Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
An aspartate aminotransferase found in MITOCHONDRIA.
This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-TYROSINE and 2-oxoglutarate to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate and L-GLUTAMATE. It is a pyridoxal-phosphate protein. L-PHENYLALANINE is hydroxylated to L-tyrosine. The mitochondrial enzyme may be identical with ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASES (EC 2.6.1.1.). Deficiency of this enzyme may cause type II Tyrosinemia (see TYROSINEMIAS). EC 2.6.1.5.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
The 4-aminomethyl form of VITAMIN B 6. During transamination of amino acids, PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of carbamoyl phosphate and L-aspartate to yield orthophosphate and N-carbamoyl-L-aspartate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.1.3.2.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.
Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.
A pyridoxal phosphate enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glutamate gamma-semialdehyde and an L-amino acid from L-ornithine and a 2-keto-acid. EC 2.6.1.13.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
An aspartate aminotransferase found in the CYTOPLASM.
The 4-carboxyaldehyde form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
An enzyme that converts brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID) into succinate semialdehyde, which can be converted to succinic acid and enter the citric acid cycle. It also acts on beta-alanine. EC 2.6.1.19.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of aspartic acid to ammonia and fumaric acid in plants and some microorganisms. EC 4.3.1.1.
A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
Amino-substituted glyoxylic acid derivative.
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
A compound that inhibits aminobutyrate aminotransferase activity in vivo, thereby raising the level of gamma-aminobutyric acid in tissues.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 6 in the diet, characterized by dermatitis, glossitis, cheilosis, and stomatitis. Marked deficiency causes irritability, weakness, depression, dizziness, peripheral neuropathy, and seizures. In infants and children typical manifestations are diarrhea, anemia, and seizures. Deficiency can be caused by certain medications, such as isoniazid.
Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
The protein components of enzyme complexes (HOLOENZYMES). An apoenzyme is the holoenzyme minus any cofactors (ENZYME COFACTORS) or prosthetic groups required for the enzymatic function.
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of beta-aspartyl phosphate from aspartic acid and ATP. Threonine serves as an allosteric regulator of this enzyme to control the biosynthetic pathway from aspartic acid to threonine. EC 2.7.2.4.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.4.1.2.
The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Derivatives of OXALOACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1,4-carboxy aliphatic structure.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.
Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain SWAINSONINE.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transfer of an amino group between D-Alanine and alpha-ketoglutarate to form PYRUVATE and D-GLUTAMATE, respectively. It plays a role in the synthesis of the bacterial CELL WALL. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 2.6.1.10.
The dialdehyde of malonic acid.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Cell surface proteins that bind amino acids and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors are the most common receptors for fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate central nervous system, and GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and glycine receptors are the most common receptors for fast inhibition.
A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
Antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces garyphalus.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of fumaric acid to yield L-malic acid. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.2.
A crystalline compound used as a laboratory reagent in place of HYDROGEN SULFIDE. It is a potent hepatocarcinogen.
Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.
A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.
A dicarboxylic acid ketone that is an important metabolic intermediate of the CITRIC ACID CYCLE. It can be converted to ASPARTIC ACID by ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE.
Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Derivatives of benzene in which one or more hydrogen atoms on the benzene ring are replaced by bromine atoms.
A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.
A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)
Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer amino group from L-TRYPTOPHAN to 2-oxoglutarate in order to generate indolepyruvate and L-GLUTAMATE.
The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
A genetic disorder characterized by excretion of large amounts of OXALATES in urine; NEPHROLITHIASIS; NEPHROCALCINOSIS; early onset of RENAL FAILURE; and often a generalized deposit of CALCIUM OXALATE. There are subtypes classified by the enzyme defects in glyoxylate metabolism.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of amino group of L-2-aminoadipate onto 2-oxoglutarate to generate 2-oxoadipate and L-GLUTAMATE.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyridoxal in the presence of ATP with the formation of pyridoxal 5-phosphate and ADP. Pyridoxine, pyridoxamine and various derivatives can also act as acceptors. EC 2.7.1.35.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
A trisaccharide occurring in Australian manna (from Eucalyptus spp, Myrtaceae) and in cottonseed meal.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.
A simple organophosphorus compound that inhibits DNA polymerase, especially in viruses and is used as an antiviral agent.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
A tissue or organ remaining at physiological temperature during decreased BLOOD perfusion or in the absence of blood supply. During ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION it begins when the organ reaches physiological temperature before the completion of SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS and ends with reestablishment of the BLOOD CIRCULATION through the tissue.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of amino group of L-LYSINE onto 2-oxoglutarate to generate 2-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde and L-GLUTAMATE.
A urea cycle enzyme that catalyzes the formation of orthophosphate and L-citrulline (CITRULLINE) from CARBAMOYL PHOSPHATE and L-ornithine (ORNITHINE). Deficiency of this enzyme may be transmitted as an X-linked trait. EC 2.1.3.3.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The monoanhydride of carbamic acid with PHOSPHORIC ACID. It is an important intermediate metabolite and is synthesized enzymatically by CARBAMYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA) and CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (GLUTAMINE-HYDROLYZING).
ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.
A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.
A genus of aerobic, chemolithotrophic, coccoid ARCHAEA whose organisms are thermoacidophilic. Its cells are highly irregular in shape, often lobed, but occasionally spherical. It has worldwide distribution with organisms isolated from hot acidic soils and water. Sulfur is used as an energy source.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An enzyme that, in the course of pyrimidine biosynthesis, catalyzes ring closure by removal of water from N-carbamoylaspartate to yield dihydro-orotic acid. EC 3.5.2.3.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Solutions used to store organs and minimize tissue damage, particularly while awaiting implantation.
The catabolic product of most of VITAMIN B 6; (PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; and PYRIDOXAMINE) which is excreted in the urine.
A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
Mushrooms in the order AGARICALES containing B vitamins, cortinelin, and the polysaccharide LENTINAN.
An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.
Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.

Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase catalyses cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyase reactions. (1/21)

Rat liver mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (a homodimer) was shown to catalyse a beta-lyase reaction with three nephrotoxic halogenated cysteine S-conjugates [ S -(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl)-L-cysteine, S -(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine and S -(2-chloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethyl)-L-cysteine], and less effectively so with a non-toxic cysteine S-conjugate [benzothiazolyl-L-cysteine]. Transamination competes with the beta-lyase reaction, but is not favourable. The ratio of beta elimination to transamination in the presence of S -(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl)-L-cysteine and 2-oxoglutarate is >100. Syncatalytic inactivation by the halogenated cysteine S-conjugates is also observed. The enzyme turns over approx. 2700 molecules of halogenated cysteine S-conjugate on average for every monomer inactivated. Kidney mitochondria are known to be especially sensitive to toxic halogenated cysteine S-conjugates. Evidence is presented that 15-20% of the cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyase activity towards S -(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl)-L-cysteine in crude kidney mitochondrial homogenates is due to mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase. The possible involvement of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase in the toxicity of halogenated cysteine S-conjugates is also discussed.  (+info)

Effect of betaxolol on aspartate aminotransferase activity in hypoxic rat retina in vitro. (2/21)

We investigated the effect of betaxolol on the decrease of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (mAAT) activity in rat retinas induced by hypoxia in vitro. It is reported that mAAT decreases in ischemic or hypoxic retina and that the decrease is caused by Ca(2+)-dependent proteases such as calpain. Betaxolol is a compound that has beta(1)-adrenergic receptor blocking and voltage-dependent calcium channel blocking properties. The rat eye cups were maintained with Locke's solution saturated with 95% air - 5% CO(2). The eye cups were immersed in glucose-free Locke's solution saturated with 95% N(2) / 5% CO(2) (hypoxic solution). Ninety minutes of hypoxia caused a 20% decrease in mAAT activity. The eye cups incubated with the hypoxic solution containing 1 mM EGTA, 10 micro M MK-801 or 100 micro M betaxolol were protected from the decrease in mAAT activity, so that the residual mAAT activity was 50%, 45% or 40%, respectively, compared to the eye cups incubated in hypoxic solution alone, which had a 100% decrease in mAAT activity. In addition, co-incubation with EGTA and betaxolol had a greater protective effect against the mAAT decrease than a single application. This additive effect of betaxolol was dose-dependent. These results suggested that betaxolol had a protective effect against the decrease of mAAT caused by hypoxia and indicated that betaxolol might inhibit the Ca(2+) release from intracellular Ca(2+) stores.  (+info)

Release of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate upon unfolding of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase. (3/21)

Dimeric mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (mAAT) contains a molecule of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) tightly attached to each of its two identical active sites. The presence of this natural reporter allows us to study separately local perturbations in the architecture of this critical region of the molecule during unfolding. Upon unfolding of the enzyme with guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl), the coenzyme is completely released from the active site. The transition midpoint for the dissociation of PLP is 1.4+/-0.02 M when determined by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and 1.6+/-0.02 M when the protein-bound PLP is estimated by electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). In both cases the transition midpoint is higher than that of inactivation (1.3+/-0.01 M). On the other hand, the midpoint of the unfolding transition obtained by monitoring changes in ellipticity at 356 nm, which reflects the asymmetric environment of the PLP cofactor at the active site, is 1.19+/-0.011 M guanidine. These results indicate that the unfolding of mAAT is a multi-step process which includes an intermediate containing bound PLP but lacking catalytic activity.  (+info)

iMolTalk: an interactive, internet-based protein structure analysis server. (4/21)

iMolTalk (http://i.moltalk.org) is a new and interactive web server for protein structure analysis. It addresses the need to identify and highlight biochemically important regions in protein structures. As input, the server requires only the four-digit Protein Data Bank (PDB) identifier, of an experimentally determined structure or a structure file in PDB format stemming e.g. from comparative modelling. iMolTalk offers a wide range of implemented tools (i) to extract general information from PDB files, such as generic header information or the sequence derived from three-dimensional co-ordinates; (ii) to map corresponding residues from sequence to structure; (iii) to search for contacts of residues (amino or nucleic acids) or heterogeneous groups to the protein, present cofactors and substrates; and (iv) to identify protein-protein interfaces between chains in a structure. The server provides results as user-friendly two-dimensional graphical representations and in textual format, ideal for further processing. At any time during the analysis, the user can choose, for the following step, from the set of implemented tools or submit his/her own script to the server to extend the functionality of iMolTalk.  (+info)

