Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
An aspartate aminotransferase found in MITOCHONDRIA.
This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-TYROSINE and 2-oxoglutarate to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate and L-GLUTAMATE. It is a pyridoxal-phosphate protein. L-PHENYLALANINE is hydroxylated to L-tyrosine. The mitochondrial enzyme may be identical with ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASES (EC 2.6.1.1.). Deficiency of this enzyme may cause type II Tyrosinemia (see TYROSINEMIAS). EC 2.6.1.5.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
The 4-aminomethyl form of VITAMIN B 6. During transamination of amino acids, PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of carbamoyl phosphate and L-aspartate to yield orthophosphate and N-carbamoyl-L-aspartate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.1.3.2.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.
Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.
A pyridoxal phosphate enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glutamate gamma-semialdehyde and an L-amino acid from L-ornithine and a 2-keto-acid. EC 2.6.1.13.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
An aspartate aminotransferase found in the CYTOPLASM.
The 4-carboxyaldehyde form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
An enzyme that converts brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID) into succinate semialdehyde, which can be converted to succinic acid and enter the citric acid cycle. It also acts on beta-alanine. EC 2.6.1.19.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of aspartic acid to ammonia and fumaric acid in plants and some microorganisms. EC 4.3.1.1.
A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
Amino-substituted glyoxylic acid derivative.
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
A compound that inhibits aminobutyrate aminotransferase activity in vivo, thereby raising the level of gamma-aminobutyric acid in tissues.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 6 in the diet, characterized by dermatitis, glossitis, cheilosis, and stomatitis. Marked deficiency causes irritability, weakness, depression, dizziness, peripheral neuropathy, and seizures. In infants and children typical manifestations are diarrhea, anemia, and seizures. Deficiency can be caused by certain medications, such as isoniazid.
Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
The protein components of enzyme complexes (HOLOENZYMES). An apoenzyme is the holoenzyme minus any cofactors (ENZYME COFACTORS) or prosthetic groups required for the enzymatic function.
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of beta-aspartyl phosphate from aspartic acid and ATP. Threonine serves as an allosteric regulator of this enzyme to control the biosynthetic pathway from aspartic acid to threonine. EC 2.7.2.4.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.4.1.2.
The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Derivatives of OXALOACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1,4-carboxy aliphatic structure.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.
Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Derivatives of BUTYRIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the aliphatic structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobutryrate structure.
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain SWAINSONINE.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transfer of an amino group between D-Alanine and alpha-ketoglutarate to form PYRUVATE and D-GLUTAMATE, respectively. It plays a role in the synthesis of the bacterial CELL WALL. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 2.6.1.10.
The dialdehyde of malonic acid.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.
Small molecules that are required for the catalytic function of ENZYMES. Many VITAMINS are coenzymes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Cell surface proteins that bind amino acids and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors are the most common receptors for fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate central nervous system, and GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and glycine receptors are the most common receptors for fast inhibition.
A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
Antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces garyphalus.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of fumaric acid to yield L-malic acid. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC 4.2.1.2.
A crystalline compound used as a laboratory reagent in place of HYDROGEN SULFIDE. It is a potent hepatocarcinogen.
Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.
A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.
A dicarboxylic acid ketone that is an important metabolic intermediate of the CITRIC ACID CYCLE. It can be converted to ASPARTIC ACID by ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE.
Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Derivatives of benzene in which one or more hydrogen atoms on the benzene ring are replaced by bromine atoms.
A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.
A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)
Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer amino group from L-TRYPTOPHAN to 2-oxoglutarate in order to generate indolepyruvate and L-GLUTAMATE.
The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
A genetic disorder characterized by excretion of large amounts of OXALATES in urine; NEPHROLITHIASIS; NEPHROCALCINOSIS; early onset of RENAL FAILURE; and often a generalized deposit of CALCIUM OXALATE. There are subtypes classified by the enzyme defects in glyoxylate metabolism.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of amino group of L-2-aminoadipate onto 2-oxoglutarate to generate 2-oxoadipate and L-GLUTAMATE.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyridoxal in the presence of ATP with the formation of pyridoxal 5-phosphate and ADP. Pyridoxine, pyridoxamine and various derivatives can also act as acceptors. EC 2.7.1.35.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
A trisaccharide occurring in Australian manna (from Eucalyptus spp, Myrtaceae) and in cottonseed meal.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue.
A simple organophosphorus compound that inhibits DNA polymerase, especially in viruses and is used as an antiviral agent.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
A tissue or organ remaining at physiological temperature during decreased BLOOD perfusion or in the absence of blood supply. During ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION it begins when the organ reaches physiological temperature before the completion of SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS and ends with reestablishment of the BLOOD CIRCULATION through the tissue.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of amino group of L-LYSINE onto 2-oxoglutarate to generate 2-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde and L-GLUTAMATE.
A urea cycle enzyme that catalyzes the formation of orthophosphate and L-citrulline (CITRULLINE) from CARBAMOYL PHOSPHATE and L-ornithine (ORNITHINE). Deficiency of this enzyme may be transmitted as an X-linked trait. EC 2.1.3.3.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The monoanhydride of carbamic acid with PHOSPHORIC ACID. It is an important intermediate metabolite and is synthesized enzymatically by CARBAMYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA) and CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (GLUTAMINE-HYDROLYZING).
ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.
A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.
A genus of aerobic, chemolithotrophic, coccoid ARCHAEA whose organisms are thermoacidophilic. Its cells are highly irregular in shape, often lobed, but occasionally spherical. It has worldwide distribution with organisms isolated from hot acidic soils and water. Sulfur is used as an energy source.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An enzyme that, in the course of pyrimidine biosynthesis, catalyzes ring closure by removal of water from N-carbamoylaspartate to yield dihydro-orotic acid. EC 3.5.2.3.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Solutions used to store organs and minimize tissue damage, particularly while awaiting implantation.
The catabolic product of most of VITAMIN B 6; (PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; and PYRIDOXAMINE) which is excreted in the urine.
A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
Mushrooms in the order AGARICALES containing B vitamins, cortinelin, and the polysaccharide LENTINAN.
An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.
Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
Specialized phagocytic cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM found on the luminal surface of the hepatic sinusoids. They filter bacteria and small foreign proteins out of the blood, and dispose of worn out red blood cells.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.

Molecular and physiological analysis of Arabidopsis mutants defective in cytosolic or chloroplastic aspartate aminotransferase. (1/9)

Arabidopsis mutants deficient in cytosolic (AAT2) or chloroplastic (AAT3) aspartate (Asp) aminotransferase were characterized at the molecular and physiological levels. All of the ethyl methane sulfonate- or nitrosomethylurea-generated mutants are missense mutations, as determined by sequencing of the ASP2 gene from the cytosolic aat2 mutants (aat2-1, aat2-2, aat2-4, and aat2-5) and the ASP5 gene from the chloroplastic aat3 mutants (aat3-1, aat3-2, and aat3-4). A T-DNA insertion mutant in cytosolic AAT2 (aat2-T) was also identified. All the cytosolic aat2 and chloroplastic aat3 mutants have less than 6% AAT2 and less than 3% AAT3 activity, respectively, as determined by the native gel assay; however, none are nulls. The metabolic and physiological affect of these mutations in AAT isoenzymes was determined by measuring growth and amino acid levels in the aat mutants. Two aat2 mutants (aat2-2 and aat2-T) show reduced root length on Murashige and Skoog medium. For aat2-2, this growth defect is exaggerated by Asp supplementation, suggesting a defect in Asp metabolism. Amino acid analysis of the aat mutants showed alterations in levels of Asp and/or Asp-derived amino acids in several aat2 alleles. Two aat2 mutants show dramatic decreases in Asp and asparagine levels in leaves and/or siliques. As such, the cytosolic AAT2 isoenzyme appears to serve a nonredundant function in plant nitrogen metabolism of Asp and Asp-derived amino acids.  (+info)

Effects of L-malate on physical stamina and activities of enzymes related to the malate-aspartate shuttle in liver of mice. (2/9)

L-malate, a tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) intermediate, plays an important role in transporting NADH from cytosol to mitochondria for energy production and may be involved in the beneficial effects of improving physical stamina. In the present study, we investigated the effects of L-malate on the performance of forced swimming time and blood biochemical parameters related to fatigue - blood urea nitrogen (BUN), glucose (Glc), creatine kinase (CK),total protein (TP) and lactic acid (LA). To investigate the effects of L-malate on the malate-aspartate shuttle and energy metabolism in mice, the activities of enzymes related to the malate-aspartate shuttle were measured. L-malate was orally administered to mice continuously for 30 days using a feeding atraumatic needle. The swimming time was increased by 26.1 % and 28.5 %, respectively, in the 0.210 g/kg and 0.630 g/kg L-malate-treated group compared with the control group. There were no differences in the concentrations of Glc, BUN and TP between the L-malate-treated groups and the control groups. However, the levels of CK were significantly decreased in the L-malate-treated groups. The results predict a potential benefit of L-malate for improving physical stamina and minimizing muscle damage during swimming exercise. The activities of cytosolic and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase were significantly elevated in the L-malate-treated group compared with the control group. These enzymatic activities may be useful indicators for evaluating changes affecting the malate-aspartate shuttle and energy metabolism in the liver of mice.  (+info)

