Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Aspartate Aminotransferase, Mitochondrial: An aspartate aminotransferase found in MITOCHONDRIA.Pyridoxal Phosphate: This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).Tyrosine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-TYROSINE and 2-oxoglutarate to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate and L-GLUTAMATE. It is a pyridoxal-phosphate protein. L-PHENYLALANINE is hydroxylated to L-tyrosine. The mitochondrial enzyme may be identical with ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASES (EC 2.6.1.1.). Deficiency of this enzyme may cause type II Tyrosinemia (see TYROSINEMIAS). EC 2.6.1.5.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Pyridoxamine: The 4-aminomethyl form of VITAMIN B 6. During transamination of amino acids, PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate.Aspartate Carbamoyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of carbamoyl phosphate and L-aspartate to yield orthophosphate and N-carbamoyl-L-aspartate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.1.3.2.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Ornithine-Oxo-Acid Transaminase: A pyridoxal phosphate enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glutamate gamma-semialdehyde and an L-amino acid from L-ornithine and a 2-keto-acid. EC 2.6.1.13.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Aspartate Aminotransferase, Cytoplasmic: An aspartate aminotransferase found in the CYTOPLASM.Pyridoxal: The 4-carboxyaldehyde form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.4-Aminobutyrate Transaminase: An enzyme that converts brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID) into succinate semialdehyde, which can be converted to succinic acid and enter the citric acid cycle. It also acts on beta-alanine. EC 2.6.1.19.Aspartate Ammonia-Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of aspartic acid to ammonia and fumaric acid in plants and some microorganisms. EC 4.3.1.1.Ketoglutaric Acids: A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)Oxamic Acid: Amino-substituted glyoxylic acid derivative.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Aminooxyacetic Acid: A compound that inhibits aminobutyrate aminotransferase activity in vivo, thereby raising the level of gamma-aminobutyric acid in tissues.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Vitamin B 6 Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 6 in the diet, characterized by dermatitis, glossitis, cheilosis, and stomatitis. Marked deficiency causes irritability, weakness, depression, dizziness, peripheral neuropathy, and seizures. In infants and children typical manifestations are diarrhea, anemia, and seizures. Deficiency can be caused by certain medications, such as isoniazid.Clinical Enzyme Tests: Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.GalactosamineCreatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Pyridoxine: The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Apoenzymes: The protein components of enzyme complexes (HOLOENZYMES). An apoenzyme is the holoenzyme minus any cofactors (ENZYME COFACTORS) or prosthetic groups required for the enzymatic function.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Aspartate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of beta-aspartyl phosphate from aspartic acid and ATP. Threonine serves as an allosteric regulator of this enzyme to control the biosynthetic pathway from aspartic acid to threonine. EC 2.7.2.4.Glutamate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.4.1.2.Chemistry, Clinical: The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.Malate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Protective Agents: Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningOxaloacetates: Derivatives of OXALOACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1,4-carboxy aliphatic structure.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Autoanalysis: Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.MaleatesMitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Schiff Bases: Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Aminobutyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.Enzymes: Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.Oxytropis: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain SWAINSONINE.MalatesBinding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).D-Alanine Transaminase: A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transfer of an amino group between D-Alanine and alpha-ketoglutarate to form PYRUVATE and D-GLUTAMATE, respectively. It plays a role in the synthesis of the bacterial CELL WALL. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 2.6.1.10.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Amino Acids, DicarboxylicBorohydrides: A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Coenzymes: Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Valine Dehydrogenase (NADP+)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental: Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.GlyoxylatesMyocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Hepatitis B, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Receptors, Amino Acid: Cell surface proteins that bind amino acids and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors are the most common receptors for fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate central nervous system, and GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and glycine receptors are the most common receptors for fast inhibition.Analgesics, Non-Narcotic: A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Cycloserine: Antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces garyphalus.Hepatitis, Viral, Human: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Hematologic Tests: Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Fumarate Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of fumaric acid to yield L-malic acid. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.2.Thioacetamide: A crystalline compound used as a laboratory reagent in place of HYDROGEN SULFIDE. It is a potent hepatocarcinogen.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Oxaloacetic Acid: A dicarboxylic acid ketone that is an important metabolic intermediate of the CITRIC ACID CYCLE. It can be converted to ASPARTIC ACID by ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE.Cholagogues and Choleretics: Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Dicarboxylic AcidsDrugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Bromobenzenes: Derivatives of benzene in which one or more hydrogen atoms on the benzene ring are replaced by bromine atoms.PyruvatesJaundice: A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Enzyme Precursors: Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.Succinic Acid: A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Tryptophan Transaminase: A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer amino group from L-TRYPTOPHAN to 2-oxoglutarate in order to generate indolepyruvate and L-GLUTAMATE.Platelet Count: The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Hyperoxaluria, Primary: A genetic disorder characterized by excretion of large amounts of OXALATES in urine; NEPHROLITHIASIS; NEPHROCALCINOSIS; early onset of RENAL FAILURE; and often a generalized deposit of CALCIUM OXALATE. There are subtypes classified by the enzyme defects in glyoxylate metabolism.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.2-Aminoadipate Transaminase: A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of amino group of L-2-aminoadipate onto 2-oxoglutarate to generate 2-oxoadipate and L-GLUTAMATE.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Blood Urea Nitrogen: The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Pyridoxal Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyridoxal in the presence of ATP with the formation of pyridoxal 5-phosphate and ADP. Pyridoxine, pyridoxamine and various derivatives can also act as acceptors. EC 2.7.1.35.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.Raffinose: A trisaccharide occurring in Australian manna (from Eucalyptus spp, Myrtaceae) and in cottonseed meal.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Liver Regeneration: Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.Phosphonoacetic Acid: A simple organophosphorus compound that inhibits DNA polymerase, especially in viruses and is used as an antiviral agent.Hydroxybutyrate DehydrogenaseAmmonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Warm Ischemia: A tissue or organ remaining at physiological temperature during decreased BLOOD perfusion or in the absence of blood supply. During ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION it begins when the organ reaches physiological temperature before the completion of SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS and ends with reestablishment of the BLOOD CIRCULATION through the tissue.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)L-Lysine 6-Transaminase: A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of amino group of L-LYSINE onto 2-oxoglutarate to generate 2-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde and L-GLUTAMATE.Ornithine Carbamoyltransferase: A urea cycle enzyme that catalyzes the formation of orthophosphate and L-citrulline (CITRULLINE) from CARBAMOYL PHOSPHATE and L-ornithine (ORNITHINE). Deficiency of this enzyme may be transmitted as an X-linked trait. EC 2.1.3.3.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Carbamyl Phosphate: The monoanhydride of carbamic acid with PHOSPHORIC ACID. It is an important intermediate metabolite and is synthesized enzymatically by CARBAMYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA) and CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (GLUTAMINE-HYDROLYZING).Erythrocyte Indices: ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Ursodeoxycholic Acid: An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Sulfolobus: A genus of aerobic, chemolithotrophic, coccoid ARCHAEA whose organisms are thermoacidophilic. Its cells are highly irregular in shape, often lobed, but occasionally spherical. It has worldwide distribution with organisms isolated from hot acidic soils and water. Sulfur is used as an energy source.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Dihydroorotase: An enzyme that, in the course of pyrimidine biosynthesis, catalyzes ring closure by removal of water from N-carbamoylaspartate to yield dihydro-orotic acid. EC 3.5.2.3.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Alkynes: Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Organ Preservation Solutions: Solutions used to store organs and minimize tissue damage, particularly while awaiting implantation.Pyridoxic Acid: The catabolic product of most of VITAMIN B 6; (PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; and PYRIDOXAMINE) which is excreted in the urine.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Shiitake Mushrooms: Mushrooms in the order AGARICALES containing B vitamins, cortinelin, and the polysaccharide LENTINAN.Glutathione Peroxidase: An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Prothrombin Time: Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Ornithine: An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Erythrocyte Count: The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Kupffer Cells: Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.

Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase catalyses cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyase reactions. (1/21)

Rat liver mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (a homodimer) was shown to catalyse a beta-lyase reaction with three nephrotoxic halogenated cysteine S-conjugates [ S -(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl)-L-cysteine, S -(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine and S -(2-chloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethyl)-L-cysteine], and less effectively so with a non-toxic cysteine S-conjugate [benzothiazolyl-L-cysteine]. Transamination competes with the beta-lyase reaction, but is not favourable. The ratio of beta elimination to transamination in the presence of S -(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl)-L-cysteine and 2-oxoglutarate is >100. Syncatalytic inactivation by the halogenated cysteine S-conjugates is also observed. The enzyme turns over approx. 2700 molecules of halogenated cysteine S-conjugate on average for every monomer inactivated. Kidney mitochondria are known to be especially sensitive to toxic halogenated cysteine S-conjugates. Evidence is presented that 15-20% of the cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyase activity towards S -(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl)-L-cysteine in crude kidney mitochondrial homogenates is due to mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase. The possible involvement of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase in the toxicity of halogenated cysteine S-conjugates is also discussed.  (+info)

Effect of betaxolol on aspartate aminotransferase activity in hypoxic rat retina in vitro. (2/21)

