Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.3.1.2.Aspartate Ammonia-Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of aspartic acid to ammonia and fumaric acid in plants and some microorganisms. EC 4.3.1.1.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Aspartate Carbamoyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of carbamoyl phosphate and L-aspartate to yield orthophosphate and N-carbamoyl-L-aspartate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.1.3.2.RNA Ligase (ATP): An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.DNA Ligases: Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC 6.5.1.1 (ATP) and EC 6.5.1.2 (NAD).OregonCrows: Common name for the largest birds in the order PASSERIFORMES, family Corvidae. These omnivorous black birds comprise most of the species in the genus Corvus, along with ravens and jackdaws (which are often also referred to as crows).Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Leuconostocaceae: A family of gram-positive bacteria in the order Lactobacillales. Lactic acid is the main product of their carbohydrate metabolism.Lactobacillales: An order of gram-positive bacteria in the class Bacilli, that have the ability to ferment sugars to lactic acid. They are widespread in nature and commonly used to produce fermented foods.Glutamate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.4.1.2.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporter: A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Individualized Medicine: Therapeutic approach tailoring therapy for genetically defined subgroups of patients.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Dermatoglyphics: The study of the patterns of ridges of the skin of the fingers, palms, toes, and soles.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.TaiwanResearch: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Diving: An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Bacteroides fragilis: Gram-negative bacteria occurring in the lower intestinal tracts of man and other animals. It is the most common species of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human soft tissue infections.Bacteroides Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus BACTEROIDES.Prevotella: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods. Organisms of this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings in 1990 indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was established.Tetracycline Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.British Columbia: A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)Alberta: A province of western Canada, lying between the provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan. Its capital is Edmonton. It was named in honor of Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p26 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p12)Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Mycoplasma gallisepticum: A species of gram-negative bacteria causing chronic respiratory disease in POULTRY.ArchivesMycoplasma: A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Mallory Bodies: Cytoplasmic hyaline inclusions in HEPATOCYTES. They are associated with ALCOHOLIC STEATOHEPATITIS and non-alcoholic STEATOHEPATITIS, but are also present in benign and malignant hepatocellular neoplasms, and metabolic, toxic, and chronic cholestatic LIVER DISEASES.Chloride Peroxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the chlorination of a range of organic molecules, forming stable carbon-chloride bonds. EC 1.11.1.10.Retroperitoneal Space: An area occupying the most posterior aspect of the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. It is bounded laterally by the borders of the quadratus lumborum muscles and extends from the DIAPHRAGM to the brim of the true PELVIS, where it continues as the pelvic extraperitoneal space.CobamidesFree Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.

L-Asparagine synthetase in serum as a marker for neoplasia. (1/128)

L-Asparagine synthetase appears in serum approximately 7 days after the s.c. implantation of 1 X 10(5) cells of Leukemia 5178Y/AR (resistant to L-asparaginase) and increases in activity as the neoplasm grows and metastasizes. The principal source of the enzyme is the primary tumor. After intravranial inoculation of tumor, the rate of leakage of the enzyme is more pronounced than when the subcutaneous, intramuscular, or intraperitoneal routes are used. 1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (NSC 79037), a nitro-sourea effective in the palliation of L5178Y/AR, temporarily halts the influx of enzyme into the blood stream, as does surgical excision of the s.c. tumor nodules. Treatment of mice with L-asparaginase within 24 hr of inoculation of the tumor markedly augments both tumor growth and the rate of penetration of L-asparagine synthetase into the circulation. Several other L-asparagine synthetase into the circulation. Several other L-asparaginase-resistant tumors also were found to spill L-asparagine synthetase into the serum, but the correlation between this phenomenon and the specific activity of the enzyme in homogenates of the tumor was imperfect.  (+info)

Transcriptional regulation of the human asparagine synthetase gene by carbohydrate availability. (2/128)

Transcription of the asparagine synthetase (AS) gene is induced by amino acid deprivation. The present data illustrate that this gene is also under transcriptional control by carbohydrate availability. Incubation of human HepG2 hepatoma cells in glucose-free medium resulted in an increased AS mRNA content, reaching a maximum of about 14-fold over control cells after approx. 12 h. Extracellular glucose caused the repression of the content of AS mRNA in a concentration-dependent manner, with a k1/2 (concentration causing a half-maximal repression) of 1 mM. Fructose, galactose, mannose, 2-deoxyglucose and xylitol were found to maintain the mRNA content of both AS and the glucose-regulated protein GRP78 in a state of repression, whereas 3-O-methylglucose did not. Incubation in either histidine-free or glucose-free medium also resulted in adaptive regulation of the AS gene in BNL-CL.2 mouse hepatocytes, rat C6 glioma cells and human MOLT4 lymphocytes, in addition to HepG2 cells. In contrast, the steady-state mRNA content of GRP78 was unaffected by amino acid availability. Transient transfection assays using a reporter gene construct documented that glucose deprivation increases AS gene transcription via elements within the proximal 3 kbp of the AS promoter. These results illustrate that human AS gene transcription is induced following glucose limitation of the cells.  (+info)

RT-PCR cloning, characterization and mRNA expression analysis of a cDNA encoding a type II asparagine synthetase in common bean. (3/128)

Following a RT-PCR strategy based on the design of degenerate oligonucleotides resembling conserved domains of asparagine synthetase (AS; EC 6.3.5.4), we isolated a 2 kb cDNA clone (PVAS2) from root tissue of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). PVAS2 encodes a protein of 584 amino acids with a predicted relative molecular mass of 65810 Da, an isoelectric point of 6.4, and a net charge of -7.2 at pH 7.0. The amino acid sequence of the protein encoded by PVAS2 is very similar to that encoded by the soybean SAS2 asparagine synthetase gene. The amino-terminal residues of the predicted PVAS2 protein are identical to the amino acids that constitute the glutamine-binding (GAT) domain of AS from other plant species, which suggests that the PVAS2 cDNA encodes a type II glutamine-dependent form of asparagine synthetase. Southern blot analysis indicates that the common bean AS is part of a small family composed of at least two genes. Expression analysis by Northern blot revealed that the PVAS2 transcript accumulates to a high level in roots and, to a lesser extent, in nodules and developing pods. Accumulation of the PVAS2 transcript in the root seems to be negatively regulated by light and sucrose, and positively regulated by nitrate.  (+info)

Activation of the unfolded protein response pathway induces human asparagine synthetase gene expression. (4/128)

The gene for the amino acid biosynthetic activity asparagine synthetase (AS) is induced by both amino acid and glucose deprivation of cells. The data reported here document that the human AS gene is induced following activation of the Unfolded Response Pathway (UPR), also known as the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response (ERSR) in mammals. Increased AS transcription occurs in response to glucose deprivation, tunicamycin, or azetidine-2-carboxylate, all known to activate the UPR/ERSR pathway. Previously identified ERSR target genes contain multiple copies of a single highly conserved cis-element. In contrast, the human AS gene does not contain the ERSR element, as it has been described for other responsive genes. Instead, AS induction requires an Sp1-like sequence, a sequence previously shown to be associated with amino acid control of transcription, and possibly, a third region containing no consensus sequences for known transcription factors. Oligonucleotides covering each of these regions form DNA-protein complexes in vitro, and for some the amount of these complexes is greater when nuclear extracts from glucose-starved cells are tested. These results document that a wider range of metabolic activities are activated by the UPR/ERSR pathway than previously recognized and that genomic elements other than those already described can serve to enhance transcription of specific target genes.  (+info)

Using genomic information to investigate the function of ThiI, an enzyme shared between thiamin and 4-thiouridine biosynthesis. (5/128)