ETV6/GOT1 fusion in a case of t(10;12)(q24;p13)-positive myelodysplastic syndrome. (3/9)

 (+info)

Disruption of mitochondrial malate-aspartate shuttle activity in mouse blastocysts impairs viability and fetal growth. (4/9)

 (+info)

Effects of sulfur dioxide on hypoxic pulmonary vascular structural remodeling. (5/9)

 (+info)

Oxygen-inducible glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase as protective switch transforming neurotoxic glutamate to metabolic fuel during acute ischemic stroke. (6/9)

 (+info)

Genome-wide association study identifies genetic variants in GOT1 determining serum aspartate aminotransferase levels. (7/9)

 (+info)

Effect of combination of aripiprazole with carbamazepine and fluvoxamine on liver functions in experimental animals. (8/9)

 (+info)

1. Cytoplasmic aspartate aminotransferase was isolated and purified from human heart with a final specific activity of 236 units/mg of protein.. 2. Three distinct peaks of aspartate aminotransferase activity were detected by isoelectric focusing with isoelectric points of 5.46, 5.60 and 5.71. Two minor subforms were also noted as shoulder patterns with pI 5.2 and 5.8.. 3. These electrophoretic characteristics are similar to previous findings of multiple molecular forms detected in human liver and erythrocytes.. ...
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Cumulative (repetitive) lumbar disorder is common in the workforce, and the associated epidemiology points out high risk for lifting heavy loads, performing many repetitions, and performing movements at high velocity. Experimental verification of viscoelastic tissue degradation and a neuromuscular disorder exist for cyclic work under heavy loads. Experimental validation for a d
A search for novel supplements, other than anabolic steroids, lead to founding of a well-prospering industry, providing amateur and professional sportsmen with a vista of nutrition increasing muscular gain and stamina.. Among them, SAA has become very popular due to their supposed positive influence on physical stamina. Unfortunately, the popularity of this supplement is rendered rather by claims of a manufacturer and not lucid scientific reports on human models. To address this shortcomings we performed this study, which is the first ever attempt to analyze an impact of SAA supplementation on physical stamina in humans.. Taking into account the current literature on translation of drugs dose from animal to human [12], we primarily contemplated the use of ~41 mg of SAA per kg of body mass/day, not 500 mg/kg/day as presented in this study. However, we did not consider SAA as drugs, per se, but only as a nutritional supplement. Additionally a limited duration of an experiment i.e., 12-day training ...
Benefits equalized participation for those with difficulties for spoken language a new leisure skill that is transferrable into community living upon discharge music is a universal language and offers participants who do not speak English or those unable to speak have comfort and equality as they communicate through their instruments, of bells, drums and shakers, etc
No one likes to lead a restricted life. When the restriction interprets to limited body movement or loss of stamina to do things that you used to love, it can be even more frustration. This, along with varying mood swings and depression that comes with age can take you to even deeper depths of remorse.. After all, it isnt easy to accept that the spark of your life is gradually fading away, that you are growing old and the physical stamina or appearance that you used to be so proud of, will never be the same again. GHR1000 is one HGH releaser that gives you the vigour and the glowing grace of your face that you have been missing for so long. Working by stimulating the pituitary gland for natural production of more HGH, GHR1000 doesnt contain growth hormone in itself. It is an all natural formulation of proven herbs that are known for their safety of use and efficacy since ages. This supplement is especially suitable for people who have protein deficiency or have sedentary lifestyle due to ...
Increase your physical stamina, energy production, and mental clarity with Kyäni Nitro Xtreme! Shop now to support your healthy living goals!
Shannon Hartman, one of AIMs social workers, has been visiting once a week with Lon Pray, a 63-year-old retired teacher whose prostate cancer has metastasized to his bones. Two years ago, doctors told Pray he had between 18 months and two years to live. As the clock ticked by, he become obsessed with the amount of time he had left but felt he couldnt open up in a doctors office.. Pray says Hartman has helped him come to terms with a number of losses - from his physical stamina to his desire to socialize. I went from going 90 miles an hour, taking care of the house, taking care of rental properties, to the point where I cant do anything, he says. His conversations with Hartman have helped him understand whats happening to him and communicate with his wife of 27 years, Lynette, about his concerns about abandoning her. I dont know where Id be without this program. It was a godsend, he says. Lynette agrees. They let you know what youre going through is normal.. Hartman says a large ...
You can find 1 higher-good quality solution in the modern marketplace generally known as GenF20 Plus thats reported to correctly slow down aging processes during the human overall body. Its established to own wonderful Added benefits in restoring HGH levels back. The experts are guaranteed that damaging HGH stages is the key explanation for aging difficulties. GenF20 Plus allows to restore the HGH, and Because of this you can delight in other Positive aspects in your wellness. Pores and skin seems to be smoother and firmer. Your physical stamina is improved. You can drop fat and reduce human body Extra fat ...
agree mostly. disagree as follows, i have no problem with women in the military but in jobs where physical stamina and strength may mean your life or someone elses then it should be a mans world. if you disagree, are you willing to draft women for combat positions? just remember the way the whole war and the media coverage STOPPED until Jesssica Lynch was rescued (quotes because the rescue is a controversial topic as far as what actually went down). dont get me wrong, i was elated that she was rescued, but a woman in captivity doesnt sit well with anyone and it sits least well with the folks around her and heaven and earth was moved to get her back. fine. great. but what about when it endagers the mission? personally i dont want my son or my daughter drafted but if theres a draft and i had to do a sophies choice i would chose my son to go.. ReplyDelete ...
agree mostly. disagree as follows, i have no problem with women in the military but in jobs where physical stamina and strength may mean your life or someone elses then it should be a mans world. if you disagree, are you willing to draft women for combat positions? just remember the way the whole war and the media coverage STOPPED until Jesssica Lynch was rescued (quotes because the rescue is a controversial topic as far as what actually went down). dont get me wrong, i was elated that she was rescued, but a woman in captivity doesnt sit well with anyone and it sits least well with the folks around her and heaven and earth was moved to get her back. fine. great. but what about when it endagers the mission? personally i dont want my son or my daughter drafted but if theres a draft and i had to do a sophies choice i would chose my son to go.. ReplyDelete ...
Got2 (untagged) - Mouse glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 2, mitochondrial (Got2), nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein, (10ug), 10 µg.
8a. Renal: Creatinine clearance or radioisotope glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ≥70 mL/min/1.73 m2.. 8b. Hepatic: Total bilirubin ≤2.0 mg/dL unless the increase in bilirubin is attributable to Gilberts syndrome; and SGOT (AST) (serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase), SGPT (ALT) (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase), and Alkaline Phosphatase ,4 x upper limit of normal (ULN) for age.. 8c. Cardiac: Normal cardiac function by echocardiogram or radionuclide scan, as defined by left ventricular ejection fraction at rest ,45%, or shortening fraction ,26%.. 8d. Pulmonary: FEV1 (forced expiratory volume at one second), FVC (forced vital capacity), and DLCO (diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide) (corrected for hemoglobin) ≥50% of predicted; if unable to perform pulmonary function tests, then oxygen saturation ≥92% on room air.. Eligibility Criteria for Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Transplant. ...
Patients must have adequate hepatic,renal,& bone marrow function,defined as the following:(1) total bilirubin ,/=1.5xULN;(2) serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) & serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT),/=2.5xULN;(3)creatinine ,/= 1.5xULN;(4) ANC ,/= 1.5x10^9/L;(5) platelets,/=100 x 10^9/L.Note:Renal function is only based on serum creatinine level ,/= 1.5xULN.The standard Cockcroft & Gault formula or the measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using the appropriate radio labelled method (51-CrEDTA or Tc99m-DTPA) must be used to calculate cranial cruciate ligament (CrCl) for enrollment or dosing.The same method used @ baseline should be used throughout the study.CrCl should be ,/= 45mg/dl ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of administering cyclophosphamide and vitamin E on the levels of tumor-marker enzymes in rats with experimentally induced fibrosarcoma. AU - Vinitha, Ramachandran. AU - Thangaraju, Muthusamy. AU - Sachdanandam, Panchanatham. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Cyclophosphamide, an antineoplastic drug, and vitamin E, the common antioxidant present in the diet, were administered in separate dosages and in combination to animals (rats) with fibrosarcoma, metastatic tumor of the connective tissues, induced. The anticancer drug (20 mg/kg body weight) and the vitamin-E (400 mg/kg body weight) was administered for a period of 28 days from the day of tumor transplantation. The individual and the combined effects of these two substances were investigated by checking the growth of the tumor. Tumor markers like lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum glutamate pyruvate transminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), acid phosphatase, and alkaline phosphatase were analyzed for ...
