMATE. They are distinct from METABOTROPIC GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS which act through a G-protein-coupled mechanism.

Aspartate kinase-independent lysine synthesis in an extremely thermophilic bacterium, Thermus thermophilus: lysine is synthesized via alpha-aminoadipic acid not via diaminopimelic acid. (1/103)

An aspartate kinase-deficient mutant of Thermus thermophilus, AK001, was constructed. The mutant strain did not grow in a minimal medium, suggesting that T. thermophilus contains a single aspartate kinase. Growth of the mutant strain was restored by addition of both threonine and methionine, while addition of lysine had no detectable effect on growth. To further elucidate the lysine biosynthetic pathway in T. thermophilus, lysine auxotrophic mutants of T. thermophilus were obtained by chemical mutagenesis. For all lysine auxotrophic mutants, growth in a minimal medium was not restored by addition of diaminopimelic acid, whereas growth of two mutants was restored by addition of alpha-aminoadipic acid, a precursor of lysine in biosynthetic pathways of yeast and fungi. A BamHI fragment of 4.34 kb which complemented the lysine auxotrophy of a mutant was cloned. Determination of the nucleotide sequence suggested the presence of homoaconitate hydratase genes, termed hacA and hacB, which could encode large and small subunits of homoaconitate hydratase, in the cloned fragment. Disruption of the chromosomal copy of hacA yielded mutants showing lysine auxotrophy which was restored by addition of alpha-aminoadipic acid or alpha-ketoadipic acid. All of these results indicated that in T. thermophilus, lysine was not synthesized via the diaminopimelic acid pathway, believed to be common to all bacteria, but via a pathway using alpha-aminoadipic acid as a biosynthetic intermediate.  (+info)

The site-specific integration of genetic elements may modulate thermostable protease production, a virulence factor in Dichelobacter nodosus, the causative agent of ovine footrot. (2/103)

The gram-negative anaerobe Dichelobacter nodosus is the causative agent of footrot in sheep. The authors have previously characterized two genetic elements, the intA (vap) and intB elements, which integrate into the genome of D. nodosus. In the virulent strain A198 there are two copies of the intA element. One copy is integrated into the 3' end of the tRNA-serGCU gene, close to the aspartokinase (askA) gene, and the second copy is integrated into the 3' end of the tRNA-serGGA gene, next to the polynucleotide phosphorylase (pnpA) gene. In this study, a new genetic element was identified in the benign strain C305, the intC element, integrated into the 3' end of the tRNA-serGCU gene, next to askA. The intC element was found in most D. nodosus strains, both benign and virulent, which were examined, and was integrated into tRNA-serGCU in most strains. Between the askA and tRNA-serGCU genes, a gene (designated glpA), was identified whose predicted protein product has very high amino acid identity with RsmA from the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora. RsmA acts as a global repressor of pathogenicity in E. carotovora, by repressing the production of extracellular enzymes. In virulent strains of D. nodosus the intA element was found to be integrated next to pnpA, and either the intA or intC element was integrated next to glpA. By contrast, all but one of the benign strains had intB at one or both of these two positions, and the one exception had neither intA, intB nor intC at one position. The loss of the intC element from the virulent strain 1311 resulted in loss of thermostable protease activity, a virulence factor in D. nodosus. A model for virulence is proposed whereby integration of the intA and intC genetic elements modulates virulence by altering the expression of glpA, pnpA, tRNA-serGCU and tRNA-serGGA.  (+info)

Organization of threonine biosynthesis genes from the obligate methylotroph Methylobacillus flagellatus. (3/103)

The genes encoding aspartate kinase (ask), homoserine dehydrogenase (hom), homoserine kinase (thrB) and threonine synthase (thrC) from the obligate methylotroph Methylobacillus flagellatus were cloned. In maxicells hom and thrC directed synthesis of 51 and 48 kDa polypeptides, respectively. The hom, thrB and thrC genes and adjacent DNA areas were sequenced. Of the threonine biosynthesis genes, only hom and thrC were tightly linked in the order hom-thrC. The gene for thymidylate synthase (thyA) followed thrC and the gene for aspartate aminotransferase (aspC) preceded hom. All four genes (aspC-hom-thrC-thyA) were transcribed in the same direction. mRNA analysis indicated that hom-thrC are apparently transcribed in one 7.5 kb transcript in M. flagellatus. Promoter analysis showed the presence of a functional promoter between aspC and hom. No functional promoter was found to be associated with the DNA stretch between hom and thrC. The thrB gene encoded an unusual type of homoserine kinase and was not linked to other threonine biosynthesis genes.  (+info)

Effects of a feedback-resistant aspartokinase III gene on L-isoleucine production in Escherichia coli K-12. (4/103)

An L-isoleucine-overproducing recombinant strain of E. coli, TVD5, was also found to overproduce L-valine. The L-isoleucine productivity of TVD5 was markedly decreased by addition of L-lysine to the medium. Introduction of a gene encoding feedback-resistant aspartokinase III increased L-isoleucine productivity and decreased L-valine by-production. The resulting strain accumulated 12 g/l L-isoleucine from 40 g/l glucose, and suppression of L-isoleucine productivity by L-lysine was relieved.  (+info)

Attractant regulation of the aspartate receptor-kinase complex: limited cooperative interactions between receptors and effects of the receptor modification state. (5/103)

The manner by which the bacterial chemotaxis system responds to a wide range of attractant concentrations remains incompletely understood. In principle, positive cooperativity between chemotaxis receptors could explain the ability of bacteria to respond to extremely low attractant concentrations. By utilizing an in vitro receptor-coupled kinase assay, the attractant-dependent response curve has been measured for the Salmonella typhimurium aspartate chemoreceptor. The attractant chosen, alpha-methyl aspartate, was originally used to quantitate high receptor sensitivity at low attractant concentrations by Segall, Block, and Berg [(1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83, 8987-8991]. The attractant response curve exhibits limited positive cooperativity, yielding a Hill coefficient of 1.7-2.4, and this Hill coefficient is relatively independent of both the receptor modification state and the mole ratio of CheA to receptor. These results disfavor models in which there are strong cooperative interactions between large numbers of receptor dimers in an extensive receptor array. Instead, the results are consistent with cooperative interactions between a small number of coupled receptor dimers. Because the in vitro receptor-coupled kinase assay utilizes higher than native receptor densities arising from overexpression, the observed positive cooperativity may overestimate that present in native receptor populations. Such positive cooperativity between dimers is fully compatible with the negative cooperativity previously observed between the two symmetric ligand binding sites within a single dimer. The attractant affinity of the aspartate receptor is found to depend on the modification state of its covalent adaptation sites. Increasing the the level of modification decreases the apparent attractant affinity at least 10-fold in the in vitro receptor-coupled kinase assay. This observation helps explain the ability of the chemotaxis pathway to respond to a broad range of attractant concentrations in vivo.  (+info)

Evidence for direct interaction between enzyme I(Ntr) and aspartokinase to regulate bacterial oligopeptide transport. (6/103)

Bradyrhizobium japonicum transports oligopeptides and the heme precursor delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) by a common mechanism. Two Tn5-induced mutants disrupted in the lysC and ptsP genes were identified based on the inability to use prolyl-glycyl-glycine as a proline source and were defective in [(14)C]ALA uptake activity. lysC and ptsP were shown to be proximal genes in the B. japonicum genome. However, RNase protection and in trans complementation analysis showed that lysC and ptsP are transcribed separately, and that both genes are involved in oligopeptide transport. Aspartokinase, encoded by lysC, catalyzes the phosphorylation of aspartate for synthesis of three amino acids, but the lysC strain is not an amino acid auxotroph. The ptsP gene encodes Enzyme I(Ntr) (EI(Ntr)), a paralogue of Enzyme I of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase (PTS) system. In vitro pull-down experiments indicated that purified recombinant aspartokinase and EI(Ntr) interact directly with each other. Expression of ptsP in trans from a multicopy plasmid complemented the lysC mutant, suggesting that aspartokinase normally affects Enzyme I(Ntr) in a manner that can be compensated for by increasing the copy number of the ptsP gene. ATP was not a phosphoryl donor to purified EI(Ntr), but it was phosphorylated by ATP in the presence of cell extracts. This phosphorylation was inhibited in the presence of aspartokinase. The findings demonstrate a role for a PTS protein in the transport of a non-sugar solute and suggest an unusual regulatory function for aspartokinase in regulating the phosphorylation state of EI(Ntr).  (+info)

Aspartate kinase 2. A candidate gene of a quantitative trait locus influencing free amino acid content in maize endosperm. (7/103)

The maize (Zea mays) Oh545o2 inbred accumulates an exceptionally high level of free amino acids, especially lysine (Lys), threonine (Thr), methionine, and iso-leucine. In a cross between Oh545o2 and Oh51Ao2, we identified several quantitative trait loci linked with this phenotype. One of these is on the long arm of chromosome 2 and is linked with loci encoding aspartate (Asp) kinase 2 and Asp kinase (AK)-homoserine dehydrogenase (HSDH) 2. To investigate whether these enzymes can contribute to the high levels of Asp family amino acids, we measured their specific activity and feedback inhibition properties, as well as activities of several other key enzymes involved in Lys metabolism. We did not find a significant difference in total activity of dihydrodipicolinate synthase, HSDH, and Lys ketoglutarate reductase between these inbreds, and the feedback inhibition properties of HSDH and dihyrodipicolinate synthase by Lys and/or Thr were similar. The most significant difference we found between Oh545o2 and Oh51Ao2 is feedback inhibition of AK by Lys but not Thr. AK activity in Oh545o2 is less sensitive to Lys inhibition than that in Oh51Ao2, with a Lys I50 twice that of Oh51Ao2. AK activity in Oh545o2 endosperm is also higher than in Oh51Ao2 at 15 d after pollination, but not 20 d after pollination. The results indicate that the Lys-sensitive Asp kinase 2, rather than the Thr-sensitive AK-HSDH2, is the best candidate gene for the quantitative trait locus affecting free amino acid content in Oh545o2.  (+info)

