A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of asparagine from ammonia and aspartic acid, in the presence of ATP. EC 6.3.1.1.
A hydrolase enzyme that converts L-asparagine and water to L-aspartate and NH3. EC 3.5.1.1.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
An amidohydrolase that removes intact asparagine-linked oligosaccharide chains from glycoproteins. It requires the presence of more than two amino-acid residues in the substrate for activity. This enzyme was previously listed as EC 3.2.2.18.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An enzyme that activates aspartic acid with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.12.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying asparagine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of glutamine-derived ammonia and another molecule. The linkage is in the form of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.5.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An ASPARTIC ACID residue in polypeptide chains that is linked at the beta-carboxyl group instead of at the normal, alpha-carboxyl group, polypeptide linkage. It is a result of the spontaneous decomposition of aspartic acid or ASPARAGINE residues.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of nitrogenous groups, primarily amino groups, from a donor, generally an amino acid, to an acceptor, usually a 2-oxoacid. EC 2.6.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
Amidohydrolases are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of amides and related compounds, playing a crucial role in various biological processes including the breakdown and synthesis of bioactive molecules.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Glutaminase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of glutamine to glutamate and ammonia, playing a crucial role in nitrogen metabolism and amino acid homeostasis within various tissues and cells, including the brain, kidney, and immune cells.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates consisting of long, often branched chains of repeating monosaccharide units joined together by glycosidic bonds, which serve as energy storage molecules (e.g., glycogen), structural components (e.g., cellulose), and molecular recognition sites in various biological systems.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A modified nucleoside which is present in the first position of the anticodon of tRNA-tyrosine, tRNA-histidine, tRNA-asparagine and tRNA-aspartic acid of many organisms. It is believed to play a role in the regulatory function of tRNA. Nucleoside Q can be further modified to nucleoside Q*, which has a mannose or galactose moiety linked to position 4 of its cyclopentenediol moiety.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A colorless, odorless, highly water soluble vinyl monomer formed from the hydration of acrylonitrile. It is primarily used in research laboratories for electrophoresis, chromatography, and electron microscopy and in the sewage and wastewater treatment industries.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying aspartic acid to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Derivatives of acetic acid with one or more fluorines attached. They are almost odorless, difficult to detect chemically, and very stable. The acid itself, as well as the derivatives that are broken down in the body to the acid, are highly toxic substances, behaving as convulsant poisons with a delayed action. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosylmethionine to free carboxyl groups of a protein molecule forming methyl esters. EC 2.1.1.-.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.

Hemoglobin Providence. A human hemoglobin variant occurring in two forms in vivo. (1/1939)

Hemoglobin Providence Asn and Hemoglobin Providence Asp are two abnormal hemoglobins which apparently arise from a single genetic change that substitutes asparagine for lysine at position 82 (EF6) in the beta chain of human hemoglobin. The second form appears to be thr result of a partial in vivo deamidation of the asparagine situated at position beta 82. Cellulose acetate and citrate agar electrophoresis of hemolysates from patients with this abnormality shows three bands. Globin chain electrophoresis at acid and alkaline pH shows three beta chains. These three chains correspond to the normal beta A chain and two abnormal beta chains. Sequence analysis indicates that the two abnormal chains differ from beta A at only position beta 82. In the two abnormal chains, the residue which is normally lysine is substituted either by asparagine or by aspartic acid. These substitutions are notable because beta 82 lysine is one of the residues involved in 2,3-diphosphoglycerate binding. Additionally, beta 82 lysine is typically invariant in hemoglobin beta chain sequences. Sequence data on the two forms of Hemoglobin Providence are given in this paper. The functional properties of these two forms are described in the next paper.  (+info)

Merbarone, a catalytic inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase II, induces apoptosis in CEM cells through activation of ICE/CED-3-like protease. (2/1939)

Merbarone (5-[N-phenyl carboxamido]-2-thiobarbituric acid) is an anticancer drug that inhibits the catalytic activity of DNA topoisomerase II (topo II) without damaging DNA or stabilizing DNA-topo II cleavable complexes. Although the cytotoxicity of the complex-stabilizing DNA-topo II inhibitors such as VP-16 (etoposide) has been partially elucidated, the cytotoxicity of merbarone is poorly understood. Here, we report that merbarone induces programmed cell death or apoptosis in human leukemic CEM cells, characterized by internucleosomal DNA cleavage and nuclear condensation. Treatment of CEM cells with apoptosis-inducing concentrations of merbarone caused activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase, c-jun gene induction, activation of caspase-3/CPP32-like protease but not caspase-1, and the proteolytic cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Treatment of CEM cells with a potent inhibitor of caspases, Z-Asp-2. 6-dichlorobenzoyloxymethyl-ketone, inhibited merbarone-induced caspase-3/CPP32-like activity and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that the catalytic inhibition of topo II by merbarone leads to apoptotic cell death through a caspase-3-like protease-dependent mechanism. These results further suggest that c-Jun and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase signaling may be involved in the cytotoxicity of merbarone.  (+info)

Distortion of the L-->M transition in the photocycle of the bacteriorhodopsin mutant D96N: a time-resolved step-scan FTIR investigation. (3/1939)

The D96N mutant of bacteriorhodopsin has often been taken as a model system to study the M intermediate of the wild type photocycle due to the long life time of the corresponding intermediate of the mutant. Using time-resolved step-scan FTIR spectroscopy in combination with a sample changing wheel we investigated the photocycle of the mutant with microsecond time resolution. Already after several microseconds an intermediate similar to the MN state is observed, which contrasts with the M state of the wild type protein. At reduced hydration M and N intermediates similar to those of wild type BR can be detected. These results have a bearing on the interpretation of the photocycle of this mutant. A mechanism is suggested for the fast rise of MN which provides some insight into the molecular events involved in triggering the opening of the cytosolic channel also of the wild type protein.  (+info)

Interaction of asparagine and EGF in the regulation of ornithine decarboxylase in IEC-6 cells. (4/1939)

Our laboratory has shown that asparagine (ASN) stimulates both ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and gene expression in an intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6). The effect of ASN is specific, and other A- and N-system amino acids are almost as effective as ASN when added alone. In the present study, epidermal growth factor (EGF) was unable to increase ODC activity in cells maintained in a salt-glucose solution (Earle's balanced salt solution). However, the addition of ASN (10 mM) in the presence of EGF (30 ng/ml) increased the activity of ODC 0.5- to 4-fold over that stimulated by ASN alone. EGF also showed induction of ODC with glutamine and alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, but ODC induction was maximum with ASN and EGF. Thus the mechanism of the interaction between ASN and EGF is important for understanding the regulation of ODC under physiological conditions. Therefore, we examined the expression of the ODC gene and those for several protooncogenes under the same conditions. Increased expression of the genes for c-Jun and c-Fos but not for ODC occurred with EGF alone. The addition of ASN did not further increase the expression of the protooncogenes, but the combination of EGF and ASN further increased the expression of ODC over that of ASN alone. Western analysis showed no significant difference in the level of ODC protein in Earle's balanced salt solution, ASN, EGF, or EGF plus ASN. Addition of cycloheximide during ASN and ASN plus EGF treatment completely inhibited ODC activity without affecting the level of ODC protein. These results indicated that 1) the increased expression of protooncogenes in response to EGF is independent of increases in ODC activity and 2) potentiation between EGF and ASN on ODC activity may not be due to increased gene transcription but to posttranslational regulation and the requirement of ongoing protein synthesis involving a specific factor dependent on ASN.  (+info)

Glycosylation of asparagine-28 of recombinant staphylokinase with high-mannose-type oligosaccharides results in a protein with highly attenuated plasminogen activator activity. (5/1939)

The properties of recombinant staphylokinase (SakSTAR) expressed in Pichia pastoris cells have been determined. The single consensus N-linked oligosaccharide linkage site in SakSTAR (at Asn28 of the mature protein) was occupied in approximately 50% of the expressed protein with high-mannose-type oligosaccharides. The majority of these glycans ranged in polymerization state from Man8GlcNAc2 to Man14GlcNAc2, with the predominant species being Man10GlcNAc2 and Man11GlcNAc2. Glycosylated SakSTAR (SakSTARg) did not differ from its aglycosyl form in its aggregation state in solution, its thermal denaturation properties, its ability to form a complex with human plasmin (hPm), the amidolytic properties of the respective SakSTAR-hPm complexes, or its ability to liberate the amino-terminal decapeptide required for formation of a functional SakSTAR-hPm plasminogen activator complex. However, this latter complex with SakSTARg showed a greatly reduced ability to activate human plasminogen (hPg) as compared with the same complex with the aglycosyl form of SakSTAR. We conclude that glycosylation at Asn28 does not affect the structural properties of SakSTAR or its ability to participate in the formation of an active enzymatic complex with hPm, but it is detrimental to the ability of the SakSTAR-hPm complex to serve as a hPg activator. This is likely due to restricted access of hPg to the active site of the SakSTARg-hPm complex.  (+info)

The presence of pseudouridine in the anticodon alters the genetic code: a possible mechanism for assignment of the AAA lysine codon as asparagine in echinoderm mitochondria. (6/1939)