Production and characterization of alien chromosome additions in shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) carrying extra chromosome(s) of Japanese bunching onion (A. fistulosum L.). (5/21)

First and second backcrosses of amphidiploid hybrids (2n = 4x = 32, genomes AAFF) between shallot (Allium cepa Aggregatum group) and A. fistulosum were conducted to produce A. cepa - A. fistulosum alien addition lines. When shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group) was used as a pollinator, the amphidiploids and allotriploids set germinable BC(1) and BC(2) seeds, respectively. The 237 BC(1) plants mainly consisted of 170 allotriploids (2n = 3x = 24, AAF) and 42 hypo-allotriploids possessing 23 chromosomes, i.e., single-alien deletions (2n = 3x-1 = 23, AAF-nF). The single-alien deletions in the BC(1) progeny showed dwarfing characteristics and were discriminated from the allotriploids (2n = 24) and hyper-allotriploids (2n = 25) by means of flow cytometric analysis. The chromosome numbers of 46 BC(2) seedlings varied from 16 to 24. Eight monosomic additions (2n = 2x+1 = 17, AA+nF) and 20 single-alien deletions were found in these BC(2) seedlings. Consequently, six kinds of A. cepa - A. fistulosum alien chromosome additions possessing different chromosome numbers (2n = 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23) were recognized in the BC(1) and BC(2) populations. A total of 79 aneuploids, including 62 single-alien deletions, were analyzed by a chromosome 6F-specific isozyme marker (Got-2) in order to recognize its existence in their chromosome complements. This analysis revealed that two out of 62 single-alien deletions did not possess 6F. One (AAF-6F) out of the possible eight single-alien deletions could be identified at first. The present study is a first step toward the development of a useful tool, such as a complete set of eight different single-alien deletions, for the rapid chromosomal assignment of genes and genetic markers in A. fistulosum.  (+info)

Modulation of mitochondrial calcium management attenuates hepatic warm ischemia-reperfusion injury. (6/21)

Hepatic warm ischemia and reperfusion (IR) injury occurs in many clinical situations and has an important link to subsequent hepatic failure. The pathogenesis of this injury involves numerous pathways, including mitochondrial-associated apoptosis. We studied the effect of mitochondrial calcium uptake inhibition on hepatic IR injury using the specific mitochondrial calcium uptake inhibitor, ruthenium red (RR). Rats were subjected to 1 hour of 70% warm hepatic ischemia following RR pretreatment or vehicle injection. Sham-operated animals served as controls. Analysis was performed at 15 minutes, 1 hour, 3 hours, or 6 hours after reperfusion. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations were determined. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining was performed to assess apoptosis, and hepatocellular necrosis was semiquantitated from hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections. RR pretreatment significantly decreased both AST and ALT serum levels after 6 hours of reperfusion (AST: 1,556 +/- 181 U/L vs. 597 +/- 121 U/L, P = 0.005; ALT: 1,118 +/- 187 U/L vs. 294 +/- 39 U/L, P = 0.005). Apoptosis was observed within 15 minutes of reperfusion in vehicle-pretreated animals and peaked after 3 hours of reperfusion (98 +/- 21 cells/high-power field [hpf]). Apoptosis was inhibited at all time points by RR pretreatment. Histologic evidence of necrosis was not observed prior to 3 hours of reperfusion (23% +/- 4%), and maximal necrosis was observed after 6 hours of reperfusion (26% +/- 1% percent area). RR pretreatment significantly decreased the necrotic percent area at both the 3-hour and the 6-hour time points (4.2% +/- 2%; 3.7% +/- 1%, respectively). Hepatic IR injury resulted in both apoptotic and necrotic cell death, which were attenuated by RR pretreatment. In conclusion, these observations implicate mitochondrial calcium uptake in the pathogenesis of hepatic IR injury.  (+info)

Effects of L-malate on physical stamina and activities of enzymes related to the malate-aspartate shuttle in liver of mice. (7/21)

L-malate, a tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) intermediate, plays an important role in transporting NADH from cytosol to mitochondria for energy production and may be involved in the beneficial effects of improving physical stamina. In the present study, we investigated the effects of L-malate on the performance of forced swimming time and blood biochemical parameters related to fatigue - blood urea nitrogen (BUN), glucose (Glc), creatine kinase (CK),total protein (TP) and lactic acid (LA). To investigate the effects of L-malate on the malate-aspartate shuttle and energy metabolism in mice, the activities of enzymes related to the malate-aspartate shuttle were measured. L-malate was orally administered to mice continuously for 30 days using a feeding atraumatic needle. The swimming time was increased by 26.1 % and 28.5 %, respectively, in the 0.210 g/kg and 0.630 g/kg L-malate-treated group compared with the control group. There were no differences in the concentrations of Glc, BUN and TP between the L-malate-treated groups and the control groups. However, the levels of CK were significantly decreased in the L-malate-treated groups. The results predict a potential benefit of L-malate for improving physical stamina and minimizing muscle damage during swimming exercise. The activities of cytosolic and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase were significantly elevated in the L-malate-treated group compared with the control group. These enzymatic activities may be useful indicators for evaluating changes affecting the malate-aspartate shuttle and energy metabolism in the liver of mice.  (+info)

Cisplatin-induced toxicity is associated with platinum deposition in mouse kidney mitochondria in vivo and with selective inactivation of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex in LLC-PK1 cells. (8/21)

The anticancer drug cisplatin is nephrotoxic and neurotoxic. Previous data support the hypothesis that cisplatin is bioactivated to a nephrotoxicant. The final step in the proposed bioactivation is the formation of a platinum-cysteine S-conjugate followed by a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyase reaction. This reaction would generate pyruvate, ammonium, and a highly reactive platinum (Pt)-thiol compound in vivo that would bind to proteins. In this work, the cellular location and identity of the PLP-dependent cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyase were investigated. Pt was shown to bind to proteins in kidneys of cisplatin-treated mice. The concentration of Pt-bound proteins was higher in the mitochondrial fraction than in the cytosolic fraction. Treatment of the mice with aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA, a PLP enzyme inhibitor), which had previously been shown to block the nephrotoxicity of cisplatin, decreased the binding of Pt to mitochondrial proteins but had no effect on the amount of Pt bound to proteins in the cytosolic fraction. These data indicate that a mitochondrial enzyme catalyzes the PLP-dependent cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyase reaction. PLP-dependent mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (mitAspAT) is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes beta-elimination reactions with cysteine S-conjugates of halogenated alkenes. We reasoned that the enzyme might also catalyze a beta-lyase reaction with the cisplatin-cysteine S-conjugate. In this study, mitAspAT was stably overexpressed in LLC-PK(1) cells. Cisplatin was significantly more toxic in confluent monolayers of LLC-PK(1) cells that overexpressed mitAspAT than in control cells containing vector alone. AOAA completely blocked the cisplatin toxicity in confluent mitAspAT-transfected cells. The Pt-thiol compound could rapidly bind proteins and inactivate enzymes in close proximity of the PLP-dependent cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyase. Treatment with 50 or 100 microM cisplatin for 3 h, followed by removal of cisplatin from the medium for 24 h, resulted in a pronounced loss of alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) activity in both mitAspAT-transfected cells and control cells. Exposure to 100 microM cisplatin resulted in a significantly greater loss of KGDHC activity in the cells overexpressing mitAspAT than in control cells. Aconitase activity was diminished in both cell types, but only at the higher level of exposure to cisplatin. AspAT activity was also significantly decreased by cisplatin treatment. By contrast, several other enzymes (both cytosolic and mitochondrial) involved in energy/amino acid metabolism were not significantly affected by cisplatin treatment in the LLC-PK(1) cells, whether or not mitAspAT was overexpressed. The susceptibility of KGDHC and aconitase to inactivation in kidney cells exposed to cisplatin metabolites may be due to the proximity of mitAspAT to KGDHC and aconitase in mitochondria. These findings support the hypothesis that a mitochondrial cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyase converts the cisplatin-cysteine S-conjugate to a toxicant, and the data are consistent with the hypothesis that mitAspAT plays a role in the bioactivation of cisplatin.  (+info)

