Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Aspartate Aminotransferase, Mitochondrial: An aspartate aminotransferase found in MITOCHONDRIA.Pyridoxal Phosphate: This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).Tyrosine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-TYROSINE and 2-oxoglutarate to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate and L-GLUTAMATE. It is a pyridoxal-phosphate protein. L-PHENYLALANINE is hydroxylated to L-tyrosine. The mitochondrial enzyme may be identical with ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASES (EC 2.6.1.1.). Deficiency of this enzyme may cause type II Tyrosinemia (see TYROSINEMIAS). EC 2.6.1.5.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Pyridoxamine: The 4-aminomethyl form of VITAMIN B 6. During transamination of amino acids, PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate.Aspartate Carbamoyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of carbamoyl phosphate and L-aspartate to yield orthophosphate and N-carbamoyl-L-aspartate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.1.3.2.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Ornithine-Oxo-Acid Transaminase: A pyridoxal phosphate enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glutamate gamma-semialdehyde and an L-amino acid from L-ornithine and a 2-keto-acid. EC 2.6.1.13.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Aspartate Aminotransferase, Cytoplasmic: An aspartate aminotransferase found in the CYTOPLASM.Pyridoxal: The 4-carboxyaldehyde form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.4-Aminobutyrate Transaminase: An enzyme that converts brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID) into succinate semialdehyde, which can be converted to succinic acid and enter the citric acid cycle. It also acts on beta-alanine. EC 2.6.1.19.Aspartate Ammonia-Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of aspartic acid to ammonia and fumaric acid in plants and some microorganisms. EC 4.3.1.1.Ketoglutaric Acids: A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)Oxamic Acid: Amino-substituted glyoxylic acid derivative.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Aminooxyacetic Acid: A compound that inhibits aminobutyrate aminotransferase activity in vivo, thereby raising the level of gamma-aminobutyric acid in tissues.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Vitamin B 6 Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 6 in the diet, characterized by dermatitis, glossitis, cheilosis, and stomatitis. Marked deficiency causes irritability, weakness, depression, dizziness, peripheral neuropathy, and seizures. In infants and children typical manifestations are diarrhea, anemia, and seizures. Deficiency can be caused by certain medications, such as isoniazid.Clinical Enzyme Tests: Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.GalactosamineCreatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Pyridoxine: The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Apoenzymes: The protein components of enzyme complexes (HOLOENZYMES). An apoenzyme is the holoenzyme minus any cofactors (ENZYME COFACTORS) or prosthetic groups required for the enzymatic function.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Aspartate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of beta-aspartyl phosphate from aspartic acid and ATP. Threonine serves as an allosteric regulator of this enzyme to control the biosynthetic pathway from aspartic acid to threonine. EC 2.7.2.4.Glutamate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.4.1.2.Chemistry, Clinical: The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.Malate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Protective Agents: Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Carbon Tetrachloride PoisoningOxaloacetates: Derivatives of OXALOACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1,4-carboxy aliphatic structure.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Autoanalysis: Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Reperfusion Injury: Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.MaleatesMitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Schiff Bases: Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Aminobutyrates: Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.Enzymes: Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.Oxytropis: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain SWAINSONINE.MalatesBinding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).D-Alanine Transaminase: A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transfer of an amino group between D-Alanine and alpha-ketoglutarate to form PYRUVATE and D-GLUTAMATE, respectively. It plays a role in the synthesis of the bacterial CELL WALL. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 2.6.1.10.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Amino Acids, DicarboxylicBorohydrides: A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Coenzymes: Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Valine Dehydrogenase (NADP+)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental: Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.GlyoxylatesMyocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Hepatitis B, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Receptors, Amino Acid: Cell surface proteins that bind amino acids and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors are the most common receptors for fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate central nervous system, and GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and glycine receptors are the most common receptors for fast inhibition.Analgesics, Non-Narcotic: A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Cycloserine: Antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces garyphalus.Hepatitis, Viral, Human: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Hematologic Tests: Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Fumarate Hydratase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of fumaric acid to yield L-malic acid. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.2.Thioacetamide: A crystalline compound used as a laboratory reagent in place of HYDROGEN SULFIDE. It is a potent hepatocarcinogen.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Oxaloacetic Acid: A dicarboxylic acid ketone that is an important metabolic intermediate of the CITRIC ACID CYCLE. It can be converted to ASPARTIC ACID by ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE.Cholagogues and Choleretics: Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Dicarboxylic AcidsDrugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Bromobenzenes: Derivatives of benzene in which one or more hydrogen atoms on the benzene ring are replaced by bromine atoms.PyruvatesJaundice: A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Enzyme Precursors: Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.Succinic Acid: A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Tryptophan Transaminase: A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer amino group from L-TRYPTOPHAN to 2-oxoglutarate in order to generate indolepyruvate and L-GLUTAMATE.Platelet Count: The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Hyperoxaluria, Primary: A genetic disorder characterized by excretion of large amounts of OXALATES in urine; NEPHROLITHIASIS; NEPHROCALCINOSIS; early onset of RENAL FAILURE; and often a generalized deposit of CALCIUM OXALATE. There are subtypes classified by the enzyme defects in glyoxylate metabolism.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.2-Aminoadipate Transaminase: A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of amino group of L-2-aminoadipate onto 2-oxoglutarate to generate 2-oxoadipate and L-GLUTAMATE.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Blood Urea Nitrogen: The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Pyridoxal Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyridoxal in the presence of ATP with the formation of pyridoxal 5-phosphate and ADP. Pyridoxine, pyridoxamine and various derivatives can also act as acceptors. EC 2.7.1.35.Citric Acid Cycle: A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.Raffinose: A trisaccharide occurring in Australian manna (from Eucalyptus spp, Myrtaceae) and in cottonseed meal.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Liver Regeneration: Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.Phosphonoacetic Acid: A simple organophosphorus compound that inhibits DNA polymerase, especially in viruses and is used as an antiviral agent.Hydroxybutyrate DehydrogenaseAmmonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Warm Ischemia: A tissue or organ remaining at physiological temperature during decreased BLOOD perfusion or in the absence of blood supply. During ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION it begins when the organ reaches physiological temperature before the completion of SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS and ends with reestablishment of the BLOOD CIRCULATION through the tissue.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)L-Lysine 6-Transaminase: A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of amino group of L-LYSINE onto 2-oxoglutarate to generate 2-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde and L-GLUTAMATE.Ornithine Carbamoyltransferase: A urea cycle enzyme that catalyzes the formation of orthophosphate and L-citrulline (CITRULLINE) from CARBAMOYL PHOSPHATE and L-ornithine (ORNITHINE). Deficiency of this enzyme may be transmitted as an X-linked trait. EC 2.1.3.3.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Carbamyl Phosphate: The monoanhydride of carbamic acid with PHOSPHORIC ACID. It is an important intermediate metabolite and is synthesized enzymatically by CARBAMYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA) and CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (GLUTAMINE-HYDROLYZING).Erythrocyte Indices: ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Ursodeoxycholic Acid: An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Sulfolobus: A genus of aerobic, chemolithotrophic, coccoid ARCHAEA whose organisms are thermoacidophilic. Its cells are highly irregular in shape, often lobed, but occasionally spherical. It has worldwide distribution with organisms isolated from hot acidic soils and water. Sulfur is used as an energy source.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Dihydroorotase: An enzyme that, in the course of pyrimidine biosynthesis, catalyzes ring closure by removal of water from N-carbamoylaspartate to yield dihydro-orotic acid. EC 3.5.2.3.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Alkynes: Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Organ Preservation Solutions: Solutions used to store organs and minimize tissue damage, particularly while awaiting implantation.Pyridoxic Acid: The catabolic product of most of VITAMIN B 6; (PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; and PYRIDOXAMINE) which is excreted in the urine.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Shiitake Mushrooms: Mushrooms in the order AGARICALES containing B vitamins, cortinelin, and the polysaccharide LENTINAN.Glutathione Peroxidase: An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Prothrombin Time: Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Ornithine: An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Erythrocyte Count: The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Kupffer Cells: Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.