It has been inferred from DNA sequence analyses that in echinoderm mitochondria not only the usual asparagine codons AAU and AAC, but also the usual lysine codon AAA, are translated as asparagine by a single mitochondrial (mt) tRNAAsn with the anticodon GUU. Nucleotide sequencing of starfish mt tRNAAsn revealed that the anticodon is GPsiU, U35 at the anticodon second position being modified to pseudouridine (Psi). In contrast, mt tRNALys, corresponding to another lysine codon, AAG, has the anticodon CUU. mt tRNAs possessing anti-codons closely related to that of tRNAAsn, but responsible for decoding only two codons each-tRNAHis, tRNAAsp and tRNATyr-were found to possess unmodified U35 in all cases, suggesting the importance of Psi35 for decoding the three codons. Therefore, the decoding capabilities of two synthetic Escherichia coli tRNAAla variants with the anticodon GPsiU or GUU were examined using an E.coli in vitro translation system. Both tRNAs could translate not only AAC and AAU with similar efficiency, but also AAA with an efficiency that was approximately 2-fold higher in the case of tRNAAlaGPsiU than tRNAAlaGUU. These findings imply that Psi35 of echinoderm mt tRNAAsn actually serves to decode the unusual asparagine codon AAA, resulting in the alteration of the genetic code in echinoderm mitochondria.  (+info)

L-Asparagine synthetase in serum as a marker for neoplasia. (7/1939)

L-Asparagine synthetase appears in serum approximately 7 days after the s.c. implantation of 1 X 10(5) cells of Leukemia 5178Y/AR (resistant to L-asparaginase) and increases in activity as the neoplasm grows and metastasizes. The principal source of the enzyme is the primary tumor. After intravranial inoculation of tumor, the rate of leakage of the enzyme is more pronounced than when the subcutaneous, intramuscular, or intraperitoneal routes are used. 1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (NSC 79037), a nitro-sourea effective in the palliation of L5178Y/AR, temporarily halts the influx of enzyme into the blood stream, as does surgical excision of the s.c. tumor nodules. Treatment of mice with L-asparaginase within 24 hr of inoculation of the tumor markedly augments both tumor growth and the rate of penetration of L-asparagine synthetase into the circulation. Several other L-asparagine synthetase into the circulation. Several other L-asparaginase-resistant tumors also were found to spill L-asparagine synthetase into the serum, but the correlation between this phenomenon and the specific activity of the enzyme in homogenates of the tumor was imperfect.  (+info)

Conserved polar residues in the transmembrane domain of the human tachykinin NK2 receptor: functional roles and structural implications. (8/1939)

We have studied the effects of agonist and antagonist binding, agonist-induced activation and agonist-induced desensitization of the human tachykinin NK2 receptor mutated at polar residues Asn-51 [in transmembrane helix 1 (TM1)], Asp-79 (TM2) and Asn-303 (TM7), which are highly conserved in the transmembrane domain in the rhodopsin family of G-protein-coupled receptors. Wild-type and mutant receptors were expressed in both COS-1 cells and Xenopus oocytes. The results show that the N51D mutation results in a receptor which, in contrast with the wild-type receptor, is desensitized by the application of a concentration of 1 microM of the partial agonist GR64349, indicating that the mutant is more sensitive to agonist activation than is the wild-type receptor. In addition, we show that, whereas the D79E mutant displayed activation properties similar to those of the wild-type receptor, the D79N and D79A mutants displayed a severely impaired ability to activate the calcium-dependent chloride current. This suggests that it is the negative charge at Asn-79, rather than the ability of this residue to hydrogen-bond, that is critical for the activity of the receptor. Interestingly, the placement of a negative charge at position 303 could compensate for the removal of the negative charge at position 79, since the double mutant D79N/N303D displayed activation properties similar to those of the wild-type receptor. This suggests that these two residues are functionally coupled, and may even be in close proximity in the three-dimensional structure of the human tachykinin NK2 receptor. A three-dimensional model of the receptor displaying this putative interaction is presented.  (+info)

Asparagine is an organic compound that is classified as a naturally occurring amino acid. It contains an amino group, a carboxylic acid group, and a side chain consisting of a single carbon atom bonded to a nitrogen atom, making it a neutral amino acid. Asparagine is encoded by the genetic codon AAU or AAC in the DNA sequence.

In the human body, asparagine plays important roles in various biological processes, including serving as a building block for proteins and participating in the synthesis of other amino acids. It can also act as a neurotransmitter and is involved in the regulation of cellular metabolism. Asparagine can be found in many foods, particularly in high-protein sources such as meat, fish, eggs, and dairy products.

Aspartate-ammonia ligase, also known as aspartate transcarbamylase or ATC, is an enzyme that catalyzes the first reaction in the synthesis of pyrimidines, which are essential components of nucleotides and nucleic acids. The reaction catalyzed by aspartate-ammonia ligase is the condensation of aspartate and ammonia to form N-carbamoyl-L-aspartate and releases ADP and Pi. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the regulation of pyrimidine biosynthesis, and its activity is tightly regulated in response to changes in cellular demand for nucleotides. Defects in aspartate-ammonia ligase have been implicated in several genetic disorders, including ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency and citrullinemia.

Asparaginase is a medication that is used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). It is an enzyme that breaks down the amino acid asparagine, which is a building block of proteins. Some cancer cells are unable to produce their own asparagine and rely on obtaining it from the bloodstream. By reducing the amount of asparagine in the blood, asparaginase can help to slow or stop the growth of these cancer cells.

Asparaginase is usually given as an injection into a muscle (intramuscularly) or into a vein (intravenously). It may be given alone or in combination with other chemotherapy drugs. The specific dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the individual's medical history, the type and stage of cancer being treated, and how well the person tolerates the medication.

Like all medications, asparaginase can cause side effects. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and changes in liver function tests. Less common but more serious side effects may include allergic reactions, pancreatitis, and blood clotting problems. It is important for patients to discuss the potential risks and benefits of asparaginase with their healthcare provider before starting treatment.

Aspartic acid is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CO2H. It is one of the twenty standard amino acids, and it is a polar, negatively charged, and hydrophilic amino acid. In proteins, aspartic acid usually occurs in its ionized form, aspartate, which has a single negative charge.

Aspartic acid plays important roles in various biological processes, including metabolism, neurotransmitter synthesis, and energy production. It is also a key component of many enzymes and proteins, where it often contributes to the formation of ionic bonds and helps stabilize protein structure.

In addition to its role as a building block of proteins, aspartic acid is also used in the synthesis of other important biological molecules, such as nucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA and RNA. It is also a component of the dipeptide aspartame, an artificial sweetener that is widely used in food and beverages.

Like other amino acids, aspartic acid is essential for human health, but it cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained through the diet. Foods that are rich in aspartic acid include meat, poultry, fish, dairy products, eggs, legumes, and some fruits and vegetables.

Glutamine is defined as a conditionally essential amino acid in humans, which means that it can be produced by the body under normal circumstances, but may become essential during certain conditions such as stress, illness, or injury. It is the most abundant free amino acid found in the blood and in the muscles of the body.

Glutamine plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including protein synthesis, energy production, and acid-base balance. It serves as an important fuel source for cells in the intestines, immune system, and skeletal muscles. Glutamine has also been shown to have potential benefits in wound healing, gut function, and immunity, particularly during times of physiological stress or illness.

In summary, glutamine is a vital amino acid that plays a critical role in maintaining the health and function of various tissues and organs in the body.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Aspartate-tRNA ligase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in protein synthesis. Its specific function is to join the amino acid aspartic acid to its corresponding transfer RNA (tRNA) molecule, forming an aspartyl-tRNA complex. This complex is essential for the accurate translation of genetic information encoded in messenger RNA (mRNA) into a polypeptide chain during protein synthesis.

The systematic name for this enzyme is L-aspartate:tRNA(Asn) ligase (AMP-forming), which reflects its role in catalyzing the reaction between aspartic acid and tRNA(Asn). The enzyme can also activate aspartic acid by forming an aspartyl-AMP intermediate before transferring the activated aspartate to the appropriate tRNA molecule.

Deficiencies or mutations in aspartate-tRNA ligase can lead to various genetic disorders and impairments in protein synthesis, which may have severe consequences for cellular function and overall health.

Transfer RNA (tRNA) that carries asparagine (Asn) is a type of RNA molecule that plays a crucial role in protein synthesis. Specifically, tRNAs are responsible for delivering the appropriate amino acids to the ribosome during translation, the process by which genetic information encoded in messenger RNA (mRNA) is translated into proteins.

In the case of tRNA-Asn, this RNA molecule carries the amino acid asparagine, which is one of the 20 standard amino acids used to build proteins. The tRNA-Asn molecule recognizes a specific codon (a sequence of three nucleotides) in the mRNA that corresponds to asparagine, and then brings the appropriate amino acid to the ribosome to be incorporated into the growing polypeptide chain.

The correct pairing of tRNAs with their corresponding codons is facilitated by anticodon loops present on the tRNA molecules, which contain complementary sequences to the codons in the mRNA. In the case of tRNA-Asn, the anticodon loop contains the sequence UGU, which is complementary to the asparagine codons AAU and AAC in the mRNA.

Overall, tRNAs like tRNA-Asn are essential for the accurate and efficient synthesis of proteins in all living organisms.

Amino acids are organic compounds that serve as the building blocks of proteins. They consist of a central carbon atom, also known as the alpha carbon, which is bonded to an amino group (-NH2), a carboxyl group (-COOH), a hydrogen atom (H), and a variable side chain (R group). The R group can be composed of various combinations of atoms such as hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon, which determine the unique properties of each amino acid.