We investigated the effect of betaxolol on the decrease of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (mAAT) activity in rat retinas induced by hypoxia in vitro. It is reported that mAAT decreases in ischemic or hypoxic retina and that the decrease is caused by Ca(2+)-dependent proteases such as calpain. Betaxolol is a compound that has beta(1)-adrenergic receptor blocking and voltage-dependent calcium channel blocking properties. The rat eye cups were maintained with Locke's solution saturated with 95% air - 5% CO(2). The eye cups were immersed in glucose-free Locke's solution saturated with 95% N(2) / 5% CO(2) (hypoxic solution). Ninety minutes of hypoxia caused a 20% decrease in mAAT activity. The eye cups incubated with the hypoxic solution containing 1 mM EGTA, 10 micro M MK-801 or 100 micro M betaxolol were protected from the decrease in mAAT activity, so that the residual mAAT activity was 50%, 45% or 40%, respectively, compared to the eye cups incubated in hypoxic solution alone, which had a 100% decrease in mAAT activity. In addition, co-incubation with EGTA and betaxolol had a greater protective effect against the mAAT decrease than a single application. This additive effect of betaxolol was dose-dependent. These results suggested that betaxolol had a protective effect against the decrease of mAAT caused by hypoxia and indicated that betaxolol might inhibit the Ca(2+) release from intracellular Ca(2+) stores.  (+info)

Release of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate upon unfolding of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase. (3/21)

Dimeric mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (mAAT) contains a molecule of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) tightly attached to each of its two identical active sites. The presence of this natural reporter allows us to study separately local perturbations in the architecture of this critical region of the molecule during unfolding. Upon unfolding of the enzyme with guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl), the coenzyme is completely released from the active site. The transition midpoint for the dissociation of PLP is 1.4+/-0.02 M when determined by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and 1.6+/-0.02 M when the protein-bound PLP is estimated by electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). In both cases the transition midpoint is higher than that of inactivation (1.3+/-0.01 M). On the other hand, the midpoint of the unfolding transition obtained by monitoring changes in ellipticity at 356 nm, which reflects the asymmetric environment of the PLP cofactor at the active site, is 1.19+/-0.011 M guanidine. These results indicate that the unfolding of mAAT is a multi-step process which includes an intermediate containing bound PLP but lacking catalytic activity.  (+info)

iMolTalk: an interactive, internet-based protein structure analysis server. (4/21)

iMolTalk (http://i.moltalk.org) is a new and interactive web server for protein structure analysis. It addresses the need to identify and highlight biochemically important regions in protein structures. As input, the server requires only the four-digit Protein Data Bank (PDB) identifier, of an experimentally determined structure or a structure file in PDB format stemming e.g. from comparative modelling. iMolTalk offers a wide range of implemented tools (i) to extract general information from PDB files, such as generic header information or the sequence derived from three-dimensional co-ordinates; (ii) to map corresponding residues from sequence to structure; (iii) to search for contacts of residues (amino or nucleic acids) or heterogeneous groups to the protein, present cofactors and substrates; and (iv) to identify protein-protein interfaces between chains in a structure. The server provides results as user-friendly two-dimensional graphical representations and in textual format, ideal for further processing. At any time during the analysis, the user can choose, for the following step, from the set of implemented tools or submit his/her own script to the server to extend the functionality of iMolTalk.  (+info)

Production and characterization of alien chromosome additions in shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) carrying extra chromosome(s) of Japanese bunching onion (A. fistulosum L.). (5/21)

First and second backcrosses of amphidiploid hybrids (2n = 4x = 32, genomes AAFF) between shallot (Allium cepa Aggregatum group) and A. fistulosum were conducted to produce A. cepa - A. fistulosum alien addition lines. When shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group) was used as a pollinator, the amphidiploids and allotriploids set germinable BC(1) and BC(2) seeds, respectively. The 237 BC(1) plants mainly consisted of 170 allotriploids (2n = 3x = 24, AAF) and 42 hypo-allotriploids possessing 23 chromosomes, i.e., single-alien deletions (2n = 3x-1 = 23, AAF-nF). The single-alien deletions in the BC(1) progeny showed dwarfing characteristics and were discriminated from the allotriploids (2n = 24) and hyper-allotriploids (2n = 25) by means of flow cytometric analysis. The chromosome numbers of 46 BC(2) seedlings varied from 16 to 24. Eight monosomic additions (2n = 2x+1 = 17, AA+nF) and 20 single-alien deletions were found in these BC(2) seedlings. Consequently, six kinds of A. cepa - A. fistulosum alien chromosome additions possessing different chromosome numbers (2n = 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23) were recognized in the BC(1) and BC(2) populations. A total of 79 aneuploids, including 62 single-alien deletions, were analyzed by a chromosome 6F-specific isozyme marker (Got-2) in order to recognize its existence in their chromosome complements. This analysis revealed that two out of 62 single-alien deletions did not possess 6F. One (AAF-6F) out of the possible eight single-alien deletions could be identified at first. The present study is a first step toward the development of a useful tool, such as a complete set of eight different single-alien deletions, for the rapid chromosomal assignment of genes and genetic markers in A. fistulosum.  (+info)

Modulation of mitochondrial calcium management attenuates hepatic warm ischemia-reperfusion injury. (6/21)

Hepatic warm ischemia and reperfusion (IR) injury occurs in many clinical situations and has an important link to subsequent hepatic failure. The pathogenesis of this injury involves numerous pathways, including mitochondrial-associated apoptosis. We studied the effect of mitochondrial calcium uptake inhibition on hepatic IR injury using the specific mitochondrial calcium uptake inhibitor, ruthenium red (RR). Rats were subjected to 1 hour of 70% warm hepatic ischemia following RR pretreatment or vehicle injection. Sham-operated animals served as controls. Analysis was performed at 15 minutes, 1 hour, 3 hours, or 6 hours after reperfusion. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations were determined. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining was performed to assess apoptosis, and hepatocellular necrosis was semiquantitated from hematoxylin and eosin-stained tissue sections. RR pretreatment significantly decreased both AST and ALT serum levels after 6 hours of reperfusion (AST: 1,556 +/- 181 U/L vs. 597 +/- 121 U/L, P = 0.005; ALT: 1,118 +/- 187 U/L vs. 294 +/- 39 U/L, P = 0.005). Apoptosis was observed within 15 minutes of reperfusion in vehicle-pretreated animals and peaked after 3 hours of reperfusion (98 +/- 21 cells/high-power field [hpf]). Apoptosis was inhibited at all time points by RR pretreatment. Histologic evidence of necrosis was not observed prior to 3 hours of reperfusion (23% +/- 4%), and maximal necrosis was observed after 6 hours of reperfusion (26% +/- 1% percent area). RR pretreatment significantly decreased the necrotic percent area at both the 3-hour and the 6-hour time points (4.2% +/- 2%; 3.7% +/- 1%, respectively). Hepatic IR injury resulted in both apoptotic and necrotic cell death, which were attenuated by RR pretreatment. In conclusion, these observations implicate mitochondrial calcium uptake in the pathogenesis of hepatic IR injury.  (+info)

Effects of L-malate on physical stamina and activities of enzymes related to the malate-aspartate shuttle in liver of mice. (7/21)

L-malate, a tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) intermediate, plays an important role in transporting NADH from cytosol to mitochondria for energy production and may be involved in the beneficial effects of improving physical stamina. In the present study, we investigated the effects of L-malate on the performance of forced swimming time and blood biochemical parameters related to fatigue - blood urea nitrogen (BUN), glucose (Glc), creatine kinase (CK),total protein (TP) and lactic acid (LA). To investigate the effects of L-malate on the malate-aspartate shuttle and energy metabolism in mice, the activities of enzymes related to the malate-aspartate shuttle were measured. L-malate was orally administered to mice continuously for 30 days using a feeding atraumatic needle. The swimming time was increased by 26.1 % and 28.5 %, respectively, in the 0.210 g/kg and 0.630 g/kg L-malate-treated group compared with the control group. There were no differences in the concentrations of Glc, BUN and TP between the L-malate-treated groups and the control groups. However, the levels of CK were significantly decreased in the L-malate-treated groups. The results predict a potential benefit of L-malate for improving physical stamina and minimizing muscle damage during swimming exercise. The activities of cytosolic and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase were significantly elevated in the L-malate-treated group compared with the control group. These enzymatic activities may be useful indicators for evaluating changes affecting the malate-aspartate shuttle and energy metabolism in the liver of mice.  (+info)

Cisplatin-induced toxicity is associated with platinum deposition in mouse kidney mitochondria in vivo and with selective inactivation of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex in LLC-PK1 cells. (8/21)