Got2 (untagged) - Mouse glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 2, mitochondrial (Got2), nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein, (10ug), 10 µg.
Rat liver mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (a homodimer) was shown to catalyse a β-lyase reaction with three nephrotoxic halogenated cysteine S-conjugates [S-(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl)-l-cysteine, S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-l-cysteine and S-(2-chloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethyl)-l-cysteine], and less effectively so with a non-toxic cysteine S-conjugate [benzothiazolyl-l-cysteine]. Transamination competes with the β-lyase reaction, but is not favourable. The ratio of β elimination to transamination in the presence of S-(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl)-l-cysteine and 2-oxoglutarate is ,100. Syncatalytic inactivation by the halogenated cysteine S-conjugates is also observed. The enzyme turns over approx. 2700 molecules of halogenated cysteine S-conjugate on average for every monomer inactivated. Kidney mitochondria are known to be especially sensitive to toxic halogenated cysteine S-conjugates. Evidence is presented that 15-20% of the cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase activity towards ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Use of protease sensitivity to probe the conformations of newly synthesised mutant forms of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase. AU - Azzariti, Amalia. AU - Giannattasio, Sergio. AU - Doonan, Shawn. AU - Merafina, Riccardo S.. AU - Marra, Ersilia. AU - Quagliariello, Ernesto. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Sensitivity to digestion with pronase has been used to show that the precursor form of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, the form lacking the N-terminal presequence, that with a deletion of the first 9 residues and mutants of the mature enzyme in which residue Cys-166 is mutated to alanine or serine, all retain unfolded conformations after synthesis in a reticulocyte lysate. In the presence of lysed mitochondria the various forms of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase retained their susceptibilities to pronase in a way that mirrored the efficiencies with which they are imported into intact mitochondria. The results are interpreted as showing that the presequence ...
Citrate accumulation and secretion are physiological functions of the normal prostate gland in most species. Prolactin (PRL) stimulates citrate accumulation in the rat lateral prostate (LP) and pig prostate by increasing the expression of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (mAAT), the enzyme that catalyzes aspartate transamination. In the present studies, we established the role of PRL and the phorbol ester 12-O-tetra-decanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) in the regulation of mAAT in LNCaP and PC-3 cells. We isolated total RNA from the cells and hybridize it with a mAAT cDNA. Next, we assayed protein kinase C (PKC) activity and expression in PRL and TPA treated prostate cells. We, then determined the effect of PRL and TPA on gene transcription using a mAAT-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene construct, transiently transfected into PC-3 cells. A fragment of the 5{dollar}\sp\prime{dollar} gene region containing putative TPA response elements (TRE) was cloned into the ...
Patients must have adequate hepatic,renal,& bone marrow function,defined as the following:(1) total bilirubin ,/=1.5xULN;(2) serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) & serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT),/=2.5xULN;(3)creatinine ,/= 1.5xULN;(4) ANC ,/= 1.5x10^9/L;(5) platelets,/=100 x 10^9/L.Note:Renal function is only based on serum creatinine level ,/= 1.5xULN.The standard Cockcroft & Gault formula or the measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using the appropriate radio labelled method (51-CrEDTA or Tc99m-DTPA) must be used to calculate cranial cruciate ligament (CrCl) for enrollment or dosing.The same method used @ baseline should be used throughout the study.CrCl should be ,/= 45mg/dl ...
8a. Renal: Creatinine clearance or radioisotope glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ≥70 mL/min/1.73 m2.. 8b. Hepatic: Total bilirubin ≤2.0 mg/dL unless the increase in bilirubin is attributable to Gilberts syndrome; and SGOT (AST) (serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase), SGPT (ALT) (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase), and Alkaline Phosphatase ,4 x upper limit of normal (ULN) for age.. 8c. Cardiac: Normal cardiac function by echocardiogram or radionuclide scan, as defined by left ventricular ejection fraction at rest ,45%, or shortening fraction ,26%.. 8d. Pulmonary: FEV1 (forced expiratory volume at one second), FVC (forced vital capacity), and DLCO (diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide) (corrected for hemoglobin) ≥50% of predicted; if unable to perform pulmonary function tests, then oxygen saturation ≥92% on room air.. Eligibility Criteria for Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Transplant. ...
Foregoing researches made on the N/OFQ system brought up a possible role for this system in cardiovascular regulation. In this study we examined how N/OFQ levels of the blood plasma changed in acute cardiovascular diseases. Three cardiac patient groups were created: enzyme positive acute coronary syndrome (EPACS, n = 10), enzyme negative ACS (ENACS, n = 7) and ischemic heart disease (IHD, n = 11). We compared the patients to healthy control subjects (n = 31). We found significantly lower N/OFQ levels in the EPACS [6.86 (6.21-7.38) pg/ml], ENACS [6.97 (6.87-7.01) pg/ml and IHD groups [7.58 (7.23-8.20) pg/ml] compared to the control group [8.86 (7.27-9.83) pg/ml]. A significant correlation was detected between N/OFQ and white blood cell count (WBC), platelet count (PLT), creatine kinase (CK), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and cholesterol levels in the EPACS group.Decreased plasma N/OFQ is closely associated with the presence of acute cardiovascular disease, and the severity of symptoms ...
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Although more than 200 species of hoya exist worldwide, the most commonly grown, hoya carnosa, is an easy-care houseplant prized for its foliage and form as well as its aromatic flowers. Other ...
Disulfide bonds play an important role in protein folding and structure stability. Accurately predicting disulfide bonds from protein sequences is important for modeling the structural and functional characteristics of many proteins.
Protein Structure Analysis - Get Shape & Dynamics In Solution In the Lab. Measure Your Protein In Its Natural Environment For Formulation And Research
Local coordination verses systemic disregulation: complexities in leukocyte recruitment revealed by local and systemic activation of TLR4 in vivo.: The recruitm
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Het Bureau Kwaliteitszorg van de faculteit Bouwkunde heeft als doel de kwaliteit van het onderwijs te waarborgen en te verhogen. Het Bureau Kwaliteitszorg werkt aan onderwijsontwikkeling op vak- en curriculumniveau. Docenten kunnen gebruik maken van didactische ondersteuning op maat, aangeboden door de kwaliteitszorgmedewerkers. ...
The research investigated the heamatological indices of Sida rhombifolia ethanolic leaf extract on micronor induced infertility in female rats. Sida rhombifolia is a shrub from the family of Malvaceae. Forty eight (48) female albino rats were randomly placed into six (6) study groups of eight (8) rats each and designated as; positive control group (PC) placed on distill water and normal feeds, micronor control group (MC) induced with micronor but not treated with Sida rhombifolia, Sida rhombifolia control group (SRC), (SRM1, SRM2, SRM3) induced with micronor and treated with ethanolic leaf extract of Sida rhombifolia at concentrations of 100mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight respectively for 14 days. Animals treated with 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg Sida rhombifolia ethanolic leaf extract showed a significant increase in white blood cell count activity and neutrophil concentration compared to the micronor control. There was also a significant increase (P|0.05) in the red blood cell counts of the
Free radicals, in particular radical oxygen species (ROS), play an important role in the aetiology and pathogenesis of various diseases. Current research in many countries focuses on the use of local medicinal plants as a promising source of liver protective agents. This paper describes the hepatoprotective effects of the methanol extract and four isolated compounds from Ficus chlamydocarpa on CCl4-induced liver damage, as well as the possible antioxidant mechanisms involved in this protection. The DPPH test, along with the beta-Carotene-Linoleic Acid Model System and Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power assays, as well as the inhibition of microsomal lipid peroxidation were used to measure radical-scavenging and antioxidant activities. Pretreatment of rats with the methanol extract of F. chlamydocarpa before CCl4 administration, significantly prevented serum increase of hepatic enzyme markers, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), in a dose-dependent ...
The effect of bitter kola on the hepatotoxicity following mercury poisoning (mercuric chloride solution of 10ppm) was investigated in rats for a duration of six weeks. Thirty (30) acclimatized Wistar rats were divided into five groups(n=6).Group I served as control and were fed on normal rat chow and clean water ad libitum, group II received normal chow and mercury contaminated water (10ppm), group III animals were given clean water and 5% w/w bitter kola supplemented rat chow, group IV rats received bitter kola supplemented rat chow and mercury contaminated water, group V animals were placed for the first week of the experiment on mercury contaminated water and normal rat chow before substituting with clean water and bitter kola supplemented rat chow. Two (2) animals from each group were sacrificed at the end of 2nd, 4th and 6th week and blood collected by cardiac puncture before the liver was harvested .Serum Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (GOT), Glutamate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic analysis of 12 polymorphic isozyme loci in Taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott. AU - Nguyen, Viet Xuan. AU - Yoshino, Hiromichi. AU - Tahara, Makoto. PY - 1999/9. Y1 - 1999/9. N2 - Using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis find isoelectric focusing, we studied the genetic control of isozymes in nine enzyme systems of taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott; acid phosphatase (ACP), diaphorase (DIA), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), hexokinase (HEX), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD), phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI), shikimate dehydrogenase (SKDH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Diploid taro accessions from Nepal and other Asian countries were either selfed or crossed, and isozyme band segregation was tested in their progeny. A total of 12 loci with two to three alleles were determined for isozymes in leaf tissue; six loci of Got-1, Got-5, Idh-1, Pgi-3, Sod-3 and Sod-4 encoded a dimeric enzyme, whereas Acp-4, Dia-2, Hex-2 and Skdh ...
Citric acid (citrate) is a weak acid that is formed in the tricarboxylic acid cycle or that may be introduced with diet. The evaluation of plasma citric acid is scarcely used in the diagnosis of animal diseases. On the contrary urinary citrate excretion is a common tool in the differential diagnosis of kidney stones, renal tubular acidosis and it plays also a role in bone diseases. The importance of hypocitraturia should be considered with regard to bone mass, urine crystallization and urolithiasis. (PMID 12957820 ) The secretory epithelial cells of the prostate gland of animals and other animals posses a unique citrate-related metabolic pathway regulated by testosterone and prolactin. This specialized hormone-regulated metabolic activity is responsible for the major prostate function of the production and secretion of extraordinarily high levels of citrate. The key regulatory enzymes directly associated with citrate production in the prostate cells are mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, ...
A search for novel supplements, other than anabolic steroids, lead to founding of a well-prospering industry, providing amateur and professional sportsmen with a vista of nutrition increasing muscular gain and stamina.. Among them, SAA has become very popular due to their supposed positive influence on physical stamina. Unfortunately, the popularity of this supplement is rendered rather by claims of a manufacturer and not lucid scientific reports on human models. To address this shortcomings we performed this study, which is the first ever attempt to analyze an impact of SAA supplementation on physical stamina in humans.. Taking into account the current literature on translation of drugs dose from animal to human [12], we primarily contemplated the use of ~41 mg of SAA per kg of body mass/day, not 500 mg/kg/day as presented in this study. However, we did not consider SAA as drugs, per se, but only as a nutritional supplement. Additionally a limited duration of an experiment i.e., 12-day training ...