The gene thiI encodes a protein (ThiI) that plays a role in the transfer of sulfur from cysteine to both thiamin and 4-thiouridine, but the reaction catalyzed by ThiI remains undetermined. Based upon sequence alignments, ThiI shares a unique "P-loop" motif with the PPi synthetase family, four enzymes that catalyze adenylation and subsequent substitution of carbonyl oxygens. To test whether or not this motif is critical for ThiI function, the Asp in the motif was converted to Ala (D189A), and a screen for in vivo 4-thiouridine production revealed the altered enzyme to be inactive. Further scrutiny of sequence data and the crystal structures of two members of the PPi synthetase family implicated Lys321 in the proposed adenylation function of ThiI, and the critical nature of Lys321 has been demonstrated by site-directed mutagenesis and genetic screening. Our results, then, indicate that ThiI catalyzes the adenylation of a substrate at the expense of ATP, a narrowing of possible reactions that provides a strong new basis for deducing the early steps in the transfer of sulfur from cysteine to both thiamin and 4-thiouridine.  (+info)

A mutation in the Corynebacterium glutamicum ltsA gene causes susceptibility to lysozyme, temperature-sensitive growth, and L-glutamate production. (6/128)

The Corynebacterium glutamicum mutant KY9714, originally isolated as a lysozyme-sensitive mutant, does not grow at 37 degrees C. Complementation tests and DNA sequencing analysis revealed that a mutation in a single gene of 1,920 bp, ltsA (lysozyme and temperature sensitive), was responsible for its lysozyme sensitivity and temperature sensitivity. The ltsA gene encodes a protein homologous to the glutamine-dependent asparagine synthetases of various organisms, but it could not rescue the asparagine auxotrophy of an Escherichia coli asnA asnB double mutant. Replacement of the N-terminal Cys residue (which is conserved in glutamine-dependent amidotransferases and is essential for enzyme activity) by an Ala residue resulted in the loss of complementation in C. glutamicum. The mutant ltsA gene has an amber mutation, and the disruption of the ltsA gene caused lysozyme and temperature sensitivity similar to that in the KY9714 mutant. L-Glutamate production was induced by elevating growth temperature in the disruptant. These results indicate that the ltsA gene encodes a novel glutamine-dependent amidotransferase that is involved in the mechanisms of formation of rigid cell wall structure and in the L-glutamate production of C. glutamicum.  (+info)

Evidence for multiple signaling pathways in the regulation of gene expression by amino acids in human cell lines. (7/128)

In mammals, plasma concentrations of amino acids (AA) are affected by nutritional or pathologic conditions. Alterations in AA profiles have been reported as a result of a deficiency of any one of the essential AA, a dietary imbalance of AA or an insufficient intake of protein. In recent years, evidence has accumulated that AA availability regulates the expression of several genes involved in the regulation of a number of cellular functions or AA metabolism. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms involved in the AA regulation of mammalian gene expression are limited, particularly the signaling pathways mediating the AA response. This work provides a better understanding of the signaling pathways involved in the AA control of gene expression. We studied the expression of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and asparagine synthetase (AS) in response to deprivation of a single AA and investigated the possible link between protein synthesis inhibition due to amino acid limitation and gene expression. We have shown the following: 1) several mechanisms are involved in the AA control of gene expression. When omitted from the culture medium, each AA can activate one (or several) specific signaling pathways leading to the regulation of one specific pattern of genes. 2) AA limitation by itself can induce gene expression independently of a cellular stress due to protein synthesis inhibition. Together, these results suggest that AA control of gene expression involves several specific mechanisms by which one AA (or one group of AA) can activate one signaling pathway and thus alter one specific pattern of gene expression.  (+info)

Activation of the human asparagine synthetase gene by the amino acid response and the endoplasmic reticulum stress response pathways occurs by common genomic elements. (8/128)

The human asparagine synthetase (AS) gene is transcriptionally regulated by amino acid deprivation (amino acid response, AAR) and the endoplasmic reticulum stress response (ERSR), also known as the unfolded protein response pathway. The results reported here document the novel observation that induction of the AS gene by the AAR and ERSR pathways occurs via the same set of genomic elements. Data supporting this conclusion include transient transfection of AS promoter/reporter gene constructs that illustrate that the transcriptional control elements used by both pathways are contained with nucleotides -111 to -34 of the AS promoter. In vivo footprinting analysis of this region identified six specific protein-binding sites. Within two of these sites, altered footprinting was observed following amino acid or glucose deprivation, but the patterns were identical for both the AAR and the ERSR pathway. Site-directed mutation of individual nucleotides within these two binding sites confirmed their importance for regulated transcription, and none of the mutations resulted in loss of response of only one pathway. Neither of these two sites corresponds to a recently identified ERSR cis-element, nor do they contain consensus sequences for known transcription factors. Collectively, the data document that there are at least two independent transcriptional mechanisms for gene activation by the ERSR pathway, one of which terminates at the same genomic elements used by the AAR pathway.  (+info)

*Asparagine synthetase

... (or aspartate-ammonia ligase) is a chiefly cytoplasmic enzyme that generates asparagine from aspartate. ... This domain is responsible for the binding of both Mg2+ATP and aspartate. These two active sites are connected by a tunnel ... The human glutamine-dependent AS is encoded by a single gene located in region q21.3 on chromosome 7. The lack of ammonia- ... Thus, after being released in, and channeled from, the glutaminase site, the ammonia molecule attacks the bound βAspAMP 1 to ...

*List of MeSH codes (D08)

... aspartate-ammonia ligase MeSH D08.811.464.259.200.600 --- glutamate-ammonia ligase MeSH D08.811.464.259.300 --- ... ammonia-lyases MeSH D08.811.520.232.400.200 --- aspartate ammonia-lyase MeSH D08.811.520.232.400.350 --- ethanolamine ammonia- ... alanine-tRNA ligase MeSH D08.811.464.263.200.100 --- arginine-tRNA ligase MeSH D08.811.464.263.200.150 --- aspartate-tRNA ... tyrosine-tRNA ligase MeSH D08.811.464.263.200.950 --- valine-tRNA ligase MeSH D08.811.464.267.500 --- coenzyme a ligases MeSH ...

*Aspartate-ammonia ligase

In enzymology, an aspartate-ammonia ligase (EC 6.3.1.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-aspartate + ... ligases (amide synthases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-aspartate:ammonia ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in ... This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds as acid-D-ammonia (or amine) ... Webster GC & Varner JE (1955). "Aspartate metabolism and asparagine synthesis in plant systems". J. Biol. Chem. 215: 91-99. ...

*Aspartate-ammonia ligase (ADP-forming)

... an aspartate-ammonia ligase (ADP-forming) (EC 6.3.1.4) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-aspartate + ... ligases (amide synthases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-aspartate:ammonia ligase (ADP-forming). Other names in ... This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds as acid-D-ammonia (or amine) ... L-aspartate, and NH3, whereas its 3 products are ADP, phosphate, and L-asparagine. ...

*D-aspartate ligase

This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds as acid-D-ammonia (or amine) ... In enzymology, a D-aspartate ligase (EC 6.3.1.12) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + D-aspartate + [beta- ... n ligase (ADP-forming). Other names in common use include Aslfm, UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide:D-aspartate ligase, and D-aspartic ... Heijenoort J, Legrand R, Brouard JP, Rice L, Mainardi JL (2006). "Aslfm, the D-aspartate ligase responsible for the addition of ...

*List of EC numbers (EC 6)

... aspartate-ammonia ligase EC 6.3.1.2: glutamate-ammonia ligase EC 6.3.1.3: Now EC 6.3.4.13 EC 6.3.1.4: aspartate-ammonia ligase ... valine-tRNA ligase EC 6.1.1.10: methionine-tRNA ligase EC 6.1.1.11: serine-tRNA ligase EC 6.1.1.12: aspartate-tRNA ligase EC ... histidine-tRNA ligase EC 6.1.1.22: asparagine-tRNA ligase EC 6.1.1.23: aspartate-tRNAAsn ligase EC 6.1.1.24: glutamate-tRNAGln ... diphthine-ammonia ligase EC 6.3.2.1: pantoate-b-alanine ligase EC 6.3.2.2: glutamate-cysteine ligase EC 6.3.2.3: glutathione ...