There are 20 standard amino acids that are encoded by the genetic code and incorporated into proteins during translation. These include:

1. Alanine (Ala)
2. Arginine (Arg)
3. Asparagine (Asn)
4. Aspartic acid (Asp)
5. Cysteine (Cys)
6. Glutamine (Gln)
7. Glutamic acid (Glu)
8. Glycine (Gly)
9. Histidine (His)
10. Isoleucine (Ile)
11. Leucine (Leu)
12. Lysine (Lys)
13. Methionine (Met)
14. Phenylalanine (Phe)
15. Proline (Pro)
16. Serine (Ser)
17. Threonine (Thr)
18. Tryptophan (Trp)
19. Tyrosine (Tyr)
20. Valine (Val)

Additionally, there are several non-standard or modified amino acids that can be incorporated into proteins through post-translational modifications, such as hydroxylation, methylation, and phosphorylation. These modifications expand the functional diversity of proteins and play crucial roles in various cellular processes.

Amino acids are essential for numerous biological functions, including protein synthesis, enzyme catalysis, neurotransmitter production, energy metabolism, and immune response regulation. Some amino acids can be synthesized by the human body (non-essential), while others must be obtained through dietary sources (essential).

Site-directed mutagenesis is a molecular biology technique used to introduce specific and targeted changes to a specific DNA sequence. This process involves creating a new variant of a gene or a specific region of interest within a DNA molecule by introducing a planned, deliberate change, or mutation, at a predetermined site within the DNA sequence.

The methodology typically involves the use of molecular tools such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, and/or ligases to introduce the desired mutation(s) into a plasmid or other vector containing the target DNA sequence. The resulting modified DNA molecule can then be used to transform host cells, allowing for the production of large quantities of the mutated gene or protein for further study.

Site-directed mutagenesis is a valuable tool in basic research, drug discovery, and biotechnology applications where specific changes to a DNA sequence are required to understand gene function, investigate protein structure/function relationships, or engineer novel biological properties into existing genes or proteins.

Glycosylation is the enzymatic process of adding a sugar group, or glycan, to a protein, lipid, or other organic molecule. This post-translational modification plays a crucial role in modulating various biological functions, such as protein stability, trafficking, and ligand binding. The structure and composition of the attached glycans can significantly influence the functional properties of the modified molecule, contributing to cell-cell recognition, signal transduction, and immune response regulation. Abnormal glycosylation patterns have been implicated in several disease states, including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Ligases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a covalent bond between two molecules, usually involving the joining of two nucleotides in a DNA or RNA strand. They play a crucial role in various biological processes such as DNA replication, repair, and recombination. In DNA ligases, the enzyme seals nicks or breaks in the phosphodiester backbone of the DNA molecule by catalyzing the formation of an ester bond between the 3'-hydroxyl group and the 5'-phosphate group of adjacent nucleotides. This process is essential for maintaining genomic integrity and stability.

Carbon-Nitrogen (C-N) ligases with glutamine as amide-N-donor are a class of enzymes that catalyze the joining of a carbon atom and a nitrogen atom from different molecules, with glutamine serving as the nitrogen donor. The reaction specifically involves the transfer of the amide nitrogen from glutamine to a carbonyl carbon atom, resulting in the formation of a new C-N bond.

This type of enzyme is involved in various biological processes, including the biosynthesis of amino acids, nucleotides, and other biomolecules. The reaction catalyzed by these enzymes often requires ATP as an energy source to drive the formation of the new bond.

An example of a C-N ligase with glutamine as amide-N-donor is glutamine synthetase, which catalyzes the formation of glutamine from glutamate and ammonia using ATP as an energy source. The enzyme uses the amide nitrogen of glutamine to transfer the nitrogen atom to the carbonyl carbon of glutamate, forming a new C-N bond in the process.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Isoaspartic acid is not typically considered a medical term, but it does have relevance to the field of medicine and biochemistry. Isoaspartic acid is a type of amino acid that can be formed as a result of a post-translational modification in proteins. Specifically, it's an isomer of aspartic acid where the peptide bond has shifted from its original position, resulting in a more reactive and unstable molecule.

In medicine, the formation of isoaspartic acid can contribute to protein misfolding and aggregation, which have been implicated in various diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and other neurodegenerative disorders. The accumulation of damaged proteins with isoaspartic acid residues may impair cellular function and lead to tissue damage.

However, it's important to note that the presence of isoaspartic acid alone does not necessarily indicate a medical condition or disease. It can be found in various proteins under normal physiological conditions as well.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

An amino acid substitution is a type of mutation in which one amino acid in a protein is replaced by another. This occurs when there is a change in the DNA sequence that codes for a particular amino acid in a protein. The genetic code is redundant, meaning that most amino acids are encoded by more than one codon (a sequence of three nucleotides). As a result, a single base pair change in the DNA sequence may not necessarily lead to an amino acid substitution. However, if a change does occur, it can have a variety of effects on the protein's structure and function, depending on the nature of the substituted amino acids. Some substitutions may be harmless, while others may alter the protein's activity or stability, leading to disease.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

Nitrogenous group transferases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of nitrogen-containing groups from one molecule to another. These enzymes play a crucial role in various metabolic pathways, including the biosynthesis and degradation of amino acids, nucleotides, and other nitrogen-containing compounds.

The term "nitrogenous group" refers to any chemical group that contains nitrogen atoms. Examples of nitrogenous groups include amino groups (-NH2), amide groups (-CONH2), and cyano groups (-CN). Transferases that move these groups from one molecule to another are classified as nitrogenous group transferases.

These enzymes typically require cofactors such as ATP, NAD+, or other small molecules to facilitate the transfer of the nitrogenous group. They follow the general reaction mechanism of a transferase enzyme, where the substrate (donor) binds to the active site of the enzyme and transfers its nitrogenous group to an acceptor molecule, resulting in the formation of a new product.

Examples of nitrogenous group transferases include:

* Glutamine synthetase, which catalyzes the conversion of glutamate to glutamine by adding an ammonia group (-NH3) from ATP.
* Aspartate transcarbamylase, which catalyzes the transfer of a carbamoyl group (-CO-NH2) from carbamoyl phosphate to aspartate during pyrimidine biosynthesis.
* Argininosuccinate synthetase, which catalyzes the formation of argininosuccinate by transferring an aspartate group from aspartate to citrulline during the urea cycle.

Understanding nitrogenous group transferases is essential for understanding various metabolic pathways and their regulation in living organisms.

Molecular models are three-dimensional representations of molecular structures that are used in the field of molecular biology and chemistry to visualize and understand the spatial arrangement of atoms and bonds within a molecule. These models can be physical or computer-generated and allow researchers to study the shape, size, and behavior of molecules, which is crucial for understanding their function and interactions with other molecules.

Physical molecular models are often made up of balls (representing atoms) connected by rods or sticks (representing bonds). These models can be constructed manually using materials such as plastic or wooden balls and rods, or they can be created using 3D printing technology.

Computer-generated molecular models, on the other hand, are created using specialized software that allows researchers to visualize and manipulate molecular structures in three dimensions. These models can be used to simulate molecular interactions, predict molecular behavior, and design new drugs or chemicals with specific properties. Overall, molecular models play a critical role in advancing our understanding of molecular structures and their functions.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Histidine is an essential amino acid, meaning it cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources. Its chemical formula is C6H9N3O2. Histidine plays a crucial role in several physiological processes, including:

1. Protein synthesis: As an essential amino acid, histidine is required for the production of proteins, which are vital components of various tissues and organs in the body.

2. Hemoglobin synthesis: Histidine is a key component of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells responsible for carrying oxygen throughout the body. The imidazole side chain of histidine acts as a proton acceptor/donor, facilitating the release and uptake of oxygen by hemoglobin.

3. Acid-base balance: Histidine is involved in maintaining acid-base homeostasis through its role in the biosynthesis of histamine, which is a critical mediator of inflammatory responses and allergies. The decarboxylation of histidine results in the formation of histamine, which can increase vascular permeability and modulate immune responses.

4. Metal ion binding: Histidine has a high affinity for metal ions such as zinc, copper, and iron. This property allows histidine to participate in various enzymatic reactions and maintain the structural integrity of proteins.

5. Antioxidant defense: Histidine-containing dipeptides, like carnosine and anserine, have been shown to exhibit antioxidant properties by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and chelating metal ions. These compounds may contribute to the protection of proteins and DNA from oxidative damage.

Dietary sources of histidine include meat, poultry, fish, dairy products, and wheat germ. Histidine deficiency is rare but can lead to growth retardation, anemia, and impaired immune function.

A Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) in the context of medicinal chemistry and pharmacology refers to the relationship between the chemical structure of a drug or molecule and its biological activity or effect on a target protein, cell, or organism. SAR studies aim to identify patterns and correlations between structural features of a compound and its ability to interact with a specific biological target, leading to a desired therapeutic response or undesired side effects.

By analyzing the SAR, researchers can optimize the chemical structure of lead compounds to enhance their potency, selectivity, safety, and pharmacokinetic properties, ultimately guiding the design and development of novel drugs with improved efficacy and reduced toxicity.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

Substrate specificity in the context of medical biochemistry and enzymology refers to the ability of an enzyme to selectively bind and catalyze a chemical reaction with a particular substrate (or a group of similar substrates) while discriminating against other molecules that are not substrates. This specificity arises from the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, which has evolved to match the shape, charge distribution, and functional groups of its physiological substrate(s).

Substrate specificity is a fundamental property of enzymes that enables them to carry out highly selective chemical transformations in the complex cellular environment. The active site of an enzyme, where the catalysis takes place, has a unique conformation that complements the shape and charge distribution of its substrate(s). This ensures efficient recognition, binding, and conversion of the substrate into the desired product while minimizing unwanted side reactions with other molecules.