Molecular and physiological analysis of Arabidopsis mutants defective in cytosolic or chloroplastic aspartate aminotransferase. (1/9)

Arabidopsis mutants deficient in cytosolic (AAT2) or chloroplastic (AAT3) aspartate (Asp) aminotransferase were characterized at the molecular and physiological levels. All of the ethyl methane sulfonate- or nitrosomethylurea-generated mutants are missense mutations, as determined by sequencing of the ASP2 gene from the cytosolic aat2 mutants (aat2-1, aat2-2, aat2-4, and aat2-5) and the ASP5 gene from the chloroplastic aat3 mutants (aat3-1, aat3-2, and aat3-4). A T-DNA insertion mutant in cytosolic AAT2 (aat2-T) was also identified. All the cytosolic aat2 and chloroplastic aat3 mutants have less than 6% AAT2 and less than 3% AAT3 activity, respectively, as determined by the native gel assay; however, none are nulls. The metabolic and physiological affect of these mutations in AAT isoenzymes was determined by measuring growth and amino acid levels in the aat mutants. Two aat2 mutants (aat2-2 and aat2-T) show reduced root length on Murashige and Skoog medium. For aat2-2, this growth defect is exaggerated by Asp supplementation, suggesting a defect in Asp metabolism. Amino acid analysis of the aat mutants showed alterations in levels of Asp and/or Asp-derived amino acids in several aat2 alleles. Two aat2 mutants show dramatic decreases in Asp and asparagine levels in leaves and/or siliques. As such, the cytosolic AAT2 isoenzyme appears to serve a nonredundant function in plant nitrogen metabolism of Asp and Asp-derived amino acids.  (+info)

Effects of L-malate on physical stamina and activities of enzymes related to the malate-aspartate shuttle in liver of mice. (2/9)

L-malate, a tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) intermediate, plays an important role in transporting NADH from cytosol to mitochondria for energy production and may be involved in the beneficial effects of improving physical stamina. In the present study, we investigated the effects of L-malate on the performance of forced swimming time and blood biochemical parameters related to fatigue - blood urea nitrogen (BUN), glucose (Glc), creatine kinase (CK),total protein (TP) and lactic acid (LA). To investigate the effects of L-malate on the malate-aspartate shuttle and energy metabolism in mice, the activities of enzymes related to the malate-aspartate shuttle were measured. L-malate was orally administered to mice continuously for 30 days using a feeding atraumatic needle. The swimming time was increased by 26.1 % and 28.5 %, respectively, in the 0.210 g/kg and 0.630 g/kg L-malate-treated group compared with the control group. There were no differences in the concentrations of Glc, BUN and TP between the L-malate-treated groups and the control groups. However, the levels of CK were significantly decreased in the L-malate-treated groups. The results predict a potential benefit of L-malate for improving physical stamina and minimizing muscle damage during swimming exercise. The activities of cytosolic and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase were significantly elevated in the L-malate-treated group compared with the control group. These enzymatic activities may be useful indicators for evaluating changes affecting the malate-aspartate shuttle and energy metabolism in the liver of mice.  (+info)

ETV6/GOT1 fusion in a case of t(10;12)(q24;p13)-positive myelodysplastic syndrome. (3/9)

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Disruption of mitochondrial malate-aspartate shuttle activity in mouse blastocysts impairs viability and fetal growth. (4/9)

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Effects of sulfur dioxide on hypoxic pulmonary vascular structural remodeling. (5/9)

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Oxygen-inducible glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase as protective switch transforming neurotoxic glutamate to metabolic fuel during acute ischemic stroke. (6/9)

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Genome-wide association study identifies genetic variants in GOT1 determining serum aspartate aminotransferase levels. (7/9)

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Effect of combination of aripiprazole with carbamazepine and fluvoxamine on liver functions in experimental animals. (8/9)

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1. Cytoplasmic aspartate aminotransferase was isolated and purified from human heart with a final specific activity of 236 units/mg of protein.. 2. Three distinct peaks of aspartate aminotransferase activity were detected by isoelectric focusing with isoelectric points of 5.46, 5.60 and 5.71. Two minor subforms were also noted as shoulder patterns with pI 5.2 and 5.8.. 3. These electrophoretic characteristics are similar to previous findings of multiple molecular forms detected in human liver and erythrocytes.. ...
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Cumulative (repetitive) lumbar disorder is common in the workforce, and the associated epidemiology points out high risk for lifting heavy loads, performing many repetitions, and performing movements at high velocity. Experimental verification of viscoelastic tissue degradation and a neuromuscular disorder exist for cyclic work under heavy loads. Experimental validation for a d
A search for novel supplements, other than anabolic steroids, lead to founding of a well-prospering industry, providing amateur and professional sportsmen with a vista of nutrition increasing muscular gain and stamina.. Among them, SAA has become very popular due to their supposed positive influence on physical stamina. Unfortunately, the popularity of this supplement is rendered rather by claims of a manufacturer and not lucid scientific reports on human models. To address this shortcomings we performed this study, which is the first ever attempt to analyze an impact of SAA supplementation on physical stamina in humans.. Taking into account the current literature on translation of drugs dose from animal to human [12], we primarily contemplated the use of ~41 mg of SAA per kg of body mass/day, not 500 mg/kg/day as presented in this study. However, we did not consider SAA as drugs, per se, but only as a nutritional supplement. Additionally a limited duration of an experiment i.e., 12-day training ...