*Biosynthesis

... asparagine synthetase catalyzes the addition of nitrogen from glutamine or soluble ammonia to aspartate to yield asparagine. ... Okazaki fragments are covalently joined by DNA ligase to form a continuous strand. Then, to complete DNA replication, RNA ... The biosynthesis of aspartate is a one step reaction that is catalyzed by a single enzyme. The enzyme aspartate ... The aspartate family of amino acids includes: threonine, lysine, methionine, isoleucine, and aspartate. Lysine and isoleucine ...

*List of EC numbers (EC 4)

... aspartate ammonia-lyase EC 4.3.1.2: methylaspartate ammonia-lyase EC 4.3.1.3: histidine ammonia-lyase EC 4.3.1.4: ... heme ligase "Enzyme: 4.1.2.8". Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Retrieved 2017-04-07. European Bioinformatics Institute ... b-alanyl-CoA ammonia-lyase EC 4.3.1.7: ethanolamine ammonia-lyase EC 4.3.1.8: now EC 2.5.1.61 EC 4.3.1.9: glucosaminate ammonia ... threo-3-hydroxyaspartate ammonia-lyase EC 4.3.1.17: L-serine ammonia-lyase EC 4.3.1.18: D-serine ammonia-lyase EC 4.3.1.19: ...

*List of EC numbers (EC 2)

... glutamate-ammonia-ligase) adenylyltransferase EC 2.7.7.43: N-acylneuraminate cytidylyltransferase EC 2.7.7.44: glucuronate-1- ... aspartate kinase EC 2.7.2.5: now EC 6.3.4.16 EC 2.7.2.6: formate kinase EC 2.7.2.7: butyrate kinase EC 2.7.2.8: acetylglutamate ... ammonia kinase EC 2.7.3.9: Phosphoenolpyruvate-protein phosphotransferase EC 2.7.3.10: agmatine kinase EC 2.7.3.11: now EC 2.7. ... aspartate transaminase EC 2.6.1.2: alanine transaminase EC 2.6.1.3: cysteine transaminase EC 2.6.1.4: glycine transaminase EC ...

*List of enzymes

EC 2.6.1 Alanine transaminase EC 2.6.1.2 Aspartate transaminase EC 2.6.1.1 Category:EC 2.7.2 Butyrate kinase (EC 2.7.2.7) ... EC 4.3.1 Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.24) Category:EC 4.4.1 Cystathionine gamma-lyase Cystathionine beta-lyase ... DNA ligase (EC 6.5.1.1). ...

*Amphetamine

CYP2D6, dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH), flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3), butyrate-CoA ligase (XM-ligase), and glycine N- ... The review indicated that magnesium L-aspartate and magnesium chloride produce significant changes in addictive behavior; other ... Another method is the reaction of phenylacetone with ammonia, producing an imine intermediate that is reduced to the primary ... This reaction is catalyzed by the HXM-A and HXM-B medium-chain acid:CoA ligases and requires energy in the form of ATP. ... The ...

*Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase

Carboxy phosphate reacts with ammonia to give carbamic acid. In turn, carbamic acid reacts with a second ATP to give carbamoyl ... Aspartate. *Cysteine. *D-alanine-poly(phosphoribitol) ligase. *Glutamate. *Glutamine. *Glycine. *Histidine. *Isoleucine ... The small subunit contains the glutamine binding site and catalyses the hydrolysis of glutamine to glutamate and ammonia, which ... The carboxylphosphate then reacts with ammonia to form carbamic acid, releasing inorganic phosphate. ...

*Catalytic triad

In the first active site, a cysteine triad hydrolyses a glutamine substrate to release free ammonia. The ammonia then diffuses ... The aspartate is hydrogen bonded to the histidine, increasing the pKa of its imidazole nitrogen from 7 to around 12. This ... "A Designed Peptide Ligase for Total Synthesis of Ribonuclease A with Unnatural Catalytic Residues". Science. 266 (5183): 243- ... The Serine-Histidine-Aspartate motif is one of the most thoroughly characterised catalytic motifs in biochemistry. The triad is ...

*List of EC numbers (EC 3)

... glutamate-ammonia ligase) hydrolase EC 3.1.4.16: 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 2'-phosphodiesterase EC 3.1.4.17: 3',5'-cyclic- ... The enzyme is not a serine protease, as thought previously, but an aspartate protease EC 3.4.21.88: Repressor LexA EC 3.4.21.89 ... N-acyl-D-aspartate deacylase EC 3.5.1.84: biuret amidohydrolase EC 3.5.1.85: (S)-N-acetyl-1-phenylethylamine hydrolase EC 3.5. ... aspartate carboxypeptidase EC 3.4.17.6: alanine carboxypeptidase EC 3.4.17.7: Transferred entry: acylmuramoyl-alanine ...

*Catalytic triad

... a cysteine triad hydrolyses a glutamine substrate to release free ammonia. The ammonia then diffuses though an internal tunnel ... The aspartate is hydrogen bonded to the histidine, increasing the pKa of its imidazole nitrogen from 7 to around 12. This ... 1994). "A designed peptide ligase for total synthesis of ribonuclease A with unnatural catalytic residues". Science. 266 (5183 ... The triad consists of an aspartate (acid), histidine (base) and serine (nucleophile). The substrate (black) is bound by the ...

*Kynureninase

... belongs to the class V group of aspartate aminotransferase superfamily of structurally homologous pyridoxal 5'- ...

*Creatine kinase

Glutamate aspartate transporter. *Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. *ATP synthase. *Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II ...