An integrated study of threonine-pathway enzyme kinetics in Escherichia coli. (8/103)

We have determined the kinetic parameters of the individual steps of the threonine pathway from aspartate in Escherichia coli under a single set of experimental conditions chosen to be physiologically relevant. Our aim was to summarize the kinetic behaviour of each enzyme in a single tractable equation that takes into account the effect of the products as competitive inhibitors of the substrates in the forward reaction and also, when appropriate (e.g. near-equilibrium reactions), as substrates of the reverse reactions. Co-operative feedback inhibition by threonine and lysine was also included as necessary. We derived the simplest rate equations that describe the salient features of the enzymes in the physiological range of metabolite concentrations in order to incorporate them ultimately into a complete model of the threonine pathway, able to predict quantitatively the behaviour of the pathway under natural or engineered conditions.  (+info)

In molecular biology, the amino acid kinase domain is a protein domain. It is found in protein kinases with various specificities, including the aspartate, glutamate and uridylate kinase families. In prokaryotes and plants the synthesis of the essential amino acids lysine and threonine is predominantly regulated by feed-back inhibition of aspartate kinase (AK) and dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHPS). In Escherichia coli, thrA, metLM, and lysC encode aspartokinase isozymes that show feedback inhibition by threonine, methionine, and lysine, respectively. The lysine-sensitive isoenzyme of aspartate kinase from spinach leaves has a subunit composition of 4 large and 4 small subunits. In plants although the control of carbon fixation and nitrogen assimilation has been studied in detail, relatively little is known about the regulation of carbon and nitrogen flow into amino acids. The metabolic regulation of expression of an Arabidopsis thaliana aspartate kinase/homoserine dehydrogenase (AK/HSD) gene, ...
K00928 lysC; aspartate kinase [EC:2.7.2.4] K00928 lysC; aspartate kinase [EC:2.7.2.4] K00928 lysC; aspartate kinase [EC:2.7.2.4] K12524 thrA; bifunctional aspartokinase / homoserine dehydrogenase 1 [EC:2.7.2.4 1.1.1.3] K12525 metL; bifunctional aspartokinase / homoserine dehydrogenase 2 [EC:2.7.2.4 1.1.1.3 ...
Protein phosphorylation is known to occur across all three kingdoms of life; however, the study of posttranslational modification in bacteria was neglected for a considerable amount of time. Early attempts to detect its presence were unsuccessful, generating the dogma that protein phosphorylation was a regulatory mechanism that emerged late in evolution to meet the needs of organisms composed of multiple and differentiated cells. The pioneering work of several groups in the 1970s identified protein kinase activity in both Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium ( 1 - 3 ), which soon led to the discovery of the histidine/aspartate kinases of the two-component systems ( 4 , 5 ). The first aspect of this system involves the stimulation of a histidine kinase by a particular environmental or intracellular signal resulting in autophosphorylation on a key histidine residue. The phospho-histidine can then be used as a substrate by the cognate response regulator for its own autophosphorylation on an
Staphylococcus aureus; strain: USA300_FPR3757; locus tag: SAUSA300_1225 (SAUSA300_RS06640); symbol: thrD; product: aspartate kinase
Numerous significant hits using gapped BLAST to aspartokinase III from E. coli (416597), Arabidopsis thaliana (6091740, putative), Methanococcus jannaschii (2492982), among others. HD1375 is 57% similar to residues 1-449 from AK3_ECOLI ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Arsenic atom in PDB 1pqu: Crystal Structure Of the H277N Mutant of Aspartate Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase From Haemophilus Influenzae Bound With Nadp, S-Methyl Cysteine Sulfoxide and Cacodylate
Protein target information for Chain A, Aspartate beta-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (Streptococcus pneumoniae). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
Lysine biosynthesis is one of the unique metabolic capabilities of cyst forming Coccidia such as Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. Toxoplasma and Neospora genome analysis shows that they have the unique metabolic capability to synthesise lysine, an essential amino acid in humans. This capability is absent in other Apicomplexa. It has been suggested that Toxoplasma can convert aspartate into lysine via diaminopimelate pathway [1]. This pathway takes place via four different routes in different organisms (KEGG Lysine biosynthesis pathway). Of these, three variants belong to different groups of prokaryotes and the plant variant of the pathway was identified recently in Arabidopsis thaliana [2]. The first four enzymes (aspartate kinase, aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase, dihydrodipicolinate synthase and dihydrodipicolinate reductase) and the last enzyme (diaminopimelate decarboxylase) is the same in all variants of the pathway and these five enzymes are present in T. gondii and N. caninum ...
This entry represents a motif conserved in many allosteric enzymes involved in amino acid and purine biosynthesis, called the ACT domain as the acronym for aspartate kinase, chorismate mutase, and TyrA (prephenate dehydrogenase). Several crystal structures have been determined for proteins that have ACT domains, such as 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (3PGDH),15 threonine deaminase (TD),16 acetohydroxyacid synthase III,17 and NikR, a transcriptional regulator involved in nickel uptake. The ACT domain consists of 4 beta-strands and 2 alpha-helices PMID:17350037 ...
ID AK_RICPR Reviewed; 446 AA. AC Q9ZCI7; DT 30-MAY-2000, integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot. DT 01-MAY-1999, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 95. DE RecName: Full=Aspartokinase; DE EC=2.7.2.4; DE AltName: Full=Aspartate kinase; GN Name=lysC; OrderedLocusNames=RP753; OS Rickettsia prowazekii (strain Madrid E). OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Rickettsiales; OC Rickettsiaceae; Rickettsieae; Rickettsia; typhus group. OX NCBI_TaxID=272947; RN [1] RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=Madrid E; RX PubMed=9823893; DOI=10.1038/24094; RA Andersson S.G.E., Zomorodipour A., Andersson J.O., RA Sicheritz-Ponten T., Alsmark U.C.M., Podowski R.M., Naeslund A.K., RA Eriksson A.-S., Winkler H.H., Kurland C.G.; RT The genome sequence of Rickettsia prowazekii and the origin of RT mitochondria.; RL Nature 396:133-140(1998). RN [2] RP DOMAIN RPE1. RX PubMed=11030655; DOI=10.1126/science.290.5490.347; RA Ogata H., Audic S., Barbe V., Artiguenave F., ...
The lysine, threonine, and methionine biosynthetic pathways share the three initial enzymatic steps, which are referred to as the Common Pathway (CP). In Escherichia coli three different aspartokinases (AKI, AKII, AKIII, the products of thrA, metL and lysC, respectively) can perform the first step of the CP. Moreover, two of them (AKI and AKII) are bifunctional, carrying also homoserine dehydrogenasic activity (hom product). The second step of the CP is catalyzed by a single aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASDH, the product of asd). Thus, in the CP of E. coli while a single copy of ASDH performs the same reaction for three different metabolic routes, three different AKs perfom a unique step. Why and how such a situation did emerge and maintain? How is it correlated to the different regulatory mechanisms acting on these genes? The aim of this work was to trace the evolutionary pathway leading to the extant scenario in proteobacteria. The analysis of the structure, organization, phylogeny, and
The aspartate biosynthetic pathway, essential in plants and in most bacteria and fungi, can produce the amino acids threonine, lysine, methionine, and isoleucine. The first commitment step of this pathway is catalyzed by aspartokinase (AK). The archeal thermophilic Methanococcus jannaschii has only a single, monofunctional form of AK. X-ray crystallographic studies indicate that mjAK is a tetramer in the crystalline state, which coincides with the oligomeric structure in solution. The substrate L-aspartate binds to this recombinant enzyme in two different orientations, providing the first structural evidence supporting the relaxed regiospecificity previously observed with several alternative substrates of E. coli AK.5 Binding of the nucleotide substrate triggers significant domain movements that result in a more compact quaternary structure. The allosteric inhibitor, L-threonine, cooperatively binds to two sites in each monomer of this dimer of dimers, one site in the regulatory domain interface ...
Staphylococcus aureus; strain: Newman; locus tag: NWMN_1305 (NWMN_RS07350); symbol: asd; product: aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase
Complete information for LYZ gene (Protein Coding), Lysozyme, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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Introduction: Aspartokinase (A1, A2, A3) Homoserine dehydrogenase (B1, B2) Threonine dehydratase (C1, C2) Allosteric regulation of selective isozymes some unregulated Sequential feedback inhibition Same product inhibits its biosynthetic path at multiple sites Inhibits first enzyme in pathway
cd04881 (PSSM ID: 153153): Conserved Protein Domain Family ACT_HSDH-Hom, The ACT_HSDH_Hom CD includes the C-terminal ACT domain of the NAD(P)H-dependent, homoserine dehydrogenase (HSDH) encoded by the hom gene of Bacillus subtilis and other related sequences
ID Q82EQ5_STRAW Unreviewed; 430 AA. AC Q82EQ5; DT 01-JUN-2003, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 01-JUN-2003, sequence version 1. DT 31-JAN-2018, entry version 110. DE RecName: Full=Aspartokinase {ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU003448}; DE EC=2.7.2.4 {ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU003448}; GN Name=lysC {ECO:0000313,EMBL:BAC72271.1}; GN ORFNames=SAVERM_4559 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:BAC72271.1}; OS Streptomyces avermitilis (strain ATCC 31267 / DSM 46492 / JCM 5070 / OS NBRC 14893 / NCIMB 12804 / NRRL 8165 / MA-4680). OC Bacteria; Actinobacteria; Streptomycetales; Streptomycetaceae; OC Streptomyces. OX NCBI_TaxID=227882 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:BAC72271.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000000428}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:BAC72271.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000000428} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=ATCC 31267 / DSM 46492 / JCM 5070 / NBRC 14893 / NCIMB 12804 / RC NRRL 8165 / MA-4680 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000000428}; RX PubMed=11572948; DOI=10.1073/pnas.211433198; RA Omura S., Ikeda H., Ishikawa J., ...