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HPLC Application #20088: Betaxolol on Lux 5µm Amylose-2 in NP. Column used: Lux® 5 µm Amylose-2, LC Column 250 x 4.6 mm, Ea Part#: 00G-4472-E0
HPLC Application #20501: Betaxolol on Lux 5µm Cellulose-2 in NP. Column used: Lux® 5 µm Cellulose-2, LC Column 250 x 4.6 mm, Ea Part#: 00G-4457-E0
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HOYAs Super HiVision treatment virtually eliminates reflections and glare while providing twice the scratch resistant protection of any AR treatment available. Utilizing our proprietary technology called Substrate Matching Properties (SMP), Super HiVision also allows the highest light transmission possible through the lens, which optimizes sight. Super HiVision lenses even feature HOYAs ViewProtect technology, providing a finish that makes cleaning simple, yet almost never necessary, further extending the life of your lenses ...
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You can find 1 higher-good quality solution in the modern marketplace generally known as GenF20 Plus thats reported to correctly slow down aging processes during the human overall body. Its established to own wonderful Added benefits in restoring HGH levels back. The experts are guaranteed that damaging HGH stages is the key explanation for aging difficulties. GenF20 Plus allows to restore the HGH, and Because of this you can delight in other Positive aspects in your wellness. Pores and skin seems to be smoother and firmer. Your physical stamina is improved. You can drop fat and reduce human body Extra fat ...
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Shannon Hartman, one of AIMs social workers, has been visiting once a week with Lon Pray, a 63-year-old retired teacher whose prostate cancer has metastasized to his bones. Two years ago, doctors told Pray he had between 18 months and two years to live. As the clock ticked by, he become obsessed with the amount of time he had left but felt he couldnt open up in a doctors office.. Pray says Hartman has helped him come to terms with a number of losses - from his physical stamina to his desire to socialize. I went from going 90 miles an hour, taking care of the house, taking care of rental properties, to the point where I cant do anything, he says. His conversations with Hartman have helped him understand whats happening to him and communicate with his wife of 27 years, Lynette, about his concerns about abandoning her. I dont know where Id be without this program. It was a godsend, he says. Lynette agrees. They let you know what youre going through is normal.. Hartman says a large ...
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The flowers appear in axillary umbellate clusters at the tip of peduncles, Hoya peduncles are commonly referred to as spurs, In most species these spurs are perennial and are rarely shed,Can be left without any special care or watering, Good product low price Orders over $15 ship free Fast FREE Shipping Free shipping and free returns on eligible items. mgcomunicacio.com
Buy: Hoya multi-coating to enhance light intensity (97%) and reduces flare and ghosting. Protects front lens surface from finger prints, scratches, moisture and dust. Increases contrast between reds and yellows
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Frataxin deficiency results in mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress and it is the cause of the hereditary neurodegenerative disease Friedreich ataxia (FA). Here, we present evidence that one of the pleiotropic effects of oxidative stress in frataxin-deficient yeast cells (Δyfh1 mutant) is damage to nuclear DNA and that repair requires the Apn1 AP-endonuclease of the base excision repair pathway.. Read More: Apn1 AP-endonuclease is essential for the repair of oxidatively damaged DNA bases in yeast frataxin-deficient cells. ...
Citric acid (citrate) is a weak acid that is formed in the tricarboxylic acid cycle or that may be introduced with diet. The evaluation of plasma citric acid is scarcely used in the diagnosis of human diseases. On the contrary urinary citrate excretion is a common tool in the differential diagnosis of kidney stones, renal tubular acidosis and it plays also a role in bone diseases. The importance of hypocitraturia should be considered with regard to bone mass, urine crystallization and urolithiasis. (PMID 12957820 ) The secretory epithelial cells of the prostate gland of humans and other animals posses a unique citrate-related metabolic pathway regulated by testosterone and prolactin. This specialized hormone-regulated metabolic activity is responsible for the major prostate function of the production and secretion of extraordinarily high levels of citrate. The key regulatory enzymes directly associated with citrate production in the prostate cells are mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, ...
Citric acid (citrate) is a weak acid that is formed in the tricarboxylic acid cycle or that may be introduced with diet. The evaluation of plasma citric acid is scarcely used in the diagnosis of human diseases. On the contrary urinary citrate excretion is a common tool in the differential diagnosis of kidney stones, renal tubular acidosis and it plays also a role in bone diseases. The importance of hypocitraturia should be considered with regard to bone mass, urine crystallization and urolithiasis. (PMID 12957820 ) The secretory epithelial cells of the prostate gland of humans and other animals posses a unique citrate-related metabolic pathway regulated by testosterone and prolactin. This specialized hormone-regulated metabolic activity is responsible for the major prostate function of the production and secretion of extraordinarily high levels of citrate. The key regulatory enzymes directly associated with citrate production in the prostate cells are mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, ...
Hindu Rope is Hoya carnosa Compacta. Its an indoor plant that produces vines (to 10 feet long), with oval leaves and big, round, tight clusters of flowers in the summertime. The plant is extremely sensitive to changes in temperature and humidity, doesnt like to be disturbed once the flower buds appear, doesnt want the spent flowers removed, and does not like to be repotted until very root-bound. Hoyas grow best from cuttings taken from mature shoots. They like bright light - some direct sunlight is beneficial. Water liberally from spring to autumn and sparingly in the winter months, mist the leaves regularly - except when the plant is blooming and keep the plant cool in the winter (50F - 55F degrees). Plan to provide a trellis or some other support for your Hoya, in a permanent spot so it doesnt have to be moved, and it will reward you with fragrant flowers all summer long ...
STAMINA Meaning: rudiments or original elements of something, from Latin stamina threads, plural of stamen (genitive… See definitions of stamina.
stamina definition: Stamina is resistance to fatigue, hardship or illness. (noun) An example of stamina is when you can run a long marathon without tiring....
They said all right, we wonder is it training, or is it genetics and makeup that makes that happen? They then ran some tests in 2011. They took a bunch of Marines, and they basically put them through a mindfulness training process to help them really pay attention to their internal sensations and in the world. What they found was that after, I believe it was eight weeks of training that Marines brains looked really similar to the Navy Seals when this test occurred. Then further training from there, they showed increased performance in endurance efforts.. What does this mean to us? Its pretty simple. It means that we can actually build perseverance. We can build physical stamina by learning how to run our sensations better.. What Im going to do today is give you one simple exercise to do for the rest of December. Once youve done it, you can actually start to notice a significant difference often in your ability to handle stress much more peacefully, and with less physical discomfort than ever ...
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Stamina Products Inc. warrants our products to be free from defects in materials and workmanship at the time of the original purchase from an authorized retailer. In the event that a product becomes defective, please contact us by phone at 1-800-375-7520 or send written notification to the address listed on the Contact Us page of this website.. If the defect is under the limited warranty, you may be requested to return the product or part to us for repair or replacement. Stamina Products Inc. reserves the right to require the customer to pay for the return shipping of the item.. Warranty information on a specific product can be found toward the back of the Owners Manual or you can call us at 1-800-375-7520. The warranty will not apply to any product that has been subject to commercial use, abuse, misuse, or any type of modification by the consumer.. To confirm your rights as described in the warranty statement, be sure to complete the Product Registration Card and mail it to us promptly! Or ...
Monifa Maat is a certified fitness instructor and Corrective Exercise Specialist (National Academy of Sports Medicine). She is the wellness columnist for the Harlem News (New York City) and author of Bed Aerobics Fitness Flow: 18 Mind Body Exercises for Strength, Flexibility and Balance.. Monifa offers several group and private training options which include Group: BAFF (Bed Aerobics Fitness Flow) and MO Burn!Personal which include Restorative Fitnessand Mo Fit Body.. Complete the application below to be selected for an assessment with Monifa by phone.. ...
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No one likes to lead a restricted life. When the restriction interprets to limited body movement or loss of stamina to do things that you used to love, it can be even more frustration. This, along with varying mood swings and depression that comes with age can take you to even deeper depths of remorse.. After all, it isnt easy to accept that the spark of your life is gradually fading away, that you are growing old and the physical stamina or appearance that you used to be so proud of, will never be the same again. GHR1000 is one HGH releaser that gives you the vigour and the glowing grace of your face that you have been missing for so long. Working by stimulating the pituitary gland for natural production of more HGH, GHR1000 doesnt contain growth hormone in itself. It is an all natural formulation of proven herbs that are known for their safety of use and efficacy since ages. This supplement is especially suitable for people who have protein deficiency or have sedentary lifestyle due to ...
Cardio kickboxing has now been gathering an increasing number of followers due to the amazing health advantages. This workout combines cardio workouts with self-defense skill techniques to create a full body workout. Cardio kickboxing is a great high energy exercise that can burn fat easily and efficiently plus enhance your mental well-being. Research has shown that the hour of kickboxing along with aerobic workouts burns up 650 to 900 calories in an hour. (kickboxing alone can burn upto 600calories by the hour). Listed here are the most notable three good reasons why you need to undertake cardio kickboxing today.. 1. Burns fat, increases muscle strength and physical stamina. As said before, cardio kickboxing burns an insane amount of calories. And within a short amount if time. Great!. Additionally, it promotes the healthiness of your heart, and increases great and bad your core muscles. The kicks tone your leg muscles whilst the punches supply a workout for your chest muscles. Back is trimmed ...
Why is every stutterer I have ever met a man? asks Jeremy Zorn, the main character of another fine novel, David Shieldss Dead Languages. Ninety percent of all impeded speakers are male. The gender ratio, slightly exaggerated by Zorn, is indeed one of the mysteries of the stuttering syndrome. Approximately 80 percent of the worlds stutterers are estimated to be male. Although girls begin stuttering a little earlier, they recover earlier and more frequently than boys. Lionel Logue attributed the difference to womens greater power of concentration.. Others who have commented on the disparity estimate that the reason lies in the general physical superiority of women. In terms of matters physiological, women are generally the stronger, throughout life, writes one theorist of speech ailments, Marcel C. Wingate, who elaborates on womens greater physical stamina. The physiological superiority of the female is readily expressed in terms of the survival of the species: endurance of the female ...