Benefits equalized participation for those with difficulties for spoken language a new leisure skill that is transferrable into community living upon discharge music is a universal language and offers participants who do not speak English or those unable to speak have comfort and equality as they communicate through their instruments, of bells, drums and shakers, etc
No one likes to lead a restricted life. When the restriction interprets to limited body movement or loss of stamina to do things that you used to love, it can be even more frustration. This, along with varying mood swings and depression that comes with age can take you to even deeper depths of remorse.. After all, it isnt easy to accept that the spark of your life is gradually fading away, that you are growing old and the physical stamina or appearance that you used to be so proud of, will never be the same again. GHR1000 is one HGH releaser that gives you the vigour and the glowing grace of your face that you have been missing for so long. Working by stimulating the pituitary gland for natural production of more HGH, GHR1000 doesnt contain growth hormone in itself. It is an all natural formulation of proven herbs that are known for their safety of use and efficacy since ages. This supplement is especially suitable for people who have protein deficiency or have sedentary lifestyle due to ...
agree mostly. disagree as follows, i have no problem with women in the military but in jobs where physical stamina and strength may mean your life or someone elses then it should be a mans world. if you disagree, are you willing to draft women for combat positions? just remember the way the whole war and the media coverage STOPPED until Jesssica Lynch was rescued (quotes because the rescue is a controversial topic as far as what actually went down). dont get me wrong, i was elated that she was rescued, but a woman in captivity doesnt sit well with anyone and it sits least well with the folks around her and heaven and earth was moved to get her back. fine. great. but what about when it endagers the mission? personally i dont want my son or my daughter drafted but if theres a draft and i had to do a sophies choice i would chose my son to go.. ReplyDelete ...
agree mostly. disagree as follows, i have no problem with women in the military but in jobs where physical stamina and strength may mean your life or someone elses then it should be a mans world. if you disagree, are you willing to draft women for combat positions? just remember the way the whole war and the media coverage STOPPED until Jesssica Lynch was rescued (quotes because the rescue is a controversial topic as far as what actually went down). dont get me wrong, i was elated that she was rescued, but a woman in captivity doesnt sit well with anyone and it sits least well with the folks around her and heaven and earth was moved to get her back. fine. great. but what about when it endagers the mission? personally i dont want my son or my daughter drafted but if theres a draft and i had to do a sophies choice i would chose my son to go.. ReplyDelete ...
Shannon Hartman, one of AIMs social workers, has been visiting once a week with Lon Pray, a 63-year-old retired teacher whose prostate cancer has metastasized to his bones. Two years ago, doctors told Pray he had between 18 months and two years to live. As the clock ticked by, he become obsessed with the amount of time he had left but felt he couldnt open up in a doctors office.. Pray says Hartman has helped him come to terms with a number of losses - from his physical stamina to his desire to socialize. "I went from going 90 miles an hour, taking care of the house, taking care of rental properties, to the point where I cant do anything," he says. His conversations with Hartman have helped him understand whats happening to him and communicate with his wife of 27 years, Lynette, about his concerns about abandoning her. "I dont know where Id be without this program. It was a godsend," he says. Lynette agrees. "They let you know what youre going through is normal.". Hartman says a large ...
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8a. Renal: Creatinine clearance or radioisotope glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ≥70 mL/min/1.73 m2.. 8b. Hepatic: Total bilirubin ≤2.0 mg/dL unless the increase in bilirubin is attributable to Gilberts syndrome; and SGOT (AST) (serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase), SGPT (ALT) (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase), and Alkaline Phosphatase ,4 x upper limit of normal (ULN) for age.. 8c. Cardiac: Normal cardiac function by echocardiogram or radionuclide scan, as defined by left ventricular ejection fraction at rest ,45%, or shortening fraction ,26%.. 8d. Pulmonary: FEV1 (forced expiratory volume at one second), FVC (forced vital capacity), and DLCO (diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide) (corrected for hemoglobin) ≥50% of predicted; if unable to perform pulmonary function tests, then oxygen saturation ≥92% on room air.. Eligibility Criteria for Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Transplant. ...
Patients must have adequate hepatic,renal,& bone marrow function,defined as the following:(1) total bilirubin ,/=1.5xULN;(2) serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) & serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT),/=2.5xULN;(3)creatinine ,/= 1.5xULN;(4) ANC ,/= 1.5x10^9/L;(5) platelets,/=100 x 10^9/L.Note:Renal function is only based on serum creatinine level ,/= 1.5xULN.The standard Cockcroft & Gault formula or the measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using the appropriate radio labelled method (51-CrEDTA or Tc99m-DTPA) must be used to calculate cranial cruciate ligament (CrCl) for enrollment or dosing.The same method used @ baseline should be used throughout the study.CrCl should be ,/= 45mg/dl ...
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stamina definition: Stamina is resistance to fatigue, hardship or illness. (noun) An example of stamina is when you can run a long marathon without tiring....
They said all right, we wonder is it training, or is it genetics and makeup that makes that happen? They then ran some tests in 2011. They took a bunch of Marines, and they basically put them through a mindfulness training process to help them really pay attention to their internal sensations and in the world. What they found was that after, I believe it was eight weeks of training that Marines brains looked really similar to the Navy Seals when this test occurred. Then further training from there, they showed increased performance in endurance efforts.. What does this mean to us? Its pretty simple. It means that we can actually build perseverance. We can build physical stamina by learning how to run our sensations better.. What Im going to do today is give you one simple exercise to do for the rest of December. Once youve done it, you can actually start to notice a significant difference often in your ability to handle stress much more peacefully, and with less physical discomfort than ever ...
Stamina Products Inc. warrants our products to be free from defects in materials and workmanship at the time of the original purchase from an authorized retailer. In the event that a product becomes defective, please contact us by phone at 1-800-375-7520 or send written notification to the address listed on the Contact Us page of this website.. If the defect is under the limited warranty, you may be requested to return the product or part to us for repair or replacement. Stamina Products Inc. reserves the right to require the customer to pay for the return shipping of the item.. Warranty information on a specific product can be found toward the back of the Owners Manual or you can call us at 1-800-375-7520. The warranty will not apply to any product that has been subject to commercial use, abuse, misuse, or any type of modification by the consumer.. To confirm your rights as described in the warranty statement, be sure to complete the Product Registration Card and mail it to us promptly! Or ...
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Cardio kickboxing has now been gathering an increasing number of followers due to the amazing health advantages. This workout combines cardio workouts with self-defense skill techniques to create a full body workout. Cardio kickboxing is a great high energy exercise that can burn fat easily and efficiently plus enhance your mental well-being. Research has shown that the hour of kickboxing along with aerobic workouts burns up 650 to 900 calories in an hour. (kickboxing alone can burn upto 600calories by the hour). Listed here are the most notable three good reasons why you need to undertake cardio kickboxing today.. 1. Burns fat, increases muscle strength and physical stamina. As said before, cardio kickboxing burns an insane amount of calories. And within a short amount if time. Great!. Additionally, it promotes the healthiness of your heart, and increases great and bad your core muscles. The kicks tone your leg muscles whilst the punches supply a workout for your chest muscles. Back is trimmed ...