subroutine unfold_positions(L, X, Xu) ! Unwinds periodic positions. It is using the positions of particles from the ! first time step as a reference and then tracks them as they evolve possibly ! outside of this box. The X and Xu arrays are of the type X(:, j, i), which ! are the (x,y,z) coordinates of the j-th particle in the i-th time step. real(dp), intent(in) :: L ! Box length ! Positions in [0, L]^3 with possible jumps: real(dp), intent(in) :: X(:, :, :) ! Unwinded positions in (-oo, oo)^3 with no jumps (continuous): real(dp), intent(out) :: Xu(:, :, :) real(dp) :: d(3), Xj(3) integer :: i, j Xu(:, :, 1) = X(:, :, 1) do i = 2, size(X, 3) do j = 1, size(X, 2) Xj = X(:, j, i-1) - X(:, j, i) + [L/2, L/2, L/2] Xj = Xj - L*floor(Xj/L) d = [L/2, L/2, L/2] - Xj Xu(:, j, i) = Xu(:, j, i-1) + d end do end do end subroutine ...
Corynebacterium glutamicum (strain ATCC 13032 / DSM 20300 / JCM 1318 / LMG 3730 / NCIMB 10025) [2020, 21, Weak + Strong, sRNA] ...
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Accepted name: UMP kinase. Reaction: ATP + UMP = ADP + UDP. Other name(s): uridylate kinase; UMPK; uridine monophosphate kinase; PyrH; UMP-kinase; SmbA Systematic name: ATP:UMP phosphotransferase Comments: This enzyme is strictly specific for UMP as substrate and is used by prokaryotes in the de novo synthesis of pyrimidines, in contrast to eukaryotes, which use the dual-specificity enzyme UMP/CMP kinase (EC 2.7.4.14) for the same purpose [2]. This enzyme is the subject of feedback regulation, being inhibited by UTP and activated by GTP [1].. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 9036-23-1. References:. 1. Serina, L., Blondin, C., Krin, E., Sismeiro, O., Danchin, A., Sakamoto, H., Gilles, A.M. and B̢rzu O. Escherichia coli UMP-kinase, a member of the aspartokinase family, is a hexamer regulated by guanine nucleotides and UTP. Biochemistry 34 (1995) 5066-5074. [PMID: 7711027]. 2. Marco-Marin, C., Gil-Ortiz, F. and Rubio, V. The crystal structure of ...
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The alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase levels may be raised. The gamma- ...
At night, aspartate is converted to asparagine for storage. Additionally, the aspartate kinase-homoserine dehydrogenase gene is ... Homoserine dehydrogenase and aspartate kinase are both subject to significant regulation (refer to figure 3). HSD is inhibited ... The AK-HSD gene codes for aspartate kinase, an intermediate domain (coding for the linker region between the two enzymes in the ... Threonine acts as a competitive inhibitor for both HSD and aspartate kinase. In AK-HSD expressing organisms, one of the ...
"Evidence for direct protein kinase-C mediated modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor current". Mol. Pharmacol. 59 (5): 960 ... "Entrez Gene: CAMK2B calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II beta". Walikonis RS, Oguni A, Khorosheva EM, ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II beta chain is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2B gene. The ... of a phosphorylation site for calcium/calmodulindependent protein kinase II in the NR2B subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate ...
fraD encodes the sugar kinase FraD that phosphorylates F-Asp into 6-phosphofuctose-aspartate (6-P-F-Asp). It is unusual in that ... fraB functions as a deglycase that cleaves 6-P-F-Asp into glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P) and aspartate. Mutants lacking fraD or ... This fra locus has five genes: fraR (a regulator), fraB a fructose-asparagine deglycase, fraD a sugar kinase, fraA a fructose- ... Notably, mutations in fraB cause the buildup of the toxic intermediate 6-phosphofuctose-aspartate (6-P-F-Asp). The buildup of 6 ...
The ACT domain is named after three of the proteins that contain it: aspartate kinase, chorismate mutase and TyrA. The ...
... aspartokinase β-aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase homoserine dehydrogenase homoserine kinase threonine synthase. Threonine ... Threonine is synthesized from aspartate in bacteria such as E. coli. It is encoded by all the codons starting AC (ACU, ACC, ACA ... In many organisms it is O-phosphorylated by a kinase preparatory to further metabolism. This is especially important in ... In addition, threonine residues undergo phosphorylation through the action of a threonine kinase. In its phosphorylated form, ...
"Protein kinase C activation modulates alpha-calmodulin kinase II binding to NR2A subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor ...
"Identification of a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II regulatory phosphorylation site in non-N-methyl-D-aspartate ... Ripellino JA, Neve RL, Howe JR (1998). "Expression and heteromeric interactions of non-N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor ... Barria A, Derkach V, Soderling T (1998). "Identification of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II regulatory ...
"Identification of a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II regulatory phosphorylation site in non-N-methyl-D-aspartate ... "Entrez Gene: CAMK2G calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II gamma". Moyers JS, Bilan PJ, Zhu J, Kahn CR ( ... "Phosphorylation of smooth myosin light chain kinase by smooth muscle Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent multifunctional protein kinase ... Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II gamma chain is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CAMK2G gene. The ...
Dardick C, Schwessinger B, Ronald P (August 2012). "Non-arginine-aspartate (non-RD) kinases are associated with innate immune ... NODs transduce signals in the pathway of NF-κB and MAP kinases via the serine-threonine kinase called RIP2. NODs signal via N- ... Some IRAK and RIP family kinases fall into a small functional class of kinases termed non-RD, many of which do not ... revealed that despite the small number of non-RD kinases in these genomes (9%-29%), 12 of 15 kinases known or predicted to ...
Kobashi N, Nishiyama M, Tanokura M (March 1999). "Aspartate kinase-independent lysine synthesis in an extremely thermophilic ... catalysed condensation reaction between the aspartate derived, L-aspartate semialdehyde, and pyruvate to form (4S)-4-hydroxy-2, ... The DAP pathway is regulated at multiple levels, including upstream at the enzymes involved in aspartate processing as well as ... The diaminopimelate (DAP) pathway belongs to the aspartate derived biosynthetic family, which is also involved in the synthesis ...
Signs of overdose include panting, trembling, vomiting, and diarrhea, as well as increased blood levels of creatinine kinase, ... aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase. Dogs who received atipamezole without first receiving dexmedotomidine have ...
"Interaction of the tyrosine kinase Pyk2 with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex via the Src homology 3 domains of PSD-95 ... DLG3 is a member of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) superfamily of proteins. DLG3 has been shown to interact ... 1996). "Interaction of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex with a novel synapse-associated protein, SAP102". J. Biol. ... 1999). "Interaction of NE-dlg/SAP102, a neuronal and endocrine tissue-specific membrane-associated guanylate kinase protein, ...
"Interaction of the tyrosine kinase Pyk2 with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex via the Src homology 3 domains of PSD-95 ... "Protein tyrosine kinase PYK2 involved in Ca(2+)-induced regulation of ion channel and MAP kinase functions". Nature. 376 (6543 ... Protein tyrosine kinase 2 beta is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTK2B gene. This gene encodes a cytoplasmic ... "Entrez Gene: PTK2B PTK2B protein tyrosine kinase 2 beta". Soni D, Regmi SC, Wang DM, DebRoy A, Zhao YY, Vogel SM, Malik AB, ...
"Interaction of the tyrosine kinase Pyk2 with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex via the Src homology 3 domains of PSD-95 ... Choi J, Ko J, Park E, Lee JR, Yoon J, Lim S, Kim E (April 2002). "Phosphorylation of stargazin by protein kinase A regulates ... PSD-95 is a member of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family. With PSD-93 it is recruited into the same NMDA ... The GUK domain that they have is structurally very similar to that of the guanylate kinases, however it is known to be ...
"Interaction of the tyrosine kinase Pyk2 with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex via the Src homology 3 domains of PSD-95 ... N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are a class of ionotropic glutamate receptors. NMDA channel has been shown to be involved ... "Entrez Gene: GRIN2A glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl D-aspartate 2A". Hamza TH, Chen H, Hill-Burns EM, Rhodes SL, ... Foldes RL, Adams SL, Fantaske RP, Kamboj RK (1994). "Human N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor modulatory subunit hNR2A: cloning and ...
The formation of aspartate kinase (AK), which catalyzes the phosphorylation of aspartate and initiates its conversion into ... The synthesis of aspartate kinase (AK), which catalyzes the phosphorylation of aspartate and initiates its conversion into ... Aspartate kinase becomes downregulated by the presence of threonine or lysine. Lysine[edit]. Lysine is synthesized from ... Oxaloacetate/aspartate: lysine, asparagine, methionine, threonine, and isoleucine[edit]. The oxaloacetate/aspartate family of ...
... generally on an aspartate residue, by a transmembrane kinase. Some proteins that belong to this category are: Rhizobiaceae fixJ ...
... a phosphate group from ATP is first added to a histidine residue within the kinase, then transferred to an aspartate residue on ... Histidine-specific protein kinases are structurally distinct from other protein kinases and are found in prokaryotes, fungi, ... Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are transmembrane proteins with an intracellular kinase domain and an extracellular domain ... cAMP-dependent pathway: In humans, cAMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, cAMP-dependent protein kinase) (see picture ...
... the relative levels of creatine kinase, aldolase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate ...
In phosphorelays, the "hybrid" histidine kinase contains an internal aspartate-containing receiver domain to which the ... to an aspartate on a final response regulator. In orthodox two-component signaling, a histidine kinase protein ... In some cases, a phosphorelay system is constructed from four separate proteins rather than a hybrid histidine kinase with an ... In bacteria, where two-component signaling is extremely common, about 25% of known histidine kinases are of the hybrid type. ...