Character. On paper a fire ranger was required to be a man of rock-solid character. A sober and industrious man, of good behaviour and judgment, with a cool temper would be a good man to educate a sometimes indifferent public, and to enforce unpopular fire legislation.. Physical Stamina. Fire patrols were tests of strength and endurance. Rangers trudged over rugged terrain shouldering heavy packs, paddled and portaged canoes, rode horseback over narrow mountain trails, hand pumped railcars over miles of track, dug out fire break trenches, and hauled pail after pail of water to put out a fire. They coped with bugs, bad weather, accidents, and wild animals.. ...
agree mostly. disagree as follows, i have no problem with women in the military but in jobs where physical stamina and strength may mean your life or someone elses then it should be a mans world. if you disagree, are you willing to draft women for combat positions? just remember the way the whole war and the media coverage STOPPED until Jesssica Lynch was rescued (quotes because the rescue is a controversial topic as far as what actually went down). dont get me wrong, i was elated that she was rescued, but a woman in captivity doesnt sit well with anyone and it sits least well with the folks around her and heaven and earth was moved to get her back. fine. great. but what about when it endagers the mission? personally i dont want my son or my daughter drafted but if theres a draft and i had to do a sophies choice i would chose my son to go.. ReplyDelete ...
agree mostly. disagree as follows, i have no problem with women in the military but in jobs where physical stamina and strength may mean your life or someone elses then it should be a mans world. if you disagree, are you willing to draft women for combat positions? just remember the way the whole war and the media coverage STOPPED until Jesssica Lynch was rescued (quotes because the rescue is a controversial topic as far as what actually went down). dont get me wrong, i was elated that she was rescued, but a woman in captivity doesnt sit well with anyone and it sits least well with the folks around her and heaven and earth was moved to get her back. fine. great. but what about when it endagers the mission? personally i dont want my son or my daughter drafted but if theres a draft and i had to do a sophies choice i would chose my son to go.. ReplyDelete ...
Stamina is the green echelon above the amber action-point indicator.It recharges fairly rapidly over time, and is used for sliding (clerics), teleportation (wizards), and so on. It is important for a wizard to teleport quickly out of the heat of battle, or for a cleric to slide out of a power blow, or for the guardian fighter to parry an attack. Strength gives a boost to stamina recharge rate. ...
The way we see the world has changed dramatically in recent years. Our viewing ranges have gone from distant horizons, to intermediate zones, to now primarily focusing on near-tasks. Most of us simply dont realize the harmful effects this shift has had on our vision and our overall health. The Hoya sync 5 and sync 8 single vision lenses are designed to provide effortless, comfortable viewing ...
Hoya is a twining plant with succulent green leaves. Its flowers of white or pink with red centers are borne in clusters. Learn more at HowStuffWorks.
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D. C. Adams and Naylor, G. J. P., A Comparison of Methods for Assessing the Structural Similarity of Proteins, in Mathematical Methods for Protein Structure Analysis and Design, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2003, pp. 109-115. ...
D. C. Adams and Naylor, G. J. P., A Comparison of Methods for Assessing the Structural Similarity of Proteins, in Mathematical Methods for Protein Structure Analysis and Design, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2003, pp. 109-115. ...
College requires a different type of stamina. Perhaps its more like character. Its not based on the short time frame mental stamina required by the SAT. Besides, the SAT really relates more to preparation. At the lower test score range, it relates to a good preparation in basic math. At the upper range, its directly related to preparation for the questions on the SAT. Now that Im looking at the questions in detail, I clearly see the specialized skills and preparation my son needs. Preparation will reduce the stress and the stamina required. Its the same as training for a sport. You could have lots of potential, but you are competing against peers who are training like crazy. The goal of the SAT is to create questions that separate kids at all levels. If you dont prepare, you are at a disadvantage ...
Complete information for SNORD14E gene (RNA Gene), Small Nucleolar RNA, C/D Box 14E, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for SNORD114-28 gene (RNA Gene), Small Nucleolar RNA, C/D Box 114-28, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
As far as other Autistics possibly wanting a cure goes... if the choice of taking a hypothetical cure would truly be a free one, where every Autistic person had the ability to make a meaningful decision themselves without any kind of coercion, individual or systemic, then I would have no problem with that. However, that just would not be the case. If were looking at a cure by prenatal testing, then consent of individual Autistic people or the Autistic community as a whole just doesnt come into it, and, more likely than not, there just wouldnt be any but a few Autistic people around at a certain point. If its a cure for living people, theres going to be all sorts of coercion involved. As things stand, children have no real power to resist even harmful, intrusive and unnecessary medical or psychiatric treatment imposed on them by their parents. Autistic people who were non-speaking or otherwise perceived as low-functioning would be similarly at risk for having cures imposed on them, if ...
It is very hard to give objective weights to threat vs survival stats, or stamina vs damage reduction vs combat table coverage. But, as you note, with the exception of trinkets and gems, often we dont need to make such tradeoffs as stamina and armor tends to be uniform for a given item level. The consensus here seems to be, generally, to go with the highest item level tanking gear you can get, where possible choosing items with survival secondary stats and prefering mastery over dodge/parry. The argument is that threat is not an issue at the moment and mastery is best for both damage reduction and combat table coverage ...
Hi im a complete newbie to this forum so firstly let me apologise for my lack of knowledge here. mY job involves a six monthly multi stage fitness
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Patiënten met pijn moeten zo snel mogelijk behandeld worden. Persoonlijke aandacht voor de patiënt samen met gespecialiseerde zorg leidt tot de beste, op maat gemaakte, behandeling. Acibadem IMC biedt deze mogelijkheden. Pijn in al zijn aspecten is aanwezig in elke levensfase. Pijn is allereerst een signaal van dreiging, van beschadiging. Als pijn chronisch wordt, is de pijn beschadigend voor het lichaam. Het altijd pijn ervaren leidt tot vermindering van het kunnen doen en het willen doen. Altijd pijn hebben kan leiden tot een andere, beperkte manier van leven. Als pijnspecialist behandeling ik chronische pijnsyndromen.. Mijn opleiding geneeskunde (doctor in de genees-, heel- en verloskunde) en specialisatie tot geneesheer-specialist in de anesthesie en reanimatie heb ik gedaan aan de Universitaire ziekenhuizen St.-Rafael en Gasthuisberg, Leuven in België. Ik ben gepromoveerd op het onderwerp behandeling van neuropathische pijn aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Na mijn promotie tot ...
La 25 de ani de la descoperirea virusului care produce maladia SIDA, cercetatorii au identificat o subspecie de cimpanzei din Camerun ca sursa naturala a HIV
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Blood is the most commonly tested part of the body, and it is truly the river of life. Learn about red and white blood cells, lymphocytes, blood tests, blood types and blood donation.
"Domain closure in mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase". Journal of Molecular Biology. 227 (1): 197-213. doi:10.1016/0022- ... The enzyme aspartate aminotransferase catalyzes the transfer of an amino group from aspartate onto α-ketoglutarate to yield ... The aspartate family of amino acids includes: threonine, lysine, methionine, isoleucine, and aspartate. Lysine and isoleucine ... Aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of aspartyl phosphate to yield aspartate ...
"Hazardous drinking is associated with elevated aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index in an urban HIV clinical ... "Mitochondrial injury in steatohepatitis". Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) Unité 481, Faculté ... Increase of aminotransferases]". Clinique médicale, CHU de Rouen; Trivalle C, Chassagne P, Doucet J, Perol MB, Landrin I, ... "Mitochondrial involvement in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis". Department of Medical and Occupational Sciences, University of ...
Oxaloacetic acid + Glutamate ↔ α-Ketoglutarate + Aspartate ( Catalysed by Aspartate Aminotransferase) 2) Synthesis of ammonia ( ... AJP Cell Physiology, 2008, 295:C29-C37) showed that activation of HIF-1α allows cardiomyocytes to sustain mitochondrial ... OAA either enters into TCA cycle or converts into aspartate in the mitochondria. Aspartate can re-enter purine nucleotide cycle ... The purine nucleotide cycle is a metabolic pathway in which ammonia and fumarate are generated from aspartate and inosine ...
Results: A significant reduction in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (64 ± 72 vs 46 ± 36, P=0.016) and aspartate aminotransferase ... In particular, mitochondrial dysfunction leads to the aberrant production and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ...
... belongs to the class V group of aspartate aminotransferase superfamily of structurally homologous pyridoxal 5'- ... Mitochondrial proteins. Outer membrane. fatty acid degradation. *Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I. *Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ...
mitochondrial shuttle. *Malate-aspartate shuttle. *Glycerol phosphate shuttle. other. *Glutamate aspartate transporter ... Branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase. *Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex ... The mitochondrial creatine kinase (CKm) is present in the mitochondrial intermembrane space, where it regenerates ... While mitochondrial creatine kinase is directly involved in formation of phospho-creatine from mitochondrial ATP, cytosolic CK ...
Kikuchi G, Hiraga K (June 1982). "The mitochondrial glycine cleavage system. Unique features of the glycine decarboxylation". ... Glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase cycle but costs the cell one ATP and one NADPH. The upside is that one CO2 is produced ...
"Hazardous drinking is associated with elevated aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index in an urban HIV clinical ... "Mitochondrial injury in steatohepatitis". Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) Unité 481, Faculté ... Increase of aminotransferases]". Clinique médicale, CHU de Rouen; Trivalle C, Chassagne P, Doucet J, Perol MB, Landrin I, ... "Mitochondrial involvement in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis". Department of Medical and Occupational Sciences, University of ...
Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase catalyses cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase reactions. Arthur J.L. COOPER, Sam A. BRUSCHI, ... Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase catalyses cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase reactions. Arthur J.L. COOPER, Sam A. BRUSCHI, ... l-cysteine in crude kidney mitochondrial homogenates is due to mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase. The possible ... Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase catalyses cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase reactions Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
Sensitivity to digestion with pronase has been used to show that the precursor form of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase ... The results are interpreted as showing that the presequence of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase is not uniquely ... The results are interpreted as showing that the presequence of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase is not uniquely ... The results are interpreted as showing that the presequence of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase is not uniquely ...
Studies on prolactin regulation of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase gene expression and protein kinase C activity and ... Studies on prolactin regulation of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase gene expression and protein kinase C activity and ... and pig prostate by increasing the expression of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (mAAT), the enzyme that catalyzes ... aspartate transamination. In the present studies, we established the role of PRL and the phorbol ester 12-O-tetra- ...