Why is every stutterer I have ever met a man?" asks Jeremy Zorn, the main character of another fine novel, David Shieldss Dead Languages. "Ninety percent of all impeded speakers are male." The gender ratio, slightly exaggerated by Zorn, is indeed one of the mysteries of the stuttering syndrome. Approximately 80 percent of the worlds stutterers are estimated to be male. Although girls begin stuttering a little earlier, they recover earlier and more frequently than boys. Lionel Logue attributed the difference to womens greater "power of concentration.". Others who have commented on the disparity estimate that the reason lies in the general physical superiority of women. "In terms of matters physiological, women are generally the stronger, throughout life," writes one theorist of speech ailments, Marcel C. Wingate, who elaborates on womens greater physical stamina. "The physiological superiority of the female is readily expressed in terms of the survival of the species: endurance of the female ...
Character. On paper a fire ranger was required to be a man of rock-solid character. A sober and industrious man, of good behaviour and judgment, with a cool temper would be a good man to educate a sometimes indifferent public, and to enforce unpopular fire legislation.. Physical Stamina. Fire patrols were tests of strength and endurance. Rangers trudged over rugged terrain shouldering heavy packs, paddled and portaged canoes, rode horseback over narrow mountain trails, hand pumped railcars over miles of track, dug out fire break trenches, and hauled pail after pail of water to put out a fire. They coped with bugs, bad weather, accidents, and wild animals.. ...
Stamina is important for everyone. Stamina isnt required only by athletes, or those who are too involved in physical exertion. It is a daily r
Stamina is the green echelon above the amber action-point indicator.It recharges fairly rapidly over time, and is used for sliding (clerics), teleportation (wizards), and so on. It is important for a wizard to teleport quickly out of the heat of battle, or for a cleric to slide out of a power blow, or for the guardian fighter to parry an attack. Strength gives a boost to stamina recharge rate. ...
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College requires a different type of stamina. Perhaps its more like character. Its not based on the short time frame mental stamina required by the SAT. Besides, the SAT really relates more to preparation. At the lower test score range, it relates to a good preparation in basic math. At the upper range, its directly related to preparation for the questions on the SAT. Now that Im looking at the questions in detail, I clearly see the specialized skills and preparation my son needs. Preparation will reduce the stress and the stamina required. Its the same as training for a sport. You could have lots of potential, but you are competing against peers who are training like crazy. The goal of the SAT is to create questions that separate kids at all levels. If you dont prepare, you are at a disadvantage ...
It is very hard to give objective weights to threat vs survival stats, or stamina vs damage reduction vs combat table coverage. But, as you note, with the exception of trinkets and gems, often we dont need to make such tradeoffs as stamina and armor tends to be uniform for a given item level. The consensus here seems to be, generally, to go with the highest item level tanking gear you can get, where possible choosing items with survival secondary stats and prefering mastery over dodge/parry. The argument is that threat is not an issue at the moment and mastery is best for both damage reduction and combat table coverage ...
Hi im a complete newbie to this forum so firstly let me apologise for my lack of knowledge here. mY job involves a six monthly multi stage fitness
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Constant darkness throws a molecular switch in mammals that shifts the bodys fuel consumption from glucose to fat and induces a state of torpor in
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Shapeshift into Bear Form, increasing armor by 200% and Stamina by 55%, granting protection from Polymorph effects, and increasing threat generation ...
Free radicals, in particular radical oxygen species (ROS), play an important role in the aetiology and pathogenesis of various diseases. Current research in many countries focuses on the use of local medicinal plants as a promising source of liver protective agents. This paper describes the hepatoprotective effects of the methanol extract and four isolated compounds from Ficus chlamydocarpa on CCl4-induced liver damage, as well as the possible antioxidant mechanisms involved in this protection. The DPPH test, along with the beta-Carotene-Linoleic Acid Model System and Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power assays, as well as the inhibition of microsomal lipid peroxidation were used to measure radical-scavenging and antioxidant activities. Pretreatment of rats with the methanol extract of F. chlamydocarpa before CCl4 administration, significantly prevented serum increase of hepatic enzyme markers, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), in a dose-dependent ...
The effect of bitter kola on the hepatotoxicity following mercury poisoning (mercuric chloride solution of 10ppm) was investigated in rats for a duration of six weeks. Thirty (30) acclimatized Wistar rats were divided into five groups(n=6).Group I served as control and were fed on normal rat chow and clean water ad libitum, group II received normal chow and mercury contaminated water (10ppm), group III animals were given clean water and 5% w/w bitter kola supplemented rat chow, group IV rats received bitter kola supplemented rat chow and mercury contaminated water, group V animals were placed for the first week of the experiment on mercury contaminated water and normal rat chow before substituting with clean water and bitter kola supplemented rat chow. Two (2) animals from each group were sacrificed at the end of 2nd, 4th and 6th week and blood collected by cardiac puncture before the liver was harvested .Serum Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (GOT), Glutamate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic analysis of 12 polymorphic isozyme loci in Taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott. AU - Nguyen, Viet Xuan. AU - Yoshino, Hiromichi. AU - Tahara, Makoto. PY - 1999/9. Y1 - 1999/9. N2 - Using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis find isoelectric focusing, we studied the genetic control of isozymes in nine enzyme systems of taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott; acid phosphatase (ACP), diaphorase (DIA), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), hexokinase (HEX), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD), phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI), shikimate dehydrogenase (SKDH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Diploid taro accessions from Nepal and other Asian countries were either selfed or crossed, and isozyme band segregation was tested in their progeny. A total of 12 loci with two to three alleles were determined for isozymes in leaf tissue; six loci of Got-1, Got-5, Idh-1, Pgi-3, Sod-3 and Sod-4 encoded a dimeric enzyme, whereas Acp-4, Dia-2, Hex-2 and Skdh ...
Lepidium meyenii, known as Maca, is traditionally employed in the Andean region for its supposed properties to improve energy and fertility. In the present study, we investigated the effects of gelatinized and fermented Maca on improvement of physical stamina and epididymal sperm counts, and on blood biochemical parameters related to fatigue and tissue injury: creatine phosphokinase, aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, total cholesterol and total proteins. Adult male mice was divided at random into two main groups (resting and excercise groups). The excercise group was separated into three subgroups (exercise only, exercise with gelatinized Maca and fermented Maca-treatment groups). Gelatinized or fermented Maca (800 mg/kg) were orally administered for 30 days. All animals in exercise groups were subjected to daily 30-min swimming for 28 days 30 min after Maca treatment. Daily exercise decreased the body weight gain, and fermented Maca further attenuated ...
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It is at that point that you have most likely given all of your physical stamina and speed away, and are left with really only one thing: Will. Will to overcome the rigor mortis that seems to set into every muscle in your body. Will to not just keep your head up and your eyes open and forward, but to propel your body forward, against wind resistance, the curve in the track, a thousand and one other variables. And perhaps most importantly, the will to not just merely hold the pace you set out for yourself in the first 200 yards, but to actually increase your pace despite every cell in your body screaming at you to simply do the exact opposite and let yourself fall on the ground in collapse. In that stretch, you lose the ability to strategize, to really think at all. You simply push yourself forward as absolutely hard as you can, and in working to overcome the challenge with reason and logic, the best runners often have only one thing to fuel that will: Heart ...