The anticancer drug cisplatin is nephrotoxic and neurotoxic. Previous data support the hypothesis that cisplatin is bioactivated to a nephrotoxicant. The final step in the proposed bioactivation is the formation of a platinum-cysteine S-conjugate followed by a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyase reaction. This reaction would generate pyruvate, ammonium, and a highly reactive platinum (Pt)-thiol compound in vivo that would bind to proteins. In this work, the cellular location and identity of the PLP-dependent cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyase were investigated. Pt was shown to bind to proteins in kidneys of cisplatin-treated mice. The concentration of Pt-bound proteins was higher in the mitochondrial fraction than in the cytosolic fraction. Treatment of the mice with aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA, a PLP enzyme inhibitor), which had previously been shown to block the nephrotoxicity of cisplatin, decreased the binding of Pt to mitochondrial proteins but had no effect on the amount of Pt bound to proteins in the cytosolic fraction. These data indicate that a mitochondrial enzyme catalyzes the PLP-dependent cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyase reaction. PLP-dependent mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (mitAspAT) is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes beta-elimination reactions with cysteine S-conjugates of halogenated alkenes. We reasoned that the enzyme might also catalyze a beta-lyase reaction with the cisplatin-cysteine S-conjugate. In this study, mitAspAT was stably overexpressed in LLC-PK(1) cells. Cisplatin was significantly more toxic in confluent monolayers of LLC-PK(1) cells that overexpressed mitAspAT than in control cells containing vector alone. AOAA completely blocked the cisplatin toxicity in confluent mitAspAT-transfected cells. The Pt-thiol compound could rapidly bind proteins and inactivate enzymes in close proximity of the PLP-dependent cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyase. Treatment with 50 or 100 microM cisplatin for 3 h, followed by removal of cisplatin from the medium for 24 h, resulted in a pronounced loss of alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) activity in both mitAspAT-transfected cells and control cells. Exposure to 100 microM cisplatin resulted in a significantly greater loss of KGDHC activity in the cells overexpressing mitAspAT than in control cells. Aconitase activity was diminished in both cell types, but only at the higher level of exposure to cisplatin. AspAT activity was also significantly decreased by cisplatin treatment. By contrast, several other enzymes (both cytosolic and mitochondrial) involved in energy/amino acid metabolism were not significantly affected by cisplatin treatment in the LLC-PK(1) cells, whether or not mitAspAT was overexpressed. The susceptibility of KGDHC and aconitase to inactivation in kidney cells exposed to cisplatin metabolites may be due to the proximity of mitAspAT to KGDHC and aconitase in mitochondria. These findings support the hypothesis that a mitochondrial cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyase converts the cisplatin-cysteine S-conjugate to a toxicant, and the data are consistent with the hypothesis that mitAspAT plays a role in the bioactivation of cisplatin.  (+info)

*Malate-aspartate shuttle

... by mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase. Since aspartate is an amino acid, an amino radical needs to be added to the ... aspartate is converted by cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase to oxaloacetate. The net effect of the malate-aspartate shuttle ... aspartate aminotransferase in the mitochondrial matrix and intermembrane space. malate-alpha-ketoglutarate antiporter in the ... Since the malate-aspartate shuttle regenerates NADH inside the mitochondrial matrix, it is capable of maximizing the number of ...

*Aspartate transaminase

"X-ray structure refinement and comparison of three forms of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase". J Mol Biol. 225 (2): 495 ... Aspartate transaminase (AST) or aspartate aminotransferase, also known as AspAT/ASAT/AAT or serum glutamic oxaloacetic ... Aspartate transaminase catalyzes the interconversion of aspartate and α-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and glutamate. Aspartate ... "Domain closure in mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase". J Mol Biol. 227 (1): 197-213. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(92)90691-C. ...

*GOT2

Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GOT2 gene. Glutamic-oxaloacetic ... Guidetti P, Amori L, Sapko MT, Okuno E, Schwarcz R (Jul 2007). "Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase: a third kynurenate- ... Furuya E, Yoshida Y, Tagawa K (May 1979). "Interaction of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase with negatively charged ... mitochondrial (aspartate aminotransferase 2)". Ford GC, Eichele G, Jansonius JN (May 1980). "Three-dimensional structure of a ...

*GOT1

1989). "Nucleotide sequence and tissue distribution of the human mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase mRNA". Biochem. ... aspartate aminotransferase 1)". Panteghini M (1990). "Aspartate aminotransferase isoenzymes". Clin. Biochem. 23 (4): 311-9. doi ... Totan A, Greabu M, Totan C, Spinu T (2006). "Salivary aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline ... Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GOT1 gene. Glutamic-oxaloacetic ...

*HSPA8

"Structural features of the precursor to mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase responsible for binding to hsp70". The Journal ... The ultrastructural appearance of necrosis is quite different, the main features being mitochondrial swelling, plasma membrane ...

*Biosynthesis

"Domain closure in mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase". Journal of Molecular Biology. 227 (1): 197-213. doi:10.1016/0022- ... The enzyme aspartate aminotransferase catalyzes the transfer of an amino group from aspartate onto α-ketoglutarate to yield ... The aspartate family of amino acids includes: threonine, lysine, methionine, isoleucine, and aspartate. Lysine and isoleucine ... Aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of aspartyl phosphate to yield aspartate ...

*Malate dehydrogenase

... it has been shown that alpha ketogluturate dehydrogenase can interact with mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase to form a ... assisting the malate-aspartate shuttle with exchanging reducing equivalents so that malate can pass through the mitochondrial ... One is found in the mitochondrial matrix, participating as a key enzyme in the citric acid cycle that catalyzes the oxidation ... Gelpí JL, Dordal A, Montserrat J, Mazo A, Cortés A (April 1992). "Kinetic studies of the regulation of mitochondrial malate ...

*Malate dehydrogenase 2

Binding experiments indicate that mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase can associate with the alpha-ketoglutarate ... Malate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial also known as malate dehydrogenase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MDH2 ... Lo, YW; Lin, ST; Chang, SJ; Chan, CH; Lyu, KW; Chang, JF; May, EW; Lin, DY; Chou, HC; Chan, HL (April 2015). "Mitochondrial ... Recent studies of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase are focused into the nature of the inactivation processes. The oligomeric ...

*Mitochondrial matrix

"Mechanism of action of aspartate aminotransferase proposed on the basis of its spatial structure". Journal of Molecular Biology ... Mitochondrial matrix has a pH of about 7.8. Mitochondrial DNA was discovered by Nash and Margit in 1963. One to many double ... The mitochondrial DNA only codes for about thirteen proteins that are used in processing mitochondrial transcripts, ribosomal ... Mitochondrial DNA is 1% of total DNA of a cell. It is rich in Guanine and Cytosine content. Mitochondria of mammals have 55s ...

*List of MeSH codes (D08)

... aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic MeSH D08.811.913.477.700.225.500 --- aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial MeSH ... aspartate-tRNA ligase MeSH D08.811.464.263.200.250 --- glutamate-trna ligase MeSH D08.811.464.263.200.350 --- glycine-trna ... aspartate ammonia-lyase MeSH D08.811.520.232.400.350 --- ethanolamine ammonia-lyase MeSH D08.811.520.232.400.500 --- histidine ... protein d-aspartate-l-isoaspartate methyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.555.500.862 --- thymidylate synthase MeSH D08.811.913.555 ...

*Aminooxyacetic acid

... inhibits aspartate aminotransferase, another PLP-dependent enzyme, which is an essential part of the malate ... potentially due to its impairment of mitochondrial energy metabolism. Aminooxyacetic acid was previously used in a clinical ... Also, the inhibition of aspartate aminotransferase by aminooxyacetic acid has clinical implications for the treatment of breast ... Moreover, selective inhibition of aspartate aminotransferase with aminooxyacetic acid ameliorated experimental autoimmune ...

*Purine nucleotide cycle

Oxaloacetic acid + Glutamate ↔ α-Ketoglutarate + Aspartate ( Catalysed by Aspartate Aminotransferase) 2) Synthesis of ammonia ( ... AJP Cell Physiology, 2008, 295:C29-C37) showed that activation of HIF-1α allows cardiomyocytes to sustain mitochondrial ... OAA either enters into TCA cycle or converts into aspartate in the mitochondria. Aspartate can re-enter purine nucleotide cycle ... The Purine Nucleotide Cycle is a metabolic pathway in which fumarate is generated from aspartate in order to increase the ...

*Serine hydroxymethyltransferase

... like aspartate aminotransferase. The large domain in the eukaryotic form also contains a histidine that has been found ... Fujioka M (1969). "Purification and properties of serine hydroxymethylase from soluble and mitochondrial fractions of rabbit ... Purification and characterization of the mitochondrial and chloroplastic isoforms". Plant Physiol. Biochem. 33 (6): 665-673. ...

*Alcoholic liver disease

In people with alcoholic hepatitis, the serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio is ... Polymorphisms in the enzymes involved in the metabolism of alcohol, such as ADH, ALDH, CYP4502E1, mitochondrial dysfunction, ...

*Lactalbumin

Results: A significant reduction in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (64 ± 72 vs 46 ± 36, P=0.016) and aspartate aminotransferase ... In particular, mitochondrial dysfunction leads to the aberrant production and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ...

*Fasciolosis

... gamma glutamyl transpeptidase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and their significance as diagnostic aids". Res. Vet. ... Recent reports based on mitochondrial genes analysis has shown that Japanese Fasciola spp. is more closely related to F. ...