2 mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase leads to allow the cases of military base atoms, j. Fda is applied in analyzing ...
Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrialAdd BLAST. 401. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions ... Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial (EC:2.6.1.11 Publication. Manual assertion based on experiment ini ... "The primary structure of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase from human heart.". Martini F., Angelaccio S., Barra D., ... "The primary structure of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase from human heart.". Martini F., Angelaccio S., Barra D., ...
... mitochondrial, KAT4, KATIV, mitAAT validated in (PBV11368r-100), Abgent ... belongs to the class-I pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase family. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase is a ... pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme which exists in cytoplasmic and inner-membrane mitochondrial forms, GOT1 and GOT2, ...
Aspartate Aminotransferase 2) (GOT2) Protein (His tag). Species: Human. Source: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Order product ... Aspartate Aminotransferase 2)... Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase 2, Mitochondrial (Aspartate Aminotransferase 2) (GOT2) (AA 1 ... Aspartate Aminotransferase 2) Protein * 187 anti-Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase 2, Mitochondrial (Aspartate Aminotransferase ... Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase 2, Mitochondrial (Aspartate Aminotransferase 2) (GOT2) show synonyms for this antigen * KAT4 ...
The aspartate aminotransferase activity is involved in hepatic glucose synthesis during development and in adipocyte ... Biosynthesis of L-glutamate from L-aspartate or L-cysteine. Important regulator of levels of glutamate, the major excitatory ... In eukaryotes there are cytoplasmic, mitochondrial and chloroplastic isozymes.. ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www. ... L-aspartate:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity Source: UniProtKB. *L-cysteine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity ...
... mitochondrial; (c) cytosolic; TCA, tricarboxylic acid; AAT, aspartate amino transferase; GDH, glutamate dehydrogenase; BBB, ...
... cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase; AATm, mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase; OAA, oxaloacetate; Mal, malate; Glu, ... Among the latter aspartate aminotransferase (AAT), alanine-aminotransferase (ALAT), and the branched chain aminotransferase ( ... As an alternative to the activity of GDH, aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) facilitates the formation of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) ... Fahien LA, Hsu SL, Kmiotek E. Effect of aspartate on complexes between glutamate dehydrogenase and various aminotransferases. J ...
The mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) enables many metabolic processes, but why its inhibition suppresses cell ... the cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase, loss of which kills cells upon ETC inhibition. GOT1 normally consumes aspartate to ... which partially compensates for the loss of mitochondrial aspartate synthesis. Pyruvate stimulates aspartate synthesis in a ... An Essential Role of the Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain in Cell Proliferation Is to Enable Aspartate Synthesis Cell. ...
... mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase; Got1, cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase; Got2, mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase ... IMM, inner mitochondrial membrane; OMM, outer mitochondrial membrane; OAA, oxaloacetate; αKG, α-ketoglutarate; Glu, glutamate; ... 2007) Mitochondrial carriers and pores: key regulators of the mitochondrial apoptotic program? Apoptosis 12, 869- 876. ... and aspartate aminotransferase (3.4) (numbers in parentheses indicate -fold changes of free thiol levels, Tg-Trx1/control). ...
aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial. Names. FABP-1. FABPpm. aspartate aminotransferase 2. aspartate transaminase 2. fatty ... Aminotran_1_2; Aminotransferase class I and II. cl18945. Location:32 → 387. AAT_I; Aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) superfamily ... NM_002080.4 → NP_002071.2 aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial isoform 1 precursor. See identical proteins and their ... glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2, mitochondrial. kynurenine aminotransferase 4. kynurenine aminotransferase IV. kynurenine-- ...
K14454 GOT1; aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic [EC:2.6.1.1] K14455 GOT2; aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial [EC: ... aspartate aminotransferase [EC:2.6.1.1] K00813 aspC; aspartate aminotransferase [EC:2.6.1.1] K11358 yhdR; aspartate ... K00841 patA; aminotransferase [EC:2.6.1.-] K10907 K10907; aminotransferase [EC:2.6.1.-] K14270 ACS10_12; aminotransferase ... K00811 ASP5; aspartate aminotransferase, chloroplastic [EC:2.6.1.1] K00812 aspB; ...
K14454 GOT1; aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic [EC:2.6.1.1] K14455 GOT2; aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial [EC: ... aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic [EC:2.6.1.1] K14455 GOT2; aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial [EC:2.6.1.1] K00814 ... 100771278 Agxt; alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 100759906 Agxt2; alanine--glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 100762274 Ass1; ... 00250 Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism [PATH:cge00250] 100762297 Got1; glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 1 100762838 ...
UCalcium-binding mitochondrial carrier protein Aralar2. Not Available. Human. UAspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic. Not ... Guidetti P, Amori L, Sapko MT, Okuno E, Schwarcz R: Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase: a third kynurenate-producing ... Catalyzes the calcium-dependent exchange of cytoplasmic glutamate with mitochondrial aspartate across the mitochondrial inner ... Catalyzes the calcium-dependent exchange of cytoplasmic glutamate with mitochondrial aspartate across the mitochondrial inner ...
... apo-mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase / protease 401 / mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase / aspartate ... Total mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, the sum of apo- and holo-mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase activity in ... Cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase is completely inactivated, and apo-mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase is completely ... mitochondrial aspartase aminotransferase / proteolytic isoenzyme assay / aspartate aminotransferase / cytosolic aspartate ...
Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial precursor. 1.396. 0.019. gi,119395750. Keratin, type II cytoskeletal 1. 1.388. 0.004 ... Phosphate carrier protein, mitochondrial isoform a precursor. 1.427. 0.024. gi,10863927. Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A ... Kakehashi A, Ishii N, Shibata T, et al: Mitochondrial prohibitins and septin 9 are implicated in the onset of rat ...
Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase 2, Mitochondrial (Aspartate Aminotransferase 2) 2 * Aspartate Aminotransferase, Mitochondrial ... Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase: a third kynurenate-producing enzyme in the mammalian brain. (PMID: 17442055) Guidetti ... Glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2, mitochondrial (aspartate aminotransferase 2):. *Hs.599470. Representative Sequences:. *NM_ ... cDNA FLJ54203, highly similar to Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial (EC 2.6.1.1) (B4DY39_HUMAN) ...
Protein Aliases: aspartate aminotransferase 2; Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial; aspartate transaminase 2; FABP-1; ... mitochondrial (aspartate aminotransferase 2); Kynurenine aminotransferase 4; Kynurenine aminotransferase IV; Kynurenine-- ... L-aspartate:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity phospholipid binding kynurenine-oxoglutarate transaminase activity amino ... gluconeogenesis 2-oxoglutarate metabolic process oxaloacetate metabolic process aspartate metabolic process aspartate ...
Mitochondrial protein import: role of certain domains of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase S. Giannattasio, A. Azzariti ... Using 1H-and 15N-NMR spectroscopy to observe active sites of porcine cytosolic and Escherichia coli aspartate aminotransferases ... Cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase : tissue-specific hormonal regulation of a housekeeping gene promoter ... Functional role of the mobile stretch Gly36-Val37-Gly38 of porcine cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase ...
Description: Recombinant Bovine Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial(GOT2) expressed in E.coli. Aspartate Aminotransferase ... Should the Rat Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) ELISA Kit is proven to show malperformance, you will receive a refund or a free ... Should the Rat Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) ELISA Kit is proven to show malperformance, you will receive a refund or a free ... Should the Bovine Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) ELISA Kit is proven to show malperformance, you will receive a refund or a ...
Reporter Construct Analysis of the Mitochondrial Aspartate Aminotransferase Promoter. LECOM Research Day. .ter_links.row a { ...
9. Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial. General function:. Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous ... 8. Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic. General function:. Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous ... 5. 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrial. General function:. Involved in 4-aminobutyrate transaminase activity. ... 6. Tyrosine aminotransferase. General function:. Involved in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase activity. Specific ...
2. Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial. General function:. Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous ... 1. Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic. General function:. Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous ...
6. Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial. General function:. Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous ... 5. Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic. General function:. Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous ... 2. 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrial. General function:. Involved in 4-aminobutyrate transaminase activity. ... 4. Tyrosine aminotransferase. General function:. Involved in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase activity. Specific ...
1. Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial. General function:. Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous ... 3. Kynurenine/alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase, mitochondrial. General function:. Involved in transferase activity, ... 6. Aminoadipate aminotransferase, isoform CRA_b. General function:. Transcription. Specific function:. Not Available. Gene Name ... Okuno E, Nakamura M, Schwarcz R: Two kynurenine aminotransferases in human brain. Brain Res. 1991 Mar 1;542(2):307-12. [PubMed: ...
In this study aminotransferase inhibitors were used to determine the relative importance of different aminotransferases in ... Because L-cycloserine inhibits cytosolic but not mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, L-cycloserine should prevent the ... Aspartate Aminotransferases / metabolism. Cyclohexanecarboxylic Acids*. Cycloserine / pharmacology. Cytosol / enzymology*. Dose ... 6847669 - Inhibition of coenzyme activation of aspartate aminotransferase.. 20187119 - Structural rationale for the short ...
CC] mitochondrial matrix *[CC] mitochondrion *[CC] plasma membrane *[MF] L-aspartate:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity * ... glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2, mitochondrial (aspartate aminotransferase 2). Protein Similarities Based on Shared Motif ... BP] aspartate biosynthetic process *[BP] aspartate catabolic process *[BP] aspartate metabolic process *[BP] biosynthetic ... BP] glutamate catabolic process to aspartate *[BP] glutamate metabolic process *[BP] oxaloacetate metabolic process *[BP] ...
... by kynurenine aminotransferases (KATs). However, alternative routes, including KYNA formation from D-kynurenine (D-KYN) by D- ... by kynurenine aminotransferases (KATs). However, alternative routes, including KYNA formation from D-kynurenine (D-KYN) by D- ... Guidetti, P., Amori, L., Sapko, M. T., Okuno, E., and Schwarcz, R. (2007a). Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase: a third ... Kynurenine aminotransferases; MPC, 3-Methylpyrazole-5-carboxylic acid; NMDA, N-methyl-D-aspartate; ONOO−, peroxynitrite; OH•, ...
Glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2, mitochondrial. GOT2. 1,039. 1114. (aspartate aminotransferase 2). NM_005731. Actin related ...
  • Sensitivity to digestion with pronase has been used to show that the precursor form of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, the form lacking the N-terminal presequence, that with a deletion of the first 9 residues and mutants of the mature enzyme in which residue Cys-166 is mutated to alanine or serine, all retain unfolded conformations after synthesis in a reticulocyte lysate. (elsevier.com)
  • The results are interpreted as showing that the presequence of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase is not uniquely required for interaction with cytosolic factors required to maintain the newly synthesised protein in a form competent for interacting with, and being imported into, mitochondria. (elsevier.com)
  • Glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase is a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme which exists in cytoplasmic and inner-membrane mitochondrial forms, GOT1 and GOT2, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • Blood tests indicated that the patient had cholestasis, elevated alanine aminotransferase, elevated aspartate transaminase, elevated gamma-glutamyl transferase, and elevated bilirubin (Table 1 ). (hindawi.com)
  • Among those patients who have AMA antibodies and alkaline phosphatase levels that are less than 1.5 times normal values, primary biliary cirrhosis may be diagnosed with 55% accuracy if patients have aspartate transaminase levels that are more than 5 times the upper limit of normal. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The screen yielded GOT1, the cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase, loss of which kills cells upon ETC inhibition. (nih.gov)
  • A proteolytic measurement of various isoenzymes activities and the optimal conditions for selective proteolytic inactivation of cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase to determine mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase in serum were investigated by use of purified bytosolic aspartate aminotransferase inactivating proteases. (nii.ac.jp)
  • A pH of 9.5 with 0.5% albumin in the reagent mixture was determined to be optimal for inactivation of cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase and preservation of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, lactic dehydrogenase, and malic dehydrogenase in the assay procedure. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase is completely inactivated, and apo-mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase is completely activated by pyridoxal 5' -phosphate within 5 min. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In this shuttle, cytosolic aspartate (synthesized in mitochondria) generates cytosolic oxaloacetate that oxidizes cytosolic NADH via malate dehydrogenase. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Title: Bi-allelic GOT2 Mutations Cause a Treatable Malate-Aspartate Shuttle-Related Encephalopathy. (nih.gov)
  • Title: Preventing BRCA1/ZBRK1 repressor complex binding to the GOT2 promoter results in accelerated aspartate biosynthesis and promotion of cell proliferation. (nih.gov)
  • A previously unknown mechanism by which GOT2 (show GOT2 ELISA Kits ) acetylation stimulates the malate-aspartate NADH shuttle activity and oxidative protection. (antibodies-online.com)
  • GOT1 is a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme which exists in cytoplasmic and mitochondrial forms, GOT1 and GOT2, which participate in amino acid metabolism and the urea and tricarboxylic acid cycles. (prospecbio.com)
  • In eukaryotes there are cytoplasmic, mitochondrial and chloroplastic isozymes. (uniprot.org)
  • The α-ketoglutarate thus formed is translocated out of the mitochondria by the dicarboxylate carrier and transaminated in the cytoplasm by the cytoplasmic isoform of aspartate aminotransferase. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In the presence of lysed mitochondria the various forms of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase retained their susceptibilities to pronase in a way that mirrored the efficiencies with which they are imported into intact mitochondria. (elsevier.com)
  • The results are interpreted as showing that the presequence of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase is not uniquely required for interaction with cytosolic factors required to maintain the newly synthesised protein in a form competent for interacting with, and being imported into, mitochondria. (elsevier.com)
  • GOT1 normally consumes aspartate to transfer electrons into mitochondria, but, upon ETC inhibition, it reverses to generate aspartate in the cytosol, which partially compensates for the loss of mitochondrial aspartate synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • l-Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase II of rat kidney and liver mitochondria possesses cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase activity: a contributing factor to the nephrotoxicity/hepatotoxicity of halogenated alkenes? (portlandpress.com)
  • Thermal aggregation of aspartate aminotransferase from pig heart mitochondria (mAAT) has been studied at various temperatures and various protein concentrations by dynamic light scattering. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Because NADPH2+ cannot cross the mitochondrial membrane, NADH2+-derived protons and oxaloacetate are converted to malate for uptake by mitochondria by the malate/2-oxoglutarate antiporter (Fig. 1). (deepdyve.com)
  • 1 Moreover, the retinal DNA damage restricted to mitochondria in the early phase of uveitis supports the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress in retinal damage. (arvojournals.org)
  • Determination of mitochondrial protein levels can provide insight into the mechanism by which stress alters the functions of the mitochondria in EAU. (arvojournals.org)
  • During this process, several key events occur in mitochondria, including the release of caspase activators such as cytochrome c, changes in electron transport, and loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm). (docplayer.net)
  • Most mitochondrial proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm as preproteins with an amino (N)-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS) that directs mitochondria-specific sorting of the preprotein. (genes2cognition.org)
  • OAA either enters into TCA cycle or converts into aspartate in the mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vivo exposure to AgNPs was capable of increasing plasmatic aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, suggesting hepatocellular injury. (dissertation.com)
  • Specifically, they may have elevated serum enzymes, such as creatine kinase (CK), aldolase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). (the-rheumatologist.org)
  • Hepatotoxicity was monitored by quantitative analysis of the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase ( AST ) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and measured amount of serum lipoprotein (LDL, HDL), total cholesterol and creatinine were used as the biochemical markers of liver damages. (nactem.ac.uk)
  • Serum activities of the hepatic enzymes alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase were used as biochemical markers of hepatotoxicity. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Interestingly we identified a few protein functional networks that had not been shown previously to be regulated by Trx1, including the creatine-phosphocreatine shuttle, the mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex, and the cardiac contractile apparatus. (mcponline.org)
  • Partial genome sequencing and screening of a cosmid DNA library resulted in the identification of a 1,302-bp aminotransferase gene, which encodes a 46,416-Da protein. (asm.org)
  • In this study, the authors determined alterations in retinal mitochondrial protein levels in response to oxidative stress during the early phase of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). (arvojournals.org)
  • In the present study, we determined mitochondrial protein alterations in early EAU retina using the proteomic approach of 2D-DIGE combined with MALDI-TOF MS. We identified significant differences in mitochondrial protein levels between control and EAU retinas. (arvojournals.org)
  • Hepatotoxicity was monitored by quantitative analysis of the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase ( AST ), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, total protein, albumin, triglyceride and cholesterol. (nactem.ac.uk)
  • Please note that glutamate decarboxylase is localized in the cytosol whereas all other enzymes depicted are mitochondrial. (frontiersin.org)
  • We recently reported that aspartate (Asp) biosynthesis in plant chloroplasts is catalyzed by two different Asp aminotransferases (AAT): a previously characterized eukaryote type and a prokaryote type (PT-AAT) similar to bacterial and archaebacterial enzymes. (plantphysiol.org)
  • AAT enzymes have been classified into the aminotransferase family I and then divided into two subfamilies, I α and I β , according to their amino acid sequence identities ( Jensen and Gu, 1996 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Sub-chronic treatment of animals starting from the lowest dose of glyphosate induced the leakage of hepatic intracellular enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase ( AST ), suggesting irreversible damage in hepatocytes. (nactem.ac.uk)
  • Certainly co-administration enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase losing her hair can weeks and then Equipoise saville are larger than usual. (flightcaster.com)
  • The effectiveness of large amounts of aspartate aminotransferase and oxaloacetate decarboxylase, as competing enzymes for the intermediate oxaloacetate, was examined. (jbsdonline.com)
  • Aspartate aminotransferase and oxaloacetate decarboxylase were less effective competitors for oxaloacetate when precipitated citrate synthase and mMDH in polyethylene glycol was used at low ionic strength compared with free enzymes in the absence of polyethylene glycol or with a co-precipitate of citrate synthase and cMDH. (jbsdonline.com)
  • Sensitivity to digestion with pronase has been used to show that the precursor form of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, the form lacking the N-terminal presequence, that with a deletion of the first 9 residues and mutants of the mature enzyme in which residue Cys-166 is mutated to alanine or serine, all retain unfolded conformations after synthesis in a reticulocyte lysate. (elsevier.com)
  • Prolactin (PRL) stimulates citrate accumulation in the rat lateral prostate (LP) and pig prostate by increasing the expression of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (mAAT), the enzyme that catalyzes aspartate transamination. (umaryland.edu)
  • Enzyme assays revealed an aminotransferase activity. (asm.org)
  • The recombinant enzyme was purified and showed a specific activity of 17.5 U mg −1 for ( S )-β-phenylalanine at 30°C and 33 U mg −1 at the optimum temperature of 55°C. The β-specific aminotransferase exhibits a broad substrate range, accepting ortho -, meta -, and para -substituted β-phenylalanine derivatives as amino donors and 2-oxoglutarate and pyruvate as amino acceptors. (asm.org)
  • The crystal structures of the holoenzyme and of the enzyme in complex with the inhibitor 2-aminooxyacetate revealed structural similarity to the β-phenylalanine aminotransferase from Mesorhizobium sp. (asm.org)
  • MBS043425 is a ready-to-use microwell, strip plate Quantitative Sandwich ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Kit for analyzing the presence of the Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. (mybiosource.com)
  • The aspartate aminotransferase family in conifers: biochemical analysis of a prokaryotic-type enzyme from maritime pine. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Citrate synthase (CS), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, plays a decisive role in regulating energy generation of mitochondrial respiration. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Evaluation of the possible implication of the SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD and CS genes in non-obstructive male infertility was performed on the basis that sperm concentration in the ejaculate has been previously correlated with nuclear-encoded mitochondrial enzyme activities (the four subunits of succinate dehydrogenase/complex II of the respiratory chain and citrate synthase). (genes2cognition.org)
  • We have originally identified and cloned transaldolase, an enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway (14), as a regulator of glutathione (GSH) metabolism (15,16) and a newly described metabolic checkpoint of T-cell activation and death signal processing: elevation of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential or, as newly termed, mitochondrial hyperpolarization (MHP) (17). (upstate.edu)