Football is a sport where the players need to have the tremendous stamina to stay on the playground. Stamina does not refer to having a toned and shaped body. Stamina comes to those people who exercise regularly, eat healthily and stay active. It is important o have all the world-class football equipment with you to better your game, but stamina cannot be replaced. An article on www.bloggingtheboys.com stated that players who stop concentrating on building their stamina often face body fatigue due to the game. Tiredness is obvious, but feeling weak and fatigue all the time indicates that you are not taking appropriate care of your body.. You must have heard a lot about carbohydrates and how people talk about low carb and high carb diets. Now its time to implement it for the stamina a player needs on the football ground. Experts on various health blogs write about different types of diets like Atkins and Paloe. Let us drive out some standard features from them, to sum up, how you can stay ...
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Running, especially for weight loss, requires a combination of cardiovascular stamina and muscular endurance that lets you run for longer periods without fatiguing. Sprinting at high speeds can improve your cardio capacity and train your recovery system, but it isnt the best way to train for longer runs. Start slow ...
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|b|I have poor stamina right from the age of 18|/b| as compared to my other friends of my age group. I easily get tired on running but can walk for long duration. On running more I feel a peculiar kind of pain in my teeth. I have gone through an executive check in a good hospital which shows that everything is normal, whether it is cardiac profile, diabetes test and all, also I have gone through HLA B27 test which was positive. I am suffering from psychological diabetes (polyuria) for which I am seeing a psychiatrist. Please help.
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Each one of us needs stamina and energy to engage in our day-to-day tasks. Irrespective of whether an individual works in a factory or whether she is a homemaker or an office goer, stamina and energy are highly important. Stamina is nothing, but the energy required to get through the day-to-day activities without experiencing any sort of exhaustion and fatigue.… More →. ...
Kihaku can Possess and Freeze in one skill, so if one status effect doesnt hit, he has another one up his sleeve! His balanced spirit allows him to have control over both his enemies and his allies, so one moment you can ask him to give his team stamina and remove their negative effects, and the next minute he can ruin his enemies next turns by removing part of their stamina and applying Stamina Leak. ...
Infection and Bites If your suvivors stamina reaches zero and theyre forced to take stamina damage again, they are unable to defend themselves from a bite. Th
Most women are worried about their figure and so as the men. There are many men that are heavy and obese out there and like women they are crazy about going to the gym too. And not only that they are also concern about their muscles and stamina. There is a product called testosterone booster that helps muscle pump. Its also increases stamina and makes you stronger. They said that side effect is free but Im sure for myself because I havent tried it. Maybe some other people can tell you more about the product. ...
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When youre recovering from an illness, its common to feel weak, tired and struggling to get back to normal. Even though the worst is behind you, it can take a couple of weeks to rebuild your strength and stamina. At times like this, introduce an ...
We are so thankful that Jeremy is now 4 months post transplant, and that he is getting stronger each day. He is full of energy, and is "on the go" running here and there from the time he wakes up until we put him to bed at night. He has more stamina than the rest of us, his sister included! He tells us that he is "never tired", and then asks us to chase him some more ...
Honestly, when we did it, I felt that it made next to no difference as if they hit me Id be dead very, very fast, since we kited them round. Until the last phase, it felt as if I might as well go gem my gear with full strength. I opted for stamina in case I took a flash freeze and I was just put on gcd and therefore had to wait a second with bubble or if I took the flame breath or even for phase 3 - since the adds do some bleed kinda-thing and the main-tank often died meaning I could well eat a fire cone while picking the boss up. Make sure you have PoJ for it, though. I also recorded my point of view of our kill, if it helps ...
August 8, 2018 This is Week 4 of Cisplatin. The neuropathy and chemo brain seem to not be getting any worse. Im noticing that Im more tired and have less stamina to get things done again. Some of this is the chemo and some is also from the radiation. My body is working really hard…
Mists of Pandaria Guardian Guide Version History Patch Version Changes Made Author MoP - 5.4 Updated Vengeance description and mechanics. Updated Rage Generation to include changes to Soul of the Forest. Updated description of Stamina.
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Mists of Pandaria Guardian Guide Version History Patch Version Changes Made Author MoP - 5.4 Updated Vengeance description and mechanics. Updated Rage Generation to include changes to Soul of the Forest. Updated description of Stamina.
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Two different pyridoxal 5-phosphate-containing L-threonine deaminases (EC 4.3.1.19 [EC] ), biosynthetic and biodegradative, which catalyze the deamination of L-threonine to \alpha-ketobutyrate, are present in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Biodegradative threonine deaminase (TdcB) catalyzes the first reaction in the anaerobic breakdown of L-threonine to propionate. TdcB, unlike the biosynthetic threonine deaminase, is insensitive to L-isoleucine and is activated by AMP. In the present study, TdcB from S. typhimurium was cloned and overexpressed in E. coli. In the presence of AMP or CMP, the recombinant enzyme was converted to the tetrameric form accompanied by significant enzyme activation. To provide insights into ligand-mediated oligomerization and enzyme activation, crystal structures of S. typhimurium TdcB and its complex with CMP were determined. In the native structure, TdcB is in a dimeric form, whereas in the TdcB·CMP complex, it exists in a tetrameric form with 222 ...
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He is an excellent scribe; as the great saint and poet VedaVyasa dictates the slokas of Mahabhath he inscribed them on dry Borassus leaves without any break. A scribe requires good knowledge of language, concentration and physical stamina. Why should we remember Lord Vigneswara, because to learn the things perfectly, without any inhibitions. He never feels ashamed to be a scribe, his humbleness, dedication should be respected, worshiped. We have to learn to complete the tasks even though there are difficulties and hurdles, we have to remember Lord Vigneswara, and pray him to give us energy to work like him. He is a good example to boost our metal capabilities. If everyone works like Lord Ganesha our country regains the great traditions and riches. May Ganesha bless every one with good mental make up. ...
He is an excellent scribe; as the great saint and poet VedaVyasa dictates the slokas of Mahabhath he inscribed them on dry Borassus leaves without any break. A scribe requires good knowledge of language, concentration and physical stamina. Why should we remember Lord Vigneswara, because to learn the things perfectly, without any inhibitions. He never feels ashamed to be a scribe, his humbleness, dedication should be respected, worshiped. We have to learn to complete the tasks even though there are difficulties and hurdles, we have to remember Lord Vigneswara, and pray him to give us energy to work like him. He is a good example to boost our metal capabilities. If everyone works like Lord Ganesha our country regains the great traditions and riches. May Ganesha bless every one with good mental make up. ...