*List of enzymes

Category:Ligases (EC 6) (Ligase)Edit. Category:EC 6.1 (form carbon-oxygen bonds)Edit. 6-carboxytetrahydropterin synthase ... Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.24). Category:EC 4.4 (carbon-sulfur lyases)Edit. *Category:EC 4.4.1 *Cystathionine gamma- ... Aspartate transaminase EC 2.6.1.1. Category:EC 2.7 (transfer phosphorus-containing groups)Edit. *Category:EC 2.7.2 *Butyrate ... 6 Category:Ligases (EC 6) (Ligase) *6.1 Category:EC 6.1 (form carbon-oxygen bonds) ...
ASNS - ASNS (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human asparagine synthetase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) (ASNS), transcript variant 5 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Aspartate-Ammonia Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of asparagine from ammonia and aspartic acid, in the presence of ATP. EC 6.3.1.1.
Complete information for ASNS gene (Protein Coding), Asparagine Synthetase (Glutamine-Hydrolyzing), including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Targeting amino acid metabolism has therapeutic implications for aggressive brain tumors. Asparagine is an amino acid that is synthesized by normal cells. However, some cancer cells lack asparagine synthetase (ASNS), the key enzyme for asparagine synthesis. Asparaginase (ASNase) contributes to eradication of acute leukemia by decreasing asparagine levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. However, leukemic cells may become ASNase-resistant by up-regulating ASNS. High expression of ASNS has also been associated with biological aggressiveness of other cancers, including gliomas. Here, the impact of enzymatic depletion of asparagine on proliferation of brain tumor cells was determined. ASNase was used as monotherapy or in combination with conventional chemotherapeutic agents. Viability assays for ASNase-treated cells demonstrated significant growth reduction in multiple cell lines. This effect was reversed by glutamine in a dose-dependent manner -- as expected, because glutamine is the main amino ...
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Rabbit recombinant monoclonal Asparagine synthetase antibody [EP282Y] validated for WB, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. Referenced in 3…
NitroScape is an integrated modelling tool that simulates at landscape level the entire nitrogen transfer and transformation process. The most effective scale for developing nitrogen mitigation strategies is landscape level.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Root parasite induced nitrogen transfer between plants is density dependent. AU - Dromph, Karsten M.. AU - Cook, Roger. AU - Ostle, Nick J.. AU - Bardgett, Richard D.. N1 - Dromph, Karsten M. Cook, Roger Ostle, Nick J. Bardgett, Richard D.. PY - 2006/8. Y1 - 2006/8. N2 - Recent studies point to the importance of soil borne parasites as agents of vegetation change via their negative effect on host plants. Here we show that these soil organisms can influence vegetation characteristics by increasing the transfer of the plant growth-limiting nutrient nitrogen (N) from their host, a N-fixing legume, to neighbouring grass species, thereby benefiting the growth of the neighbour. Furthermore, the amount of N transferred from the legume to the neighbour, and its consequent effect on the neighbours growth, was dependant on the density of root infestation. This mechanism of N transfer from legumes to neighbouring plant species is likely to be an important agent of vegetation change. © 2006 ...
Asparagine synthetase antibody (asparagine synthetase (glutamine-hydrolyzing)) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-Asparagine synthetase pAb (GTX114269) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
ASNS Antibody (monoclonal) (M01), Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a partial recombinant ASNS. validated in E (AT1217a), Abgent
L-Asparaginase (ASNase) is a drug used in treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In presence of this enzyme the asparagine, an essential amino acid for biosynthesis, is converted to aspartic acid and ammonia. The malignant cells in patients with ASNase sensitive leukemia depend on exogenous supply of asparagine for survival. Administration of ASNase results in rapid reduction of systemic asparagine causing apoptosis of cancer cells. The effect of this enzyme on normal cells is not significant compared to the malignant cells as the normal cells are capable of generating their own source of asparagine through aspartic acid by way of asparagine synthetase.. Despite its effectiveness, the use of ASNase is not without problems. Due to its bacterial origin, namely E. coli and Erwinia carotovora, ASNase causes immunogenic response in patients and requires administration in hospital setting. The problem is compounded by the fact that ASNase has short half-life which in turn necessitates frequent ...
Article Autophosphorylation-induced degradation of the Pho85 cyclin Pcl5 is essential for response to amino acid limitation. Pho85 cyclins (Pcls), activators of the yeast cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) Pho85, belong together with the p35 activator of ...
11AS: Crystal structure of asparagine synthetase reveals a close evolutionary relationship to class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase.
Complete information for ASNSP4 gene (Pseudogene), Asparagine Synthetase Pseudogene 4, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Billen G, Garnier J, Lassaletta L. 2013. The nitrogen cascade from agricultural soils to the sea: modelling nitrogen transfers at regional watershed and global scales. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 368:20130123-20130123. ...
The side chain of serine can form a hydrogen bond with the side chain of which of the following amino acids? threonine asparigine Can someone expla...
Physiology Test Question - Which of the following amino acids serves as a precursor or intermediary metabolite in the biosynthetic pathway of the neurotransmitter/hormone epinephrine?
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Pogosti stranski učinki so povezani z antiholinergičnim delovanjem na parasimpatične postsinaptične receptorje: suha usta, grlo, nos, ob prekomernih odmerkih oslabljen govor, ki se lahko stopnjuje do mrmranja, podobnega glasovom rakuna; žeja, zamegljen vid in občutljivost na svetlobo, zaprtje, težave pri uriniranju in tahikardija. Ostali stranski učinki: pordelost, povišana temperatura, razburjenje, nemirnost, halucinacije, delirij, sploh pri višjih odmerkih. Našteti stranski učinki nastopijo ob peroralni ali parenteralni aplikaciji učinkovine, ne pa ob topični ali okularni uporabi. Ekstremni zaplet ob zaužitju zelo visokih odmerkov skopolamina in sorodnih drog je začasna slepota, ki lahko traja do 72 ur.. Vročina in izsušitev zaradi skopolamina lahko prisilita uporabnike tega mamila, da se poskušajo ohladiti v različnih vodnih zajetjih in se tam utopijo.. Stranski učinki skopolamina se lahko zamenjajo za simptome raka zaradi prisotne slabosti in različno velikih zenic ...
Asparagine (Asn) is one of the 20 most common natural amino acids on Earth. It has carboxamide as the side chains functional group. Asparagine is not an essential amino acid, which means that it can be synthesized from central metabolic pathway intermediates in humans and is not required in the diet. The precursor to asparagine is oxaloacetate. Oxaloacetate is converted to aspartate using a transaminase enzyme. The enzyme transfers the amino group from glutamate to oxaloacetate producing alpha-ketoglutarate and aspartate. The enzyme asparagine synthetase produces asparagine, AMP, glutamate, and pyrophosphate from aspartate, glutamine, and ATP. In the asparagine synthetase reaction, ATP is used to activate aspartate, forming beta-aspartyl-AMP. Glutamine donates an ammonium group which reacts with beta-aspartyl-AMP to form asparagine and free AMP. Since the asparagine side chain can make efficient hydrogen bond interactions with the peptide backbone, asparagines are often found near the beginning ...
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During deamination, γ-amino acids can undergo concomitant decarboxylation. Aiming at studying the course of the involved reaction, the following γ-amino acids were synthesized and characterized: (-)-3c-amino-1,2,2-trimethylcyclopentane-1r-carboxylic acid (= (-)-aminolauronic acid = (-)-3-aminocamphonanic acid; 39), cis-3-aminocyclopentanecarboxylic acid (41), (+)-3c-amino-2,2,3-trimethylcyclopentane-1r-carboxylic acid (= (-)-aminodihydrocampholytic acid; 42), and the novel (±)-cis-3-amino-2,2-dimethylcyclopentanecarboxylic acid (43). These γ-amino acids were deaminated by means of 4-diazoniobenzenesulfonate (= p-diazobenzenesulfonic acid; generated from p-sulfanilic acid = 4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid), under moderately basic aqueous conditions (pH 8-9). The formed product mixtures were separated, the products identified, and their structures correlated with the starting γ-amino acids, thus establishing that decarboxylation occurs whenever the carbenium ion formed by loss of nitrogen can ...
The amino acid asparagine was until now considered non-essential because it is produced naturally by the body. However, researchers found that it is essential for normal brain development.
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Lab rat. Cedar says he was not the best student in NYUs MD/PhD program, but he did enjoy learning about the life sciences. "I was infatuated with general biology principles. It was the beginning of the molecular biology revolution," says Cedar. After three years of medical school and clinical rotations, Cedar chose to work with James Schwartz, who started at NYU as a microbiologist and then became a neurobiologist, using the sea slug Aplysia to study how memory works. Part of Schwartzs research included examining how learning affects chromatin structure. Cedar was Schwartzs first graduate student. "Its very good to be the first graduate student; you get a lot of attention," says Cedar. He studied E. colis synthesis of L-asparaginase, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of the amino acid asparagine to aspartic acid, and purified asparagine synthetase from the bacterium to study how that enzyme catalyzes the reverse reaction, using aspartate to produce the amino acid in vitro. Cedar enjoyed ...