Substrate specificity can be categorized as:

1. Absolute specificity: An enzyme that can only act on a single substrate or a very narrow group of structurally related substrates, showing no activity towards any other molecule.
2. Group specificity: An enzyme that prefers to act on a particular functional group or class of compounds but can still accommodate minor structural variations within the substrate.
3. Broad or promiscuous specificity: An enzyme that can act on a wide range of structurally diverse substrates, albeit with varying catalytic efficiencies.

Understanding substrate specificity is crucial for elucidating enzymatic mechanisms, designing drugs that target specific enzymes or pathways, and developing biotechnological applications that rely on the controlled manipulation of enzyme activities.

Oligosaccharides are complex carbohydrates composed of relatively small numbers (3-10) of monosaccharide units joined together by glycosidic linkages. They occur naturally in foods such as milk, fruits, vegetables, and legumes. In the body, oligosaccharides play important roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, signaling, and protection against pathogens.

There are several types of oligosaccharides, classified based on their structures and functions. Some common examples include:

1. Disaccharides: These consist of two monosaccharide units, such as sucrose (glucose + fructose), lactose (glucose + galactose), and maltose (glucose + glucose).
2. Trisaccharides: These contain three monosaccharide units, like maltotriose (glucose + glucose + glucose) and raffinose (galactose + glucose + fructose).
3. Oligosaccharides found in human milk: Human milk contains unique oligosaccharides that serve as prebiotics, promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut. These oligosaccharides also help protect infants from pathogens by acting as decoy receptors and inhibiting bacterial adhesion to intestinal cells.
4. N-linked and O-linked glycans: These are oligosaccharides attached to proteins in the body, playing crucial roles in protein folding, stability, and function.
5. Plant-derived oligosaccharides: Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are examples of plant-derived oligosaccharides that serve as prebiotics, promoting the growth of beneficial gut bacteria.

Overall, oligosaccharides have significant impacts on human health and disease, particularly in relation to gastrointestinal function, immunity, and inflammation.

Glycopeptides are a class of antibiotics that are characterized by their complex chemical structure, which includes both peptide and carbohydrate components. These antibiotics are produced naturally by certain types of bacteria and are effective against a range of Gram-positive bacterial infections, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE).

The glycopeptide antibiotics work by binding to the bacterial cell wall precursor, preventing the cross-linking of peptidoglycan chains that is necessary for the formation of a strong and rigid cell wall. This leads to the death of the bacteria.

Examples of glycopeptides include vancomycin, teicoplanin, and dalbavancin. While these antibiotics have been used successfully for many years, their use is often limited due to concerns about the emergence of resistance and potential toxicity.

Catalysis is the process of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction by adding a substance known as a catalyst, which remains unchanged at the end of the reaction. A catalyst lowers the activation energy required for the reaction to occur, thereby allowing the reaction to proceed more quickly and efficiently. This can be particularly important in biological systems, where enzymes act as catalysts to speed up metabolic reactions that are essential for life.

Protein conformation refers to the specific three-dimensional shape that a protein molecule assumes due to the spatial arrangement of its constituent amino acid residues and their associated chemical groups. This complex structure is determined by several factors, including covalent bonds (disulfide bridges), hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and ionic bonds, which help stabilize the protein's unique conformation.

Protein conformations can be broadly classified into two categories: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures. The primary structure represents the linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. The secondary structure arises from local interactions between adjacent amino acid residues, leading to the formation of recurring motifs such as α-helices and β-sheets. Tertiary structure refers to the overall three-dimensional folding pattern of a single polypeptide chain, while quaternary structure describes the spatial arrangement of multiple folded polypeptide chains (subunits) that interact to form a functional protein complex.

Understanding protein conformation is crucial for elucidating protein function, as the specific three-dimensional shape of a protein directly influences its ability to interact with other molecules, such as ligands, nucleic acids, or other proteins. Any alterations in protein conformation due to genetic mutations, environmental factors, or chemical modifications can lead to loss of function, misfolding, aggregation, and disease states like neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Ammonia is a colorless, pungent-smelling gas with the chemical formula NH3. It is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen and is a basic compound, meaning it has a pH greater than 7. Ammonia is naturally found in the environment and is produced by the breakdown of organic matter, such as animal waste and decomposing plants. In the medical field, ammonia is most commonly discussed in relation to its role in human metabolism and its potential toxicity.

In the body, ammonia is produced as a byproduct of protein metabolism and is typically converted to urea in the liver and excreted in the urine. However, if the liver is not functioning properly or if there is an excess of protein in the diet, ammonia can accumulate in the blood and cause a condition called hyperammonemia. Hyperammonemia can lead to serious neurological symptoms, such as confusion, seizures, and coma, and is treated by lowering the level of ammonia in the blood through medications, dietary changes, and dialysis.

Amidohydrolases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of amides and related compounds, resulting in the formation of an acid and an alcohol. This reaction is also known as amide hydrolysis or amide bond cleavage. Amidohydrolases play important roles in various biological processes, including the metabolism of xenobiotics (foreign substances) and endogenous compounds (those naturally produced within an organism).

The term "amidohydrolase" is a broad one that encompasses several specific types of enzymes, such as proteases, esterases, lipases, and nitrilases. These enzymes have different substrate specificities and catalytic mechanisms but share the common ability to hydrolyze amide bonds.

Proteases, for example, are a major group of amidohydrolases that specifically cleave peptide bonds in proteins. They are involved in various physiological processes, such as protein degradation, digestion, and regulation of biological pathways. Esterases and lipases hydrolyze ester bonds in various substrates, including lipids and other organic compounds. Nitrilases convert nitriles into carboxylic acids and ammonia by cleaving the nitrile bond (C≡N) through hydrolysis.

Amidohydrolases are found in various organisms, from bacteria to humans, and have diverse applications in industry, agriculture, and medicine. For instance, they can be used for the production of pharmaceuticals, biofuels, detergents, and other chemicals. Additionally, inhibitors of amidohydrolases can serve as therapeutic agents for treating various diseases, such as cancer, viral infections, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

A "carbohydrate sequence" refers to the specific arrangement or order of monosaccharides (simple sugars) that make up a carbohydrate molecule, such as a polysaccharide or an oligosaccharide. Carbohydrates are often composed of repeating units of monosaccharides, and the sequence in which these units are arranged can have important implications for the function and properties of the carbohydrate.

For example, in glycoproteins (proteins that contain carbohydrate chains), the specific carbohydrate sequence can affect how the protein is processed and targeted within the cell, as well as its stability and activity. Similarly, in complex carbohydrates like starch or cellulose, the sequence of glucose units can determine whether the molecule is branched or unbranched, which can have implications for its digestibility and other properties.

Therefore, understanding the carbohydrate sequence is an important aspect of studying carbohydrate structure and function in biology and medicine.

An amide is a functional group or a compound that contains a carbonyl group (a double-bonded carbon atom) and a nitrogen atom. The nitrogen atom is connected to the carbonyl carbon atom by a single bond, and it also has a lone pair of electrons. Amides are commonly found in proteins and peptides, where they form amide bonds (also known as peptide bonds) between individual amino acids.

The general structure of an amide is R-CO-NHR', where R and R' can be alkyl or aryl groups. Amides can be classified into several types based on the nature of R and R' substituents:

* Primary amides: R-CO-NH2
* Secondary amides: R-CO-NHR'
* Tertiary amides: R-CO-NR''R'''

Amides have several important chemical properties. They are generally stable and resistant to hydrolysis under neutral or basic conditions, but they can be hydrolyzed under acidic conditions or with strong bases. Amides also exhibit a characteristic infrared absorption band around 1650 cm-1 due to the carbonyl stretching vibration.

In addition to their prevalence in proteins and peptides, amides are also found in many natural and synthetic compounds, including pharmaceuticals, dyes, and polymers. They have a wide range of applications in chemistry, biology, and materials science.

Deamination is a biochemical process that refers to the removal of an amino group (-NH2) from a molecule, especially from an amino acid. This process typically results in the formation of a new functional group and the release of ammonia (NH3). Deamination plays a crucial role in the metabolism of amino acids, as it helps to convert them into forms that can be excreted or used for energy production. In some cases, deamination can also lead to the formation of toxic byproducts, which must be efficiently eliminated from the body to prevent harm.

Tertiary protein structure refers to the three-dimensional arrangement of all the elements (polypeptide chains) of a single protein molecule. It is the highest level of structural organization and results from interactions between various side chains (R groups) of the amino acids that make up the protein. These interactions, which include hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, van der Waals forces, and disulfide bridges, give the protein its unique shape and stability, which in turn determines its function. The tertiary structure of a protein can be stabilized by various factors such as temperature, pH, and the presence of certain ions. Any changes in these factors can lead to denaturation, where the protein loses its tertiary structure and thus its function.

Nitrogen is not typically referred to as a medical term, but it is an element that is crucial to medicine and human life.

In a medical context, nitrogen is often mentioned in relation to gas analysis, respiratory therapy, or medical gases. Nitrogen (N) is a colorless, odorless, and nonreactive gas that makes up about 78% of the Earth's atmosphere. It is an essential element for various biological processes, such as the growth and maintenance of organisms, because it is a key component of amino acids, nucleic acids, and other organic compounds.

In some medical applications, nitrogen is used to displace oxygen in a mixture to create a controlled environment with reduced oxygen levels (hypoxic conditions) for therapeutic purposes, such as in certain types of hyperbaric chambers. Additionally, nitrogen gas is sometimes used in cryotherapy, where extremely low temperatures are applied to tissues to reduce pain, swelling, and inflammation.