NEW YORK, NY - October 2, 2014 - Oxygen Media dares to be different as it brings art to life with its groundbreaking, adrenaline-charged competition series "Street Art Throwdown," premiering Tuesday, February 3 at 9 PM ET/PT. World-renowned street artist Justin BUA serves as host, co-judge and executive producer on the show, which pits 10 of the countrys most promising artists against one another. The series tests not only their physical stamina, but also pushes their artistic skills to the limit in hopes of jumpstarting their career with a $100,000 grand prize. "Street Art Throwdown" is shot at some of the most iconic Los Angeles locations as young, passionate hopefuls strive to bring their vision to life and showcase their work to the world. Furiously scaling walls, climbing fences and navigating underground tunnels, these artists must have the talent, style and hustle to battle it out to the end. "Street Art Throwdown" is part of Oxygens rebrand, launching on Tuesday, October 7th with the ...
Agility Training: Cardigan Welsh Corgis can be taught to accomplish obstacle courses, relays, and agility courses. With dedication, clear instructions and proper incentives, Cardigan Welsh Corgis have been known to rank well in agility competitions. Though they are not as speedy as other dog breeds, the Cardigan general stability, physical stamina and strength enable them to engage in intense competition.. Agility training must be completed with an experienced dog trainer, who will know the pace at which training should progress. Corgis should hold off on jumping and heavy contact sections until they are older than 18-24 months. Their spinal structures need ample time to develop, so be sure to protect young dogs from over-training. A dogs growth plates typically close when they are between 9-14 months old, meaning that training should not commence until the dogs dwarfish anatomy can sustain it. Likewise, monitoring diet is an important aspect of skill training, since Corgis have a tendency to ...
Septembers changing foliage, cooling temperatures and sounds of school children signify that summer is coming to its end. Yet falls adventures are just beginning, so stay outside and experience autumn fun in North Dakota. Into running? Test your physical stamina in a road race or get off-trail for a terrain challenge. If youd rather watch a sport than participate, tailgate with family and friends and then cheer on your favorite team at homecoming. Get culturally courageous at a range of food and art festivals across the state.
Not taking proper sleep not only affects mental health but also lowers down physical stamina. Inadequate sleep affects functions of brain cells. Brain cells recollect memory during sound sleep and therefore lack of sleep can affect memory of a person. Due to daytime dizziness, one feels difficulty in learning and concentrating on a task. This sleep disorder affects students the most as they are in their learning age. There are many reasons that can disturb sleeping pattern of a person. Many people who do not follow proper routine and sometimes sleep early and sometimes sleep very late are unable to maintain proper sleep pattern. Increasing use of mobile phones, tablets and laptops in bed distracts mind and keeps one busy in thoughts. Eating heavy meals in dinner keeps mind awake during digestion and thus one is not able to sleep properly. Doing excessive exercise or workout at late hours of day keeps body and mind awake for long time and thus affects sleep.. A person with chronic insomnia ...
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Football is a sport where the players need to have the tremendous stamina to stay on the playground. Stamina does not refer to having a toned and shaped body. Stamina comes to those people who exercise regularly, eat healthily and stay active. It is important o have all the world-class football equipment with you to better your game, but stamina cannot be replaced. An article on www.bloggingtheboys.com stated that players who stop concentrating on building their stamina often face body fatigue due to the game. Tiredness is obvious, but feeling weak and fatigue all the time indicates that you are not taking appropriate care of your body.. You must have heard a lot about carbohydrates and how people talk about low carb and high carb diets. Now its time to implement it for the stamina a player needs on the football ground. Experts on various health blogs write about different types of diets like Atkins and Paloe. Let us drive out some standard features from them, to sum up, how you can stay ...
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I am tired of myself. All this internal conflict, fighting, drama I have with this drug. Am I going to drink? How much? When? With who? It all usually starts on Thursday night. I start making my weekend plans. Already I have a family dinner this weekend and I know that I purposely made it for Saturday instead of Sunday so I could drink. I cant change the date now so I am just going to have to remind myself that over drinking this weekend is not going to help my stamina at all. In fact, it will make it worse next week ...
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Sixx, theres no right answer to this question. In TOC, the answer was definitely stam because bosses hit so hard. In ICC, they dont hit quite as hard (though they do hit more often, thanks to CotT), so the answer is more debatable. I can tell you that when Im healing, I prefer my tanks to have armor , stamina , avoidance. I also think for progression content, stamina is still better than agility, since it gives your healers more of a margin for error. (Fact is, any tank healer (pally/shammy) will almost certainly be spamming heals on you, regardless of your current health level, due to their spells casttime. The extra avoidance just usually ends up as more overheal, whereas extra stamina can save you (and thus the raid) when the healers/you are slow moving out of fires, etc ...
I blamed the field manual for Army physical-fitness training, FM 21-20, for the problems with the much to the chagrin of diehard CrossFitters and others frustrated with Army physical training, CrossFit is not a panacea for the challenges leaders face in preparing their soldiers for ...
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I have learned a lot in the past year and a half. I learned that I can push my body past the limits MS once placed on me. I learned that if I keep working on my strength, stamina, balance and coordination, those areas will continue to improve. So I focused on these skills, just as I continue to focus on my overall wellness. By the time July 2011 came around, I was 50 pounds lighter and in the best physical condition since my diagnosis in 1999. In July, I climbed Mount Rainier and ran a challenging 10K obstacle course. Both times my MS kept fighting me. There were limits on how high or how fast I could push myself; regardless, I kept raising the bar. At the end of the month, my MS reminded me it was still fighting for control: its grip on my balance won over on, of all places, a roller skating rink ...
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Its when we enter our thirties that problems come in. This is the phase where signs of aging start to manifest in the persons body. You will certainly feel the changes in your energy levels and your stamina. But this doesnt mean that you should just let these signs of aging take over like that. You can do a lot in order to keep your body healthy and trim, especially your skin. All you need to do is start on a healthier lifestyle, eat the right kinds of food, exercise, and observe necessary beauty regimens. For example, you cannot help it that when you start to age, your skin will encounter sagging problems. Since our skin is naturally delicate, it is prone to sagging, wrinkling, cellulites, and more ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Overview of mouse assays of ethanol intoxication. AU - Crabbe, John C.. AU - Cameron, Andy J.. AU - Munn, Elizabeth. AU - Bunning, Mark. AU - Wahlsten, Douglas. PY - 2008/1/1. Y1 - 2008/1/1. N2 - There are many behavioral assays to assess sensitivity to ethanol intoxication in mice. Most are simple to implement, and are sensitive to a particular dose range of ethanol. Most reflect genetic influences, and each test appears to reflect the contribution of a relatively distinct collection of genes. This genetic heterogeneity implies that no single test can claim to capture the construct "ethanol intoxication" completely. Depending on the test, and when measurements are made, acute functional tolerance to even a single dose of ethanol must be considered as a contributing factor. Whether or not a test is conducted in naïvemice or as part of a test battery can influence sensitivity, and do so in a strain-dependent manner. This unit reviews existing tests and recommends several.. AB - ...