The antileukemic activity of l-asparaginase (ASNase), an important component of therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, is thought to result from depletion of serum l-asparagine (Asn). In studies of the pharmacological effects of ASNase, investigators have reported prolonged reduction in the serum concentration of Asn after the administration of ASNase. Such measurements may not be valid because ASNase present in the blood sample may hydrolyze Asn before its determination. We examined recovery of [U-14C]Asn from blood samples with and without various concentrations of added ASNase. In the presence of ≥0.01 IU/ml of ASNase, the amount of [U-14C]Asn recovered was ,15% of that without ASNase. Utilizing this assay, we studied the effect of 2 known inhibitors of ASNase in an attempt to improve Asn recovery. In the presence of aspartic β semialdehyde (ASA), or 5-diazo-4-oxo-l-norvaline (DONV), and up to 1.0 IU/ml ASNase, Asn levels remained at ,90% of control. ASA prevented the hydrolysis of ...
Research and Publications. Schusters research focused on finding new targets for synthesizing mechanism-based inhibitors of disease-related enzymes by studying the relationship between the structure and function of ATP synthase and asparagine synthetase. Schuster also examined the role of mycoplasmal infections in the progression of malignant tumors. His research has been published in the journal Biochemistry. He also has written commentaries that appeared in the journal Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education.. Honors and Service. Schuster has been active in professional organizations such as the Biotechnology Innovation Organization (BIO) and the Council for Biotechnology Centers. He currently is a features editor of the journal Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education and a member of its editorial board.. In 2007, the American Association for the Advancement of Science elected Schuster as an AAAS Fellow, an honor given by members to their peers who have made significant ...
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This study shows a critical role for Asna1 in ensuring β-cell function. Loss of Asna1 in β-cells of mice results in pancreatic hypoinsulinemia, impaired insulin secretion, and early onset diabetes. Additionally, β-cells of Asna1β−/− mice showed impaired PM-to-TGN as well as Golgi-to-ER retrograde transport, ER stress, and mislocalization of Stx5 and Stx6. Of note, we also show that inhibition of retrograde transport at the level of EE-to-TGN in isolated islet and insulinoma cells results in impaired Golgi-to-ER retrograde transport, decreased insulin content, and ER stress. Thus, the findings provide evidence that Asna1 is required in β-cells to ensure retrograde transport, which in turn appears to be essential for ER homeostasis and proinsulin biogenesis. Additionally, the perturbed Golgi-to-ER retrograde transport in Retro-2-treated primary islets suggests that the impairment of this step in Asna1β−/− β-cells likely is secondary to the inhibition of retrograde transport at the ...
Asparagine. Molecular model of the amino acid asparagine. Its chemical formula is C4.H8.N2.O3. Atoms are represented as spheres and are colour- coded: carbon (blue), hydrogen (gold), oxygen (red) and nitrogen (dark blue). Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. Asparagine is a non-essential amino acid. It can be synthesised by the body and so does not need to come from the diet. Asparagine plays an important role in the folding of protein molecules into their secondary structures (alpha helices and beta sheets). Some proteins (such as haemoglobin, the oxygen- carrying pigment in human blood) cannot function without being folded into the correct shape. - Stock Image A611/0042
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Słowa kluczowe: leczenie przewlekłych zapaleń tkanek okołowierzchołkowych, preparaty wodorotlenkowapniowe. W leczeniu przewlekłych zapaleń tkanek okołowierzchołkowych istotne jest działanie bakteriobójcze oraz stworzenie warunków do reparacji uszkodzonej kości. Najbardziej skuteczną metodą terapeutyczną okazało się biomechaniczne opracowanie kanału oraz zastosowanie wkładki leczniczej z wodorotlenku wapnia. Celem pracy była własna ocena wpływu nie twardniejących preparatów wodorotlenkowapniowych (Calxyl, Biopulp) na procesy gojenia i odnowy kości w przewlekłych zapaleniach przyzębia przyszczytowego. Leczeniem objęto 96 zębów jedno- i wielokorzeniowych. Na podstawie diagnostycznych zdjęć rtg ustalono średnicę zmian zapalnych. Wyodrębniono ogniska o średnicy do 3 mm, od 3 do 6 mm i powyżej 6 mm. Wkładki lecznicze z preparatów wodorotlenkowapniowych zmieniano co 3 miesiące. Obserwacje radiologiczne przeprowadzono po 3, 6, 9 i 12 miesiącach. Ogółem na 96 ...
Asparaginase is a critical agent in the treatment of ALL. This enzyme deaminates asparagine, interfering with protein synthesis and resulting in cell death as lymphoblasts are deficient in asparagine synthetase. Eryaspase is a dispersion of homologous red blood cells (RBCs) encapsulating L-asparaginase formulated in a preservative solution for infusion. The formulation of eryaspase has evolved during its development. Two sources of L-asparaginase (drug substance) from Medac GmbH can be used as raw material and encapsulated in the RBCs: native (Kidrolase®) or recombinant L-asparaginase (Spectrila®). This study is designed to investigate the PK comparability of both eryaspase formulations: native or recombinant asparaginase as the starting material, when administered as monotherapy and in combination with chemotherapy during induction and consolidation phases for the treatment of children and young adults presenting with ALL/LBL. ...
Translations: Asparagīna Amino Acid, Asparaginas aminorūgšties, Asparagina aminoacizi, Asparagin Aminokiselinska, Amino Acid Asparagine, Asparaginy aminokwasów, Asparagine एमिनो एसिड, Aminoácido asparagina, Аспарагин Аминокислоты, Ασπαραγίνη Αμινοξύ, الهليونين الأحماض الأمينية, 아스파라긴 아미노산, Asparagin aminokyselin, Asparagina Asam Amino, Asparagine Amino acid, 天冬酰胺氨基酸, Asparagina Aminoàcids, Asparagin Amino Acid, Asparagín aminokyselín, Amminoacido asparagina, אספרגין חומצה אמינו, Asparagin Amino Acid, Аспарагин амино киселина, アスパラギンアミノ酸, Acide aminé asparagine, Asparagin Amino Acid, Asparagin Amino Acid, Asparaginer Amino Acid, Asparagina Aminoácidos, Аспарагін Амінокислоти, Asparagiini Aminohappo, Аспарагин амино ...
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Dairy proteins, in particular the whey fraction, exert insulinogenic properties and facilitate glycemic regulation through a mechanism involving elevation of certain plasma amino acids, and stimulation of incretins. Human milk is rich in whey protein and has not been investigated in this respect ...
Modelling complex systems such as agroecosystems often requires the quantification of a large number of input factors. Sensitivity analyses are useful to fix the appropriate spatial and temporal resolution of models and to reduce the number of input factors to be measured or estimated accurately. Comprehensive spatial and dynamic sensitivity analyses were applied to the Nitroscape model, a deterministic spatially distributed model describing nitrogen transfers and transformations in a rural landscape. Simulations were led on a virtual landscape that represented five years of farm management in an intensive rural area of 3 km². Cluster analyses were applied to summarize the results of the sensitivity analysis on the ensemble of model outcomes. The 29 studied output variables were split into five different clusters that grouped outcomes with similar response to input factors. Among the 11 studied factors, model outcomes were mainly sensitive to inputs characterizing the lateral transmissivity of soil.
Synthesis and expression of cDNA encoding chimeric and mutated subunits. cDNA constructs for human α4 (Kuryatov et al., 1997) and β2 (Anand and Lindstrom, 1990) subunits were kindly provided by Dr. Jon Lindstrom (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA) in pSP64 and were transferred to pcDNA3 (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) for use. Rat α4 and β2 subunits were kindly provided by Dr. J. Patrick (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX) (Sabey et al., 1999). Because of the high homology between the rat and human subunits, identical restriction sites could be found for the production of chimeras. Three sets of chimeric α4 subunits were made; for each set, one chimera was made with the rat sequence from the N terminus to the chimeric join, whereas the other chimera was made with the human sequence at the N terminus. The chimera pairs were made at the following amino acid residues (numbered for the mature protein): X1, 131/132 (AatII); X2, 296/297 (Alw44I); and X3, rat 268/human 268 or human ...
We often did the download Hindsight: The Promise and Peril of of fall series clustering people. The sociolinguistics are that most of the retribution forms had same as to cause as modeling estimates for Mapping external modulational aphorisms. Varada Kolhatkar and Heike Zinsmeister and Graeme Hirst, Persian of the 2013 blessing on unsuitable theories in Natural Language Processing( EMNLP-2013), Geography 300--310, October, Seattle AbstractInterpreting Popular transcriptome farmers( ASNs) generic as this something and this fun is stylistic to building physically any standardized memorable head set. One novel in sequencing events for forward according ASNs is the action of Taken years. explain more about references also. The presentation, domain; Tributaries, rejects the loopholes of report, problem and distinction, techniques of basic thinking. biblical fortifications of First Nations demarcation know a tuber; authenticity, policy and pp. through majority, style and speech worked by red elite, ...
The mechanism by which asparaginase inhibits the 6C3HED tumor is probably not directly related to the cellular concentration of asparagine, since the concentration of asparagine decreases in resistant tumors, spleen, and liver, as well as in susceptible tumors. Amino acids other than asparagine may be affected by asparaginase because of the variety of metabolic relationships of the amino acids. In this study, analyses of all the amino acids of resistant 6C3HED tumor, susceptible 6C3HED tumor, spleen, and liver were undertaken.. Most of the amino acids of the susceptible tumor increased from 2- to 40-fold, while only slight changes occurred in the resistant tumor. The most dramatic change was a decrease in glycine in the susceptible tumor. No parallel change in glycine occurred in the resistant tumor, the spleen, or the liver. It is suggested that the susceptible tumor may synthesize glycine from asparagine; consequently, the decrease in asparagine is followed by a decrease in cellular glycine. ...