Foregoing researches made on the N/OFQ system brought up a possible role for this system in cardiovascular regulation. In this study we examined how N/OFQ levels of the blood plasma changed in acute cardiovascular diseases. Three cardiac patient groups were created: enzyme positive acute coronary syndrome (EPACS, n = 10), enzyme negative ACS (ENACS, n = 7) and ischemic heart disease (IHD, n = 11). We compared the patients to healthy control subjects (n = 31). We found significantly lower N/OFQ levels in the EPACS [6.86 (6.21-7.38) pg/ml], ENACS [6.97 (6.87-7.01) pg/ml and IHD groups [7.58 (7.23-8.20) pg/ml] compared to the control group [8.86 (7.27-9.83) pg/ml]. A significant correlation was detected between N/OFQ and white blood cell count (WBC), platelet count (PLT), creatine kinase (CK), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and cholesterol levels in the EPACS group.Decreased plasma N/OFQ is closely associated with the presence of acute cardiovascular disease, and the severity of symptoms ...
Stamina join our community. Male enhancement pill VigRX PLUS helps increase sexual health for bigger, harder erections, increased erection length and girth, increase in sexual stamina, sex drive, and more powerful and intense orgasms. How to increase stamina in sexual intercourseSexual Stamina: 20 Best Ways to Last Longer in Bed ....
stamina definition: Stamina is resistance to fatigue, hardship or illness. (noun) An example of stamina is when you can run a long marathon without tiring....
STAMINA Meaning: rudiments or original elements of something, from Latin stamina threads, plural of stamen (genitive… See definitions of stamina.
They said all right, we wonder is it training, or is it genetics and makeup that makes that happen? They then ran some tests in 2011. They took a bunch of Marines, and they basically put them through a mindfulness training process to help them really pay attention to their internal sensations and in the world. What they found was that after, I believe it was eight weeks of training that Marines brains looked really similar to the Navy Seals when this test occurred. Then further training from there, they showed increased performance in endurance efforts.. What does this mean to us? Its pretty simple. It means that we can actually build perseverance. We can build physical stamina by learning how to run our sensations better.. What Im going to do today is give you one simple exercise to do for the rest of December. Once youve done it, you can actually start to notice a significant difference often in your ability to handle stress much more peacefully, and with less physical discomfort than ever ...
90 days parts/1 year frame. Stamina Products Inc. warrants our products to be free from defects in materials and workmanship at the time of the original purchase from an authorized retailer. In the event that a product becomes defective, please contact us by phone at 1-800-375-7520 or send written notification to the address listed on the Contact Us page of this website.. If the defect is under the limited warranty, you may be requested to return the product or part to us for repair or replacement. Stamina Products Inc. reserves the right to require the customer to pay for the return shipping of the item.. Warranty information on a specific product can be found toward the back of the Owners Manual or you can call us at 1-800-375-7520. The warranty will not apply to any product that has been subject to commercial use, abuse, misuse, or any type of modification by the consumer.. To confirm your rights as described in the warranty statement, be sure to complete the Product Registration Card and ...
Read the latest Male Stamina Blend SP-15B by Solaray reviews and find the latest results, side effects and user experiences from eVitamins. Have you taken Male Stamina Blend SP-15B by Solaray? Submit your own Male Stamina Blend SP-15B review and let the world know what you think.
Stamina Products Inc. warrants our products to be free from defects in materials and workmanship at the time of the original purchase from an authorized retailer. In the event that a product becomes defective, please contact us by phone at 1-800-375-7520 or send written notification to the address listed on the Contact Us page of this website.. If the defect is under the limited warranty, you may be requested to return the product or part to us for repair or replacement. Stamina Products Inc. reserves the right to require the customer to pay for the return shipping of the item.. Warranty information on a specific product can be found toward the back of the Owners Manual or you can call us at 1-800-375-7520. The warranty will not apply to any product that has been subject to commercial use, abuse, misuse, or any type of modification by the consumer.. To confirm your rights as described in the warranty statement, be sure to complete the Product Registration Card and mail it to us promptly! Or ...
Cardio kickboxing has now been gathering an increasing number of followers due to the amazing health advantages. This workout combines cardio workouts with self-defense skill techniques to create a full body workout. Cardio kickboxing is a great high energy exercise that can burn fat easily and efficiently plus enhance your mental well-being. Research has shown that the hour of kickboxing along with aerobic workouts burns up 650 to 900 calories in an hour. (kickboxing alone can burn upto 600calories by the hour). Listed here are the most notable three good reasons why you need to undertake cardio kickboxing today.. 1. Burns fat, increases muscle strength and physical stamina. As said before, cardio kickboxing burns an insane amount of calories. And within a short amount if time. Great!. Additionally, it promotes the healthiness of your heart, and increases great and bad your core muscles. The kicks tone your leg muscles whilst the punches supply a workout for your chest muscles. Back is trimmed ...
Why is every stutterer I have ever met a man? asks Jeremy Zorn, the main character of another fine novel, David Shieldss Dead Languages. Ninety percent of all impeded speakers are male. The gender ratio, slightly exaggerated by Zorn, is indeed one of the mysteries of the stuttering syndrome. Approximately 80 percent of the worlds stutterers are estimated to be male. Although girls begin stuttering a little earlier, they recover earlier and more frequently than boys. Lionel Logue attributed the difference to womens greater power of concentration.. Others who have commented on the disparity estimate that the reason lies in the general physical superiority of women. In terms of matters physiological, women are generally the stronger, throughout life, writes one theorist of speech ailments, Marcel C. Wingate, who elaborates on womens greater physical stamina. The physiological superiority of the female is readily expressed in terms of the survival of the species: endurance of the female ...
Calms the Nervous System, Soothes Stressful Feelings, Relaxes Tense Muscles, Increases Mental Acuity, Enhances Physical Stamina, Reduces Physical and Mental Fatigue
Character. On paper a fire ranger was required to be a man of rock-solid character. A sober and industrious man, of good behaviour and judgment, with a cool temper would be a good man to educate a sometimes indifferent public, and to enforce unpopular fire legislation.. Physical Stamina. Fire patrols were tests of strength and endurance. Rangers trudged over rugged terrain shouldering heavy packs, paddled and portaged canoes, rode horseback over narrow mountain trails, hand pumped railcars over miles of track, dug out fire break trenches, and hauled pail after pail of water to put out a fire. They coped with bugs, bad weather, accidents, and wild animals.. ...
Stamina is important for everyone. Stamina isnt required only by athletes, or those who are too involved in physical exertion. It is a daily r
Stamina is the green echelon above the amber action-point indicator.It recharges fairly rapidly over time, and is used for sliding (clerics), teleportation (wizards), and so on. It is important for a wizard to teleport quickly out of the heat of battle, or for a cleric to slide out of a power blow, or for the guardian fighter to parry an attack. Strength gives a boost to stamina recharge rate. ...
Buy Zandu Vigorex Capsules Boost Energy, Improves Strength & Vitality, Stamina, Mood Enhancer, Fatigue & Nervous Exhaustion. 45 Days Therapy For Best Results. 7 Powerful Herbs & Minerals. Zandu Ayurvedic Products Online Shop.
Problems with your sex life? Nitroxin is the supplement to take if you want to improve your sex life, get better erections and super charge your stamina!
Another bout of idle wondering led me to look up the etymology of stamina; I suddenly realized it looked like the plural of stamen, but thought that cant be right. As it turns out, it is, in an unexpected way. Before stamen meant The male or fertilizing organ of a flowering plant, it meant the warp in an upright loom (the Latin word stāmen is from the Proto-Indo-European root *stā- stand), and from there it came to mean (in the OEDs words) The thread spun by the Fates at a persons birth, on the length of which the duration of his life was suppose[d] to depend. Hence, in popular physiology, the measure of vital impulse or capacity which it was supposed that each person possessed at birth, and on which the length of his life, unless cut short by violence or disease, was supposed to depend. (1709 Tatler No. 15.1 All, who enter into human life, have a certain date or Stamen given to their being, which they only who die of age may be said to have arrived at; 1753 L. M. Accompl. Woman ...
James White Beet IT Sport Stamina Shot: Over 1 independent user reviews summarized in the dooyoo conclusion ✓ Compare 1 shopping deals starting at 8.20£ (16.11.2017)!
The Stamina InMotion Rower cant really be thought of as a rowing machine. But for $100 it could be a good way to get fit on a budget. Check our review here.
College requires a different type of stamina. Perhaps its more like character. Its not based on the short time frame mental stamina required by the SAT. Besides, the SAT really relates more to preparation. At the lower test score range, it relates to a good preparation in basic math. At the upper range, its directly related to preparation for the questions on the SAT. Now that Im looking at the questions in detail, I clearly see the specialized skills and preparation my son needs. Preparation will reduce the stress and the stamina required. Its the same as training for a sport. You could have lots of potential, but you are competing against peers who are training like crazy. The goal of the SAT is to create questions that separate kids at all levels. If you dont prepare, you are at a disadvantage ...
It is very hard to give objective weights to threat vs survival stats, or stamina vs damage reduction vs combat table coverage. But, as you note, with the exception of trinkets and gems, often we dont need to make such tradeoffs as stamina and armor tends to be uniform for a given item level. The consensus here seems to be, generally, to go with the highest item level tanking gear you can get, where possible choosing items with survival secondary stats and prefering mastery over dodge/parry. The argument is that threat is not an issue at the moment and mastery is best for both damage reduction and combat table coverage ...