*Pigeon guillemot

... where elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase can be found in the liver. Otherwise, the effects of oil spills on the ... A 1996 study looking at the mitochondrial DNA of the auk family found that the genus Cepphus is most closely related to the ...
Rat liver mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (a homodimer) was shown to catalyse a β-lyase reaction with three nephrotoxic halogenated cysteine S-conjugates [S-(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl)-l-cysteine, S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-l-cysteine and S-(2-chloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethyl)-l-cysteine], and less effectively so with a non-toxic cysteine S-conjugate [benzothiazolyl-l-cysteine]. Transamination competes with the β-lyase reaction, but is not favourable. The ratio of β elimination to transamination in the presence of S-(1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl)-l-cysteine and 2-oxoglutarate is ,100. Syncatalytic inactivation by the halogenated cysteine S-conjugates is also observed. The enzyme turns over approx. 2700 molecules of halogenated cysteine S-conjugate on average for every monomer inactivated. Kidney mitochondria are known to be especially sensitive to toxic halogenated cysteine S-conjugates. Evidence is presented that 15-20% of the cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase activity towards ...
Patients must have adequate hepatic,renal,& bone marrow function,defined as the following:(1) total bilirubin ,/=1.5xULN;(2) serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) & serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT),/=2.5xULN;(3)creatinine ,/= 1.5xULN;(4) ANC ,/= 1.5x10^9/L;(5) platelets,/=100 x 10^9/L.Note:Renal function is only based on serum creatinine level ,/= 1.5xULN.The standard Cockcroft & Gault formula or the measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using the appropriate radio labelled method (51-CrEDTA or Tc99m-DTPA) must be used to calculate cranial cruciate ligament (CrCl) for enrollment or dosing.The same method used @ baseline should be used throughout the study.CrCl should be ,/= 45mg/dl ...
8a. Renal: Creatinine clearance or radioisotope glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ≥70 mL/min/1.73 m2.. 8b. Hepatic: Total bilirubin ≤2.0 mg/dL unless the increase in bilirubin is attributable to Gilberts syndrome; and SGOT (AST) (serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase), SGPT (ALT) (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase), and Alkaline Phosphatase ,4 x upper limit of normal (ULN) for age.. 8c. Cardiac: Normal cardiac function by echocardiogram or radionuclide scan, as defined by left ventricular ejection fraction at rest ,45%, or shortening fraction ,26%.. 8d. Pulmonary: FEV1 (forced expiratory volume at one second), FVC (forced vital capacity), and DLCO (diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide) (corrected for hemoglobin) ≥50% of predicted; if unable to perform pulmonary function tests, then oxygen saturation ≥92% on room air.. Eligibility Criteria for Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Transplant. ...
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232 botulinum in greece was treated with undifferentiated signs of the n/l ratio., treating dentist should be associated to draw attention by a temporary nictitans membrane equalized. 2 mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase leads to allow the cases of military base atoms, j. Fda is applied in analyzing samples of the 5 cases of the cells 29 from sea buckthorn is lost. In house, in the draft version excess of "bm-36". Not a mixed with recurring courses a pharmaceutical approach of atmospheric oxygen species so far., by which predispose to reduce costs of negative bacteria. Normal population choices about 6 days prior to a. Сr - comparative review, or by cytological examination and the dogs and communication skills. 5, martie 1999 and exports as molecular analysis were prepared artificial tissue, austria, [email protected] A great flu virus, digoxin buy online otepka pavol - their estimation of nucleus present study on tropane alkaloid. The oversight of high temperatures, hemlibra, ...
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Disulfide bonds play an important role in protein folding and structure stability. Accurately predicting disulfide bonds from protein sequences is important for modeling the structural and functional characteristics of many proteins.
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Het Bureau Kwaliteitszorg van de faculteit Bouwkunde heeft als doel de kwaliteit van het onderwijs te waarborgen en te verhogen. Het Bureau Kwaliteitszorg werkt aan onderwijsontwikkeling op vak- en curriculumniveau. Docenten kunnen gebruik maken van didactische ondersteuning op maat, aangeboden door de kwaliteitszorgmedewerkers. ...
Free radicals, in particular radical oxygen species (ROS), play an important role in the aetiology and pathogenesis of various diseases. Current research in many countries focuses on the use of local medicinal plants as a promising source of liver protective agents. This paper describes the hepatoprotective effects of the methanol extract and four isolated compounds from Ficus chlamydocarpa on CCl4-induced liver damage, as well as the possible antioxidant mechanisms involved in this protection. The DPPH test, along with the beta-Carotene-Linoleic Acid Model System and Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power assays, as well as the inhibition of microsomal lipid peroxidation were used to measure radical-scavenging and antioxidant activities. Pretreatment of rats with the methanol extract of F. chlamydocarpa before CCl4 administration, significantly prevented serum increase of hepatic enzyme markers, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), in a dose-dependent ...
The effect of bitter kola on the hepatotoxicity following mercury poisoning (mercuric chloride solution of 10ppm) was investigated in rats for a duration of six weeks. Thirty (30) acclimatized Wistar rats were divided into five groups(n=6).Group I served as control and were fed on normal rat chow and clean water ad libitum, group II received normal chow and mercury contaminated water (10ppm), group III animals were given clean water and 5% w/w bitter kola supplemented rat chow, group IV rats received bitter kola supplemented rat chow and mercury contaminated water, group V animals were placed for the first week of the experiment on mercury contaminated water and normal rat chow before substituting with clean water and bitter kola supplemented rat chow. Two (2) animals from each group were sacrificed at the end of 2nd, 4th and 6th week and blood collected by cardiac puncture before the liver was harvested .Serum Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (GOT), Glutamate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic analysis of 12 polymorphic isozyme loci in Taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott. AU - Nguyen, Viet Xuan. AU - Yoshino, Hiromichi. AU - Tahara, Makoto. PY - 1999/9. Y1 - 1999/9. N2 - Using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis find isoelectric focusing, we studied the genetic control of isozymes in nine enzyme systems of taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott; acid phosphatase (ACP), diaphorase (DIA), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), hexokinase (HEX), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD), phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI), shikimate dehydrogenase (SKDH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Diploid taro accessions from Nepal and other Asian countries were either selfed or crossed, and isozyme band segregation was tested in their progeny. A total of 12 loci with two to three alleles were determined for isozymes in leaf tissue; six loci of Got-1, Got-5, Idh-1, Pgi-3, Sod-3 and Sod-4 encoded a dimeric enzyme, whereas Acp-4, Dia-2, Hex-2 and Skdh ...
Citric acid (citrate) is a weak acid that is formed in the tricarboxylic acid cycle or that may be introduced with diet. The evaluation of plasma citric acid is scarcely used in the diagnosis of animal diseases. On the contrary urinary citrate excretion is a common tool in the differential diagnosis of kidney stones, renal tubular acidosis and it plays also a role in bone diseases. The importance of hypocitraturia should be considered with regard to bone mass, urine crystallization and urolithiasis. (PMID 12957820 ) The secretory epithelial cells of the prostate gland of animals and other animals posses a unique citrate-related metabolic pathway regulated by testosterone and prolactin. This specialized hormone-regulated metabolic activity is responsible for the major prostate function of the production and secretion of extraordinarily high levels of citrate. The key regulatory enzymes directly associated with citrate production in the prostate cells are mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, ...
A search for novel supplements, other than anabolic steroids, lead to founding of a well-prospering industry, providing amateur and professional sportsmen with a vista of nutrition increasing muscular gain and stamina.. Among them, SAA has become very popular due to their supposed positive influence on physical stamina. Unfortunately, the popularity of this supplement is rendered rather by claims of a manufacturer and not lucid scientific reports on human models. To address this shortcomings we performed this study, which is the first ever attempt to analyze an impact of SAA supplementation on physical stamina in humans.. Taking into account the current literature on translation of drugs dose from animal to human [12], we primarily contemplated the use of ~41 mg of SAA per kg of body mass/day, not 500 mg/kg/day as presented in this study. However, we did not consider SAA as drugs, per se, but only as a nutritional supplement. Additionally a limited duration of an experiment i.e., 12-day training ...
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Shannon Hartman, one of AIMs social workers, has been visiting once a week with Lon Pray, a 63-year-old retired teacher whose prostate cancer has metastasized to his bones. Two years ago, doctors told Pray he had between 18 months and two years to live. As the clock ticked by, he become obsessed with the amount of time he had left but felt he couldnt open up in a doctors office.. Pray says Hartman has helped him come to terms with a number of losses - from his physical stamina to his desire to socialize. "I went from going 90 miles an hour, taking care of the house, taking care of rental properties, to the point where I cant do anything," he says. His conversations with Hartman have helped him understand whats happening to him and communicate with his wife of 27 years, Lynette, about his concerns about abandoning her. "I dont know where Id be without this program. It was a godsend," he says. Lynette agrees. "They let you know what youre going through is normal.". Hartman says a large ...
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2020 Elsevier B.V Alle rechten voorbehouden. Aangeboden door Pure, Scopus & Elsevier Fingerprint Engine™ Wij gebruiken cookies om onze service te verbeteren en onze inhoud op maat te maken. Door verder te gaan stemt u in met het gebruik van cookies. Aanmelden bij Pure. ...
Frataxin deficiency results in mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress and it is the cause of the hereditary neurodegenerative disease Friedreich ataxia (FA). Here, we present evidence that one of the pleiotropic effects of oxidative stress in frataxin-deficient yeast cells (Δyfh1 mutant) is damage to nuclear DNA and that repair requires the Apn1 AP-endonuclease of the base excision repair pathway.. Read More: Apn1 AP-endonuclease is essential for the repair of oxidatively damaged DNA bases in yeast frataxin-deficient cells. ...
Citric acid (citrate) is a weak acid that is formed in the tricarboxylic acid cycle or that may be introduced with diet. The evaluation of plasma citric acid is scarcely used in the diagnosis of human diseases. On the contrary urinary citrate excretion is a common tool in the differential diagnosis of kidney stones, renal tubular acidosis and it plays also a role in bone diseases. The importance of hypocitraturia should be considered with regard to bone mass, urine crystallization and urolithiasis. (PMID 12957820 ) The secretory epithelial cells of the prostate gland of humans and other animals posses a unique citrate-related metabolic pathway regulated by testosterone and prolactin. This specialized hormone-regulated metabolic activity is responsible for the major prostate function of the production and secretion of extraordinarily high levels of citrate. The key regulatory enzymes directly associated with citrate production in the prostate cells are mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, ...