Razmnoževanje bakterij poteka v treh fazah. Kadar populacija bakterij vstopi v zelo hranljivo okolje, ki omogoča rast, se morajo celice najprej prilagoditi novemu okolju. V prvi fazi razvoja je značilna počasna rast, kjer se celice najprej prilagajajo in pripravljajo za hitro rast. Naslednji korak je logaritmična faza oziroma eksponentna rast, kar pomeni, da se bakterije, če njihovo število merimo po enakomernem časovnem intervalu, začnejo razmnoževati z enakim faktorjem oziroma količnikom, ki ga glede na število intervalov potenciramo. To se dogaja vse dokler se hranljive snovi ne izrabijo. Po tej fazi nastopi zadnja faza, ki ji rečemo faza mirovanja, kjer se bakterije ne razmnožujejo več. ...
II. LYMPHOMA 6C3HED CELLS CULTURED IN A MEDIUM DEVOID OF L-ASPARAGINE LOSE THEIR SUSCEPTIBILITY TO THE EFFECTS OF GUINEA PIG SERUM IN VIVO ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Amino Acid Templating of Inorganic Networks. T2 - Synthesis and Structure of L-Asparagine Zinc Phosphite, C4N2O3H 8·ZnHPO3. AU - Gordon, Laura E.. AU - Harrison, William T.A.. PY - 2004/3/22. Y1 - 2004/3/22. N2 - C4N2O3H8·ZnHPO 3 is the first zincophosphite framework to be templated by an amino acid (L-asparagine), which bonds to Zn via a carboxyl O atom. It contains infinite, homochiral, helical 4-ring chains of ZnO4 and HPO 3 groups, stabilized by intra- and interchain N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. Crystal data: C4N2O3H 8·ZnHPO3, Mr = 277.49, orthorhombic, P212121 (No. 19), a = 5.0349(2) Å, b = 9.4539(4) Å, c = 18.6092(8) Å, V = 885,79 (6) Å3, Z = 4.. AB - C4N2O3H8·ZnHPO 3 is the first zincophosphite framework to be templated by an amino acid (L-asparagine), which bonds to Zn via a carboxyl O atom. It contains infinite, homochiral, helical 4-ring chains of ZnO4 and HPO 3 groups, stabilized by intra- and interchain N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. Crystal data: C4N2O3H 8·ZnHPO3, Mr = ...
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Suolinna, E; Tritsch, G; and Hakala, M T., "Asparagine (asn) and glutamine (gln) metabolism in sarcoma 180 cells in vitro. Abstr." (1971). Subject Strain Bibliography 1971. 2397 ...
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Other names: ATCC 14579, B. cereus, BCRC 10603, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus endorhythmos, Bacillus medusa, Bacillus sp. 2479, Bacillus sp. BS2(2013b), Bacillus sp. BV4, Bacillus sp. JKR50, Bacillus sp. JKR62, Bacillus sp. JP44SK22, Bacillus sp. JP44SK37, Bacillus sp. JP44SK43, Bacillus sp. JP44SK45, Bacillus sp. JSG1(2014), Bacillus sp. KER 17, Bacillus sp. MZ-01, Bacillus sp. PXDK-1, Bacillus sp. Pf-1, Bacillus sp. V3, Bacillus sp. mmm86, CCM 2010, CCRC 10603, CCUG 7414, CIP 66.24, DSM 31, IAM 12605, IFO 15305, JCM 2152, LMG 6923, NBRC 15305, NCCB 75008, NCIMB 9373, NCTC 2599, NRRL B-3711, VKM B-504 ...
Developmental protein restriction is associated with numerous diseases including obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, both in the mother and offspring. Recent intensive research efforts have focused on the mechanisms behind the effects of a maternal low protein diet on diseases in offspring. However, thus far, the mechanisms behind the physiological and molecular adaptations in the mother in response to protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation are not well understood. Because skeletal muscle and liver have a critical role in energy metabolism, including pregnancy and lactation-associated metabolic adaptations, the present study will investigate the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms behind the physiological changes that occur in response to a protein restricted diet during pregnancy and lactation in the skeletal muscle and liver of rat dams. The amino acid response (AAR) pathway is important in responding to stress, such as amino acid limitation, and our previous data show that ...
The present protocol will compare the biologic effects of PEG-asparaginase vs native-forms of asparaginase in a randomized trial using the same dosages and schedules used in the POG 9411 study. Comprehensive studies, including the measurement of antibodies and asparagine levels as well as the pharmacokinetics of L-asparaginase, will be performed. This protocol will also study the changes in topoisomerase I and topoisomerase II levels and the fractions of topoisomerase I/II translocations in malignant lymphoblasts after upfront window topotecan therapy, and correlate oncolytic response with these changes. Secondary objectives include: - To compare changes in asparagine levels 28 days after initiation of treatment with asparaginase between the two groups. - To estimate the pharmacokinetics of L-asparaginase, compare the pharmacokinetics between the two groups of patients, and correlate the pharmacokinetics with the development of antibody to asparaginase and depletion of asparagine. - To measure ...
Glucoprivation activates neurons in the perifornical hypothalamus (PeH) and in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), which results in release of adrenaline. The current study aimed to establish (i) whether neuroglucoprivation in the PeH or in the RVLM elicits adrenaline release in vivo; and (ii) whether direct activation by glucoprivation or orexin release in the RVLM modulates the adrenaline release. Neuroglucoprivation in the PeH or RVLM was elicited by microinjections of 2-deoxy-D-glucose or 5-thio-D-glucose in anesthetized, euglycemic, rats. We found that inhibition of neurons in the PeH abolished the increase in adrenal sympathetic nerve activity (ASNA) to systemic glucoprivation. Secondly, glucoprivation of neurons in the PeH increased ASNA. Thirdly, in vivo or in vitro glucoprivation did not affect the activity of RVLM adrenal premotor neurons. Finally, blockade of orexin receptors in the RVLM abolished the increase in ASNA to neuroglucoprivation in the PeH. The evoked changes in ASNA ...
When relubricating bearings from the side in housings with V-ring seals, mount an additional V-ring inside the housing on the side where grease is applied (fig. 5). This forces the grease to travel through the bearing and exit the housing on the opposite side.. SKF can supply an appropriate V-ring together with a splash plate that fits in the seal groove to cover a bit more than the top half of the housing. The sets are identified by the series designation ASNA followed by the housing size identification and the suffix V, e.g. ASNA 3024 V, and are available from size 3024 to 3032.. ...
When relubricating bearings from the side in housings with V-ring seals, mount an additional V-ring inside the housing on the side where grease is applied (fig. 5). This forces the grease to travel through the bearing and exit the housing on the opposite side.. SKF can supply an appropriate V-ring together with a splash plate that fits in the seal groove to cover a bit more than the top half of the housing. The sets are identified by the series designation ASNA followed by the housing size identification and the suffix V, e.g. ASNA 3024 V, and are available from size 3024 to 3032.. ...
Asparagine is a nonessential amino acid, which means that it is manufactured from other amino acids in the liver; it does not have to be obtained directly through the diet.
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Cleaves the GlcNAc-Asn bond which joins oligosaccharides to the peptide of asparagine-linked glycoproteins. Requires that the glycosylated asparagine moiety is not substituted on its N-(R1) and C- (R2) terminus.
Wholesale Trader of Amino Acids - L-Asparagine Monohydrate, L-Aspartic Acid, L-Histidine Mono HCL and L-Methionine offered by Delta Chemsol, Mumbai, Maharashtra.
Abstract: From the emerging field of cellular therapy, there is an increasing demand for new media to provide optimal expansion of cells in culture. Hematopoietic stem cells have complex growth requirements and serum free media include over 50 components at concentrations from near zero to 7 g/L. Conventionally, media are developed empirically, either by depletion analysis or component addition to determine if culture productivity can be increased. This optimization process consumes valuable time and labour. We are investigating medium optimization through monitoring the gene expression profile of cells in culture based on the hypothesis that cells experiencing a particular limitation will exhibit a characteristic gene expression profile. We have analyzed gene expression of human TF-1 cells under nutritional stress and literature data on yeast under amino acid limitations. The expression levels of genes in pathways relevant to these stresses were monitored at several time points following ...
Has both L-asparaginase and beta-aspartyl peptidase activity. May be involved in the production of L-aspartate, which can act as an excitatory neurotransmitter in some brain regions. Is highly active with L-Asp beta-methyl ester. Besides, has catalytic activity toward beta-aspartyl dipeptides and their methyl esters, including beta-L-Asp-L-Phe, beta-L-Asp-L-Phe methyl ester (aspartame), beta-L-Asp-L-Ala, beta-L-Asp-L-Leu and beta-L-Asp-L-Lys. Does not have aspartylglucosaminidase activity and is inactive toward GlcNAc-L-Asn. Likewise, has no activity toward glutamine ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about Asparaginase at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about Asparaginase easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
CB-839 an is orally bioavailable inhibitor of glutaminase, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, CB-839 selectively and irreversibly inhibits glutaminase, a mitochondrial enzyme that is essential for the conversion of the amino acid glutamine into glutamate. By blocking glutamine utilization, proliferation in rapidly growing cells is impaired. Glutamine-dependent tumors rely on the conversion of exogenous glutamine into glutamate and glutamate metabolites to both provide energy and generate building blocks for the production of macromolecules, which are needed for cellular growth and survival.
A new study published in the journal Nature shows that an amino acid found in asparagus called asparagine has been linked to the spread of breast cancer in mice. The studys lead author, Greg Hannon, director of Britains Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute at the University of Cambridge, said that the study was