If you like the thought of adding more exercise into your routine, but have issues finding time or money to frequent a gym, then this stepper machine might be
Hi im a complete newbie to this forum so firstly let me apologise for my lack of knowledge here. mY job involves a six monthly multi stage fitness
Bomba365 ATTENTION: Do Not Buy Bomba365 Male Enhancement Supplement Until You Read This SHOCKING Bomba365 Review And Find Out If It Really Works!
Constant darkness throws a molecular switch in mammals that shifts the bodys fuel consumption from glucose to fat and induces a state of torpor in
POWER, STAMINA AND VASCULARITY!Formulă ultra-concentrată înainte de antrenamentForţă imensă, rezistenţă şi vascularizareDoare cei mai puternici componenţi şi do
Shapeshift into Bear Form, increasing armor by 200% and Stamina by 55%, granting protection from Polymorph effects, and increasing threat generation ...
When it comes to sex, men usually focus on size and stamina. As a woman, I tell you that you are definitely focusing on the wrong things. How to please a woman ...
BODYATTACK™ classes at our Leatherhead Fitness & Wellbeing Gym provide an intense but rewarding 55 mins cardio workout, aimed at building your strength and stamina.
Thank you for sharing this Journal of Clinical Microbiology article.. NOTE: We request your email address only to inform the recipient that it was you who recommended this article, and that it is not junk mail. We do not retain these email addresses.. ...
Hemorrhagic shock (HS) following acute alcohol intoxication can increase proinflammatory cytokine production and induce marked immunosuppression. We investigated the effects of ethanol on physiopathology and cytokine levels following HS in acutely alcohol-intoxicated rats. Rats received an intravenous injection of 5 g/kg ethanol over 3 h followed by HS induced by withdrawal of 40% of total blood volume from a femoral arterial catheter over 30 min. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were monitored continuously for 48 h after the start of blood withdrawal. Biochemical parameters, including hemoglobin, ethanol, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cre), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), and creatine phosphokinase (CPK), were measured at 30 min before induction of HS and 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, and 48 h after HS. Serum tumor necrosis factor-|i|α|/i| (TNF-|i|α|
Free radicals, in particular radical oxygen species (ROS), play an important role in the aetiology and pathogenesis of various diseases. Current research in many countries focuses on the use of local medicinal plants as a promising source of liver protective agents. This paper describes the hepatoprotective effects of the methanol extract and four isolated compounds from Ficus chlamydocarpa on CCl4-induced liver damage, as well as the possible antioxidant mechanisms involved in this protection. The DPPH test, along with the beta-Carotene-Linoleic Acid Model System and Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power assays, as well as the inhibition of microsomal lipid peroxidation were used to measure radical-scavenging and antioxidant activities. Pretreatment of rats with the methanol extract of F. chlamydocarpa before CCl4 administration, significantly prevented serum increase of hepatic enzyme markers, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), in a dose-dependent ...
The effect of bitter kola on the hepatotoxicity following mercury poisoning (mercuric chloride solution of 10ppm) was investigated in rats for a duration of six weeks. Thirty (30) acclimatized Wistar rats were divided into five groups(n=6).Group I served as control and were fed on normal rat chow and clean water ad libitum, group II received normal chow and mercury contaminated water (10ppm), group III animals were given clean water and 5% w/w bitter kola supplemented rat chow, group IV rats received bitter kola supplemented rat chow and mercury contaminated water, group V animals were placed for the first week of the experiment on mercury contaminated water and normal rat chow before substituting with clean water and bitter kola supplemented rat chow. Two (2) animals from each group were sacrificed at the end of 2nd, 4th and 6th week and blood collected by cardiac puncture before the liver was harvested .Serum Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (GOT), Glutamate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic analysis of 12 polymorphic isozyme loci in Taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott. AU - Nguyen, Viet Xuan. AU - Yoshino, Hiromichi. AU - Tahara, Makoto. PY - 1999/9. Y1 - 1999/9. N2 - Using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis find isoelectric focusing, we studied the genetic control of isozymes in nine enzyme systems of taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott; acid phosphatase (ACP), diaphorase (DIA), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), hexokinase (HEX), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD), phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI), shikimate dehydrogenase (SKDH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Diploid taro accessions from Nepal and other Asian countries were either selfed or crossed, and isozyme band segregation was tested in their progeny. A total of 12 loci with two to three alleles were determined for isozymes in leaf tissue; six loci of Got-1, Got-5, Idh-1, Pgi-3, Sod-3 and Sod-4 encoded a dimeric enzyme, whereas Acp-4, Dia-2, Hex-2 and Skdh ...
Lepidium meyenii, known as Maca, is traditionally employed in the Andean region for its supposed properties to improve energy and fertility. In the present study, we investigated the effects of gelatinized and fermented Maca on improvement of physical stamina and epididymal sperm counts, and on blood biochemical parameters related to fatigue and tissue injury: creatine phosphokinase, aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, total cholesterol and total proteins. Adult male mice was divided at random into two main groups (resting and excercise groups). The excercise group was separated into three subgroups (exercise only, exercise with gelatinized Maca and fermented Maca-treatment groups). Gelatinized or fermented Maca (800 mg/kg) were orally administered for 30 days. All animals in exercise groups were subjected to daily 30-min swimming for 28 days 30 min after Maca treatment. Daily exercise decreased the body weight gain, and fermented Maca further attenuated ...
Stamina join our community. Male enhancement pill VigRX PLUS helps increase sexual health for bigger, harder erections, increased erection length and girth, increase in sexual stamina, sex drive, and more powerful and intense orgasms. Cheapest stamina in ukThe Cheapest Places to Live in the World - 2017.
Headline: Bitcoin & Blockchain Searches Exceed Trump! Blockchain Stocks Are Next!. Many young and old males are looking for natural ways to increase lovemaking stamina and satisfy the female in bed. Masti capsule is the best herbal pill available in the online market to improve male sexual health enormously. Masti capsule is developed using pure plant ingredients to provide the necessary nutrients and vitamins to increase sexual stamina and energy levels. Its key ingredients are Talmakhana, Dalchini, Abhrak Bhasma, Ras Sindoor, Tulsi, Kesar, Dalchini, Jaiphal, Semar, Shilajit, Ramayphal, Ashwagandha, Kaunch and Vidarikand. All theseherbs are blended perfectly and offers one of the best natural ways to increase lovemaking stamina and energy levels.. You need to use these herbal pills to improve male sexual health in a short span of time and enjoy her in bed. It is free from chemicals and additives. You can this herbal supplement without any fear of side effects to cure sexual disorders like weak ...
Branched Chain Amino Acids include leucine, isoleucine and valine. BCAAs aid recovery after a workout including prolonged mental and physical stamina. Save with Nutrition Warehouse!
Branched Chain Amino Acids include leucine, isoleucine and valine. BCAAs aid recovery after a workout including prolonged mental and physical stamina. Save with Nutrition Warehouse!
It is at that point that you have most likely given all of your physical stamina and speed away, and are left with really only one thing: Will. Will to overcome the rigor mortis that seems to set into every muscle in your body. Will to not just keep your head up and your eyes open and forward, but to propel your body forward, against wind resistance, the curve in the track, a thousand and one other variables. And perhaps most importantly, the will to not just merely hold the pace you set out for yourself in the first 200 yards, but to actually increase your pace despite every cell in your body screaming at you to simply do the exact opposite and let yourself fall on the ground in collapse. In that stretch, you lose the ability to strategize, to really think at all. You simply push yourself forward as absolutely hard as you can, and in working to overcome the challenge with reason and logic, the best runners often have only one thing to fuel that will: Heart ...
Background: The Suryanamaskara (SN) exercise is a comprehensive yoga technique which incorporates physical activity, breath regulation, relaxation and awareness. Apart from improving physical stamina and endurance, SN has been shown to influence an individuals perception and performance. But its immediate effect on sustained attention was not reported adequately. Objective: The study was designed to assess the immediate effect of 108 SN on sustained attention, efficiency and speed of visual scanning in subjects participated in Rathasapthami day (the seventh day following the Suns northerly movement). Materials and Methods: In this single and mixed group pre-post study, 96 subjects with mean age 33.15 ± 13.61 years participated. The Six Letter Cancellation Test (SLCT) and Digit Letter Substitution Test (DLST) data were collected immediately before and after 108 SN. Statistical Analysis: Means, Standard Deviations, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test were used for analyzing ...
Chulu West peak (6,419m) is one of the popular trekking peaks in the Annapurna region. It is situated north of Manang. There are two other Chulu Peaks- Chulu East and Chulu Central, out of which Chulu East is also quite popular like Chulu West and permitted for climbing but Chulu Central is rarely attempted by any commercial groups. In fact, no real technical difficulty is felt in reaching the summit of Chulu West but climbing pace can be slower especially in the winter due to snow ice laden routes. Above base camp fixing of ropes is required to climb on steep, loose rock. During the climb to Chulu West peak, one can enjoy the mesmerizing views of Mt. Dhaulagiri, Mt, Nilgiri, Mt. Annapurna and several other peaks. However, climbing the Chulu West Peak requires a good physical stamina and climbing experience.. Trekking to Chulu west peak begins with an overland drive from Kathmandu to Beshi Sahar. From Beshi Sahar the trail leads up gently towards Manang valley, one of the highest valleys of the ...