... the phosphotransfer from the kinase to an aspartate of the response regulator, and (with bifunctional enzymes) the ... The kinase core has a unique fold, distinct from that of the Ser/Thr/Tyr kinase superfamily. HKs can be roughly divided into ... Histidine kinases usually have an N-terminal ligand-binding domain and a C-terminal kinase domain, but other domains may also ... Not all orthodox kinases are membrane bound, e.g., the nitrogen regulatory kinase NtrB (GlnL) is a soluble cytoplasmic HK. ...
In the active conformation, the C helix packs against the N-terminal lobe and the Aspartate residue of the conserved DFG motif ... out of 540 different protein kinase genes that make up for human kinome, only one other protein kinase, Casein kinase 2, is ... "cAMP-dependent protein kinase" redirects here. It is not to be confused with AMP-activated protein kinase or cyclin-dependent ... The dimerization and docking (D/D) domain of the dimer binds to the A-kinase binding (AKB) domain of A-kinase anchor protein ( ...
The arginine residue 609 (R609) on the FGFR1 kinase also forms a salt bridge to the aspartate residue (D594) on the N-SH2 ... The β-factor of the PLC-FGFR1 kinase complex The tyrosine kinase region of FGFR1 binds to the N-SH2 domain of PLCγ primarily ... fms-related tyrosine kinase-2 / Pfeiffer syndrome, and CD331, is a receptor tyrosine kinase whose ligands are specific members ... Open conformation in active FRFR1 kinase Figure 5. Overlay Structures of Active and Inactive Forms of FGFR1 kinase Figure 6. ...
The findings on biochemical tests are similar to those of the infantile form, with the caveat that the creatine kinase may be ... aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and lactic dehydrogenase. Diagnosis is made by estimating the acid alpha ... Biochemical investigations include serum creatine kinase (typically increased 10 fold) with lesser elevations of the serum ...
... or aspartokinase (AK) is an enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of the amino acid aspartate. This ... Viola RE (May 2001). "The central enzymes of the aspartate family of amino acid biosynthesis". Accounts of Chemical Research. ... "aspartate family". Aspartokinases are present only in microorganisms and plants, but not in animals, which must obtain ... aspartate-family amino acids from their diet. Consequently, methionine, lysine and threonine are essential amino acids in ...
... and then to an aspartate residue on the receiver domain of a response regulator protein (or sometimes on the kinase itself). ... In terms of enzymology, a histidine kinase (EC 2.7.13.3, EnvZ, histidine protein kinase, protein histidine kinase, protein ... In addition to kinase activity, the intracellular domains typically have regions that bind to a secondary effector molecule or ... Histidine kinases (HK) are multifunctional, and in non-animal kingdoms, typically transmembrane, proteins of the transferase ...
In the active site, pantothenate is oriented by hydrogen bonds between pantothenate and the side chains of aspartate, tyrosine ... The regulation of pantothenate kinase is essential to controlling the intracellular CoA concentration. Pantothenate kinase is ... Pantothenate kinase (EC 2.7.1.33, PanK; CoaA) is the first enzyme in the Coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthetic pathway. It ... Consequently, pantothenate kinase is a key regulatory enzyme in the CoA biosynthetic pathway. Three distinct types of PanK has ...
Two distal aspartate residues bind to the arginine network, causing the enzyme to fold and reduces its flexibility. A magnesium ... Adenylate kinase, subfamily InterPro: IPR006259 UMP-CMP kinase InterPro: IPR006266 Adenylate kinase, isozyme 1 InterPro: ... adenylate kinase performed dual enzymatic functions. ADK complements nucleoside diphosphate kinase deficiency. Adenylate kinase ... Lu Q, Inouye M (June 1996). "Adenylate kinase complements nucleoside diphosphate kinase deficiency in nucleotide metabolism". ...
"Pregnenolone sulfate: a positive allosteric modulator at the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor" (abstract). Molecular Pharmacology ... Bcr-Abl tyrosine-kinase inhibitors. *Cannabinoid receptor antagonists. *CCR5 receptor antagonists. *Neurokinin 1 receptor ...
2003). "Cloning and characterization of a novel cardiac-specific kinase that interacts specifically with cardiac troponin I.". ...
Glutamate aspartate transporter. *Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. *ATP synthase. *Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II ... Adenylate kinase. *Creatine kinase. Inner membrane. oxidative phosphorylation. *Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase ...
Tropomyosin receptor kinase B § Agonists. References[edit]. *^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000176697 - Ensembl, May ... "PSD-95 promotes Fyn-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR2A". Proceedings of the ... positive regulation of non-membrane spanning protein tyrosine kinase activity. • transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase ... The TrkB receptor is encoded by the NTRK2 gene and is member of a receptor family of tyrosine kinases that includes TrkA and ...
Hebert, A. E.; Dash, P. K. (2002). "Extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity in the entorhinal cortex is necessary for ... "Selective impairment of learning and blockade of long-term potentiation by an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor anatagonist, AP5". ... Memory consolidation in the entorhinal cortex is achieved through extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity. The medial ...
proved that repeated exposure of GHB to MAP kinase affected myelin expression. This is a critical finding since myelin is the ... The major ionotropic glutamine receptors include the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4- ... MAP kinase is imperative for numerous physiological changes including regulation of cell division and differentiation, thus, ... In terms of intracellular signaling, GHB inhibits mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase action via the GABAB receptor ...
Tropomyosin receptor kinase B § Agonists. References[edit]. *^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000176697 - Ensembl, May ... subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (1): 693-99. doi:10.1074/jbc.M008085200 ... positive regulation of non-membrane spanning protein tyrosine kinase activity. • transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase ... The TrkB receptor is encoded by the NTRK2 gene and is member of a receptor family of tyrosine kinases that includes TrkA and ...
"Phosphorylation of glutamyl-prolyl tRNA synthetase by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 dictates transcript-selective translational ...
Branscombe TL, Frankel A, Lee JH, Cook JR, Yang Z, Pestka S, Clarke S (August 2001). "PRMT5 (Janus kinase-binding protein 1) ... in both cases the proton stripped from the nitrogen is dispersed through a histidine-aspartate proton relay system and released ...
From left to right are: immunoglobulin G (IgG, an antibody), hemoglobin, insulin (a hormone), adenylate kinase (an enzyme), and ... and threonine from aspartate. If amino acids are present in the environment, microorganisms can conserve energy by taking up ... Domains usually also have specific functions, such as enzymatic activities (e.g. kinase) or they serve as binding modules (e.g ...
regulated by Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase). to α-ketoglutaric acid. *Glutamate ... Aspartate transaminase. Mitochondrial. electron transport chain/. oxidative phosphorylation. Primary. *Complex I/NADH ...
... protein kinase C (PKC). Both GAD67 and GAD65 are also regulated post-translationally by Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP); GAD is ... "Density of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 messenger RNA-containing neurons that express the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor ... GAD67 is phosphorylated at threonine 91 by protein kinase A (PKA), while GAD65 is phosphorylated, and therefore regulated by, ...
Activation of NMDA receptors requires binding of glutamate or aspartate (aspartate does not stimulate the receptors as strongly ... Src kinase enhances NMDA receptor currents.[98]. *Na+, K+ and Ca2+ not only pass through the NMDA receptor channel but also ... The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel found in ... Reelin modulates NMDA function through Src family kinases and DAB1.[97] significantly enhancing LTP in the hippocampus. ...
ALP and GGT levels will typically rise with one pattern while aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase ( ... Certain genetic diseases, such as sickle cell anemia, spherocytosis, thalassemia, pyruvate kinase deficiency, and glucose 6- ... pyruvate kinase deficiency, ABO/Rh blood type autoantibodies, or infantile pyknocytosis. Serum bilirubin normally drops to a ...
3-kinase and PI 4-kinase binding to the CD4-p56lck complex: the p56lck SH3 domain binds to PI 3-kinase but not PI 4-kinase". ... 1-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase activity. • phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase activity. • kinase activity. • ... protein kinase activator activity. • 1-phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase activity. • protein serine/threonine kinase ... phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex. • cytosol. • phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex, class IA. • plasma membrane. • ...
The amino acids that have negatively charged side chains at pH 7 (pH of water) are glutamate and aspartate. The beads that are ... Mercer, Donald W (1974). "Separation of tissue and serum creatine kinase isoenzymes by ion-exchange column chromatography". ... "The contribution of individual interchain interactions to the stabilization of the T and R states of Escherichia coli aspartate ... application of ion chromatography is in the rapid anion exchange chromatography technique used to separate creatine kinase (CK ...
Mauceri D, Cattabeni F, Di Luca M, Gardoni F (May 2004). "Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylation drives ... element-binding protein through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent stimulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase ... S818 is phosphorylated by protein kinase C, and is necessary for long-term potentiation (LTP; for GluA1's role in LTP, see ... and Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK).[28] Messages are translated on the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rough ER) and ...