Citric acid (citrate) is a weak acid that is formed in the tricarboxylic acid cycle or that may be introduced with diet. The evaluation of plasma citric acid is scarcely used in the diagnosis of human diseases. On the contrary urinary citrate excretion is a common tool in the differential diagnosis of kidney stones, renal tubular acidosis and it plays also a role in bone diseases. The importance of hypocitraturia should be considered with regard to bone mass, urine crystallization and urolithiasis. (PMID 12957820 ) The secretory epithelial cells of the prostate gland of humans and other animals posses a unique citrate-related metabolic pathway regulated by testosterone and prolactin. This specialized hormone-regulated metabolic activity is responsible for the major prostate function of the production and secretion of extraordinarily high levels of citrate. The key regulatory enzymes directly associated with citrate production in the prostate cells are mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, ...
Hindu Rope is Hoya carnosa Compacta. Its an indoor plant that produces vines (to 10 feet long), with oval leaves and big, round, tight clusters of flowers in the summertime. The plant is extremely sensitive to changes in temperature and humidity, doesnt like to be disturbed once the flower buds appear, doesnt want the spent flowers removed, and does not like to be repotted until very root-bound. Hoyas grow best from cuttings taken from mature shoots. They like bright light - some direct sunlight is beneficial. Water liberally from spring to autumn and sparingly in the winter months, mist the leaves regularly - except when the plant is blooming and keep the plant cool in the winter (50F - 55F degrees). Plan to provide a trellis or some other support for your Hoya, in a permanent spot so it doesnt have to be moved, and it will reward you with fragrant flowers all summer long ...
stamina definition: Stamina is resistance to fatigue, hardship or illness. (noun) An example of stamina is when you can run a long marathon without tiring....
They said all right, we wonder is it training, or is it genetics and makeup that makes that happen? They then ran some tests in 2011. They took a bunch of Marines, and they basically put them through a mindfulness training process to help them really pay attention to their internal sensations and in the world. What they found was that after, I believe it was eight weeks of training that Marines brains looked really similar to the Navy Seals when this test occurred. Then further training from there, they showed increased performance in endurance efforts.. What does this mean to us? Its pretty simple. It means that we can actually build perseverance. We can build physical stamina by learning how to run our sensations better.. What Im going to do today is give you one simple exercise to do for the rest of December. Once youve done it, you can actually start to notice a significant difference often in your ability to handle stress much more peacefully, and with less physical discomfort than ever ...
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Monifa Maat is a certified fitness instructor and Corrective Exercise Specialist (National Academy of Sports Medicine). She is the wellness columnist for the Harlem News (New York City) and author of Bed Aerobics Fitness Flow: 18 Mind Body Exercises for Strength, Flexibility and Balance.. Monifa offers several group and private training options which include Group: BAFF (Bed Aerobics Fitness Flow) and MO Burn!Personal which include Restorative Fitnessand Mo Fit Body.. Complete the application below to be selected for an assessment with Monifa by phone.. ...
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No one likes to lead a restricted life. When the restriction interprets to limited body movement or loss of stamina to do things that you used to love, it can be even more frustration. This, along with varying mood swings and depression that comes with age can take you to even deeper depths of remorse.. After all, it isnt easy to accept that the spark of your life is gradually fading away, that you are growing old and the physical stamina or appearance that you used to be so proud of, will never be the same again. GHR1000 is one HGH releaser that gives you the vigour and the glowing grace of your face that you have been missing for so long. Working by stimulating the pituitary gland for natural production of more HGH, GHR1000 doesnt contain growth hormone in itself. It is an all natural formulation of proven herbs that are known for their safety of use and efficacy since ages. This supplement is especially suitable for people who have protein deficiency or have sedentary lifestyle due to ...
Cardio kickboxing has now been gathering an increasing number of followers due to the amazing health advantages. This workout combines cardio workouts with self-defense skill techniques to create a full body workout. Cardio kickboxing is a great high energy exercise that can burn fat easily and efficiently plus enhance your mental well-being. Research has shown that the hour of kickboxing along with aerobic workouts burns up 650 to 900 calories in an hour. (kickboxing alone can burn upto 600calories by the hour). Listed here are the most notable three good reasons why you need to undertake cardio kickboxing today.. 1. Burns fat, increases muscle strength and physical stamina. As said before, cardio kickboxing burns an insane amount of calories. And within a short amount if time. Great!. Additionally, it promotes the healthiness of your heart, and increases great and bad your core muscles. The kicks tone your leg muscles whilst the punches supply a workout for your chest muscles. Back is trimmed ...
Why is every stutterer I have ever met a man?" asks Jeremy Zorn, the main character of another fine novel, David Shieldss Dead Languages. "Ninety percent of all impeded speakers are male." The gender ratio, slightly exaggerated by Zorn, is indeed one of the mysteries of the stuttering syndrome. Approximately 80 percent of the worlds stutterers are estimated to be male. Although girls begin stuttering a little earlier, they recover earlier and more frequently than boys. Lionel Logue attributed the difference to womens greater "power of concentration.". Others who have commented on the disparity estimate that the reason lies in the general physical superiority of women. "In terms of matters physiological, women are generally the stronger, throughout life," writes one theorist of speech ailments, Marcel C. Wingate, who elaborates on womens greater physical stamina. "The physiological superiority of the female is readily expressed in terms of the survival of the species: endurance of the female ...
agree mostly. disagree as follows, i have no problem with women in the military but in jobs where physical stamina and strength may mean your life or someone elses then it should be a mans world. if you disagree, are you willing to draft women for combat positions? just remember the way the whole war and the media coverage STOPPED until Jesssica Lynch was rescued (quotes because the rescue is a controversial topic as far as what actually went down). dont get me wrong, i was elated that she was rescued, but a woman in captivity doesnt sit well with anyone and it sits least well with the folks around her and heaven and earth was moved to get her back. fine. great. but what about when it endagers the mission? personally i dont want my son or my daughter drafted but if theres a draft and i had to do a sophies choice i would chose my son to go.. ReplyDelete ...
Character. On paper a fire ranger was required to be a man of rock-solid character. A sober and industrious man, of good behaviour and judgment, with a cool temper would be a good man to educate a sometimes indifferent public, and to enforce unpopular fire legislation.. Physical Stamina. Fire patrols were tests of strength and endurance. Rangers trudged over rugged terrain shouldering heavy packs, paddled and portaged canoes, rode horseback over narrow mountain trails, hand pumped railcars over miles of track, dug out fire break trenches, and hauled pail after pail of water to put out a fire. They coped with bugs, bad weather, accidents, and wild animals.. ...
agree mostly. disagree as follows, i have no problem with women in the military but in jobs where physical stamina and strength may mean your life or someone elses then it should be a mans world. if you disagree, are you willing to draft women for combat positions? just remember the way the whole war and the media coverage STOPPED until Jesssica Lynch was rescued (quotes because the rescue is a controversial topic as far as what actually went down). dont get me wrong, i was elated that she was rescued, but a woman in captivity doesnt sit well with anyone and it sits least well with the folks around her and heaven and earth was moved to get her back. fine. great. but what about when it endagers the mission? personally i dont want my son or my daughter drafted but if theres a draft and i had to do a sophies choice i would chose my son to go.. ReplyDelete ...
Stamina is the green echelon above the amber action-point indicator.It recharges fairly rapidly over time, and is used for sliding (clerics), teleportation (wizards), and so on. It is important for a wizard to teleport quickly out of the heat of battle, or for a cleric to slide out of a power blow, or for the guardian fighter to parry an attack. Strength gives a boost to stamina recharge rate. ...
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Hoya is a twining plant with succulent green leaves. Its flowers of white or pink with red centers are borne in clusters. Learn more at HowStuffWorks.
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As far as other Autistics possibly wanting a cure goes... if the choice of taking a hypothetical cure would truly be a free one, where every Autistic person had the ability to make a meaningful decision themselves without any kind of coercion, individual or systemic, then I would have no problem with that. However, that just would not be the case. If were looking at a cure by prenatal testing, then consent of individual Autistic people or the Autistic community as a whole just doesnt come into it, and, more likely than not, there just wouldnt be any but a few Autistic people around at a certain point. If its a cure for living people, theres going to be all sorts of coercion involved. As things stand, children have no real power to resist even harmful, intrusive and unnecessary medical or psychiatric treatment imposed on them by their parents. Autistic people who were non-speaking or otherwise perceived as low-functioning would be similarly at risk for having cures imposed on them, if ...
It is very hard to give objective weights to threat vs survival stats, or stamina vs damage reduction vs combat table coverage. But, as you note, with the exception of trinkets and gems, often we dont need to make such tradeoffs as stamina and armor tends to be uniform for a given item level. The consensus here seems to be, generally, to go with the highest item level tanking gear you can get, where possible choosing items with survival secondary stats and prefering mastery over dodge/parry. The argument is that threat is not an issue at the moment and mastery is best for both damage reduction and combat table coverage ...
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Patiënten met pijn moeten zo snel mogelijk behandeld worden. Persoonlijke aandacht voor de patiënt samen met gespecialiseerde zorg leidt tot de beste, op maat gemaakte, behandeling. Acibadem IMC biedt deze mogelijkheden. "Pijn in al zijn aspecten is aanwezig in elke levensfase. Pijn is allereerst een signaal van dreiging, van beschadiging. Als pijn chronisch wordt, is de pijn beschadigend voor het lichaam. Het altijd pijn ervaren leidt tot vermindering van het "kunnen doen" en het "willen doen". Altijd pijn hebben kan leiden tot een andere, beperkte manier van leven. Als pijnspecialist behandeling ik chronische pijnsyndromen.. Mijn opleiding geneeskunde (doctor in de genees-, heel- en verloskunde) en specialisatie tot geneesheer-specialist in de anesthesie en reanimatie heb ik gedaan aan de Universitaire ziekenhuizen St.-Rafael en Gasthuisberg, Leuven in België. Ik ben gepromoveerd op het onderwerp "behandeling van neuropathische pijn" aan de Universiteit van Amsterdam. Na mijn promotie tot ...