Flesh Light / Fleshlight Stamina Penis Training Forum - This forum is exclusively for the discussion of the Fleshlight and Flesh Light Stamina for the penis.
Flesh Light / Fleshlight Stamina Penis Training Forum - This forum is exclusively for the discussion of the Fleshlight and Flesh Light Stamina for the penis.
Football is a sport where the players need to have the tremendous stamina to stay on the playground. Stamina does not refer to having a toned and shaped body. Stamina comes to those people who exercise regularly, eat healthily and stay active. It is important o have all the world-class football equipment with you to better your game, but stamina cannot be replaced. An article on www.bloggingtheboys.com stated that players who stop concentrating on building their stamina often face body fatigue due to the game. Tiredness is obvious, but feeling weak and fatigue all the time indicates that you are not taking appropriate care of your body.. You must have heard a lot about carbohydrates and how people talk about low carb and high carb diets. Now its time to implement it for the stamina a player needs on the football ground. Experts on various health blogs write about different types of diets like Atkins and Paloe. Let us drive out some standard features from them, to sum up, how you can stay ...
Magic Stamina Spray is the latest in male sensual enhancement technology. Buy Magic Stamina at ShopInPrivate.com, and your purchase will arrive at your door in a plain brown box.
GH Advanced is really a extremely advanced dietary supplement, which has transformed the body building world as a fresh natural option to explode muscle mass building workouts,GH Advanced is claiming this is a special formula specifically made to create muscle, increase libido, Stamina, burn extra fat and define muscle tissue using the HGH . This…
The number one natural formula for testosterone enhancement.Testosterosa® by PHS is a safe, natural solution for helping increase your bodys own abilities to maintain energy, durability, stamina and physical health.
Beetroot is a rich source of potent antioxidants and nutrients, including magnesium, sodium, potassium and vitamin C, and betaine, which is important for cardiovascular health.. Read moreBeetroot Enhances Physical Activity Performance, Endurance & Stamina - Study. ...
Running, especially for weight loss, requires a combination of cardiovascular stamina and muscular endurance that lets you run for longer periods without fatiguing. Sprinting at high speeds can improve your cardio capacity and train your recovery system, but it isnt the best way to train for longer runs. Start slow ...
|b|I have poor stamina right from the age of 18|/b| as compared to my other friends of my age group. I easily get tired on running but can walk for long duration. On running more I feel a peculiar kind of pain in my teeth. I have gone through an executive check in a good hospital which shows that everything is normal, whether it is cardiac profile, diabetes test and all, also I have gone through HLA B27 test which was positive. I am suffering from psychological diabetes (polyuria) for which I am seeing a psychiatrist. Please help.
Unleash the power of your mind. Reprogram your DNA with Higher Quantum Frequencies. Get brain boost and maximize your stamina. Experience it today!
many people are always looking for solution to increase there libido and stamina but usually look at the wrong products to help with this. The 20 flow seems to be a new solution.
The Stamina InTone Plus 38 Inch Rebounder Trampoline provides low-impact cardio, and upper body toning. Get yours today at ActiveForever.com!
Are you running out of stamina early in the gym or in the bed; Read The 20 Flow Nitric Oxide Booster Review to find out wether it gives the solution!
Free shipping on orders of $35+ from Target. Read reviews and buy Stamina WIRK Under Desk Exercise Bike - Black at Target. Get it today with Same Day Delivery, Order Pickup or Drive Up.
Testo Factors Male Enhancement - Stamina booster, penis enlarger & erection power is all you need to meet your sex satisfaction & keep the partner happy.
Buy Vitorex Boost Stamina and Vitality Pharmaceutical Medicines in Bogor Indonesia - from PT Phytochemindo Reksa, Company in catalog Allbiz!
Learn how can treat the man stamina in bed cause of your erectile dysfunction (ED) through Male Enhancement Pills, lifestyle changes, and prescribed medicines
Swish 30 uniquely delivers nano-sized Glutathione, The Master Antioxidant for immediate absorption to enhance overall Performance, Stamina and Mental Clarity while decreasing recovery time and fatigue.
L-Glutamine Powder -Supports intestinal immune function.. Glutamine, the most abundant amino acid in the body, helps form other amino acids, glucose, protein, and glutathione. Glutamine is stored in the muscles and is the primary metabolic fuel for the cells of the small intestine, fibroblasts, and the immune system. Supplementation with glutamine can help support gut cell proliferation and mucosal integrity, resulting in decreased intestinal permeability and systemic infections.. Servings Per Container: ...
Each one of us needs stamina and energy to engage in our day-to-day tasks. Irrespective of whether an individual works in a factory or whether she is a homemaker or an office goer, stamina and energy are highly important. Stamina is nothing, but the energy required to get through the day-to-day activities without experiencing any sort of exhaustion and fatigue.… More →. ...
Kihaku can Possess and Freeze in one skill, so if one status effect doesnt hit, he has another one up his sleeve! His balanced spirit allows him to have control over both his enemies and his allies, so one moment you can ask him to give his team stamina and remove their negative effects, and the next minute he can ruin his enemies next turns by removing part of their stamina and applying Stamina Leak. ...
Infection and Bites If your suvivors stamina reaches zero and theyre forced to take stamina damage again, they are unable to defend themselves from a bite. Th
HGH enhances the utilization of fat - gives your body the ability to break down fat cells more efficiently.. Because of the abilities of HGH mentioned above, you can soon see that without it, muscle tone declines, fat stubbornly sits in the body and resists metabolism, and hair, skin and nails (all composed of proteins) deteriorate. In fact, scientists now believe that HGH has a role in most healthy functions of the body, including sexual function, proper operation of stomach and bowels, liver, and all glandular systems.. Whether HGH is directly interacting with certain cells, or playing its key part in the correct function of other bodily systems, its essential throughout the body for youthful vigor and health.. Problem is, HGH augmentation has traditionally been a benefit reserved for the super-rich: until now, only injections of HGH could have an effect in the body, and at a cost of thousands of dollars per treatment.. More recently, pharmaceutical companies and natural supplement companies ...
Substance which combined with citrulline and arginine increases the production of nitric oxygen. It helps to transport nutrients to the cells.
Most women are worried about their figure and so as the men. There are many men that are heavy and obese out there and like women they are crazy about going to the gym too. And not only that they are also concern about their muscles and stamina. There is a product called testosterone booster that helps muscle pump. Its also increases stamina and makes you stronger. They said that side effect is free but Im sure for myself because I havent tried it. Maybe some other people can tell you more about the product. ...
How to take it for best results, and how long you can expect the effects to last. Buy medicines such as Viagra, Cialis and levitra online and with no prescription. Price Cialis Walgreens. Buy generic and brand drugs online.
GLENWOOD SPRINGS, Colo. A heart-shaped glass candy dish filled with almonds sits on Kathy Kopfs desk at Valley View Hospitals Youth Recovery Center.An athlete who has completed 25 triathlons
Pharmacy without prescription. As a rule, medication starts affecting the body a half-hour to an hour after you take a dose. Petite Annonce Cialis. How to take it for best results, and how long you can expect the effects to last.
Adequate supplementation can significantly improve your training performance. This allows you to shorten the time to achieve the training goals.
When youre recovering from an illness, its common to feel weak, tired and struggling to get back to normal. Even though the worst is behind you, it can take a couple of weeks to rebuild your strength and stamina. At times like this, introduce an ...
We are so thankful that Jeremy is now 4 months post transplant, and that he is getting stronger each day. He is full of energy, and is on the go running here and there from the time he wakes up until we put him to bed at night. He has more stamina than the rest of us, his sister included! He tells us that he is never tired, and then asks us to chase him some more ...
The best 187 synonyms for power, including: superiority, capability, control, authority, energy, jurisdiction, stamina, domination, powerful, command, dominion and more... Find another word for power at YourDictionary.
Growth Xtreme testosterone supplement offers a boost in your strength and stamina to get bigger muscle pumps and perform better in the gym and in the bed.
TestoGen Review - is the TestoGen pill a scam? Or does it really work as described to increase male testosterone levels & stamina . Today we reveal the truth.
August 8, 2018 This is Week 4 of Cisplatin. The neuropathy and chemo brain seem to not be getting any worse. Im noticing that Im more tired and have less stamina to get things done again. Some of this is the chemo and some is also from the radiation. My body is working really hard…
Important information about Progentra, the hottest over the counter male enhancement product: Read our Progentra review and learn about the ingredients, side effects and results of Progentra male enlargement, libido enhancing and sexual stamina pills
Vigrx Delay Spray is a spray that can help men improve sexual stamina and enhance their performance. It can be used to help you last longer in the bedroom.
Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GOT1 gene. Glutamic-oxaloacetic ... aspartate aminotransferase 1)". Panteghini M (1990). "Aspartate aminotransferase isoenzymes". Clin. Biochem. 23 (4): 311-9. doi ... Totan A, Greabu M, Totan C, Spinu T (2006). "Salivary aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline ... Doyle JM, Schininà ME, Bossa F, Doonan S (1990). "The amino acid sequence of cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase from human ...
Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GOT2 gene. Glutamic-oxaloacetic ... transaminase is a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme which exists in cytoplasmic and inner-membrane mitochondrial forms, GOT1 ... Guidetti P, Amori L, Sapko MT, Okuno E, Schwarcz R (Jul 2007). "Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase: a third kynurenate- ... Furuya E, Yoshida Y, Tagawa K (May 1979). "Interaction of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase with negatively charged ...
... aspartate aminotransferases MeSH D08.811.913.477.700.225.249 - aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic MeSH D08.811.913.477. ... 700.225.500 - aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial MeSH D08.811.913.477.700.286 - beta-alanine-pyruvate transaminase MeSH ... aspartate-tRNA ligase MeSH D08.811.464.263.200.250 - glutamate-trna ligase MeSH D08.811.464.263.200.350 - glycine-trna ligase ... aspartate ammonia-lyase MeSH D08.811.520.232.400.350 - ethanolamine ammonia-lyase MeSH D08.811.520.232.400.500 - histidine ...
... aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase - are often normal or only slightly elevated. ... Cytologically, the tumor cells have a low nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Tumors are non- ...
... it has been shown that alpha ketoglutarate dehydrogenase can interact with mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase to form a ... crystal structure of a ternary complex of porcine cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketomalonate and tetrahydoNAD". ... The three residues in particular that comprise a catalytic triad are histidine (His-195), aspartate (Asp-168), both of which ... The other is found in the cytoplasm, assisting the malate-aspartate shuttle with exchanging reducing equivalents so that malate ...
"Structural features of the precursor to mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase responsible for binding to hsp70". The Journal ... forming a number of plasma membrane-bounded apoptotic bodies which contain nuclear and or cytoplasmic elements. The ...
For example, liver enzymes such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are found to be at ... They identified cytoplasmic membranes inserted perpendicularly onto the basement membrane with occasional cells containing ...
Here, the OAA produced by PEPC is transaminated by aspartate aminotransferase to aspartate (ASP) which is the metabolite ... Mesophyll and bundle sheath cells are connected through numerous cytoplasmic sleeves called plasmodesmata whose permeability at ... In this variant the OAA produced by aspartate aminotransferase in the bundle sheath is decarboxylated to PEP by PEPC. The fate ... The first experiments indicating that some plants do not use C3 carbon fixation but instead produce malate and aspartate in the ...
The aspartate aminotransferase activity is involved in hepatic glucose synthesis during development and in adipocyte ... Biosynthesis of L-glutamate from L-aspartate or L-cysteine. Important regulator of levels of glutamate, the major excitatory ... Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmicAdd BLAST. 411. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. ... Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic (EC:2.6.1.1*Search proteins in UniProtKB for this EC number. ...
Multiple Molecular Forms of Human Heart Cytoplasmic Aspartate Aminotransferase. F. Y. Leung, A. R. Henderson ... 1. Cytoplasmic aspartate aminotransferase was isolated and purified from human heart with a final specific activity of 236 ... Multiple Molecular Forms of Human Heart Cytoplasmic Aspartate Aminotransferase Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... 2. Three distinct peaks of aspartate aminotransferase activity were detected by isoelectric focusing with isoelectric points of ...
This antibody pair contains: ,br,,ul,,li,Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) capture antibody,,/li,,li, Aspartate Aminotransferase ... Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) Antibody Pair for use in Sandwich ELISA assay development. ... Anti-Aspartate Aminotransferase, Cytoplasmic, Anti-Aspartate Aminotransferase, Cytoplasmic antibody, Aspartate Aminotransferase ... Cytoplasmic, Anti-Aspartate Aminotransferase 1, Anti-Aspartate Aminotransferase 1 antibody, Aspartate Aminotransferase 1 ...
In eukaryotes there are cytoplasmic, mitochondrial and chloroplastic isozymes.UniRule annotation. ,p>Information which has been ... tr,A0A3B5QAR0,A0A3B5QAR0_XIPMA Aspartate aminotransferase OS=Xiphophorus maculatus OX=8083 PE=4 SV=1 ... IPR004839 Aminotransferase_I/II. IPR000796 Asp_trans. IPR004838 NHTrfase_class1_PyrdxlP-BS. IPR015424 PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase. ... IPR004839 Aminotransferase_I/II. IPR000796 Asp_trans. IPR004838 NHTrfase_class1_PyrdxlP-BS. IPR015424 PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase. ...
Aspartate Aminotransferase, Cytoplasmic Grant support * R01 AI047389/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/United States ... the cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase, loss of which kills cells upon ETC inhibition. GOT1 normally consumes aspartate to ... Aspartate supplementation or overexpression of an aspartate transporter allows cells without ETC activity to proliferate. Thus ... which partially compensates for the loss of mitochondrial aspartate synthesis. Pyruvate stimulates aspartate synthesis in a ...
Rabbit polyclonal Aspartate Aminotransferase antibody. Validated in WB and tested in Cow. Immunogen corresponding to ... Aspartate aminotransferase antibody. *Aspartate aminotransferase cytoplasmic antibody. *Aspartate aminotransferase cytosolic ... Anti-Aspartate Aminotransferase antibody (ab232750) at 2 µg/ml + Recombinant cow Aspartate Aminotransferase protein.. Predicted ... Primary - Rabbit Anti-Aspartate Aminotransferase antibody (ab232750) WB Secondary - Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG H&L (HRP) (ab205718) ...
Anti-Aspartate Aminotransferase antibody conjugated to HRP validated for WB, ELISA, IM, Dot and tested in Pig. Immunogen ... Aspartate aminotransferase antibody. *Aspartate aminotransferase cytoplasmic antibody. *Aspartate aminotransferase cytosolic ... Assayed against 1.0 ug of Aspartate Aminotransferase (Pig Heart) in a standard capture ELISA using ABTS (2,2-azino-bis-[3- ...
24401 Got1; aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic 25253 Dpp4; dipeptidyl peptidase 4 24672 Ppp2ca; serine/threonine-protein ... aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic [EC:2.6.1.1] K01278 DPP4; dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 [EC:3.4.14.5] K04382 PPP2C; serine/ ...
100274119 aspartate aminotransferase 103648465 malate dehydrogenase 542598 mdh5; malate dehydrogenase, cytoplasmic 100280767 ... aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic [EC:2.6.1.1] K01610 E4.1.1.49; phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (ATP) [EC:4.1.1.49] ... 100384793 alanine aminotransferase 2 100279149 uncharacterized protein LOC100279149 103634667 alanine aminotransferase 2-like ... aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial [EC:2.6.1.1] K00025 MDH1; malate dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.37] K00025 MDH1; malate ...
For carbon fixation group, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), cytoplasmic and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (ATP) (PEPCK) ... aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic; EC:4.1.1.49, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (ATP); EC:2.7.9.1, pyruvate, ... while AST catalyzes the reversible conversion of aspartate to oxaloacetate. In C3 plants, PEPCK also plays roles in ...
Alanine aminotransferase. ANA. Antinuclear antibody. AST. Aspartate aminotransferase. c-ANCA. Cytoplasmic antineutrophil ... aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Other liver tests including bilirubin, alkaline ... cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (c-ANCA), perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (p-ANCA), lupus ...
Compound: Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic. Species: Homo sapiens [TaxId:9606]. Gene: GOT1. Database cross-references ... Compound: Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic. Species: Homo sapiens [TaxId:9606]. Gene: GOT1. Database cross-references ... Keywords: Aspartate aminotransferase, Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 1, GOT1, PLP, TRANSFERASE. Deposited on 2018-06-06, ...
Compound: Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic. Species: Sus scrofa [TaxId:9823]. Gene: GOT1. Database cross-references and ... Compound: Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic. Species: Sus scrofa [TaxId:9823]. Gene: GOT1. Database cross-references and ...
... aspartate aminotransferase; ALT: alanine aminotransferase: MPO-ANCA: myeloperoxidase-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody. #: ...
See the reference protein sequence for PREDICTED: aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic (XP_012873281.1). ...
Recombinant Protein and Aspartate aminotransferase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody ... Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic. Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic ELISA Kit. Aspartate aminotransferase, ... Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic isozyme 1. Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic isozyme 1 ELISA Kit. Aspartate ... Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic isozyme 2. Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic isozyme 2 ELISA Kit. Aspartate ...
Protein Aliases: aspartate aminotransferase 1; Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic; aspartate transaminase 1; cAspAT; cCAT ... Cysteine aminotransferase, cytoplasmic; Cysteine transaminase, cytoplasmic; cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase; Glutamate ... aspartate biosynthetic process aspartate catabolic process glutamate metabolic process glutamate catabolic process to aspartate ... L-aspartate:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity phosphatidylserine decarboxylase activity pyridoxal phosphate binding ...
Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic Show on y-axis - References (HTP + LTP). References (LTP). References (HTP). ...
Protein Aliases: aspartate aminotransferase 1; Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic; aspartate transaminase 1; cAspAT; cCAT ... Cysteine aminotransferase, cytoplasmic; Cysteine transaminase, cytoplasmic; GIG18; Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 1; ... L-aspartate:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity. phosphatidylserine decarboxylase activity. pyridoxal phosphate binding. ... L-cysteine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity. L-phenylalanine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity. ...