However, it's important to note that breathing pure nitrogen can be dangerous, as it can lead to unconsciousness and even death due to lack of oxygen (asphyxiation) within minutes.

Carbohydrates are a major nutrient class consisting of organic compounds that primarily contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. They are classified as saccharides, which include monosaccharides (simple sugars), disaccharides (double sugars), oligosaccharides (short-chain sugars), and polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates).

Monosaccharides, such as glucose, fructose, and galactose, are the simplest form of carbohydrates. They consist of a single sugar molecule that cannot be broken down further by hydrolysis. Disaccharides, like sucrose (table sugar), lactose (milk sugar), and maltose (malt sugar), are formed from two monosaccharide units joined together.

Oligosaccharides contain a small number of monosaccharide units, typically less than 20, while polysaccharides consist of long chains of hundreds to thousands of monosaccharide units. Polysaccharides can be further classified into starch (found in plants), glycogen (found in animals), and non-starchy polysaccharides like cellulose, chitin, and pectin.

Carbohydrates play a crucial role in providing energy to the body, with glucose being the primary source of energy for most cells. They also serve as structural components in plants (cellulose) and animals (chitin), participate in various metabolic processes, and contribute to the taste, texture, and preservation of foods.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Post-translational protein processing refers to the modifications and changes that proteins undergo after their synthesis on ribosomes, which are complex molecular machines responsible for protein synthesis. These modifications occur through various biochemical processes and play a crucial role in determining the final structure, function, and stability of the protein.

The process begins with the translation of messenger RNA (mRNA) into a linear polypeptide chain, which is then subjected to several post-translational modifications. These modifications can include:

1. Proteolytic cleavage: The removal of specific segments or domains from the polypeptide chain by proteases, resulting in the formation of mature, functional protein subunits.
2. Chemical modifications: Addition or modification of chemical groups to the side chains of amino acids, such as phosphorylation (addition of a phosphate group), glycosylation (addition of sugar moieties), methylation (addition of a methyl group), acetylation (addition of an acetyl group), and ubiquitination (addition of a ubiquitin protein).
3. Disulfide bond formation: The oxidation of specific cysteine residues within the polypeptide chain, leading to the formation of disulfide bonds between them. This process helps stabilize the three-dimensional structure of proteins, particularly in extracellular environments.
4. Folding and assembly: The acquisition of a specific three-dimensional conformation by the polypeptide chain, which is essential for its function. Chaperone proteins assist in this process to ensure proper folding and prevent aggregation.
5. Protein targeting: The directed transport of proteins to their appropriate cellular locations, such as the nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, or plasma membrane. This is often facilitated by specific signal sequences within the protein that are recognized and bound by transport machinery.

Collectively, these post-translational modifications contribute to the functional diversity of proteins in living organisms, allowing them to perform a wide range of cellular processes, including signaling, catalysis, regulation, and structural support.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Glutaminase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamine, which is a type of amino acid, into glutamate and ammonia. This reaction is an essential part of nitrogen metabolism in many organisms, including humans. There are several forms of glutaminase found in different parts of the body, with varying properties and functions.

In humans, there are two major types of glutaminase: mitochondrial and cytosolic. Mitochondrial glutaminase is primarily found in the kidneys and brain, where it plays a crucial role in energy metabolism by converting glutamine into glutamate, which can then be further metabolized to produce ATP (adenosine triphosphate), a major source of cellular energy.

Cytosolic glutaminase, on the other hand, is found in many tissues throughout the body and is involved in various metabolic processes, including nucleotide synthesis and protein degradation.

Glutaminase activity has been implicated in several disease states, including cancer, where some tumors have been shown to have elevated levels of glutaminase expression, allowing them to use glutamine as a major source of energy and growth. Inhibitors of glutaminase are currently being investigated as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a type of chromatography that separates and analyzes compounds based on their interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase under high pressure. The mobile phase, which can be a gas or liquid, carries the sample mixture through a column containing the stationary phase.

In HPLC, the mobile phase is a liquid, and it is pumped through the column at high pressures (up to several hundred atmospheres) to achieve faster separation times and better resolution than other types of liquid chromatography. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid, and it interacts differently with each component in the sample mixture, causing them to separate as they travel through the column.

HPLC is widely used in analytical chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and other fields to separate, identify, and quantify compounds present in complex mixtures. It can be used to analyze a wide range of substances, including drugs, hormones, vitamins, pigments, flavors, and pollutants. HPLC is also used in the preparation of pure samples for further study or use.

Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a type of RNA molecule that plays a crucial role in protein synthesis. It serves as the adaptor molecule that translates the genetic code present in messenger RNA (mRNA) into the corresponding amino acids, which are then linked together to form a polypeptide chain during protein synthesis.

Aminoacyl tRNA is a specific type of tRNA molecule that has been charged or activated with an amino acid. This process is called aminoacylation and is carried out by enzymes called aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Each synthetase specifically recognizes and attaches a particular amino acid to its corresponding tRNA, ensuring the fidelity of protein synthesis. Once an amino acid is attached to a tRNA, it forms an aminoacyl-tRNA complex, which can then participate in translation and contribute to the formation of a new protein.

Peptides are short chains of amino acid residues linked by covalent bonds, known as peptide bonds. They are formed when two or more amino acids are joined together through a condensation reaction, which results in the elimination of a water molecule and the formation of an amide bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another.

Peptides can vary in length from two to about fifty amino acids, and they are often classified based on their size. For example, dipeptides contain two amino acids, tripeptides contain three, and so on. Oligopeptides typically contain up to ten amino acids, while polypeptides can contain dozens or even hundreds of amino acids.

Peptides play many important roles in the body, including serving as hormones, neurotransmitters, enzymes, and antibiotics. They are also used in medical research and therapeutic applications, such as drug delivery and tissue engineering.

Alanine is an alpha-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. The molecular formula for alanine is C3H7NO2. It is a non-essential amino acid, which means that it can be produced by the human body through the conversion of other nutrients, such as pyruvate, and does not need to be obtained directly from the diet.

Alanine is classified as an aliphatic amino acid because it contains a simple carbon side chain. It is also a non-polar amino acid, which means that it is hydrophobic and tends to repel water. Alanine plays a role in the metabolism of glucose and helps to regulate blood sugar levels. It is also involved in the transfer of nitrogen between tissues and helps to maintain the balance of nitrogen in the body.

In addition to its role as a building block of proteins, alanine is also used as a neurotransmitter in the brain and has been shown to have a calming effect on the nervous system. It is found in many foods, including meats, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy products, and legumes.

Carbohydrate conformation refers to the three-dimensional shape and structure of a carbohydrate molecule. Carbohydrates, also known as sugars, can exist in various conformational states, which are determined by the rotation of their component bonds and the spatial arrangement of their functional groups.

The conformation of a carbohydrate molecule can have significant implications for its biological activity and recognition by other molecules, such as enzymes or antibodies. Factors that can influence carbohydrate conformation include the presence of intramolecular hydrogen bonds, steric effects, and intermolecular interactions with solvent molecules or other solutes.

In some cases, the conformation of a carbohydrate may be stabilized by the formation of cyclic structures, in which the hydroxyl group at one end of the molecule forms a covalent bond with the carbonyl carbon at the other end, creating a ring structure. The most common cyclic carbohydrates are monosaccharides, such as glucose and fructose, which can exist in various conformational isomers known as anomers.

Understanding the conformation of carbohydrate molecules is important for elucidating their biological functions and developing strategies for targeting them with drugs or other therapeutic agents.

Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates consisting of long chains of monosaccharide units (simple sugars) bonded together by glycosidic linkages. They can be classified based on the type of monosaccharides and the nature of the bonds that connect them.

Polysaccharides have various functions in living organisms. For example, starch and glycogen serve as energy storage molecules in plants and animals, respectively. Cellulose provides structural support in plants, while chitin is a key component of fungal cell walls and arthropod exoskeletons.

Some polysaccharides also have important roles in the human body, such as being part of the extracellular matrix (e.g., hyaluronic acid) or acting as blood group antigens (e.g., ABO blood group substances).

Hydrogen bonding is not a medical term per se, but it is a fundamental concept in chemistry and biology that is relevant to the field of medicine. Here's a general definition:

Hydrogen bonding is a type of attractive force between molecules or within a molecule, which occurs when a hydrogen atom is bonded to a highly electronegative atom (like nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine) and is then attracted to another electronegative atom. This attraction results in the formation of a partially covalent bond known as a "hydrogen bond."

In biological systems, hydrogen bonding plays a crucial role in the structure and function of many biomolecules, such as DNA, proteins, and carbohydrates. For example, the double helix structure of DNA is stabilized by hydrogen bonds between complementary base pairs (adenine-thymine and guanine-cytosine). Similarly, the three-dimensional structure of proteins is maintained by a network of hydrogen bonds that help to determine their function.

In medical contexts, hydrogen bonding can be relevant in understanding drug-receptor interactions, where hydrogen bonds between a drug molecule and its target protein can enhance the binding affinity and specificity of the interaction, leading to more effective therapeutic outcomes.

In genetics, sequence alignment is the process of arranging two or more DNA, RNA, or protein sequences to identify regions of similarity or homology between them. This is often done using computational methods to compare the nucleotide or amino acid sequences and identify matching patterns, which can provide insight into evolutionary relationships, functional domains, or potential genetic disorders. The alignment process typically involves adjusting gaps and mismatches in the sequences to maximize the similarity between them, resulting in an aligned sequence that can be visually represented and analyzed.