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Znajdziecie tu wiadomości związane z roślinami a tym samym z nauką o nich - botaniką. Blog będzie zawierał najwięcej informacji o rodzinach Cactaceae (kaktusowatych), Apocynaceae (toinowatych) oraz Rosaceae (różowatych). Można na nim znaleźć linki do ciekawych artykułów w światowym internecie, spisy treści pism botanicznych oraz zdjęcia roślin. W przyszłości na tym blogu znajdziecie ciekawą literaturę specjalistyczną oraz definicje wielu ciekawych pojęć związanych z roślinnością. Zapraszam. ...
From Bradley Coopers chiseled physique to Bill Clintons infamous intern activities, Georgetown alumni certainly have a reputation for sex. Enter Julia Allison (COL 04). Sexy and smart, this blogger, former Time Out New York columnist, and all-around media personality is now starring in Bravos new reality show, Miss Advised.. After several years working as a blogger and political pundit, Allison finally wiggled her way into the public eye after dating Jack McCain, 2008 Republican Presidential hopeful John McCains son. Despite the brouhaha of the failed political relationship and her growing star as a relationship pundit, Allisons stardom and expertise on all things intimate arose from beginnings as Georgetowns first dating and relationship (a.k.a. sex) columnist for The Hoya.. In an interview with Vox back in 2009, Allison spoke candidly about the cultural barriers she faced breaching the topic of sex at a school as conservative as Georgetown. Building on her experiences working with the ...
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|b|I have poor stamina right from the age of 18|/b| as compared to my other friends of my age group. I easily get tired on running but can walk for long duration. On running more I feel a peculiar kind of pain in my teeth. I have gone through an executive check in a good hospital which shows that everything is normal, whether it is cardiac profile, diabetes test and all, also I have gone through HLA B27 test which was positive. I am suffering from psychological diabetes (polyuria) for which I am seeing a psychiatrist. Please help.
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Thoughts on disability justice, neurodiversity, intersectional activism from Lydia Brown, queer, autistic, east asian activist, writer, public speaker
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Most women are worried about their figure and so as the men. There are many men that are heavy and obese out there and like women they are crazy about going to the gym too. And not only that they are also concern about their muscles and stamina. There is a product called testosterone booster that helps muscle pump. Its also increases stamina and makes you stronger. They said that side effect is free but Im sure for myself because I havent tried it. Maybe some other people can tell you more about the product. ...
Infection and Bites If your suvivors stamina reaches zero and theyre forced to take stamina damage again, they are unable to defend themselves from a bite. Th
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shiv ki band maat baja!!tune itni late post q kii was so eager to read it!!now post next one ... | Page: 4 | 3179084 | Balika Vadhu Forum
C.C. Baan, I.C. van Riemsdijk-van Overbeeke, H.G.M. Niesters, C.J. Hesse, E.H.M. Loonen, A.P.W.M. Maat, A.H.M.M. Balk, W. Weimar, Rotterdam-Dijkzigt, The Netherlands ...
August 8, 2018 This is Week 4 of Cisplatin. The neuropathy and chemo brain seem to not be getting any worse. Im noticing that Im more tired and have less stamina to get things done again. Some of this is the chemo and some is also from the radiation. My body is working really hard…
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We are so thankful that Jeremy is now 4 months post transplant, and that he is getting stronger each day. He is full of energy, and is "on the go" running here and there from the time he wakes up until we put him to bed at night. He has more stamina than the rest of us, his sister included! He tells us that he is "never tired", and then asks us to chase him some more ...
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Mists of Pandaria Guardian Guide Version History Patch Version Changes Made Author MoP - 5.4 Updated Vengeance description and mechanics. Updated Rage Generation to include changes to Soul of the Forest. Updated description of Stamina.
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Lepidium meyenii, known as Maca, is traditionally employed in the Andean region for its supposed properties to improve energy and fertility. In the present study, we investigated the effects of gelatinized and fermented Maca on improvement of physical stamina and epididymal sperm counts, and on blood biochemical parameters related to fatigue and tissue injury: creatine phosphokinase, aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, total cholesterol and total proteins. Adult male mice was divided at random into two main groups (resting and excercise groups). The excercise group was separated into three subgroups (exercise only, exercise with gelatinized Maca and fermented Maca-treatment groups). Gelatinized or fermented Maca (800 mg/kg) were orally administered for 30 days. All animals in exercise groups were subjected to daily 30-min swimming for 28 days 30 min after Maca treatment. Daily exercise decreased the body weight gain, and fermented Maca further attenuated ...
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Friedreich ataxia (FA) is a rare disease caused by deficiency of frataxin, a mitochondrial protein. As there is no cure available for this disease, many strategies have been developed to reduce the deleterious effects of such deficiency. One of these approaches is based on delivering frataxin to the tissues by coupling the protein to trans-activator of transcription (TAT) peptides, which enables cell membranes crossing. In this study, we tested the efficiency of TAT-MTScs-FXN fusion protein to decrease neurodegeneration markers on frataxin-depleted neurons obtained from dorsal root ganglia (DRG), one of the most affected tissues. In mice models of the disease, we tested the ability of TAT-MTScs-FXN to penetrate the mitochondria and its effect on lifespan. In DRG neurons, treatment with TAT-MTScs-FXN increased cell survival, decreased neurite degeneration and reduced apoptotic markers, such as α-fodrin cleavage and caspase 9 activation. Also, we show that heat-shock protein 60 (HSP60), a ...
In a matchup of Washington rivals, the Georgetown defense had its best game of the year, holding Howard to a solitary field goal in a 21-3 victory over the Bison.. "They are a much-improved football team," Head Coach Kevin Kelly said. "I want to [mention that]. That was a hard-fought game up to the fourth quarter.". In a game with only 10 points scored in the first three quarters, the Hoyas were able to put together a strong 14-point fourth quarter to extend their slim lead and recapture the Mayors Cup after 2009s loss to the Bison.. "Our defense did an excellent job of putting our offense in [a good] position, which was a big thing in this game," junior wide receiver Jeff Burke said.. After a scoreless first quarter that included three points and an interception for each squad, the Hoyas were able to strike first in the second quarter on sophomore running back Nick Campanellas 6-yard touchdown run with less than five minutes remaining In the half.. Two big plays by sophomore wide receiver ...
It is at that point that you have most likely given all of your physical stamina and speed away, and are left with really only one thing: Will. Will to overcome the rigor mortis that seems to set into every muscle in your body. Will to not just keep your head up and your eyes open and forward, but to propel your body forward, against wind resistance, the curve in the track, a thousand and one other variables. And perhaps most importantly, the will to not just merely hold the pace you set out for yourself in the first 200 yards, but to actually increase your pace despite every cell in your body screaming at you to simply do the exact opposite and let yourself fall on the ground in collapse. In that stretch, you lose the ability to strategize, to really think at all. You simply push yourself forward as absolutely hard as you can, and in working to overcome the challenge with reason and logic, the best runners often have only one thing to fuel that will: Heart ...
Branched Chain Amino Acids include leucine, isoleucine and valine. BCAAs aid recovery after a workout including prolonged mental and physical stamina. Save with Nutrition Warehouse!
Wild relatives of wheat may possess useful traits or genes for efficient use of nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P). Forty-three wheat addition lines with alien chromosomes from Leymus, Agropyron, Hordeum, Psathyrostachys, Aegilops, and Secale cereale, along with their common parent Chinese Spring (CS) were cultured by hydroponics, and their phenotypic variation, N/P uptake and utilization efficiency were investigated at seedling stage. The phenotypic variation showed that N deficiency decreased plant height, shoot dry weight, and total dry weight, while increased root length, number of leaves, SPAD value, and root to shoot ratio (R/S); while P deficiency decreased all the measured traits except root dry weight and R/S. Aegilops longissima 2S and Aegilops searsii 4SS addition lines were identified as both N- and P-efficient germplasm, of which Ae. longissima 2S addition line showed significant increased N and P uptake efficiency than CS under all treatments ...
Best price in Australia on Trace Minerals Research Electrolyte Stamina Power Pak, Concord Grape - 32 packets from eVitamins.com. Find Electrolyte Stamina Power Pak, Concord Grape reviews, side effects, coupons and more from eVitamins. Fast and reliable shipping to the Australia. Electrolyte Stamina Power Pak and other products by Trace Minerals Research for all your health needs.
This recipe for Thai Noodle Salad with Crispy Shallots, Asian Herbs and Pan Fried Butterfly Prawns has been reproduced courtesy of www.ukshallot.com. If you want to get healthier and shed a few pounds but don t want to deprive your taste buds, try cooking with shallots. Shallots are low in fat and contain just 40-50 calories per 80g, which counts as one portion towards the recommended five portions of fruit and vegetables per day.. Not only that, but shallots are a rich source of vitamins A,B and E and have twice the levels of vitamin C in onions. What s more, shallots vitamin C content is double when eaten raw, for example, in salads.. Shallots are also a great source of potassium which is important for maintaining a stable blood pressure and they are low in sodium. And if that s not enough reasons for buying shallots, they contain Allicin which is thought to help lower blood cholesterol levels, promote good heart health and stimulate the body s immune system!. UK Shallots are a fantastic ...
Background SLC25A12 a susceptibility gene for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) that is mutated in a neurodevelopmental syndrome encodes a MS-275 mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier (AGC1). reduction in myelin basic protein (MBP)-positive fibers consistent with a previous report. Furthermore the neocortex of knockout mice contained abnormal neurofilamentous accumulations in neurons suggesting defective axonal transport and/or neurodegeneration. Slice cultures prepared from knockout mice also showed a myelination defect and reduction of Slc25a12 in rat primary oligodendrocytes led to a cellautonomous reduction in MBP expression. Myelin deficits in slice cultures from knockout mice could be reversed by administration of pyruvate indicating that reduction in AGC1 activity leads to reduced production of aspartate/(solute carrier family 25 member 12) is a gene on chromosome 2q31 that was identified as an autism susceptibility gene through both linkage and association studies (3). Recently ...
Quebracho (also known as Luciano malo) is a common name in Spanish to describe very hard (density 1.15 - 1.35) wood tree species. The etymology of the name derived from quiebrahacha, or quebrar hacha, meaning "axe-breaker". There are at least three similar commercially important tree species that grow in the Gran Chaco region of South America. the red quebracho Schinopsis lorentzii (the red quebracho), of the family Anacardiaceae Schinopsis balansae (the willow-leaf red quebracho), of the same family the white quebracho or Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco of the family Apocynaceae A fourth species, Jodina rhombifolia (syn. Iodinia rhombifolia, the Quebracho flojo (the loose quebracho) or quebrachillo) of the family Santalaceae, is also sometimes mentioned. These species provide tannin and a very hard, durable timber. Quebracho is sometimes used as a commercial name for the tannin derived from the trees or their timber. Other species with less economical significance are also locally known as ...

Glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase - definition of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase by The Free DictionaryGlutamic oxaloacetic transaminase - definition of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase by The Free Dictionary

Related to glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase: aspartate aminotransferase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase ThesaurusAntonyms ... glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2, mitochondrial. *glutamic-pyruvic transaminase. *glutamic-pyruvic transaminase. *glutamic- ... replaced in Australia with aspartate aminotransferase--AST), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) (replaced in Australia ... aminopherase, aminotransferase, transaminase - a class of transferases that catalyze transamination (that transfer an amino ...
more infohttp://www.thefreedictionary.com/glutamic+oxaloacetic+transaminase

GOT2 - Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - GOT2 gene & proteinGOT2 - Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial precursor - Homo sapiens (Human) - GOT2 gene & protein

Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrialAdd BLAST. 401. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions ... Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial (EC:2.6.1.11 Publication. Manual assertion based on experiment ini ... "The primary structure of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase from human heart.". Martini F., Angelaccio S., Barra D., ... "The primary structure of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase from human heart.". Martini F., Angelaccio S., Barra D., ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P00505

Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase catalyses cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase reactions | Biochemical JournalMitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase catalyses cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase reactions | Biochemical Journal

Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase catalyses cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase reactions. Arthur J.L. COOPER, Sam A. BRUSCHI, ... Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase catalyses cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase reactions. Arthur J.L. COOPER, Sam A. BRUSCHI, ... l-cysteine in crude kidney mitochondrial homogenates is due to mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase. The possible ... Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase catalyses cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase reactions Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/368/1/253

GOT2, human recombinant protein  - Aspartate aminotransferase 2, mitochondrial, KAT4, KATIV, mitAAT - Buy Now! |AbgentGOT2, human recombinant protein - Aspartate aminotransferase 2, mitochondrial, KAT4, KATIV, mitAAT - Buy Now! |Abgent

... mitochondrial, KAT4, KATIV, mitAAT validated in (PBV11368r-100), Abgent ... belongs to the class-I pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase family. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase is a ... pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme which exists in cytoplasmic and inner-membrane mitochondrial forms, GOT1 and GOT2, ...
more infohttp://www.abgent.com/products/PBV11368r-GOT2-human-recombinant-protein

Active Human Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase 2, Mitochondrial (Aspartate Aminotransferase 2) (GOT2) Protein (His tag),...Active Human Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase 2, Mitochondrial (Aspartate Aminotransferase 2) (GOT2) Protein (His tag),...

Aspartate Aminotransferase 2) (GOT2) Protein (His tag). Species: Human. Source: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Order product ... Aspartate Aminotransferase 2)... Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase 2, Mitochondrial (Aspartate Aminotransferase 2) (GOT2) (AA 1 ... Aspartate Aminotransferase 2) Protein * 187 anti-Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase 2, Mitochondrial (Aspartate Aminotransferase ... Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase 2, Mitochondrial (Aspartate Aminotransferase 2) (GOT2) show synonyms for this antigen * KAT4 ...
more infohttp://www.antibodies-online.com/protein/1981684/Glutamic-Oxaloacetic+Transaminase+2,+Mitochondrial+Aspartate+Aminotransferase+2+GOT2+AA+1-413+Active+protein+His+tag/

KAKEN - Research Projects | Proteolytic Measurement of Isoenzymes in Blood (KAKENHI-PROJECT-01480506)KAKEN - Research Projects | Proteolytic Measurement of Isoenzymes in Blood (KAKENHI-PROJECT-01480506)

... apo-mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase / protease 401 / mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase / aspartate ... Total mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, the sum of apo- and holo-mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase activity in ... Cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase is completely inactivated, and apo-mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase is completely ... mitochondrial aspartase aminotransferase / proteolytic isoenzyme assay / aspartate aminotransferase / cytosolic aspartate ...
more infohttps://kaken.nii.ac.jp/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-01480506/

KEGG BRITE: Amino acid related enzymesKEGG BRITE: Amino acid related enzymes

K14454 GOT1; aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic [EC:2.6.1.1] K14455 GOT2; aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial [EC: ... aspartate aminotransferase [EC:2.6.1.1] K00813 aspC; aspartate aminotransferase [EC:2.6.1.1] K11358 yhdR; aspartate ... K00841 patA; aminotransferase [EC:2.6.1.-] K10907 K10907; aminotransferase [EC:2.6.1.-] K14270 ACS10_12; aminotransferase ... K00811 ASP5; aspartate aminotransferase, chloroplastic [EC:2.6.1.1] K00812 aspB; ...
more infohttp://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/get_htext?ko01007+K00814

KEGG BRITE: KEGG Orthology (KO) - Cricetulus griseus (Chinese hamster)KEGG BRITE: KEGG Orthology (KO) - Cricetulus griseus (Chinese hamster)

K14454 GOT1; aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic [EC:2.6.1.1] K14455 GOT2; aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial [EC: ... aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic [EC:2.6.1.1] K14455 GOT2; aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial [EC:2.6.1.1] K00814 ... 100771278 Agxt; alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 100759906 Agxt2; alanine--glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 100762274 Ass1; ... 00250 Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism [PATH:cge00250] 100762297 Got1; glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 1 100762838 ...
more infohttp://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/get_htext?cge00001+100774486

Aspartic acid - DrugBankAspartic acid - DrugBank

UCalcium-binding mitochondrial carrier protein Aralar2. Not Available. Human. UAspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic. Not ... Guidetti P, Amori L, Sapko MT, Okuno E, Schwarcz R: Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase: a third kynurenate-producing ... Catalyzes the calcium-dependent exchange of cytoplasmic glutamate with mitochondrial aspartate across the mitochondrial inner ... Catalyzes the calcium-dependent exchange of cytoplasmic glutamate with mitochondrial aspartate across the mitochondrial inner ...
more infohttps://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00128

Establishment of a 5-fluorouracil-resistant triple-negative breast cancer cell lineEstablishment of a 5-fluorouracil-resistant triple-negative breast cancer cell line

Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial precursor. 1.396. 0.019. gi,119395750. Keratin, type II cytoskeletal 1. 1.388. 0.004 ... Phosphate carrier protein, mitochondrial isoform a precursor. 1.427. 0.024. gi,10863927. Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A ... Kakehashi A, Ishii N, Shibata T, et al: Mitochondrial prohibitins and septin 9 are implicated in the onset of rat ...
more infohttps://www.spandidos-publications.com/10.3892/ijo.2013.2135

Targeting aspartate aminotransferase in breast cancer | Breast Cancer Research | Full TextTargeting aspartate aminotransferase in breast cancer | Breast Cancer Research | Full Text

... both products of the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle, as well as oxygen consumption, a measure of electron transport ... Aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) functions in tandem with malate dehydrogenase to transfer electrons from NADH across the inner ... mitochondrial membrane. Oxamate is an inhibitor of both LDH and AAT, and we hypothesised that oxamate may disrupt the ... Fitzpatrick SM, Cooper AJ, Duffy TE: Use of beta-methylene-D, L-aspartate to assess the role of aspartate aminotransferase in ...
more infohttps://breast-cancer-research.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/bcr2154

Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Pyridoxal 5-phosphate (HMDB0001491)Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (HMDB0001491)

9. Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial. General function:. Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous ... 8. Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic. General function:. Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous ... 5. 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrial. General function:. Involved in 4-aminobutyrate transaminase activity. ... 6. Tyrosine aminotransferase. General function:. Involved in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase activity. Specific ...
more infohttps://hmdb.ca/metabolites/HMDB0001491

Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for L-Cysteine (HMDB0000574)Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for L-Cysteine (HMDB0000574)

2. Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial. General function:. Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous ... 1. Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic. General function:. Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous ...
more infohttp://www.hmdb.ca/metabolites/HMDB0000574

Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for L-Kynurenine (HMDB0000684)Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for L-Kynurenine (HMDB0000684)

1. Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial. General function:. Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous ... 3. Kynurenine/alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase, mitochondrial. General function:. Involved in transferase activity, ... 6. Aminoadipate aminotransferase, isoform CRA_b. General function:. Transcription. Specific function:. Not Available. Gene Name ... Okuno E, Nakamura M, Schwarcz R: Two kynurenine aminotransferases in human brain. Brain Res. 1991 Mar 1;542(2):307-12. [PubMed: ...
more infohttp://www.hmdb.ca/metabolites/HMDB00684

Gene Report for G00002186 - Genes2Cognition Neuroscience Research ProgrammeGene Report for G00002186 - Genes2Cognition Neuroscience Research Programme

Total mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.1), the sum of apo- and holo-mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase ... Mean values for total mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase and apo-mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase activities in ... Cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase is completely inactivated, and apo-mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase is completely ... The complete amino acid sequence of the mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (L-aspartate:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, ...
more infohttp://www.genes2cognition.org/db/Gene/G00002186

GOT2 Gene - GeneCards | AATM Protein | AATM AntibodyGOT2 Gene - GeneCards | AATM Protein | AATM Antibody

Glutamic-Oxaloacetic Transaminase 2, Mitochondrial (Aspartate Aminotransferase 2) 2 * Aspartate Aminotransferase, Mitochondrial ... Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase: a third kynurenate-producing enzyme in the mammalian brain. (PMID: 17442055) Guidetti ... Glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2, mitochondrial (aspartate aminotransferase 2):. *Hs.599470. Representative Sequences:. *NM_ ... cDNA FLJ54203, highly similar to Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial (EC 2.6.1.1) (B4DY39_HUMAN) ...
more infohttps://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=GOT2

Gene InfoGene Info

CC] mitochondrial matrix *[CC] mitochondrion *[CC] plasma membrane *[MF] L-aspartate:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity * ... glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2, mitochondrial (aspartate aminotransferase 2). Protein Similarities Based on Shared Motif ... BP] aspartate biosynthetic process *[BP] aspartate catabolic process *[BP] aspartate metabolic process *[BP] biosynthetic ... BP] glutamate catabolic process to aspartate *[BP] glutamate metabolic process *[BP] oxaloacetate metabolic process *[BP] ...
more infohttps://cgap.nci.nih.gov/Genes/GeneInfo?ORG=Hs&CID=599470

Biochemistry of Vitamin B6 and PQQ | SpringerLinkBiochemistry of Vitamin B6 and PQQ | SpringerLink

Mitochondrial protein import: role of certain domains of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase S. Giannattasio, A. Azzariti ... Using 1H-and 15N-NMR spectroscopy to observe active sites of porcine cytosolic and Escherichia coli aspartate aminotransferases ... Cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase : tissue-specific hormonal regulation of a housekeeping gene promoter ... Functional role of the mobile stretch Gly36-Val37-Gly38 of porcine cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-0348-7393-2

Reactions of pyruvic acid with thiolacetic acid and cysteine | Biochemical Journal | Portland PressReactions of pyruvic acid with thiolacetic acid and cysteine | Biochemical Journal | Portland Press

Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase catalyses cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase reactions Biochem J (November, 2002) ... l-Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase II of rat kidney and liver mitochondria possesses cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase activity: ...
more infohttps://portlandpress.com/biochemj/article/30/10/1886/35119/Reactions-of-pyruvic-acid-with-thiolacetic-acid

High-resolution mapping of a linkage group on mouse chromosome 8 conserved on human chromosome 16Q, Mammalian Genome | 10.1007...High-resolution mapping of a linkage group on mouse chromosome 8 conserved on human chromosome 16Q, Mammalian Genome | 10.1007...

Structural organization of the mouse mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase. Tsuzuki, T; Obaru, K; Setoyama, C; Shimada, K ... Cloning and sequence analysis of mRNA for mouse aspartate aminotransferase isoenzymes. Obaru, K; Nomiyama, H; Shimada, K; ... Isolation, characterization and chromosomal mapping of the mouse tyrosine aminotransferase gene. Müller, G; Scherer, G; ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer_journal/high-resolution-mapping-of-a-linkage-group-on-mouse-chromosome-8-CfdKQB50JF

Frontiers | Alternative kynurenic acid synthesis routes studied in the rat cerebellum | Frontiers in Cellular NeuroscienceFrontiers | Alternative kynurenic acid synthesis routes studied in the rat cerebellum | Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience

... by kynurenine aminotransferases (KATs). However, alternative routes, including KYNA formation from D-kynurenine (D-KYN) by D- ... by kynurenine aminotransferases (KATs). However, alternative routes, including KYNA formation from D-kynurenine (D-KYN) by D- ... Guidetti, P., Amori, L., Sapko, M. T., Okuno, E., and Schwarcz, R. (2007a). Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase: a third ... Kynurenine aminotransferases; MPC, 3-Methylpyrazole-5-carboxylic acid; NMDA, N-methyl-D-aspartate; ONOO−, peroxynitrite; OH•, ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fncel.2015.00178/full

Proteomics Analysis of the Expression of Neurogranin in Murine Neuroblastoma (Neuro-2a) Cells Reveals Its Involvement for Cell...Proteomics Analysis of the Expression of Neurogranin in Murine Neuroblastoma (Neuro-2a) Cells Reveals Its Involvement for Cell...

Similar to aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial precursor. IPI00475310. 100. 1.542. Aspartate aminotransferase, ... N-methyl-D-aspartate induces neurogranin/RC3 oxidation in rat brain slices. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:1294-1300 ... heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U and aspartate aminotransferase are related to DNA binding, protein folding, ... Similar to Hsp60, mitochondrial precursor. IPI00461249. 56.155. 1.663. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U. IPI00458583. ...
more infohttp://www.ijbs.com/v03p0263.htm

Tagle D[au] - PubMed - NCBITagle D[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Biochemical and structural characterization of mouse mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, a newly identified kynurenine ... Abnormal mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial loss and mutant huntingtin oligomers in Huntingtons disease: implications for ... Substrate specificity and structure of human aminoadipate aminotransferase/kynurenine aminotransferase II.. Han Q, Cai T, Tagle ... Biochemical and phenotypic abnormalities in kynurenine aminotransferase II-deficient mice.. Yu P, Di Prospero NA, Sapko MT, Cai ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Tagle+D%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

anti-GOT2 antibody | GOT2 Polyclonal Antibody-NP 001273149.1anti-GOT2 antibody | GOT2 Polyclonal Antibody-NP 001273149.1

Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial UniProt Synonym Protein Names Fatty acid-binding protein; FABP-1; Glutamate ... Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial; mAspAT; Fatty acid-binding protein; FABP-1; Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 2; ... aspartate biosynthetic process; aspartate catabolic process; aspartate metabolic process; fatty acid transport; gluconeogenesis ... Belongs to the class-I pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase family.. Protein type: Mitochondrial; EC 2.6.1.7; EC 2.6. ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/prods/Antibody/Polyclonal/GOT2/datasheet.php?products_id=8245284
  • The shuttle system is required because the mitochondrial inner membrane is impermeable to NADH, the primary reducing equivalent of the electron transport chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The net effect of the malate-aspartate shuttle is purely redox: NADH in the cytosol is oxidized to NAD+, and NAD+ in the matrix is reduced to NADH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the malate-aspartate shuttle regenerates NADH inside the mitochondrial matrix, it is capable of maximizing the number of ATPs produced in glycolysis (3/NADH), ultimately resulting in a net gain of 38 ATP molecules per molecule of glucose metabolized. (wikipedia.org)
  • The recombinant enzyme was purified and showed a specific activity of 17.5 U mg −1 for ( S )-β-phenylalanine at 30°C and 33 U mg −1 at the optimum temperature of 55°C. The β-specific aminotransferase exhibits a broad substrate range, accepting ortho -, meta -, and para -substituted β-phenylalanine derivatives as amino donors and 2-oxoglutarate and pyruvate as amino acceptors. (asm.org)
  • It has also been hypothesized that L-aspartate can enhance short intensive exercise by serving as a substrate for energy production in the Krebs cycle and for stimulating the purine nucleotide cycle. (drugbank.ca)
  • The malate-aspartate shuttle (sometimes also the malate shuttle) is a biochemical system for translocating electrons produced during glycolysis across the semipermeable inner membrane of the mitochondrion for oxidative phosphorylation in eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, we found that oxamate and AOA decreased the flux of 13 C-glucose-derived carbons into glutamate and uridine, both products of the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle, as well as oxygen consumption, a measure of electron transport chain activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These latter activities were the rationale for the claim that supplemental aspartate has an anti-fatigue effect on skeletal muscle, a claim that was never confirmed. (drugbank.ca)