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Similar to AOA treatment, knocking down GOT2 could also effectively inhibit the malate-aspartate shuttle, resulting in a significant increase (by 1.3‐fold; P , 0.01) in the cytosolic NADH level in Panc‐1 cells (Supplementary Fig S8A). Concomitantly, GOT2 knockdown led to a substantial reduction in the mitochondrial NADH level (by 33%; P , 0.01) (Supplementary Fig S8B), affirming the vital role of GOT2 in controlling the net transfer of cytosolic NADH into mitochondria. As a result, GOT2 knockdown significantly reduced ATP production (by 26%; P , 0.01) in Panc‐1 cells (Supplementary Fig S8C). Moreover, in these stable Panc‐1 cells with GOT2 knockdown, we found that re‐expression of acetylation‐mimetic 3KQ mutant GOT2 led to a significant (P , 0.05) reduction in the cytosolic NADH level as compared to wild‐type‐rescued cells when treated without or with glucose (i.e., 0 and 12 mM glucose) (Fig 4B). Meanwhile, 3KQ mutant GOT2‐rescued cells displayed a significant (P , 0.05 or P , ...
Studies on a 27-year-old man with a 3-year history of exercise-induced muscle pain, passage of red urine and elevated serum creatine kinase are described. Histological examination of a biopsy from quadriceps revealed non-specific myopathic changes with occasional clusters of subsarcolemmal mitochondria. The phosphorylase stain was normal. Phosphorous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy studies of gastrocnemius and flexor digitorum superficialis muscles showed no abnormalities at rest. During aerobic exercise there was an abnormally rapid decrease in phosphocreatine concentration but the pH remained within the normal range. There was a build-up of phosphomonoester (probably glucose 6-phosphate), usually indicative of a block in glycolysis. However, a primary defect in the glycolytic pathway seemed unlikely because muscle acidified normally during ischaemic exercise. Recovery from exercise was unusual in that phosphocreatine resynthesis and inorganic phosphate disappearance followed similar
Aminooxyacetic acid, often abbreviated AOA or AOAA, is a compound that inhibits 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (GABA-T) activity in vitro and in vivo, leading to less gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) being broken down. Subsequently, the level of GABA is increased in tissues. At concentrations high enough to fully inhibit 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase activity, aminooxyacetic acid is indicated as a useful tool to study regional GABA turnover in rats. Aminooxyacetic acid is a general inhibitor of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes (this includes GABA-T). It functions as an inhibitor by attacking the Schiff base linkage between PLP and the enzyme, forming oxime type complexes. Aminooxyacetic acid inhibits aspartate aminotransferase, another PLP-dependent enzyme, which is an essential part of the malate-aspartate shuttle. The inhibition of the malate-aspartate shuttle prevents the reoxidation of cytosolic NADH by the mitochondria in nerve terminals. Also in the nerve terminals, ...
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Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GOT1 gene. Glutamic-oxaloacetic ... aspartate aminotransferase 1)". Panteghini M (1990). "Aspartate aminotransferase isoenzymes". Clin. Biochem. 23 (4): 311-9. doi ... Totan A, Greabu M, Totan C, Spinu T (2006). "Salivary aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline ... Doyle JM, Schininà ME, Bossa F, Doonan S (1990). "The amino acid sequence of cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase from human ...
Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GOT2 gene. Glutamic-oxaloacetic ... transaminase is a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme which exists in cytoplasmic and inner-membrane mitochondrial forms, GOT1 ... Guidetti P, Amori L, Sapko MT, Okuno E, Schwarcz R (Jul 2007). "Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase: a third kynurenate- ... Furuya E, Yoshida Y, Tagawa K (May 1979). "Interaction of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase with negatively charged ...
The usual markers for liver disease - aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase - are often ... Cytologically, the tumor cells have a low nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Tumors are non- ...
... aspartate aminotransferases MeSH D08.811.913.477.700.225.249 --- aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic MeSH D08.811.913.477. ... aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial MeSH D08.811.913.477.700.286 --- beta-alanine-pyruvate transaminase MeSH D08.811. ... aspartate-tRNA ligase MeSH D08.811.464.263.200.250 --- glutamate-trna ligase MeSH D08.811.464.263.200.350 --- glycine-trna ... aspartate ammonia-lyase MeSH D08.811.520.232.400.350 --- ethanolamine ammonia-lyase MeSH D08.811.520.232.400.500 --- histidine ...
... it has been shown that alpha ketogluturate dehydrogenase can interact with mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase to form a ... crystal structure of a ternary complex of porcine cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketomalonate and tetrahydoNAD". ... The three residues in particular that comprise a catalytic triad are histidine (His-195), aspartate (Asp-168), both of which ... The other is found in the cytoplasm, assisting the malate-aspartate shuttle with exchanging reducing equivalents so that malate ...
... show some elevation of liver enzymes such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and ... ELISA typically uses cytoplasmic proteins as antigens. It measures IgM, IgG, and IgA with better sensitivity and specificity ...
"Structural features of the precursor to mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase responsible for binding to hsp70". The Journal ... forming a number of plasma membrane-bounded apoptotic bodies which contain nuclear and or cytoplasmic elements. The ...
For example, liver enzymes such as aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine aminotransferase [ALT] are found to be at ... They identified cytoplasmic membranes inserted perpendicularly onto the basement membrane with occasional cells containing ...
Multiple Molecular Forms of Human Heart Cytoplasmic Aspartate Aminotransferase. F. Y. Leung, A. R. Henderson ... 1. Cytoplasmic aspartate aminotransferase was isolated and purified from human heart with a final specific activity of 236 ... Multiple Molecular Forms of Human Heart Cytoplasmic Aspartate Aminotransferase Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... 2. Three distinct peaks of aspartate aminotransferase activity were detected by isoelectric focusing with isoelectric points of ...
In eukaryotes there are cytoplasmic, mitochondrial and chloroplastic isozymes.UniRule annotation. ,p>Information which has been ... tr,A0A3B5QAR0,A0A3B5QAR0_XIPMA Aspartate aminotransferase OS=Xiphophorus maculatus OX=8083 PE=4 SV=1 ... IPR004839 Aminotransferase_I/II. IPR000796 Asp_trans. IPR004838 NHTrfase_class1_PyrdxlP-BS. IPR015424 PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase. ... IPR004839 Aminotransferase_I/II. IPR000796 Asp_trans. IPR004838 NHTrfase_class1_PyrdxlP-BS. IPR015424 PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase. ...
Rabbit polyclonal Aspartate Aminotransferase antibody. Validated in WB and tested in Cow. Immunogen corresponding to ... Aspartate aminotransferase antibody. *Aspartate aminotransferase cytoplasmic antibody. *Aspartate aminotransferase cytosolic ... Anti-Aspartate Aminotransferase antibody (ab232750) at 2 µg/ml + Recombinant cow Aspartate Aminotransferase protein.. Predicted ... Primary - Rabbit Anti-Aspartate Aminotransferase antibody (ab232750) WB Secondary - Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG H&L (HRP) (ab205718) ...