This Mg2+ ion also coordinates with the terminal aspartate residue in the Walker B motif through the attacking H2O. A general ... Matte A, Tari LW, Delbaere LT (Apr 1998). "How do kinases transfer phosphoryl groups?". Structure. 6 (4): 413-9. doi:10.1016/ ...
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase. References[edit]. *Stein RC( 2001) Prospects for phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibition as a cancer ... Class II PI 3-kinases are a subgroup of the enzyme family, phosphoinositide 3-kinase that share a common protein domain ... Class II PI 3-kinases were the most recently identified class of PI 3-kinases and little is currently known about these enzymes ... Foster FM, Traer CJ, Abraham SM, and Fry MJ (2003) The phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinase family J Cell Sci 116:3037-3040.[2] ...
Absorbed pyridoxamine is converted to PMP by pyridoxal kinase, which is further converted to PLP by pyridoxamine-phosphate ... The three biochemical tests most widely used are the activation coefficient for the erythrocyte enzyme aspartate ... by a pyridoxal kinase) in the jejunal mucosa. The trapped pyridoxine and pyridoxamine are oxidized to pyridoxal phosphate in ...
Finally, the Akt protein kinase promotes cell survival through two pathways. Akt phosphorylates and inhibits Bad (a Bcl-2 ... Caspases are proteins that are highly conserved, cysteine-dependent aspartate-specific proteases. There are two types of ... rho associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 1).[59][60] ...
Konopacka, Agnieszka, Filip A. Konopacki, and Jan Albrecht (2009) "Protein Kinase G Is Involved in Ammonia-induced Swelling of ... Takadera, Tsuneo, Risa Suzuki, and Tetsuro Mohri (1990 "Protection by Ethanol of Cortical Neurons from N-methyl-d-aspartate- ... by Mild and Intense Insults with N-Methyl-D-Aspartate or Nitric Oxide/Superoxide in Cortical Cell Cultures." Proceedings of the ... "The Environmental Neurotoxin Arsenic Impairs Neurofilament Dynamics by Overactivation of C-JUN Terminal Kinase: Potential Role ...
A prominent kinase is cyclin-dependent kinase (or CDK), which comprises a sub-family of protein kinases. As their name implies ... Kirsch JF, Eichele G, Ford GC, Vincent MG, Jansonius JN, Gehring H, Christen P (Apr 1984). "Mechanism of action of aspartate ... "Biochemical characterization of the human cyclin-dependent protein kinase activating kinase. Identification of p35 as a novel ... Herbst EA, MacPherson RE, LeBlanc PJ, Roy BD, Jeoung NH, Harris RA, Peters SJ (Jan 2014). "Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 ...
藉由將ATP水解成ADP,使泵上高度保守的天冬胺酸片段 (highly conserved aspartate residue) 被磷酸化 (phosphorylation)。 ... Regulation of Na+-K+-ATPase by cAMP-dependent protein kinase anchored on membrane via its anchoring protein Kinji Kurihara, ... mitogen-activated protein kinase, MAPK)訊息的梯瀑效應(cascade)的活化、粒線體活性
mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase binding. • protein binding. • thioesterase binding. • protein kinase binding. • ... "p250GAP, a novel brain-enriched GTPase-activating protein for Rho family GTPases, is involved in the N-methyl-d-aspartate ... "The MAP kinase kinase kinase MLK2 co-localizes with activated JNK along microtubules and associates with kinesin superfamily ... regulation of protein kinase activity. • regulation of attachment of spindle microtubules to kinetochore. • regulation of small ...
regulated by Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase). to α-ketoglutaric acid. *Glutamate ...
Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) 4 and 6 are enzymes that have been shown to promote cell division and multiplication in both ... 16%). The drug also increases the QT interval and liver enzymes (alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase).[2][6] ...
... untranslated regions of the rat N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2A gene , revista = Gene , volume = 295 , número = 1 , páxinas = ... NF-kappaB regulates spatial memory formation and synaptic plasticity through protein kinase A/CREB signaling , revista = Mol. ... Effects of glia maturation factor overexpression in primary astrocytes on MAP kinase activation, transcription factor ...
regulated by Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase). to α-ketoglutaric acid. *Glutamate ... Glutamate aspartate transporter. *Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. *ATP synthase. *Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II ...
2.7.10-2.7.13: protein kinase. (PO4; protein acceptor). 2.7.10: protein-tyrosine. *see tyrosine kinases ...
Aspartate/glutamate/uridylate kinase (IPR001048). Short name: Asp/Glu/Uridylate_kinase Domain relationships *Aspartate/ ... Subunit structure of lysine sensitive aspartate kinase from spinach leaves.. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int. 44 795-806 1998 ... This entry contains proteins with various specificities and includes the aspartate, glutamate and uridylate kinase families. In ... The metabolic regulation of expression of an Arabidopsis thaliana aspartate kinase/homoserine dehydrogenase (AK/HSD) gene, ...
Aspartate kinase or aspartokinase (AK) is an enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of the amino acid aspartate. This ... Viola RE (May 2001). "The central enzymes of the aspartate family of amino acid biosynthesis". Accounts of Chemical Research. ... "aspartate family". Aspartokinases are present only in microorganisms and plants, but not in animals, which must obtain ... aspartate-family amino acids from their diet. Consequently, methionine, lysine and threonine are essential amino acids in ...
... a highly conserved motif found in the cytoplasmic region of the aspartate receptor of bacterial chemotaxis and related members ... Signaling domain of the aspartate receptor is a helical hairpin with a localized kinase docking surface: cysteine and disulfide ... method suggests that the loop between helices alpha7 and alpha8 interacts with the kinase CheA and/or the coupling protein CheW ... a highly conserved motif found in the cytoplasmic region of the aspartate receptor of bacterial chemotaxis and related members ...
Several protein kinases, including protein kinase C (PKC) (Chen and Huang, 1992), protein kinase A (Raman et al., 1996), Ca2+/ ... protein kinase A, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, or the Src tyrosine kinase (Pinna, 1990). The concentration of ... N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor. PCR. polymerase chain reaction. PKC. protein kinase C. PP2. 3-(4-chlorophenyl) 1-(1,1- ... Casein Kinase II Regulates N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Activity in Spinal Cords and Pain Hypersensitivity Induced by Nerve ...
... calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II) in amphetamine-produced conditioned place preference (AMPH-CPP) in rats. An ... This study investigates the roles of hippocampal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors and CaMKII ( ... Roles of hippocampal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in amphetamine-produced ... This study investigates the roles of hippocampal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors and CaMKII (calcium/calmodulin ...
1997) Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase and protein kinase C phosphorylate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors at different sites. ... 1997) Characterization of protein kinase A and protein kinase C phosphorylation of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor NR1 ... protein kinase C. PKM. constitutively active fragment of protein kinase C. Iss. steady-state current. Ip. peak current. BAPTA. ... Regulation of N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Function by Constitutively Active Protein Kinase C. Zhi-Gang Xiong, Ramin Raouf, ...
Function Mutants in Aspartate Kinase and Homoserine Dehydrogenase Genes Points to Complexity in the Regulation of Aspartate- ... Function Mutants in Aspartate Kinase and Homoserine Dehydrogenase Genes Points to Complexity in the Regulation of Aspartate- ... Function Mutants in Aspartate Kinase and Homoserine Dehydrogenase Genes Points to Complexity in the Regulation of Aspartate- ... Function Mutants in Aspartate Kinase and Homoserine Dehydrogenase Genes Points to Complexity in the Regulation of Aspartate- ...
Aurora Kinases as Druggable Targets in Cancer Therapy » Free Fatty Acid Receptors Menu Not Found. Skip to content *Home ... purine biosynthesis wherein hydroxylamine is provided instead of aspartate (12). mARC-mediated. February 12, 2018. Free Fatty ... purine biosynthesis wherein hydroxylamine is provided instead of aspartate (12). mARC-mediated was acquired from Sigma-Aldrich ...
"Transcriptional and biochemical regulation of a novel Arabidopsis thaliana bifunctional aspartate kinase-homoserine ... Aspartate kinase regulation in maize: evidence for co-purification of threonine-sensitive aspartate kinase and homoserine ... Lysine-insensitive aspartate kinase in two threonine-overproducing mutants of maize. Dotson, S.B.; Frisch, D.A.; Somers, D.A.; ... Expression of an aspartate kinase homoserine dehydroge-nase gene is subject to specific spatial and temporal regulation in ...
Involvement of a Dysfunctional Dopamine-D1/N-Methyl-d-aspartate-NR1 and Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II Pathway in ... Involvement of a Dysfunctional Dopamine-D1/N-Methyl-d-aspartate-NR1 and Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II Pathway in ... Involvement of a Dysfunctional Dopamine-D1/N-Methyl-d-aspartate-NR1 and Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II Pathway in ... Involvement of a Dysfunctional Dopamine-D1/N-Methyl-d-aspartate-NR1 and Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II Pathway in ...
... variants of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR1 identify domains involved in regulation by polyamines and protein kinase C. ... Durand, GM, Bennett, MVL & Zukin, RS 1993, Splice variants of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR1 identify domains involved ... variants of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR1 identify domains involved in regulation by polyamines and protein kinase C. ... variants of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR1 identify domains involved in regulation by polyamines and protein kinase C. ...
Aspartate activation of pyruvate kinase in anoxia tolerant molluscs. Publication. Publication. Comparative Biochemistry and ... Storey, K. (1986). Aspartate activation of pyruvate kinase in anoxia tolerant molluscs. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology ... 1. 1. The effects of the amino acid, aspartate, as an allosteric modifier of pyruvate kinase (PK) were surveyed in tissue ... aspartate activation of PK provides co-ordinated control of the coupled anaerobic fermentations of aspartate → succinate and ...