Description: Mouse anti-human Aspartate aminotransferasecytoplasmic)monoclonal antibody. Aspartate Aminotransferase Assay Kit ... Should the Rat Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) ELISA Kit is proven to show malperformance, you will receive a refund or a free ... Should the Rat Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) ELISA Kit is proven to show malperformance, you will receive a refund or a free ... Should the Bovine Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) ELISA Kit is proven to show malperformance, you will receive a refund or a ...
8. Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic. General function:. Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous ... 9. Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial. General function:. Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous ... 6. Tyrosine aminotransferase. General function:. Involved in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase activity. Specific ... Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, cytosolic. General function:. Involved in catalytic activity. Specific function:. ...
6. Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic. General function:. Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous ... 7. Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial. General function:. Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous ... Ornithine aminotransferase, mitochondrial. General function:. Involved in transaminase activity. Specific function:. Not ... 5. Tyrosine aminotransferase. General function:. Involved in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase activity. Specific ...
1. Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic. General function:. Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous ... 2. Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial. General function:. Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous ...
5. Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic. General function:. Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous ... Putative aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic 2. General function:. Involved in transferase activity, transferring ... 6. Aspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial. General function:. Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous ... Selectively catalyzes the oxidative deamination of D-aspartate and its N-methylated derivative, N-methyl D-aspartate. Gene Name ...
Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic. +0.367. Not available. ↓. USP14. P54578-2. Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 14. + ...
... aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic [EC:2.6.1.1] K14454 GOT1; aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic [EC:2.6.1.1] K21456 ...
Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GOT1 gene. Glutamic-oxaloacetic ... aspartate aminotransferase 1)". Panteghini M (1990). "Aspartate aminotransferase isoenzymes". Clin. Biochem. 23 (4): 311-9. doi ... Totan A, Greabu M, Totan C, Spinu T (2006). "Salivary aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline ... Doyle JM, Schininà ME, Bossa F, Doonan S (1990). "The amino acid sequence of cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase from human ...
UAspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrial. Not Available. Human. UAspartate--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic. Not Available. Human. ... Guidetti P, Amori L, Sapko MT, Okuno E, Schwarcz R: Mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase: a third kynurenate-producing ... Collier RH, Kohlhaw G: Nonidentity of the aspartate and the aromatic aminotransferase components of transaminase A in ... Catalyzes the calcium-dependent exchange of cytoplasmic glutamate with mitochondrial aspartate across the mitochondrial inner ...
The complete amino acid sequence of cytoplasmic aspartate aminotransferase from pig heart. FEBS Lett. 29 (1), 31-34 [+]. ... Aspartate aminotransferase (L-aspartate: 2-oxo-glutarate aminotransferase, EC 2.6.1.1) is one of the principal pyridoxal-P- ... of the work is reported*. The object chosen for study was the aspartate aminotransferase. of the cytosol of pig heart; the ... Although the catalytic mechanism of aspartate aminotransferase has been investigated at the level of substrate-coenzyme models ...
Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic, Cysteine aminotransferase, cytoplasmic, Cysteine transaminase, cytoplasmic, GIG18, ... ... aspartate aminotransferase) (E.C. 2.6.1.1.). Tolley, E., van Heyningen, V., Brown, R., Bobrow, M., Craig, I.W. Biochem. Genet. ... aspartate aminotransferase) (E.C. 2.6.1.1.) [24].. *Serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers: glutamate pyruvate transaminase ( ... isoelectric focusing in agarose within the pH range of 4.0-6.5 has shown a high resolution of the soluble cytoplasmic glutamate ...
  • The screen yielded GOT1, the cytosolic aspartate aminotransferase, loss of which kills cells upon ETC inhibition. (nih.gov)
  • GOT1 normally consumes aspartate to transfer electrons into mitochondria, but, upon ETC inhibition, it reverses to generate aspartate in the cytosol, which partially compensates for the loss of mitochondrial aspartate synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • Pyruvate stimulates aspartate synthesis in a GOT1-dependent fashion, which is required for pyruvate to rescue proliferation of cells with ETC dysfunction. (nih.gov)
  • GOT1 is a glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase is a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme which exists in cytoplasmic and mitochondrial forms, GOT1 and GOT2, respectively. (thermofisher.com)
  • Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GOT1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • GOT1 is a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme which exists in cytoplasmic and mitochondrial forms, GOT1 and GOT2, which participate in amino acid metabolism and the urea and tricarboxylic acid cycles. (prospecbio.com)
  • Similar to glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT1), GOT1L1 is found primarily as a homodimer in the cytoplasmic space but also has mitochondrial and chloroplastic isozymes. (vwr.com)
  • Pharmacological and genetic ablation experiments demonstrated that aspartate aminotransferase 1 (GOT1), a component of the MAS, is necessary for upregulation of glycolysis in early hypoxia. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Loss of GOT1 also limited flux through cytoplasmic redox pathways and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and decreased the cytoplasmic NAD⁺/NADH ratio, suggesting that multiple redox systems collectively account for early hypoxia-induced metabolic changes. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Also known as Aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) (Transaminase A). Aspartate aminotransferase (AspC) is a multifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of aspartate, phenylalanine and other compounds via a transamination reaction. (mybiosource.com)
  • Also known as Aspartate aminotransferase 1 (Transaminase A). Important for the metabolism of amino acids and Krebs-cycle related organic acids. (mybiosource.com)
  • Also known as Aspartate aminotransferase 2 (Transaminase A) (Fragments). (mybiosource.com)
  • Also known as Aspartate aminotransferase 3, chloroplastic (Protein YELLOW-LEAF-SPECIFIC GENE 4) (Transaminase A). Encodes the chloroplastic isozyme of aspartate aminotransferase. (mybiosource.com)
  • Also known as Aspartate aminotransferase A (AspAT) (Transaminase A). Required for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. (mybiosource.com)
  • Also known as Aspartate aminotransferase B (AspAT) (Transaminase A). Involved in symbiotic nitrogen fixation. (mybiosource.com)
  • Also known as Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic (cAspAT) (Cysteine aminotransferase, cytoplasmic) (Cysteine transaminase, cytoplasmic) (cCAT) (Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 1) (Transaminase A). Biosynthesis of L-glutamate from L-aspartate or L-cysteine. (mybiosource.com)
  • Also known as Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic isozyme 1 (Transaminase A). Nitrogen metabolism. (mybiosource.com)
  • Also known as Aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic isozyme 2 (Transaminase A). Encodes aspartate aminotransferase (Asp4). (mybiosource.com)
  • GOT1L1, Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 1-like protein 1, is a 421 amino acid member of the class-I pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase family. (vwr.com)
  • cytoplasmic 2, Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase 1-like protein 1, Glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase 1 like 1, GOT1L1, Putative aspartate aminotransferase, Transaminase A-like protein 1. (vwr.com)
  • Aspartate transaminase is also known as L-aspartate-2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase, AST. (labpedia.net)
  • One of the aminotransferases is Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), or the old name was glutamic -oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT). (labpedia.net)
  • Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is also known as serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), also known as Glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) is a transaminase (EC 2.6.1.1) similar to the more liver specific alanine transaminase (ALT). (abcam.cn)
  • The mice pretreated with the FXR agonist, CDCA, were more resistant to ConA hepatitis, as indicated by reduced levels of alanine transaminase/aspartate aminotransferase and aminotransferases. (nih.gov)
  • Besides, fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-CH), aspartate transaminase (AST), and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) were more likely to be higher in IAA positive subgroup in comparison with the negative counterparts. (bioscientifica.com)
  • 1. Cytoplasmic aspartate aminotransferase was isolated and purified from human heart with a final specific activity of 236 units/mg of protein. (clinsci.org)
  • Recombinant full length protein (His-T7-tag) corresponding to Cow Aspartate Aminotransferase aa 2-413. (abcam.com)
  • Recombinant cow Aspartate Aminotransferase protein. (abcam.com)
  • See the reference protein sequence for PREDICTED: aspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmic (XP_012873281.1). (nih.gov)
  • Aspartate (also named as L-aspartic acid) is an α-amino acid that can be used for protein biosynthesis. (smpdb.ca)
  • A laboratory examination showed raised C reactive protein (78 mg/l), serum aspartate aminotransferase (62 U/l), serum alanine aminotransferase (52 U/l), creatine kinase (236 U/l), lactate dehydrogenase (527 U/l), IgA (5.6 g/l), and IgG (26.2 g/l). (bmj.com)
  • d -aspartate is transiently present in the mammalian brain since it substantially occurs in embryonic phases and strongly decreases after birth, due to the postnatal activity of the catabolizing enzyme d -aspartate oxidase (DDO). (springer.com)
  • which is mediated by the enzyme ornithine aminotransferase, mitochondrial. (ymdb.ca)