A point mutation is a type of genetic mutation where a single nucleotide base (A, T, C, or G) in DNA is altered, deleted, or substituted with another nucleotide. Point mutations can have various effects on the organism, depending on the location of the mutation and whether it affects the function of any genes. Some point mutations may not have any noticeable effect, while others might lead to changes in the amino acids that make up proteins, potentially causing diseases or altering traits. Point mutations can occur spontaneously due to errors during DNA replication or be inherited from parents.

Electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel (EPG) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze complex mixtures of proteins or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) based on their size and electrical charge. This technique utilizes a matrix made of cross-linked polyacrylamide, a type of gel, which provides a stable and uniform environment for the separation of molecules.

In this process:

1. The polyacrylamide gel is prepared by mixing acrylamide monomers with a cross-linking agent (bis-acrylamide) and a catalyst (ammonium persulfate) in the presence of a buffer solution.
2. The gel is then poured into a mold and allowed to polymerize, forming a solid matrix with uniform pore sizes that depend on the concentration of acrylamide used. Higher concentrations result in smaller pores, providing better resolution for separating smaller molecules.
3. Once the gel has set, it is placed in an electrophoresis apparatus containing a buffer solution. Samples containing the mixture of proteins or nucleic acids are loaded into wells on the top of the gel.
4. An electric field is applied across the gel, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode (anode) while positively charged molecules move toward the negative electrode (cathode). The rate of migration depends on the size, charge, and shape of the molecules.
5. Smaller molecules move faster through the gel matrix and will migrate farther from the origin compared to larger molecules, resulting in separation based on size. Proteins and nucleic acids can be selectively stained after electrophoresis to visualize the separated bands.

EPG is widely used in various research fields, including molecular biology, genetics, proteomics, and forensic science, for applications such as protein characterization, DNA fragment analysis, cloning, mutation detection, and quality control of nucleic acid or protein samples.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nucleoside Q" is not a recognized or established term in medical or biological nomenclature. Nucleosides are organic molecules consisting of a pentose sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) linked to a nitrogenous base (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, or uracil). There is no "Q" nucleoside in the standard nomenclature.

If you have any questions about specific nucleosides or related compounds, I'd be happy to try and help clarify those for you!

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

X-ray crystallography is a technique used in structural biology to determine the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in a crystal lattice. In this method, a beam of X-rays is directed at a crystal and diffracts, or spreads out, into a pattern of spots called reflections. The intensity and angle of each reflection are measured and used to create an electron density map, which reveals the position and type of atoms in the crystal. This information can be used to determine the molecular structure of a compound, including its shape, size, and chemical bonds. X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for understanding the structure and function of biological macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.

A peptide fragment is a short chain of amino acids that is derived from a larger peptide or protein through various biological or chemical processes. These fragments can result from the natural breakdown of proteins in the body during regular physiological processes, such as digestion, or they can be produced experimentally in a laboratory setting for research or therapeutic purposes.

Peptide fragments are often used in research to map the structure and function of larger peptides and proteins, as well as to study their interactions with other molecules. In some cases, peptide fragments may also have biological activity of their own and can be developed into drugs or diagnostic tools. For example, certain peptide fragments derived from hormones or neurotransmitters may bind to receptors in the body and mimic or block the effects of the full-length molecule.

Acrylamide is a chemical that is primarily used in the production of polyacrylamide, which is a widely used flocculent in the treatment of wastewater and drinking water. Acrylamide itself is not intentionally added to food or consumer products. However, it can form in certain foods during high-temperature cooking processes, such as frying, roasting, and baking, particularly in starchy foods like potatoes and bread. This occurs due to a reaction between amino acids (such as asparagine) and reducing sugars (like glucose or fructose) under high heat.

Acrylamide has been classified as a probable human carcinogen based on animal studies, but the risks associated with dietary exposure are still being researched. Public health organizations recommend minimizing acrylamide intake by varying cooking methods and avoiding overly browned or burnt foods.

I believe there may be a slight error in the term you're asking about. "Asp" doesn't specifically relate to RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) or its types. However, I can provide a definition for "Transfer RNA" (tRNA).

Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a type of RNA that plays a crucial role in protein synthesis. It carries and transfers specific amino acids to the growing polypeptide chain during translation, according to the genetic code provided by messenger RNA (mRNA). Each tRNA molecule has an anticodon region which can base-pair with a complementary codon in the mRNA, and a corresponding amino acid attached to its other end. This enables the correct matching of amino acids to form proteins according to the genetic information encoded in mRNA.

A catalytic domain is a portion or region within a protein that contains the active site, where the chemical reactions necessary for the protein's function are carried out. This domain is responsible for the catalysis of biological reactions, hence the name "catalytic domain." The catalytic domain is often composed of specific amino acid residues that come together to form the active site, creating a unique three-dimensional structure that enables the protein to perform its specific function.

In enzymes, for example, the catalytic domain contains the residues that bind and convert substrates into products through chemical reactions. In receptors, the catalytic domain may be involved in signal transduction or other regulatory functions. Understanding the structure and function of catalytic domains is crucial to understanding the mechanisms of protein function and can provide valuable insights for drug design and therapeutic interventions.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

Secondary protein structure refers to the local spatial arrangement of amino acid chains in a protein, typically described as regular repeating patterns held together by hydrogen bonds. The two most common types of secondary structures are the alpha-helix (α-helix) and the beta-pleated sheet (β-sheet). In an α-helix, the polypeptide chain twists around itself in a helical shape, with each backbone atom forming a hydrogen bond with the fourth amino acid residue along the chain. This forms a rigid rod-like structure that is resistant to bending or twisting forces. In β-sheets, adjacent segments of the polypeptide chain run parallel or antiparallel to each other and are connected by hydrogen bonds, forming a pleated sheet-like arrangement. These secondary structures provide the foundation for the formation of tertiary and quaternary protein structures, which determine the overall three-dimensional shape and function of the protein.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

Mutagenesis is the process by which the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of an organism is changed in a way that can alter its phenotype, or observable traits. These changes, known as mutations, can be caused by various factors such as chemicals, radiation, or viruses. Some mutations may have no effect on the organism, while others can cause harm, including diseases and cancer. Mutagenesis is a crucial area of study in genetics and molecular biology, with implications for understanding evolution, genetic disorders, and the development of new medical treatments.

Hexosyltransferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a hexose (a type of sugar molecule made up of six carbon atoms) from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule. This transfer results in the formation of a glycosidic bond between the two molecules.

Hexosyltransferases are involved in various biological processes, including the biosynthesis of complex carbohydrates, such as glycoproteins and glycolipids, which play important roles in cell recognition, signaling, and communication. These enzymes can transfer a variety of hexose sugars, including glucose, galactose, mannose, fucose, and N-acetylglucosamine, to different acceptor molecules, such as proteins, lipids, or other carbohydrates.

Hexosyltransferases are classified based on the type of donor molecule they use, the type of sugar they transfer, and the type of glycosidic bond they form. Some examples of hexosyltransferases include:

* Glycosyltransferases (GTs): These enzymes transfer a sugar from an activated donor molecule, such as a nucleotide sugar, to an acceptor molecule. GTs are involved in the biosynthesis of various glycoconjugates, including proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and glycolipids.
* Fucosyltransferases (FUTs): These enzymes transfer fucose, a type of hexose sugar, to an acceptor molecule. FUTs are involved in the biosynthesis of various glycoconjugates, including blood group antigens and Lewis antigens.
* Galactosyltransferases (GALTs): These enzymes transfer galactose, another type of hexose sugar, to an acceptor molecule. GALTs are involved in the biosynthesis of various glycoconjugates, including lactose in milk and gangliosides in the brain.
* Mannosyltransferases (MTs): These enzymes transfer mannose, a type of hexose sugar, to an acceptor molecule. MTs are involved in the biosynthesis of various glycoconjugates, including N-linked glycoproteins and yeast cell walls.

Hexosyltransferases play important roles in many biological processes, including cell recognition, signaling, and adhesion. Dysregulation of these enzymes has been implicated in various diseases, such as cancer, inflammation, and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of hexosyltransferases is crucial for developing new therapeutic strategies.

Glutamates are the salt or ester forms of glutamic acid, which is a naturally occurring amino acid and the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Glutamate plays a crucial role in various brain functions, such as learning, memory, and cognition. However, excessive levels of glutamate can lead to neuronal damage or death, contributing to several neurological disorders, including stroke, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.

Glutamates are also commonly found in food as a natural flavor enhancer, often listed under the name monosodium glutamate (MSG). While MSG has been extensively studied, its safety remains a topic of debate, with some individuals reporting adverse reactions after consuming foods containing this additive.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Serine is an amino acid, which is a building block of proteins. More specifically, it is a non-essential amino acid, meaning that the body can produce it from other compounds, and it does not need to be obtained through diet. Serine plays important roles in the body, such as contributing to the formation of the protective covering of nerve fibers (myelin sheath), helping to synthesize another amino acid called tryptophan, and taking part in the metabolism of fatty acids. It is also involved in the production of muscle tissues, the immune system, and the forming of cell structures. Serine can be found in various foods such as soy, eggs, cheese, meat, peanuts, lentils, and many others.

Glycoproteins are complex proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbone. These glycans are linked to the protein through asparagine residues (N-linked) or serine/threonine residues (O-linked). Glycoproteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion, and signal transduction. They are widely distributed in nature and can be found on the outer surface of cell membranes, in extracellular fluids, and as components of the extracellular matrix. The structure and composition of glycoproteins can vary significantly depending on their function and location within an organism.