88:4250-4264); aspartate kinase; dihydrodipicolinate synthase (Perl et al. (1993) Bio/Technology, 11:715-718); tryptophan ... Other genes include kinases and those encoding compounds toxic to either male or female gametophytic development. ... 22:907-912); dihydrodipicolinate synthase and desensitized aspartade kinase (Perl et al. (1993) Bio/Technology, 11:715-718); ... such as kinases, and those involved in housekeeping, such as heat shock proteins. More specific categories of transgenes, for ...
Effects of protein kinase inhibitors on [3H]d-aspartate uptake in rat forebrain synaptosomes. A, The effects of Src kinase ... The effects of protein kinase inhibitors on [3H]d-aspartate uptake indicated the selective involvement of Src kinases, which ... The effects of protein kinase inhibitors on [3H]d-aspartate uptake in synaptosomes. One potential mechanism accounting for the ... B, The effects of other protein kinase inhibitors on d-aspartate uptake in synaptosomes. In contrast to Src inhibitors, no ...
... are serine/threonine proteins kinases comparable to the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase (PI3K) proteins family [9] ... Finally, inhibition of mitogen-activated proteins kinase kinase (MEK) synergized with docetaxel treatment in BLBC xenografts. ... Category: Cysteinyl Aspartate Protease Hypoglycemic encephalopathy (HE) is normally the effect of a insufficient glucose ... immunohistochemistry; expressions of AKT/mTOR signaling substances, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p-ERK1/ ...
Mammalian AMP-activated protein kinase subfamily. J. Biol. Chem. 1996. 271:611-614. View this article via: PubMed CrossRef ... Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were measured enzymatically with a commercial ... AMP kinase activation ameliorates insulin resistance induced by free fatty acids in rat skeletal muscle. Am. J. Physiol. ... Activation of glucose transport by AMP-activated protein kinase via stimulation of nitric oxide synthase. Diabetes. 2000. 49: ...
Identification of a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II regulatory phosphorylation site in non-N-methyl-D-aspartate ... Identification of a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II regulatory phosphorylation site in non-N-methyl-D-aspartate ... Identification of a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II regulatory phosphorylation site in non-N-methyl-D-aspartate ... 620-638 in GluR1 was phosphorylated in vitro by CaM-kinase II but not by cAMP-dependent protein kinase or protein kinase C. The ...
Dopamine D1-Dependent Trafficking of Striatal N-Methyl-D-aspartate Glutamate Receptors Requires Fyn Protein Tyrosine Kinase but ... Strategies that prevent NMDA receptor subcellular redistribution through inhibition of Fyn kinase may prove useful in the ... or the protein tyrosine kinase Fyn. In striatal tissue from DARPP-32-depleted mice, basal tyrosine and serine phosphorylation ... reported that activation of the dopamine D1 receptor triggers a rapid redistribution of striatal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) ...
Nefiracetam potentiates N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function via protein kinase C activation and reduces magnesium ... Nefiracetam potentiates N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function via protein kinase C activation and reduces magnesium ... Nefiracetam potentiates N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function via protein kinase C activation and reduces magnesium ... Nefiracetam potentiates N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function via protein kinase C activation and reduces magnesium ...
T1 - Protein kinase C potentiation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activity is not mediated by phosphorylation of N-methyl-D- ... Zheng, X, Zhang, L, Wang, AP, Bennett, MVL & Zukin, RS 1999, Protein kinase C potentiation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor ... Protein kinase C potentiation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activity is not mediated by phosphorylation of N-methyl-D- ... Protein kinase C potentiation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activity is not mediated by phosphorylation of N-methyl-D- ...
Levels of expression of protein kinase C gamma (PKCγ) and NMDA receptor subtype NR1 in spinal cord were detected by Western ... N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) pathway in melatonin-mediated. Experiments were performed on adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats. ... investigated the effect of melatonin on morphine-induced hyperalgesia and tolerance and possible involvement of protein kinase ... Melatonin prevents morphine-induced hyperalgesia and tolerance in rats: role of protein kinase C and N-methyl-D-aspartate ...
Studies on prolactin regulation of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase gene expression and protein kinase C activity and ... Studies on prolactin regulation of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase gene expression and protein kinase C activity and ... Next, we assayed protein kinase C (PKC) activity and expression in PRL and TPA treated prostate cells. We, then determined the ... the enzyme that catalyzes aspartate transamination. In the present studies, we established the role of PRL and the phorbol ...
Regulation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II docking to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors by calcium/calmodulin ... Regulation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II docking to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors by calcium/calmodulin ... Regulation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II docking to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors by calcium/calmodulin ... Regulation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II docking to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors by calcium/calmodulin ...
Nerve Growth Factor Uses Ras/ERK and Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Cascades to Up-regulate the N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptor 1 ... Nerve Growth Factor Uses Ras/ERK and Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Cascades to Up-regulate the N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptor 1 ... Nerve Growth Factor Uses Ras/ERK and Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Cascades to Up-regulate the N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptor 1 ... title = "Nerve Growth Factor Uses Ras/ERK and Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Cascades to Up-regulate the N-Methyl-D-aspartate ...
ALC, absolute lymphocyte count; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; ANC, absolute neutrophil count; AST, aspartate aminotransferase ... CK, creatinine kinase; COVID-19, coronavirus disease; CRP, C-reactive protein; GGO, ground glass opacities; IL-6, interleukin-6 ...
Aspartate/glutamate/uridylate kinase (IPR001048) Pfam signature: PF00696 N-(5phosphoribosyl) anthranilate isomerase (PRAI) ( ... GHMP kinase N-terminal domain (IPR006204) Pfam signature: PF00288 Biotin carboxylase-like, N-terminal domain (IPR005481) Pfam ... 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (IPR013079) Pfam signature: PF01591 NIF system FeS cluster assembly, NifU, N-terminal (IPR002871) Pfam ... Casein kinase II, regulatory subunit (IPR000704) Pfam signature: PF01214 Cytochrome c oxidase, subunit Vb (IPR002124) Pfam ...
Cellular Amino Acid Concentrations and Regulation of Aspartate Kinase in the Thermophilic Phototrophic Prokaryote Chloroflexus ... Aspartic Acid-Aspartate and Glutamic Acid-Glutamate Hydrogen Bonds Having Great Proton Polarizability - IR Investigations by ...
The first key reaction is catalyzed by aspartate kinase (AK, EC 2.7.2.4), which phosphorylates aspartate to produce β-aspartyl ... Aspartate kinase (AK; EC 2.7.2.4) and homoserine dehydrogenase (HSDH; EC 1.1.1.3) were extracted at 4 °C, filtered, centrifuged ... Figure 3 Specific activities of aspartate kinase - AK (A; nmoL min−1 mg−1 protein), homoserine dehydrogenase - HSDH (B; nmoL ... Table 4 Aspartate kinase (AK), homoserine dehydrogenase (HSDH), and dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) inhibition patterns ...
aspartate kinase activity, homoserine dehydrogenase activity, homoserine biosynthetic process, lysine biosynthetic process via ... IPR001048 Asp/Glu/Uridylate_kinase. IPR005106 Asp/hSer_DH_NAD-bd. IPR001341 Asp_kinase. IPR018042 Aspartate_kinase_CS. ... IPR001048 Asp/Glu/Uridylate_kinase. IPR005106 Asp/hSer_DH_NAD-bd. IPR001341 Asp_kinase. IPR018042 Aspartate_kinase_CS. ... aspartate kinase activity Source: EcoCyc ,p>Inferred from Direct Assay,/p> ,p>Used to indicate a direct assay for the function ...
  • Prolactin (PRL) stimulates citrate accumulation in the rat lateral prostate (LP) and pig prostate by increasing the expression of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (mAAT), the enzyme that catalyzes aspartate transamination. (umaryland.edu)
  • Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and creatine kinase values remained unchanged. (aafp.org)
  • Analysis of creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was done commercially. (cranberryinstitute.org)
  • Results of a complete blood cell count revealed marked heterophilia and lymphocytosis, and results of serum biochemical analysis showed severe increases in creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, hypoproteinemia, and hypoalbuminemia. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • No differences in the number of patients with elevated creatinine kinase or aspartate aminotransferase levels were found. (aafp.org)
  • Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) in serum were detected by commercial kits. (hindawi.com)
  • Cysteine and disulfide scanning has been employed to probe the signaling domain, a highly conserved motif found in the cytoplasmic region of the aspartate receptor of bacterial chemotaxis and related members of the taxis receptor family. (nih.gov)
  • Activity assays carried out both in vivo and in vitro indicate that both the buried and exposed faces of this amphipathic helix are critical for proper receptor function and the buried surface is especially important for kinase downregulation. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, the protein-interactions-by-cysteine-modification (PICM) method suggests that the loop between helices alpha7 and alpha8 interacts with the kinase CheA and/or the coupling protein CheW, expanding the receptor surface implicated in kinase docking. (nih.gov)