  • This enzyme catalyzes the reversible transfer of amino groups between an amino acid, and α-keto acids are called aminotransferase or transaminases. (labpedia.net)
  • The P-5-P bound to the apoenzyme accepts the amino group from the first substrate, aspartate, to form enzyme-bound pyridoxine-5- phosphate, and the first reaction product is glutamate. (labpedia.net)
  • The Aspartate aminotransferase test measures levels of AST, an enzyme released into the blood when certain organs or tissues, particularly the liver and heart, are injured. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cytoplasmic enzyme activities in human hypernephroma compared. (mysciencework.com)
  • Cytoplasmic enzyme activities in human hypernephroma compared with normal renal cortical tissue. (mysciencework.com)
  • Bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, and γ-glutamyltransferase levels normalized over 5 months, but aminotransferase levels remained elevated (2 times the upper limit of normal). (annals.org)
  • Biosynthesis of L-glutamate from L-aspartate or L-cysteine. (uniprot.org)
  • CATALYTIC ACTIVITY: L-aspartate + 2-oxoglutarate = oxaloacetate + L-glutamate. (mybiosource.com)
  • This aspartate as well as alpha-ketoglutarate return into the cytosol, which is then converted back to oxaloacetate and glutamate, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • It appears, however, that glutamate derived from glutamine via this route is produced intramitochondrially and may subsequently undergo a transamination catalyzed by the mitochondrial isoform of aspartate aminotransferase. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Alternatively, glutamate may be formed from α-ketoglutarate and alanine catalyzed by alanine aminotransferase. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This cytoplasmic glutamate is transported into vesicles by vesicular glutamate transporters. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Adachi M, Koyama H, Long Z, Sekine M, Furuchi T, Imai K, Nimura N, Shimamoto K, Nakajima T, Homma H (2004) l -Glutamate in the extracellular space regulates endogenous d -aspartate homeostasis in rat pheochromocytoma MPT1 cells. (springer.com)
  • Bak LK, Schousboe A, Waagepetersen HS (2003) Characterization of depolarization-coupled release of glutamate from cultured mouse cerebellar granule cells using dl -threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartate ( dl -TBOA) to distinguish between the vesicular and cytoplasmic pools. (springer.com)
  • GOT1L1 transaminates 2-oxoglutarate with L-aspartate to yield oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. (vwr.com)
  • It catalyzes the reaction: Aspartate + alpha-Ketoglutarate = Oxaloacetate + Glutamate Diagnostically, it is almost always measured in units/liter (U/L). (abcam.cn)
  • Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (C-ANCA) titers may be needed to differentiate neurosarcoidosis from Wegener granulomatosis. (medscape.com)
  • Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a group systemic vasculitides, which can affect small vessels ranging from capillaries to intraparenchymal arterioles and venules of almost all the organs [ 1 ]. (beds.ac.uk)
  • An initial evaluation included an erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) of 98 (normal = 0-20), a positive c-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (c-ANCA) at a dilution of 1:128, a normal chest X-ray and a normal urinalysis. (upmc.edu)
  • Oxalacetic acid is produced from aspartic acid by mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, then oxalacetic acid is reduced to malic acid by malate dehydrogenase. (smpdb.ca)
  • Discontinuing montelukast therapy led to normalization of all liver function test results except for persistently elevated aminotransferase levels. (annals.org)
  • In rats, dose-related increases in blood urea nitrogen, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase levels were observed, and relative liver and kidney weights were elevated. (nih.gov)
  • Liver function tests showed predominantly cholestatic picture with elevated Alkaline Phospatase (ALP) at 176 IU/L, γ-Glutamyl Transpeptidase (γ-GT) at137 IU/L and bilirubin at 32 µmol/L, but the synthetic liver function increased slightly, such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST) at106 IU/L, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) at 76 IU/L and albumin was 24g/L. PT, APTT were normal. (omicsonline.org)
  • Liver function tests (LFTs) were elevated, including both aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). (upmc.edu)
  • Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are hepatic enzymes, which are elevated in peripheral blood in relation to liver injury. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Involved in aspartate biosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism. (mybiosource.com)
  • Major cytosolic isoenzyme controlling aspartate biosynthesis in the light. (mybiosource.com)
  • Moreover, it appears that this pathway involving TCA cycle activity is differentially involved in the biosynthesis of GABA destined for the cytoplasmic and vesicular pools, respectively. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) Antibody Pair for use in Sandwich ELISA assay development. (abbexa.com)
  • Each Aspartate Aminotransferase Antibody Pair is fully covered by our Guarantee+, to give you complete peace of mind and the support when you need it. (novusbio.com)
  • Assayed against 1.0 ug of Aspartate Aminotransferase (Pig Heart) in a standard capture ELISA using ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis-[3-ethylbenthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid]) as a substrate for 30 minutes at room temperature. (abcam.com)
  • We offer Aspartate Aminotransferase Antibody Pairs for use in common research applications: Immunoprecipitation, Sandwich ELISA, Western Blot. (novusbio.com)
  • Also, GOT2 is a major participant in the malate-aspartate shuttle, which is a passage from the cytosol to the mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • GOT2 converts oxaloacetate into aspartate by transamination. (wikipedia.org)
  • GOT2 has been seen to interact with: oxaloacetate kynurenine aspartate alpha-ketoglutarate Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. (wikipedia.org)
  • In eukaryotes there are cytoplasmic, mitochondrial and chloroplastic isozymes. (uniprot.org)
  • L-aspartate is formed by the transamination of the Krebs cycle intermediate oxaloacetate. (drugbank.ca)
  • The cytoplasmic fraction isoenzyme is predominant in the serum. (labpedia.net)
  • The two most common transaminases are aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, the malate-aspartate shuttle promotes the net transfer of cytosolic NADH into mitochondria to ensure a high rate of glycolysis in diverse cancer cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycolysis also serves as a key source of the reduced form of cytoplasmic nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) necessary for the shuttling of electrons into mitochondria for electron transport. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) functions in tandem with malate dehydrogenase to transfer electrons from NADH across the inner mitochondrial membrane. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In Abcam's Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity Assay Kit an amino group is transferred of from aspartate to alpha-ketoglutarate. (abcam.cn)
  • L-aspartate is a glycogenic amino acid, and it can also promote energy production via its metabolism in the Krebs cycle. (drugbank.ca)
  • Just as spirometry measures pul- mendous asset to the tissues is often dry at demonstrate excessive cytoplasmic and extracellular first but becomes progressively level. (wellchild.org)
  • Moreover, a study in healthy humans has demonstrated that genetic variation in DDO gene, predicting potential increase in d -aspartate levels in postmortem prefrontal cortex, is associated with greater prefrontal gray matter and activity during working memory. (springer.com)
  • Cytoplasmic lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzymatic activities were measured in normal renal cortical tissue and in hypernephroma. (mysciencework.com)
  • The reaction of cytoplasmic aspartate aminotransferase with bromopyruvate. (storysteel.cf)
  • The α-ketoglutarate thus formed is translocated out of the mitochondria by the dicarboxylate carrier and transaminated in the cytoplasm by the cytoplasmic isoform of aspartate aminotransferase. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Our Aspartate Aminotransferase Antibody Pairs can be used in a variety of model species: Human. (novusbio.com)
  • L-aspartate is considered a non-essential amino acid, meaning that, under normal physiological conditions, sufficient amounts of the amino acid are synthesized in the body to meet the body's requirements. (drugbank.ca)
  • To decipher the function of d -aspartate in mammals, genetic and pharmacological mouse models with nonphysiological high levels of this d -amino acid have been generated. (springer.com)
  • A dose-related increase in the incidence and severity of cardiomyopathy was observed in male and female rats receiving monochloroacetic acid, and hepatocellular cytoplasmic vacuolization was observed in the high-dose mice that died during the studies. (nih.gov)
  • In the final step, oxalacetic acid is catalyzed by mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase to form aspartate. (smpdb.ca)
  • Belongs to the class-I pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase family. (abcam.com)
  • Pharmacological evidence indicates that d -aspartate binds to and activates NMDA receptors (NMDARs). (springer.com)
  • Aspartate Aminotransferase, Mitochondrial" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • It is hypothesized that L-aspartate, especially the potassium magnesium aspartate salt, spares stores of muscle glycogen and/or promotes a faster rate of glycogen resynthesis during exercise. (drugbank.ca)
  • Beard ME (1990) d -aspartate oxidation by rat and bovine renal peroxisomes: an electron microscopic cytochemical study. (springer.com)
  • In line with a dichotomous effect of NMDAR stimulation on brain physiology, constitutive elevation of d -aspartate levels is also associated with detrimental effects, including precocious hippocampal age-related deterioration. (springer.com)
  • Blood samples were obtained to detect the levels of aminotransferases and inflammatory cytokines. (nih.gov)
  • Increased levels of aminotransferases and inflammatory cytokines, including interferon‑γ, tumor necrosis factor‑α, interleukin (IL)‑4 and IL‑2, were detected in ConA‑treated mice. (nih.gov)
  • Concomitant to these changes, intracellular aspartate levels decline, partly through decreased mitochondrial aspartate production, implying altered activity of the mitochondrial malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS). (ucl.ac.uk)