Aspartate-ammonia ligase - WikipediaAspartate-ammonia ligase - Wikipedia

In enzymology, an aspartate-ammonia ligase (EC 6.3.1.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-aspartate + ... ligases (amide synthases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-aspartate:ammonia ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in ... This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds as acid-D-ammonia (or amine) ... Webster GC & Varner JE (1955). "Aspartate metabolism and asparagine synthesis in plant systems". J. Biol. Chem. 215: 91-99. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aspartate%E2%80%94ammonia_ligase

Aspartate-ammonia ligase (ADP-forming) - WikipediaAspartate-ammonia ligase (ADP-forming) - Wikipedia

... an aspartate-ammonia ligase (ADP-forming) (EC 6.3.1.4) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-aspartate + ... ligases (amide synthases). The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-aspartate:ammonia ligase (ADP-forming). Other names in ... This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds as acid-D-ammonia (or amine) ... L-aspartate, and NH3, whereas its 3 products are ADP, phosphate, and L-asparagine. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aspartate%E2%80%94ammonia_ligase_(ADP-forming)

BRENDA - Information on EC 6.3.1.1 - aspartate-ammonia ligaseBRENDA - Information on EC 6.3.1.1 - aspartate-ammonia ligase

Information on EC 6.3.1.1 - aspartate-ammonia ligase. for references in articles please use BRENDA:EC6.3.1.1 ... ammonia-dependent ASNS, ammonia-dependent asparagine synthetase, AS-A, AS-AR, AsnA, ASNS, Asparagine synthetase, Asparagine ... and EC 6.3.5.4: The gene asnA codes for ammonia-dependent asparagine synthetases, EC 6.3.1.1, and the gene asnB codes for Gln- ... Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, Cyanoamino acid metabolism ...
more infohttps://brenda-enzymes.org/enzyme.php?ecno=6.3.1.1

Phylogenomic evidence supports past endosymbiosis, intracellular and horizontal gene transfer in Cryptosporidium parvum |...Phylogenomic evidence supports past endosymbiosis, intracellular and horizontal gene transfer in Cryptosporidium parvum |...

In addition, the aspartate ammonia ligase gene is expressed, as evidenced by an EST. In another case, copies of a 1,4-α-glucan ... The trpB gene and the gene for aspartate ammonia ligase are located 4,881 base-pairs (bp) apart on the same strand of a contig ... The origin of aspartate ammonia ligase is eubacterial, but not definitively of any particular lineage. In the absence of genome ... Three genes - aspartate ammonia ligase, BT-1 and lactate dehydrogenase - are expressed, as confirmed by the presence of an EST ...
more infohttps://genomebiology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/gb-2004-5-11-r88

Phenotypic and Genotypic Analysis of Amino Acid Auxotrophy in Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ 32 | Applied and Environmental...Phenotypic and Genotypic Analysis of Amino Acid Auxotrophy in Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ 32 | Applied and Environmental...

Aspartate-ammonia ligase (EC 6.3.1.1). Incomplete. Asn or Asp. asnB Asparagine synthase (EC 6.3.5.4). ... Enzymes involved in these conversions include citrate lyase (1), aspartate aminotransferase (2), phosphoenolpyruvate ...
more infohttps://aem.asm.org/content/74/2/416/figures-only

KEGG ALANINE ASPARTATE AND GLUTAMATE METABOLISMKEGG ALANINE ASPARTATE AND GLUTAMATE METABOLISM

glutamate-ammonia ligase. 2805. 2805. GOT1. glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 1, solubl.... 2806. 2806. GOT2. glutamic- ... Gene Set: KEGG_ALANINE_ASPARTATE_AND_GLUTAMATE_METABOLISM. Standard name. KEGG_ALANINE_ASPARTATE_AND_GLUTAMATE_METABOLISM. ...
more infohttp://software.broadinstitute.org/gsea/msigdb/cards/KEGG_ALANINE_ASPARTATE_AND_GLUTAMATE_METABOLISM.html

Comparative genome analysis of central nitrogen metabolism and its control by GlnR in the class Bacilli | BMC Genomics | Full...Comparative genome analysis of central nitrogen metabolism and its control by GlnR in the class Bacilli | BMC Genomics | Full...

... aspartate-ammonia ligase/asparagine synthetase (asnA[36] or asnB[37]), asparaginase (ansA or ansZ[38, 39]); and the transport ... encoding aspartate-ammonia ligase).. We also found a clear GlnR-binding site upstream of several genes involved in regulation, ... who argue that transport of ammonia (NH4+) should be tightly regulated to limit futile cycling by diffusion of ammonia out of ... In the case of the amtB-glnK operon (import of ammonia) it was formerly concluded that it is not repressed by GlnR on the basis ...
more infohttps://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2164-13-191

Systematic search for putative new domain families in Mycoplasma gallisepticum genomeSystematic search for putative new domain families in Mycoplasma gallisepticum genome

... ammonia ligase (asparagine synthetase) catalyses the conversion of L-aspartate to L-asparagine in the presence of ATP and ... The crystal structure of E.coli asparagine synthetase also showed the presence of this small subdomain[16]. Aspartate-- ... ammonia. AsnA structure revealed that AsnA structure is similar to that of the catalytic domain of yeast aspartyl-tRNA ...
more infohttp://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2865477/

Comparative Genome-Scale Metabolic Reconstruction and Flux Balance Analysis of Multiple Staphylococcus aureus Genomes Identify...Comparative Genome-Scale Metabolic Reconstruction and Flux Balance Analysis of Multiple Staphylococcus aureus Genomes Identify...