  • Increased N -methyl- d -aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity and phosphorylation in the spinal cord are critically involved in the synaptic plasticity and central sensitization associated with neuropathic pain. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Thus, the activation of protein kinase C is associated with potentiation of NMDA receptor function in hippocampal neurons largely through an increase in the probability of channel opening. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor NR1 gene encodes RNA that is alternatively spliced to generate at least seven variants. (elsevier.com)
  • Splice variants of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR1 identify domains involved in regulation by polyamines and protein kinase C . Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , 90 (14), 6731-6735. (elsevier.com)
  • Durand, GM , Bennett, MVL & Zukin, RS 1993, ' Splice variants of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR1 identify domains involved in regulation by polyamines and protein kinase C ', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 90, no. 14, pp. 6731-6735. (elsevier.com)
  • Glutamate receptor ion channels are colocalized in postsynaptic densities with Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM-kinase II), which can phosphorylate and strongly enhance non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor current. (elsevier.com)
  • In this study, CaM-kinase II enhanced kainate currents of expressed glutamate receptor 6 in 293 cells and of wild-type glutamate receptor 1, but not the Ser-627 to Ala mutant, in Xenopus oocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • We have previously reported that activation of the dopamine D1 receptor triggers a rapid redistribution of striatal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors between intracellular and postsynaptic subcellular compartments. (uab.edu)
  • Strategies that prevent NMDA receptor subcellular redistribution through inhibition of Fyn kinase may prove useful in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. (uab.edu)
  • Because the NMDA receptor is also modulated by Mg 2+ and protein kinases, we studied their roles in nefiracetam action on the NMDA receptor by the whole-cell patch-clamp technique and immunoblotting analysis using rat cortical or hippocampal neurons in primary culture. (elsevier.com)
  • Levels of expression of protein kinase C gamma (PKCγ) and NMDA receptor subtype NR1 in spinal cord were detected by Western blotting. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ca 2+ influx through the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor leads to activation and postsynaptic accumulation of Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and ultimately to long term potentiation, which is thought to be the physiological correlate of learning and memory. (elsevier.com)
  • We reported previously that nerve growth factor (NGF) up-regulates activity of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 (NR1) promoter. (elsevier.com)
  • Dimers were engineered of the cytoplasmic domain of the Escherichia coli aspartate receptor that stimulated the kinase CheA in vitro. (sciencemag.org)
  • Most well-characterized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), including Xanthomonas resistance 21, flagellin sensitive 2, and elongation factor-Tu receptor, possess intrinsic protein kinase activity and regulate downstream signaling through phosphorylation events. (frontiersin.org)
  • Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) plays a major role in neuronal excitability, especially that triggered by the N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA)-sensitive glutamatergic receptor. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II regulation of I Ks during sustained β-adrenergic receptor stimulation. (nih.gov)
  • SUB encodes a putative leucine-rich repeat transmembrane receptor-like kinase. (pnas.org)
  • The SUB receptor-like kinase may therefore signal in an atypical fashion. (pnas.org)
  • Signaling involving receptor-like kinases (RLKs) constitutes an essential aspect of plant cell communication and contributes to plant-pathogen interactions, hormone signaling, and development ( 3 - 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Protein kinase C enhances recombinant bovine alpha 1 beta 1 gamma 2L GABAA receptor whole-cell currents expressed in L929 fibroblasts. (ox.ac.uk)
  • An example is PDB 1IRK, the crystal structure of the tyrosine kinase domain of the human insulin receptor . (bionity.com)
  • the transmembrane receptor-linked kinases. (bionity.com)
  • At present, 58 receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are known, grouped into 20 subfamilies. (bionity.com)
  • The first non-receptor tyrosine kinase identified was the v-src oncogenic protein. (bionity.com)
  • Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II is associated with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. (semanticscholar.org)
  • NR1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, and protein kinase C? (jove.com)
  • This CaM-kinase II regulatory phosphorylation site is conserved in all AMPA/ kainate-type glutamate receptors, and its phosphorylation may be important in enhancing postsynaptic responsiveness as occurs during synaptic plasticity. (elsevier.com)
  • These findings suggest a novel mechanism for the trafficking of striatal NMDA receptors by signaling pathways that are independent of DARPP-32 but require Fyn protein tyrosine kinase. (uab.edu)
  • Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are known to be down-regulated in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. (elsevier.com)
  • N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are Ca 2+ -permeable glutamate- gated ion channels whose physiological properties in neurons are modulated by protein kinase C (PKC). (elsevier.com)
  • The PKA, PKC, and protein phosphatase-2B/calcineurin (CaN) scaffold protein A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) 79 is localized to excitatory neuronal synapses where it is recruited to glutamate receptors by interactions with membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) scaffold proteins. (rupress.org)
  • Organized around these PSD scaffolds are membrane receptors including N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) ionotropic glutamate receptors as well as intracellular signaling proteins. (rupress.org)
  • Aspartate kinase or aspartokinase (AK) is an enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of the amino acid aspartate. (wikipedia.org)
  • We also discuss the role of phosphorylation in regulating mitogen-associated protein kinase cascades and transcription factors in plant immune signaling. (frontiersin.org)
  • Since we observed that acute ethanol inhibition of the NMDAR was regulated by protein tyrosine phosphorylation, we investigated the role of protein tyrosine kinases and phosphatases on the NMDAR functions by chronic ethanol treatment. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Phosphorylation of proteins by kinases is an important mechanism in signal transduction for regulation of enzyme activity. (bionity.com)
  • When pyruvate kinase is inhibited by phosphorylation (which occurs in the fasting state, via glucagon ), phosphoenolpyruvate is prevented from conversion to pyruvate. (bionity.com)
  • Thus, SelO uses the protein kinase fold to mediate AMPylation rather than phosphorylation. (sciencemag.org)
  • The ability of the constitutively active fragment of protein kinase C (PKM) to modulate N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA)-activated currents in cultured mouse hippocampal neurons and acutely isolated CA1 hippocampal neurons from postnatal rats was studied using patch-clamp techniques. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The nefiracetam potentiation of NMDA currents was inhibited by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor chelerythrine, but not by the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor N-[2-(4-bromocinnamylamino) ethyl]-5-isoquinoline (H89). (elsevier.com)
  • The present study investigated the effect of melatonin on morphine-induced hyperalgesia and tolerance and possible involvement of protein kinase C (PKC)/N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) pathway in melatonin-mediated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Diagnosis of ER is done through biochemical analysis of creatine kinase and aspartate transaminase levels within blood. (brightkite.com)
  • Management decisions were based on clinical, electrocardiographic, and routine biochemical marker results (daily serum creatine kinase, aspartate transaminase, and hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase activities). (bmj.com)
  • The metabolic regulation of expression of an Arabidopsis thaliana aspartate kinase/homoserine dehydrogenase (AK/HSD) gene, which encodes two linked key enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of aspartate family amino acids has been studied [ PMID: 9501134 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Transcriptional and biochemical regulation of a novel Arabidopsis thaliana bifunctional aspartate. (deepdyve.com)
  • Analysis of the regulation of glutamate transporter and Na,K-ATPase activities was assessed using [ 3 H] d -aspartate, [ 3 H] l -glutamate, and rubidium-86 uptake into synaptosomes and cultured astrocytes. (jneurosci.org)
  • In prokaryotes and plants the synthesis of the essential amino acids lysine and threonine is predominantly regulated by feed-back inhibition of aspartate kinase (AK) and dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHPS). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • However, Lys metabolism in immature grains was modified, showing increases in the specific activities of aspartate kinase (AK) and dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) after Cd exposure. (scielo.br)
  • Biosynthesis of aspartate (Asp)-derived amino acids lysine (Lys), methionine (Met), threonine (Thr), and isoleucine involves monofunctional Asp kinases (AKs) and dual-functional Asp kinase-homoserine dehydrogenases (AK-HSDHs). (plantphysiol.org)
  • L- CC threonine from L-aspartate: step 1/5. (genome.jp)
  • The effects of the amino acid, aspartate, as an allosteric modifier of pyruvate kinase (PK) were surveyed in tissue extracts from 18 species of animals. (carleton.ca)
  • Pyruvate kinase is an enzyme involved in glycolysis . (bionity.com)
  • Pyruvate kinase is also regulated indirectly by insulin and glucagon , which control a protein kinase . (bionity.com)
  • This protein kinase phosphorylates pyruvate kinase to inactivate it and dephosphorylates the enzyme to activate it. (bionity.com)