Fluoroacetates are organic compounds that contain a fluorine atom and an acetic acid group. The most well-known and notorious compound in this family is sodium fluoroacetate, also known as 1080 or compound 1080, which is a potent metabolic poison. It works by interfering with the citric acid cycle, a critical process that generates energy in cells. Specifically, fluoroacetates are converted into fluorocitrate, which inhibits an enzyme called aconitase, leading to disruption of cellular metabolism and ultimately cell death.

Fluoroacetates have been used as rodenticides and pesticides, but their use is highly regulated due to their high toxicity to non-target species, including humans. Exposure to fluoroacetates can cause a range of symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, seizures, and cardiac arrest, and can be fatal if not treated promptly.

Protein O-Methyltransferases (also known as Protein OMTs) are a class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of methyl groups from a donor molecule, such as S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), to the oxygen atom of specific amino acid residues in proteins. This post-translational modification plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including epigenetic regulation, signal transduction, and protein stability.

The reaction catalyzed by Protein O-Methyltransferases can be represented as follows:

Protein + SAM → Protein (O-methylated) + S-adenosylhomocysteine

These enzymes specifically recognize their target proteins and methylate particular residues, such as lysine, arginine, serine, threonine, or tyrosine. The methylation of these residues can alter protein function, localization, or interaction with other molecules, thereby regulating various cellular pathways. Dysregulation of Protein O-Methyltransferases has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Glycine is a simple amino acid that plays a crucial role in the body. According to the medical definition, glycine is an essential component for the synthesis of proteins, peptides, and other biologically important compounds. It is also involved in various metabolic processes, such as the production of creatine, which supports muscle function, and the regulation of neurotransmitters, affecting nerve impulse transmission and brain function. Glycine can be found as a free form in the body and is also present in many dietary proteins.