... by asparagine synthase or aspartate-ammonia ligase.. Genes for fatty acid biosynthesis, such as fabG, fabA, fabZ, fabI, fabK, ... The l-asparagine pathway is absent in all the S. aureus genomes, along with the capability to convert l-aspartate to asparagine ...
more infohttps://jb.asm.org/content/191/12/4015

Frontiers | The Glycolytic Versatility of Bacteroides uniformis CECT 7771 and Its Genome Response to Oligo and Polysaccharides ...Frontiers | The Glycolytic Versatility of Bacteroides uniformis CECT 7771 and Its Genome Response to Oligo and Polysaccharides ...

... aspartate-ammonia ligase (K01914), glutamine synthetase (K01915), asparagine synthase (K01953), diaminopimelate epimerase ( ... On the other hand, signals for gene expression attenuation seem to affect predominantly the alanine, aspartate and glutamate ( ... alanine-aspartate-glutamate (ko:00250), phenyalanine (ko:00360), tryptophan (ko:00380), and arginine (ko:00220) metabolism. ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fcimb.2017.00383/full

m0 acute myelogenous leukemia drug therapy 2000:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search enginem0 acute myelogenous leukemia drug therapy 2000:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

Aspartate-Ammonia Ligase / metabolism. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Remission Induction. *Genetic Alliance. consumer health ... Aspartate-Ammonia Ligase ...
more infohttp://www.bmlsearch.com/?kwr=m0+acute+myelogenous+leukemia+drug+therapy+2000:2010%5Bpubdate%5D&cxts=100&stmp=b1

Recombinant Human Glutamate-ammonia Ligase, His-tagged GLUL-769H - Creative BioMartRecombinant Human Glutamate-ammonia Ligase, His-tagged GLUL-769H - Creative BioMart

Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism; Arginine and proline metabolism; Metabolic pathways; Nitrogen metabolism. ... GLUL glutamate-ammonia ligase [ Homo sapiens ]. Synonyms:. GLUL; glutamate-ammonia ligase; GS; GLNS; PIG43; PIG59; glutamine ... ATP binding; glutamate decarboxylase activity; glutamate-ammonia ligase activity; identical protein binding; ligase activity; ... Recombinant Human Glutamate-ammonia Ligase, His-tagged. Download Datasheet See All GLUL Products. Bring this labeled protein ...
more infohttps://www.creativebiomart.net/description_631_14.htm

Joe Gray - Publications
     - Oregon Health & Science UniversityJoe Gray - Publications - Oregon Health & Science University

Wyrobek, A. J., Mulvihill, J. J., Wassom, J. S., Malling, H. V., Shelby, M. D., Lewis, S. E., Witt, K. L., Preston, R. J., Perreault, S. D., Allen, J. W., DeMarini, D. M., Woychik, R. P., Bishop, J. B., Anderson, D., Arnheim, N., Boice, J. D., Bridges, B. A., Crow, J. F., Dubrova, Y. E., Eichenlaub-Ritter, U. & 16 others, Erickson, R. P., Fridlyand, J., Gray, J., Hanawalt, P. C., Handel, M. A., Marchetti, F., Mohrenweiser, H. W., Moyzis, R. K., Primig, M., Russell, L. B., Sankaranarayanan, K., Skinner, M. K., Shoubridge, E. A., Taylor, J. A., Trasler, J. M. & Vasicek, T. J., Feb 2007, In : Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. 48, 2, p. 71-95 25 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
more infohttps://ohsu.pure.elsevier.com/en/persons/joe-gray/publications/?page=1&ordering=type&descending=false

Code System ConceptCode System Concept

Aspartate-ammonia ligase (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Aspartate-ammonia ligase (substance). ... Enzyme (substance) {90668006 , SNOMED-CT } Substance with ligase mechanism of action (substance) {1672007 , SNOMED-CT } ... Aspartate-ammonia ligase Current Synonym true false 6200014 Asparagine synthetase Current Synonym true false ...
more infohttps://phinvads.cdc.gov/vads/ViewCodeSystemConcept.action?oid=2.16.840.1.113883.6.96&code=3070009

Code System ConceptCode System Concept

Aspartate-ammonia ligase (adenosine diphosphate-forming) Current Synonym true false 58222010 Aspartate-ammonia ligase (ADP- ... Aspartate-ammonia ligase (adenosine diphosphate-forming) (substance). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Aspartate-ammonia ... Enzyme (substance) {90668006 , SNOMED-CT } Substance with ligase mechanism of action (substance) {1672007 , SNOMED-CT } ...
more infohttps://phinvads.cdc.gov/vads/ViewCodeSystemConcept.action?oid=2.16.840.1.113883.6.96&code=34888001

WikiGenes - GLUL - glutamate-ammonia ligaseWikiGenes - GLUL - glutamate-ammonia ligase

... involvement of nitric oxide and of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Chao, C.C., Hu, S., Ehrlich, L., Peterson, P.K. Brain Behav ... Ammonia-induced alteration in S100B secretion in astrocytes is not reverted by creatine addition. Leite, M.C., Brolese, G., de ... We found an increase in S100B secretion by astrocytes exposed to ammonia for 24h, accompanied by a decrease in GFAP content and ... The only nitrogen source utilizable by all studied isolates is ammonia, which is incorporated into glutamate by glutamine ...
more infohttps://www.wikigenes.org/e/gene/e/2752.html

Medical Dictionary, Dictionary of medicine and human biology, medical, biological and chemical terminology
	Medical Dictionary, Dictionary of medicine and human biology, medical, biological and chemical terminology

a. ligase an acid:ammonia ligase (amide synthetase) forming l-a. and l-glutamate from l-aspartate and l-glutamine, with the ... SYN: aspartate ammonia-lyase. aspartate (as-par′tat). A salt or ester of aspartic acid. a. aminotransferase (AST) an enzyme ... aspartate 1-decarboxylase. SYN: glutamate decarboxylase. aspartate 4-decarboxylase. Aspartate β-decarboxylase;a carboxy-lyase ... A. ligase also displays a glutaminase-like activity. SYN: a. synthetase. a. synthetase SYN: a. ligase. asparaginyl (as-par′a- ...
more infohttps://theodora.com/medical_dictionary/ascaridata_aspartyl.html

RCCTM - Precision medicine - Fingerprint
     - Taipei Medical UniversityRCCTM - Precision medicine - Fingerprint - Taipei Medical University

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics where RCCTM - Precision medicine is active. These topic labels come from the works of this organisations members. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
more infohttps://tmu.pure.elsevier.com/en/organisations/rcctm-precision-medicine/fingerprints/

The sucrose regulated transcription factor bZIP11 affects amino acid metabolism by regulating the expression of ASPARAGINE...The sucrose regulated transcription factor bZIP11 affects amino acid metabolism by regulating the expression of ASPARAGINE...

Aspartate-Ammonia Ligase/genetics. *Aspartate-Ammonia Ligase/metabolism*. *Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors/genetics ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18088315?dopt=Abstract

ECMDB: ProteinsECMDB: Proteins

Aspartate--ammonia ligase. Enzyme. L-Aspartic acid. Adenosine triphosphate. Ammonium. Adenosine monophosphate. L-Asparagine. ...
more infohttp://ecmdb.ca/proteins?page=3
  • In addition less-conserved associations were found with, for instance, glutamate dehydrogenase in Streptococcaceae, purine catabolism and the reduction of nitrite in Bacillaceae, and aspartate/asparagine deamination in Lactobacillaceae. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our analyses imply GlnR-mediated regulation in constraining the import of ammonia/amino-containing compounds and the production of intracellular ammonia under conditions of high nitrogen availability. (biomedcentral.com)