  • These two signaling molecules--in conjunction with the protein kinase--prevent pyruvate kinase from being active at the same time as the enzymes which catalyze the reverse reaction ( pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase ), preventing a futile cycle. (bionity.com)
  • Genetic defects of this enzyme cause the disease known as pyruvate kinase deficiency . (bionity.com)
  • In this condition, a lack of pyruvate kinase slows down the process of glycolysis. (bionity.com)
  • One example is red blood cells , which in a state of pyruvate kinase deficiency rapidly become deficient in ATP and can undergo hemolysis . (bionity.com)
  • Therefore, pyruvate kinase deficiency can cause hemolytic anemia . (bionity.com)
  • Pyruvate kinase also serves as a regulatory enzyme for gluconeogenesis , a biochemical pathway in which the liver generates glucose from pyruvate and other substrates. (bionity.com)
  • The lysine-sensitive isoenzyme of aspartate kinase from spinach leaves has a subunit composition of 4 large and 4 small subunits [ PMID: 9584993 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Subunit structure of lysine sensitive aspartate kinase from spinach leaves. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Frankard, Valérie 2004-10-17 00:00:00 An aspartate kinase-homoserine dehydrogenase (AK-HSDH) cDNA of Arabidopsis thaliana has been cloned by functional complementation of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain mutated in its homoserine dehydrogenase (HSDH) gene (hom6). (deepdyve.com)
  • The first key reaction is catalyzed by aspartate kinase (AK, EC 2.7.2.4), which phosphorylates aspartate to produce β-aspartyl phosphate, which is then converted into β-aspartyl semialdehyde by the enzyme aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASADH, EC 1.2.1.11). (scielo.br)
  • Inhibition of protein tyrosine kinases or protein kinase C has little effect on NMDAR currents potentiated by nerve injury. (aspetjournals.org)
  • PTC299 has advantages over previously reported DHODH inhibitors, including greater potency, good oral bioavailability, and lack of off-target kinase inhibition and myelosuppression, and thus may be useful for the targeted treatment of hematologic malignancies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Two of the three isolated clones were also able to complement a mutant yeast aspartate kinase (AK) gene (hom3). (deepdyve.com)
  • To unravel the signaling pathways underlying this trafficking, we studied mice with targeted disruptions of either the gene that encodes the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP-32), a potent and selective inhibitor of protein phosphatase-1, or the protein tyrosine kinase Fyn. (uab.edu)
  • Our results suggest that NGF utilizes both the Ras/ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways to up-regulate NR1 promoter activity and that Sp1 is a novel substrate of NGF-activated ERKs. (elsevier.com)
  • Aspartokinases are present only in microorganisms and plants, but not in animals, which must obtain aspartate-family amino acids from their diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conversion of aspartate into either the storage amino acid asparagine or aspartate family amino acids may be subject to a coordinated, reciprocal metabolic control, and this biochemical branch point is a part of a larger, coordinated regulatory mechanism of nitrogen and carbon storage and utilization. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Read the research article ' An aspartate-specific solute-binding protein regulates protein kinase G activity to control glutamate metabolism in Mycobacteria . (le.ac.uk)
  • This potentiation was observed in the absence or presence of extracellular Ca 2+ and was prevented by the coapplication of the inhibitory peptide protein kinase inhibitor(19-36). (aspetjournals.org)
  • The influx of Ca 2+ through these channels stimulates Ca 2+ -dependent enzymes such as Ca 2+ -dependent PKC, and activation of this kinase contributes to the induction of long term potentiation in hippocampal neurons ( Bliss and Collingridge, 1993 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • This potentiation was observed in the absence or presence of extracellular Ca2+ and was prevented by the coapplication of the inhibitory peptide protein kinase inhibitor(19-36). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Coexpressing constitutively active forms of Ras, Raf, or MAPK/ERK kinase 1 (MEK1) increased promoter activity dramatically. (elsevier.com)
  • A mutation that causes certain tyrosine kinases to be constitutively active has been associated with several cancers. (bionity.com)
  • The enzymatic activity of this catalytic fragment is independent of intracellular calcium and diacylglycerol, because the regulatory domain of the kinase is absent. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This entry contains proteins with various specificities and includes the aspartate, glutamate and uridylate kinase families. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Biochemical assays using bacterially expressed fusion proteins indicate that the SUB kinase domain lacks enzymatic phosphotransfer activity. (pnas.org)
  • Strain KH11 was constructed to serve as a prototrophic strain with a wild-type glycerol kinase. (asm.org)
  • Characterization of KH11 showed high levels of glycerol kinase enzymatic activity when cells are grown in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium, i.e., noninducing conditions (Table 1 ). (asm.org)
  • The specific activities of glycerol kinase were determined in extracts of cells that were grown overnight in LB medium at 37°C, collected by centrifugation, and disrupted by sonication after being resuspended in 0.1 M triethanolamine-HCl, 2 mM glycerol, and 2 mM β-mercaptoethanol (pH 7.0). (asm.org)
  • Glycerol kinase activities were determined by using an ADP-coupled continuous spectrophotometric assay at pH 7.0 and 25°C with 2 mM glycerol and 2.5 mM ATP ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • The glycerol kinase activity of strain KH11 is much higher than that of strains MC4100, MG1655, and MM130. (asm.org)
  • High expression of glycerol kinase after growth in rich medium was reported for Lin strain 43 ( 11 ) and is verified as shown in Table 1 . (asm.org)
  • This resistance occurred without an increase in the NMDAR subunit expression but was associated with decreases in the levels of phospho-Y-1472 NR2B, increases in the levels of STEP33, increases in phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (pp38 MAPK), and acquisition of tolerance to the sedative effects of ethanol. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The cluster consists of the genes alfHC , encoding a major facilitator superfamily (MFS) permease and the α- l -fucosidase AlfC, and the divergently oriented asdA (aspartate 4-decarboxylase), alfR2 (transcriptional regulator), pepV (peptidase), asnA2 (glycosyl-asparaginase), and sugK (sugar kinase) genes. (asm.org)
  • Screening of a kinase library reveals novel pro-senescence kinases and their common NF-κB-dependent transcriptional program. (senescence.info)
  • Evidence based on a combination of in vitro kinase assays and genetics suggests that SUB carries an enzymatically inactive kinase domain and may signal in an atypical fashion. (pnas.org)
  • Das A, Mahale S, Prashar V, Bihani S, Ferrer J-L, Hosur M, "X-ray snapshot of HIV-1 protease in action : observation of tetrahedral intermediate and its SIHB with catalytic aspartate", JACS 132(18) (2010), 6366-6373. (ibs.fr)
  • Imatinib (brand names Gleevec and Glivec) is a drug able to bind the catalytic cleft of these tyrosine kinases, inhibiting its activity. (bionity.com)
  • The evolutionarily conserved selenoprotein-O (SelO) is predicted to be a pseudokinase because it lacks an aspartate in the catalytic loop. (sciencemag.org)
  • Structural and mutational analysis suggested that Asp 262 substituted for the aspartate found in the catalytic loops of kinases. (sciencemag.org)
  • Robin A , Cobessi D, Curien G, Robert-Genthon M. Ferrer J-L, and Dumas R, "A new mode of dimerization of allosteric enzymes with ACT domains revealed by the crystal structure of the aspartate kinase from Cyanobacteria", JMB 399 (2010), 283-293. (ibs.fr)
  • It is found in protein kinases with various specificities, including the aspartate, glutamate and uridylate kinase families. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strikingly, casein kinase II (CK2) inhibitors normalize increased NMDAR currents of dorsal horn neurons in nerve-injured rats. (aspetjournals.org)
  • However, the specific protein kinases responsible for increased NMDAR activity caused by nerve injury have not been conclusively identified. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In humans, there are 32 cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinases ( EC 2.7.10.2). (bionity.com)
  • However, compared with its position in conventional protein kinases, the ATP derivative was flipped in the active site of SelO, such that the γ-phosphate (which is typically transferred by kinases to protein substrates) was buried within the kinase domain. (sciencemag.org)
  • Most tyrosine kinases have an associated protein tyrosine phosphatase. (bionity.com)
  • Next, we assayed protein kinase C (PKC) activity and expression in PRL and TPA treated prostate cells. (umaryland.edu)
  • In fact, there are now extensive lines of evidence that illustrate the importance of this lipid phosphatase activity of PTEN, in particular the ability to antagonize PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) function by dephosphorylating the 3 position in the inositol sugar ring, for its tumour suppressor function and its ability to control cell proliferation, survival and motility [ 1 ]. (biochemj.org)
  • We used plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity as an indicator of muscle damage to investigate whether the high intensity, long-duration flights of two migratory shorebird species cause muscle damage that must be repaired during stopover. (biologists.org)
  • The effects of protein kinase inhibitors on [ 3 H] d -aspartate uptake indicated the selective involvement of Src kinases, which are probably a component of the Na,K-ATPase/glutamate transporter complex. (jneurosci.org)
  • and (b) aspartate activation of PK provides co-ordinated control of the coupled anaerobic fermentations of aspartate → succinate and glycogen → alanine. (carleton.ca)
  • Aspartate β-hydroxylase modulates cellular senescence through glycogen synthase kinase 3β in hepatocellular carcinoma. (senescence.info)
  • The splice variants differed in the extent to which they could be potentiated by activators of protein kinase C (PKC) from 3- to 20-fold. (elsevier.com)