Anti-Aspartate Aminotransferase antibody conjugated to HRP validated for WB, ELISA, IM, Dot and tested in Pig. Immunogen ... Aspartate aminotransferase antibody. *Aspartate aminotransferase cytoplasmic antibody. *Aspartate aminotransferase cytosolic ... Assayed against 1.0 ug of Aspartate Aminotransferase (Pig Heart) in a standard capture ELISA using ABTS (2,2-azino-bis-[3- ...
100274119 aspartate aminotransferase 103648465 malate dehydrogenase 542598 mdh5; malate dehydrogenase, cytoplasmic 100280767 ... aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic [EC:2.6.1.1] K01610 E4.1.1.49; phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (ATP) [EC:4.1.1.49] ... 100384793 alanine aminotransferase 2 100279149 uncharacterized protein LOC100279149 103634667 alanine aminotransferase 2-like ... aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial [EC:2.6.1.1] K00025 MDH1; malate dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.37] K00025 MDH1; malate ...
For carbon fixation group, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), cytoplasmic and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (ATP) (PEPCK) ... aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic; EC:4.1.1.49, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (ATP); EC:2.7.9.1, pyruvate, ... while AST catalyzes the reversible conversion of aspartate to oxaloacetate. In C3 plants, PEPCK also plays roles in ...
In eukaryotes there are cytoplasmic, mitochondrial and chloroplastic isozymes.. ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www. ... Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrialAdd BLAST. 401. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions ... L-aspartate:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity Source: UniProtKB ,p>Inferred from Direct Assay,/p> ,p>Used to indicate a ... Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial (EC:2.6.1.11 Publication. Manual assertion based on experiment ini ...
... aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic [EC:2.6.1.1] K14454 GOT1; aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic [EC:2.6.1.1] K21456 ... PGUG_00877 similar to potential cytoplasmic adenylate kinase PGUG_04946 hypothetical protein PGUG_05628 argininosuccinate lyase ...
Alanine aminotransferase. ANA. Antinuclear antibody. AST. Aspartate aminotransferase. c-ANCA. Cytoplasmic antineutrophil ... aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Other liver tests including bilirubin, alkaline ... cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (c-ANCA), perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (p-ANCA), lupus ...
Compound: Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic. Species: Homo sapiens [TaxId:9606]. Gene: GOT1. Database cross-references ... Compound: Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic. Species: Homo sapiens [TaxId:9606]. Gene: GOT1. Database cross-references ... Keywords: Aspartate aminotransferase, Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 1, GOT1, PLP, TRANSFERASE. Deposited on 2018-06-06, ...
Compound: Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic. Species: Sus scrofa [TaxId:9823]. Gene: GOT1. Database cross-references and ... Compound: Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic. Species: Sus scrofa [TaxId:9823]. Gene: GOT1. Database cross-references and ...
... aspartate aminotransferase; ALT: alanine aminotransferase: MPO-ANCA: myeloperoxidase-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody. #: ...
See the reference protein sequence for PREDICTED: aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic (XP_012873281.1). ...
Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic Show on y-axis - References (HTP + LTP). References (LTP). References (HTP). ...
Protein Aliases: aspartate aminotransferase 1; Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic; aspartate transaminase 1; cAspAT; cCAT ... Cysteine aminotransferase, cytoplasmic; Cysteine transaminase, cytoplasmic; GIG18; Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 1; ... L-aspartate:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity. phosphatidylserine decarboxylase activity. pyridoxal phosphate binding. ... L-cysteine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity. L-phenylalanine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity. ...
Recombinant Protein and Aspartate aminotransferase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody ... Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic. Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic ELISA Kit. Aspartate aminotransferase, ... Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic isozyme 1. Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic isozyme 1 ELISA Kit. Aspartate ... Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic isozyme 2. Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic isozyme 2 ELISA Kit. Aspartate ...
8. Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic. General function:. Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous ... 9. Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial. General function:. Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous ... 6. Tyrosine aminotransferase. General function:. Involved in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase activity. Specific ... Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, cytosolic. General function:. Involved in catalytic activity. Specific function:. ...
1. Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic. General function:. Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous ... 2. Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial. General function:. Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous ...
5. Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic. General function:. Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous ... Putative aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic 2. General function:. Involved in transferase activity, transferring ... 6. Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial. General function:. Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous ... Selectively catalyzes the oxidative deamination of D-aspartate and its N-methylated derivative, N-methyl D-aspartate. Gene Name ...
Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic. +0.367. Not available. ↓. USP14. P54578-2. Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 14. + ...
Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GOT1 gene. Glutamic-oxaloacetic ... aspartate aminotransferase 1)". Panteghini M (1990). "Aspartate aminotransferase isoenzymes". Clin. Biochem. 23 (4): 311-9. doi ... Totan A, Greabu M, Totan C, Spinu T (2006). "Salivary aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline ... Doyle JM, Schininà ME, Bossa F, Doonan S (1990). "The amino acid sequence of cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase from human ...
UAspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial. Not Available. Human. UAspartate--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic. Not Available. Human. ... Guidetti P, Amori L, Sapko MT, Okuno E, Schwarcz R: Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase: a third kynurenate-producing ... Collier RH, Kohlhaw G: Nonidentity of the aspartate and the aromatic aminotransferase components of transaminase A in ... Catalyzes the calcium-dependent exchange of cytoplasmic glutamate with mitochondrial aspartate across the mitochondrial inner ...
The complete amino acid sequence of cytoplasmic aspartate aminotransferase from pig heart. FEBS Lett. 29 (1), 31-34 [+]. ... Aspartate aminotransferase (L-aspartate: 2-oxo-glutarate aminotransferase, EC 2.6.1.1) is one of the principal pyridoxal-P- ... of the work is reported*. The object chosen for study was the aspartate aminotransferase. of the cytosol of pig heart; the ... Although the catalytic mechanism of aspartate aminotransferase has been investigated at the level of substrate-coenzyme models ...
Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic, Cysteine aminotransferase, cytoplasmic, Cysteine transaminase, cytoplasmic, GIG18, ... ... aspartate aminotransferase) (E.C. 2.6.1.1.). Tolley, E., van Heyningen, V., Brown, R., Bobrow, M., Craig, I.W. Biochem. Genet. ... aspartate aminotransferase) (E.C. 2.6.1.1.) [24].. *Serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers: glutamate pyruvate transaminase ( ... isoelectric focusing in agarose within the pH range of 4.0-6.5 has shown a high resolution of the soluble cytoplasmic glutamate ...
Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GOT2 gene. Glutamic-oxaloacetic ... transaminase is a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme which exists in cytoplasmic and inner-membrane mitochondrial forms, GOT1 ... Guidetti P, Amori L, Sapko MT, Okuno E, Schwarcz R (Jul 2007). "Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase: a third kynurenate- ... Furuya E, Yoshida Y, Tagawa K (May 1979). "Interaction of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase with negatively charged ...

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