  • which is mediated by the enzyme ornithine aminotransferase, mitochondrial. (ymdb.ca)
  • In addition, oxoglutaric acid and ammonium can be biosynthesized from L-glutamic acid through the action of the enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial. (ymdb.ca)
  • FRDA (Friedreich's ataxia) is a debilitating mitochondrial disorder leading to neural and cardiac degeneration, which is caused by a mutation in the frataxin gene that leads to decreased frataxin expression. (portlandpress.com)
  • The overexpression of Rab4A gene product of HRES-1, which is detectable in T cells of SLE patients and in all lupus-prone strains prior to disease onset, also contributes to oxidative stress and mTOR activation by inhibiting mitochondrial turnover via autophagy, also called mitophagy (5). (upstate.edu)
  • Organ specificity of glucocorticoid-sensitive tyrosine aminotransferase. (elsevier.com)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Organ specificity of glucocorticoid-sensitive tyrosine aminotransferase. (elsevier.com)
  • Tyrosine aminotransferase, histidinol-phosphate aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase are homologous proteins. (semanticscholar.org)
  • L-aspartate is a glycogenic amino acid, and it can also promote energy production via its metabolism in the Krebs cycle. (drugbank.ca)
  • They found "subtle abnormalities in the serum creatine kinase level, aspartate aminotransferase, and serum bicarbonate", all markers for mitochondrial metabolism problems. (ageofautism.com)
  • Deciphering the role of aspartate and prephenate aminotransferase activities in plastid nitrogen metabolism. (semanticscholar.org)
  • proteolytic method) and showed excellent inhibitory activity of the protease for holo-and apo-cytoslic aspartate aminotransferase up to 5000 U/L more than 200-fold the upper limit and activation of mitochondrial apo-aspartate aminotransferase up to 2000 U/L in the presence of 100 mumol of pyridoxal 5' -phosphate per liter. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Structural basis for the catalytic activity of aspartate aminotransferase K258H lacking the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-binding lysine residue. (uzh.ch)
  • KO mice had a modest increase in hepatic oxidative stress, lower expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2), and lower citrate synthase activity, the first step in the tricarboxylic acid cycle.N-Acetylcysteine did not prevent ethanol-induced mortality in KO mice. (ovid.com)
  • KO mice exhibited severe macrovesicular steatosis and 5 to 6-fold higher serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels. (ovid.com)
  • 1, 2 In the face of the many chronically infected patients who developed an indolent slowly progressive hepatitis characterised by persistently normal or near normal values of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and mild histological lesions on biopsy, 3- 6 the majority of patients have a more active disease that may ultimately progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. (bmj.com)
  • L-aspartate is formed by the transamination of the Krebs cycle intermediate oxaloacetate. (drugbank.ca)
  • It appears, however, that glutamate derived from glutamine via this route is produced intramitochondrially and may subsequently undergo a transamination catalyzed by the mitochondrial isoform of aspartate aminotransferase. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A) Malate-aspartate NADH shuttle (MA shuttle). (deepdyve.com)
  • The presence of mitochondrial-specific oxidative stress-related proteins in the early EAU retina along with the downregulation of ATP synthase provides early evidence of stress-related retinal damage. (arvojournals.org)
  • 2 Peroxynitrite-mediated nitration of the photoreceptor mitochondrial proteins suggests that mitochondrial oxidative stress is the initial event for the retinal damage and amplification of inflammatory processes. (arvojournals.org)
  • 5 However, it is unclear whether mitochondrial oxidative stress modulates the mitochondrial proteins during early EAU. (arvojournals.org)
  • The indexes evaluated included liver pathological changes, levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the serum, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) in the liver, and related proteins levels (CYP2E1, pJNK and Bax). (mdpi.com)
  • in proteins, aspartate takes the form of its amide, asparagine. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Rat liver mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (a homodimer) was shown to catalyse a β-lyase reaction with three nephrotoxic halogenated cysteine S-conjugates [ S -(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl)- l -cysteine, S -(1,2-dichlorovinyl)- l -cysteine and S -(2-chloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethyl)- l -cysteine], and less effectively so with a non-toxic cysteine S-conjugate [benzothiazolyl- l -cysteine]. (biochemj.org)
  • In this work, we evaluated the toxicity of silver nanoparticles (10- and 75 nm) and their effects in rat liver mitochondrial bioenergetics. (dissertation.com)
  • Moreover, AgNPs caused impairment of rat liver mitochondrial function, mainly due to alterations of mitochondrial membrane permeability leading to an uncoupling effect on the oxidative phosphorylation system. (dissertation.com)
  • The aspartate aminotransferase activity is involved in hepatic glucose synthesis during development and in adipocyte glyceroneogenesis. (uniprot.org)
  • The mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) translocation in HL-7702 cells were determined. (mdpi.com)
  • The ratio of green to red fluorescence is dependent only on the membrane potential and not other factors such as mitochondrial size, shape, and density, which may influence single-component fluorescence signals. (docplayer.net)
  • AJP Cell Physiology, 2008, 295:C29-C37) showed that activation of HIF-1α allows cardiomyocytes to sustain mitochondrial membrane potential during anoxic stress by utilizing fumarate produced by adenylosuccinate lyase as an alternate terminal electron acceptor in place of oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pyruvate stimulates aspartate synthesis in a GOT1-dependent fashion, which is required for pyruvate to rescue proliferation of cells with ETC dysfunction. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, enabling aspartate synthesis is an essential role of the ETC in cell proliferation. (nih.gov)
  • Synthesis of KYNA in the brain and elsewhere is generally attributed to the enzymatic conversion of L-kynurenine (L-KYN) by kynurenine aminotransferases (KATs). (frontiersin.org)
  • Role of specific aminotransferases in de novo glutamate synthesis and redox shuttling in the retina. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In this study aminotransferase inhibitors were used to determine the relative importance of different aminotransferases in providing nitrogen for de novo glutamate synthesis in the retina. (biomedsearch.com)
  • L-cycloserine, an inhibitor of alanine aminotransferase, inhibited glutamate synthesis less than 15% when added in the presence of 5 mM pyruvate but 47% in the presence of 0.2 mM pyruvate. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Pardo B, Rodrigues TB, Contreras L, Garzon M, Llorente-Folch I, Kobayashi K, Saheki T, Cerdan S, Satrustegui J (2011) Brain glutamine synthesis requires neuronal-born aspartate as amino donor for glial glutamate formation. (springer.com)
  • Oxaloacetic acid + Glutamate ↔ α-Ketoglutarate + Aspartate ( Catalysed by Aspartate Aminotransferase) 2) Synthesis of ammonia (Ammonia genesis) The glutamate produced by OAA as above gains an NH3 to become a Glutamine and enters the circulation to reach kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes for cytosolic, mitochondrial and two plastidic isoenzymes (eukaryotic- and prokaryotic-types) were identified and their deduced amino acid sequences compared. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Recombinant expression, purification, and characterization of three isoenzymes of aspartate aminotransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In close to half of these samples they found elevations in the same plasma markers (aspartate aminotransferase and serum creatine kinase) that they found in Hannah. (ageofautism.com)
  • Specifically, we found that oxamate and AOA decreased the flux of 13 C-glucose-derived carbons into glutamate and uridine, both products of the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle, as well as oxygen consumption, a measure of electron transport chain activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results provide an important basis for the study of mitochondrial dysfunction due to aberrant CSa trafficking. (genes2cognition.org)
  • The first clinical trial to report successful treatment of erectile dysfunction with Pycnogenol[R] and L-arginine aspartate involved 40 men between 25 and 45 years of age suffering from mild ED. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Characterization of five putative aspartate aminotransferase genes in the N2-fixing heterocystous cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Identification and characterization of the mitochondrial targeting sequence and mechanism in human citrate synthase. (genes2cognition.org)
  • This antioxidant agent efficiently prevented the structural damage in the inner mitochondrial membrane as well as damage to mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes. (dissertation.com)
  • The mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) enables many metabolic processes, but why its inhibition suppresses cell proliferation is unclear. (nih.gov)
  • Despite the heterogeneous myopathy phenotypes, a unifying feature of mitochondrial myopathies is that the pathogenic mtDNA mutations and/or nuclear mutations of the electron transport chain invariably lead to dysfunctional mitochondrial respiration. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • AgNPs also compromised the electron transfer along the electron transport chain byaffecting the activity of complexes II and IV of the respiratory chain and interfered with the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) induction. (dissertation.com)
  • Total mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, the sum of apo- and holo-mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase activity in human serum, was measured by using proposed method. (nii.ac.jp)
  • An immunological procedure for determination of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase in human serum. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In healthy cells with high mitochondrial ΔΨm, JC-1 spontaneously forms complexes known as J-aggregates with intense red fluorescence. (docplayer.net)
  • Aspartate aminotransferase-immunoglobulin complexes in patients with chronic liver disease. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Collectively, available data suggest that the ability of RTA 408 to activate Nrf2 and induce its target genes could potentially improve muscle function, oxidative phosphorylation, antioxidant capacity, and mitochondrial biogenesis in patients with mitochondrial myopathies. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Evidence is presented that 15-20% of the cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase activity towards S -(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl)- l -cysteine in crude kidney mitochondrial homogenates is due to mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase. (biochemj.org)
  • The possible involvement of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase in the toxicity of halogenated cysteine S-conjugates is also discussed. (biochemj.org)
  • L-aspartate is considered a non-essential amino acid, meaning that, under normal physiological conditions, sufficient amounts of the amino acid are synthesized in the body to meet the body's requirements. (drugbank.ca)
  • The crystal structure was used to rationalize the stereo- and regioselectivity of V. paradoxus aminotransferase and to define a sequence motif with which new aromatic β-amino acid-converting aminotransferases may be identified. (asm.org)
  • Amino acid sequences of tomato ACC synthase (TomACS), apple ACC synthase (AppACS), pig cytosolic AATase (PigAAT), and chicken mitochondrial AATase (ChiAAT) are compared. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Mitochondrial myopathies are a multisystemic group of disorders that are characterized by a wide range of biochemical and genetic mitochondrial defects and variable modes of inheritance. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Structure of the substrate, mode of gabaculine inhibition, and the catalytic mechanism of glutamate 1-semialdehyde aminotransferase. (asmscience.org)
  • In conclusion, we have experimentally identified the mitochondrial targeting sequence of human CSa and elucidated its targeting mechanism. (genes2cognition.org)
  • Catalytic activity: L-aspartate + 2-oxoglutarate = oxaloacetate + L-glutamate. (mybiosource.com)