Since the asparagine side-chain can form hydrogen bond interactions with the peptide backbone, asparagine residues are often ... Asparagine synthetase is required for normal development of the brain. Asparagine is also involved in protein synthesis during ... The determination of asparagine's structure required decades of research. The empirical formula for asparagine was first ... The enzyme asparagine synthetase produces asparagine, AMP, glutamate, and pyrophosphate from aspartate, glutamine, and ATP. ...
... can be prepared by refluxing D-glucose with sodium bisulfite in methanol, and then adding L-asparagine, and ... However, this is not due to fructose-asparagine being an essential nutrient, but rather because fructose-asparagine is toxic to ... contributes to fructose-asparagine but not asparagine utilization". Journal of Bacteriology. 199 (22): e00330-17. doi:10.1128/ ... Fructose-asparagine is a aminodeoxysugar. It takes the form of a pale yellow solid. It decomposes above 120 °C. Fructose- ...
... (or aspartate-ammonia ligase) is a chiefly cytoplasmic enzyme that generates asparagine from aspartate. ... This depletion of serum asparagine leads to a subsequent rapid efflux of cellular asparagine, which is immediately acted upon ... In addition, these normal cells are able to upregulate their expression of asparagine synthetase in response to the asparagine ... Hamster BHK ts11 cells produce an inactive asparagine synthetase enzyme, and this loss of asparagine synthetase activity ...
... is synthesized as an inactive zymogen. AEP and other cysteine peptidase are activated when pH changes ... Asparagine endopeptidase (AEP, mammalian legumain, δ-secretase; EC 3.4.22.34) is a proteolytic enzyme from C13 peptidase family ... Gao J, Li K, Du L, Yin H, Tan X, Yang Z (July 2018). "Deletion of asparagine endopeptidase reduces anxiety- and depressive-like ... In humans it is encoded by the LGMN gene (previous symbol PRSC1). It hydrolyzes substrates at the C-terminus of asparagine ...
The catalytic mechanism of the asparagine peptide lyases involves an asparagine residue acting as nucleophile to perform a ... Asparagine peptide lyase are one of the seven groups in which proteases, also termed proteolytic enzymes, peptidases, or ... The main residue of the active site is the asparagine and there are other residues involved in the catalytic mechanism, which ... The C-terminal residue of the intein domain is always an asparagine, which cyclizes to form a succinimide, cleaving its own ...
In enzymology, an asparagine-tRNA ligase (EC 6.1.1.22) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-asparagine + ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-asparagine:tRNAAsn ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include ... L-asparagine, and tRNA(Asn), whereas its 3 products are AMP, diphosphate, and L-asparaginyl-tRNA(Asn). This enzyme belongs to ... and asparagine translase. This enzyme participates in alanine and aspartate metabolism and aminoacyl-trna biosynthesis. As of ...
a CID 6267 from PubChem (L-asparagine) (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, PubChem ID (CID) ...
In enzymology, an asparagine-oxo-acid transaminase (EC 2.6.1.14) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-asparagine ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-asparagine:2-oxo-acid aminotransferase. This enzyme is also called asparagine- ... MEISTER A, FRASER PE (1954). "Enzymatic formation of L-asparagine by transamination". J. Biol. Chem. 210 (1): 37-43. PMID ... the two substrates of this enzyme are L-asparagine and 2-oxo acid, whereas its two products are 2-oxosuccinamate and amino acid ...
... asparagine synthetase (glutamine-hydrolysing), glutamine-dependent asparagine synthetase, asparagine synthetase B, AS, AS-B) is ... L-asparagine The enzyme from Escherichia coli has two active sites. Patterson MK, Orr GR (January 1968). "Asparagine ... Asparagine+synthase+(glutamine-hydrolysing) at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: ... Boehlein SK, Richards NG, Schuster SM (March 1994). "Glutamine-dependent nitrogen transfer in Escherichia coli asparagine ...
3-hydroxy-L-asparagine + succinate + CO2 Hypoxia-inducible factor-asparagine dioxygenase contains iron, and requires ascorbate ... Hypoxia-inducible+factor-asparagine+dioxygenase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal ... Hypoxia-inducible factor-asparagine dioxygenase (EC 1.14.11.30, HIF hydroxylase) is an enzyme with systematic name hypoxia- ... Lando D, Peet DJ, Whelan DA, Gorman JJ, Whitelaw ML (February 2002). "Asparagine hydroxylation of the HIF transactivation ...
In enzymology, a peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl)asparagine amidase (EC 3.5.1.52) is an enzyme that catalyzes a chemical ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is N-linked-glycopeptide-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)-L-asparagine amidohydrolase. ... Tarentino AL, Gómez CM, Plummer TH (Aug 1985). "Deglycosylation of asparagine-linked glycans by peptide:N-glycosidase F". ... asparagine amidase A and its N-glycans". European Journal of Biochemistry. 252 (1): 118-23. doi:10.1046/j.1432-1327.1998. ...
... asparagine mutant". Biochemistry. 36 (46): 13979-88. doi:10.1021/bi971004s. PMID 9369469. Maruyama T, Kitaoka Y, Sachi Y, ...
Kornfeld, Rosalind; Kornfeld, Stuart (1985). "Assembly of Asparagine-Linked Oligosaccharides". Annual Review of Biochemistry. ... Kornfeld, Rosalind; Kornfeld, Stuart (1985). "Assembly of Asparagine-Linked Oligosaccharides". Annual Review of Biochemistry. ...
Other names in common use include asparagine synthetase (ADP-forming), and asparagine synthetase (adenosine diphosphate-forming ... Nair PM (September 1969). "Asparagine synthetase from gamma-irradiated potatoes". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 133 ... L-asparagine The 3 substrates of this enzyme are ATP, L-aspartate, and NH3, whereas its 3 products are ADP, phosphate, and L- ... asparagine. This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds as acid-D-ammonia ( ...
... on the interior and asparagine (R), Serine (and lysine (K) on the exterior. Asparagine residues may serve as an important ... Kornfeld, R.; Kornfeld, S. (1985). "Assembly of asparagine-linked oligosaccharides" (PDF). Annual Review of Biochemistry. 54: ...
"Entrez Gene: asparagine-linked glycosylation 11". Cipollo, JF; Trimble, RB; Chi, JH; Yan, Q; Dean, N (2001). "The yeast ALG11 ... Asparagine-linked glycosylation protein 11 is an enzyme encoded by the ALG11 gene. Congenital disorder of glycosylation GRCh38 ...
The difucosylation of asparagine-bound N-acetylglucosamine". Eur. J. Biochem. 199 (3): 745-51. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1991. ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is GDP-L-fucose:glycoprotein (L-fucose to asparagine-linked N-acetylglucosamine of N4 ... asparagine The 5 substrates of this enzyme are GDP-L-fucose, [[N4-{N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1->2)-alpha-D-mannosyl-(1->3 ... asparagine) 3-alpha-L-fucosyl-transferase. Other names in common use include GDP-L-Fuc:N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide alpha1,3- ...
It has fewer aspartate, glutamate, and asparagine. The high ratio of basic to acidic amino acids contributes to the protein's ...
This amino acid was replaced with asparagine. The complication with mutations in the BCKDHA gene is that it disrupts the normal ...
The lysine is replaced by an asparagine. The lysine is needed so that the chromophore retinal can covalently bind to the opsin ...
Inhibition of L-'asparagine synthetase in vivo". Biochemical Pharmacology. 25 (16): 1851-8. doi:10.1016/0006-2952(76)90189-1. ... "Reactions of Pseudomonas 7A glutaminase-asparaginase with diazo analogues of glutamine and asparagine result in unexpected ...
Role of histidine 191 and asparagine 194". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 273 (49): 32753-32762. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.49. ...
Ambasta RK, Ai X, Emerson CP (November 2007). "Quail Sulf1 function requires asparagine-linked glycosylation". The Journal of ...
Other names in common use include asparagine synthetase, and L-asparagine synthetase. This enzyme participates in 3 metabolic ... "Asparagine biosynthesis in Lactobacillus arabinosus and its control by asparagine through enzyme inhibition and repression". J ... Webster GC, Varner JE (1955). "Aspartate metabolism and asparagine synthesis in plant systems". J. Biol. Chem. 215: 91-99. PMID ... L-asparagine The 3 substrates of this enzyme are ATP, L-aspartate, and NH3, whereas its 3 products are AMP, diphosphate, and L- ...
... forms a separate sub-type in the asparagine N-linked glycosylation system. The short paucimannosidic glycans ... Kubelka, Viktoria; Altmann, Friedrich; Mrz, Leopold (February 1995). "The asparagine-linked carbohydrate of honeybee venom ...
50 mg each asparagine, cystine, leucine, and isoleucine; 40 mg lysine hydrochloride; 30 mg serine; 20 mg each aspartic acid, ...
Asparagine and aspartic acid are both larger than threonine, and both asparagine and aspartic acid like to be in a turn while ... Aspartic acid and asparagine carry a formal charge. This charge however is negative for aspartic acid and positive for ... Asparagine and aspartic acid are both hydrophilic, while threonine has intermediate hydrophilicity. ... asparagine. Phoratoxin has not been synthesized in a lab yet. It can, however, be extracted from the Phoradendron. Phoratoxin ...
The least abundant are lysine, methionine, and asparagine. There is less asparagine, isoleucine, and lysine than would be ... Specifically, there is less asparagine, isoleucine, and lysine and more arginine than would be expected for an average protein ...
Chiu M, Taurino G, Bianchi MG, Kilberg MS, Bussolati O (2020-01-09). "Asparagine Synthetase in Cancer: Beyond Acute ...
An N-linked glycoprotein has glycan bonds to the nitrogen containing an asparagine amino acid within the protein sequence. An O ... In N-glycosylation, sugars are attached to nitrogen, typically on the amide side-chain of asparagine. In O-glycosylation, ... For example, inhibition of asparagine-linked, i.e. N-linked, glycosylation can prevent proper glycoprotein folding and full ... method of glycosylation of N-linked glycoproteins is through the reaction between a protected glycan and a protected Asparagine ...
Since the asparagine side-chain can form hydrogen bond interactions with the peptide backbone, asparagine residues are often ... Asparagine synthetase is required for normal development of the brain. Asparagine is also involved in protein synthesis during ... The determination of asparagines structure required decades of research. The empirical formula for asparagine was first ... The enzyme asparagine synthetase produces asparagine, AMP, glutamate, and pyrophosphate from aspartate, glutamine, and ATP. ...
Asparagine synthetase deficiency is a condition that causes neurological problems in affected individuals starting soon after ... aspartic acid to the amino acid asparagine.. In addition to being a component of proteins, asparagine helps to break down toxic ... Asparagine Synthetase Deficiency causes reduced proliferation of cells under conditions of limited asparagine. Mol Genet Metab ... Asparagine synthetase deficiency is caused by mutations in a gene called ASNS. This gene provides instructions for making an ...
Other names: Asparagine, L-; (-)-Asparagine; Agedoite; Altheine; Asparagine; Butanoic acid, 2,4-diamino-4-oxo-, (S)-; L-β- ... Asparagine; (S)-2,4-Diamino-4-oxobutanoic acid; Asn; Asparamide; Aspartic acid β amide; (S)-Asparagine; Asparagine acid; ... Aspartamic acid; Crystal VI; L-2,4-Diamino-4-oxobutanoic acid; NSC 82391; α-Aminosuccinamic acid; Asparagine l(-) ...
Asparagine biosynthesis is catalyzed by glutamine-dependent asparagine synthetase in mammalian tissues , Buy amino acids online ... L-Asparagine monohydrate ((S)-(+)-2-Aminosuccinamic acid) , Suitable for cell analysis , ... Asparagine biosynthesis is catalyzed by glutamine-dependent asparagine synthetase in mammalian tissues.. Elevated levels of ... L-Asparagine monohydrate has been used:. *as a component of Sauton′s and chelated Sauton′s media for mycobacterial growth ...
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Protein target information for Asparagine synthetase [glutamine-hydrolyzing] (garden asparagus). Find diseases associated with ...
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where to buy 132388-58-0(N-Trityl-L-asparagine).Also offer free database of 132388-58-0(N-Trityl-L-asparagine) including MSDS ... N-Trityl-L-asparagine CAS:132388-58-0 Qingdao Belugas Import and Export Co., Ltd. is a scientific and technological company ... N-Trityl-L-asparagine cas 132388-58-0Appearance:white crystalline powder Storage:Store in dry, dark and ventilated place ... With the CAS registry number 132388-58-0, it is also named as N-Trityl-L-asparagine. The products categories are Amino Acids ...
CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF ASPARAGINE 233-REPLACED CYCLODEXTRIN GLUCANOTRANSFERASE FROM ALKALOPHILIC BACILLUS SP. 1011 DETERMINED AT ... but not with asparagine-233. The differences in hydrogen bonds in the neighborhood of asparagine-233, maintaining the ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF ASPARAGINE 233-REPLACED CYCLODEXTRIN GLUCANOTRANSFERASE FROM ALKALOPHILIC BACILLUS SP. 1011 DETERMINED AT ... Crystal structure of asparagine 233-replaced cyclodextrin glucanotransferase from alkalophilic Bacillus sp. 1011 determined at ...
Intracellular asparagine concentration in glucose-fed, exponentially growing E. coli. Value. 510 μM Range: Table - link μM ...
Constitutively Active Mutants of the Histamine H1 Receptor Suggest a Conserved Hydrophobic Asparagine-Cage That Constrains the ... Constitutively Active Mutants of the Histamine H1 Receptor Suggest a Conserved Hydrophobic Asparagine-Cage That Constrains the ... Constitutively Active Mutants of the Histamine H1 Receptor Suggest a Conserved Hydrophobic Asparagine-Cage That Constrains the ... Constitutively Active Mutants of the Histamine H1 Receptor Suggest a Conserved Hydrophobic Asparagine-Cage That Constrains the ...
Constitutively Active Mutants of the Histamine H1 Receptor Suggest a Conserved Hydrophobic Asparagine-Cage That Constrains the ... Constitutively Active Mutants of the Histamine H1 Receptor Suggest a Conserved Hydrophobic Asparagine-Cage That Constrains the ... Constitutively Active Mutants of the Histamine H1 Receptor Suggest a Conserved Hydrophobic Asparagine-Cage That Constrains the ... Constitutively Active Mutants of the Histamine H1 Receptor Suggest a Conserved Hydrophobic Asparagine-Cage That Constrains the ...
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The structures of the asparagine-linked oligosaccharides of several variant forms of the vesicular stomatitis virus ... Compartmentation of asparagine-linked oligosaccharide processing in the Golgi apparatus. Identification of asparagine-linked ... Processing of the asparagine-linked oligosaccharides of secreted and intracellular forms of the vesicular stomatitis virus G ... C A Gabel, J E Bergmann; Processing of the asparagine-linked oligosaccharides of secreted and intracellular forms of the ...
Note: These kits are not intended for diagnosing or treatment.
Asparagine. Description: Asparagine is a non-essential amino acid in humans, Asparagine is a beta-amido derivative of aspartic ... A metabolic precursor to aspartate, Asparagine is a nontoxic carrier of residual ammonia to be eliminated from the body. ...
The search by single word or compound term finds only expressions beginning with the search term (implicit right-hand truncation with automatic completion) among preferred terms, alternative terms or hidden terms (the latter are not displayed in the results ...
What is the CAS number of L-Asparagine 1-hydrate?. The CAS number of L-Asparagine 1-hydrate is 5794-13-8.. CAS L-Asparagine 1- ... The CAS number of L-Asparagine 1-hydrate is 5794-13-8.. CAS 5794-13-8?. The CAS number 5794-13-8 is assigned to L-Asparagine 1- ... L-Asparagine 1-hydrate BioChemica. Headline Comment:. • All amino acids from AppliChem are of non-animal origin!. ...
GO:0006528: asparagine metabolic process (Biological process). The chemical reactions and pathways involving asparagine, 2- ...
L-asparagine is the most abundant metabolite for the storage and transport of nitrogen that is utilized in protein biosynthesis ... The asparagine concentrations ranging from 10-1 to 10-9 M were studied. The level of asparagine in leukemic blood was 10-2 M ... L-asparagine is the most abundant metabolite for the storage and transport of nitrogen that is utilized in protein biosynthesis ... Asparagine hydrolysis in plants is catalyzed by asparaginases with no homology to the bacterial-type enzymes. The enzyme L- ...
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule n-2-naphthyl-l-alpha-asparagine (C14H14N2O3) from the PQR. ...
Epigenetics Asparagine SA pack of 60 capsules are a pure food supplement, manufactured in a high quality production facility in ... Asparagine is a non-essential amino acid. Epigenetics combine Asparagine with Succinic Acid in a convenient vegan friendly ... Asparagine SA pack of 60 capsules. £16.38. Exc. VAT. Sorry we cant ship this product to you while your location is set to ... Be the first to review "Asparagine SA pack of 60 capsules" Cancel reply. You must be logged in to post a review. ...
GO:0004066: asparagine synthase (glutamine-hydrolyzing) activity (Molecular function). Catalysis of the reaction: ATP + L- ... aspartate + L-glutamine = AMP + diphosphate + L-asparagine + L-glutamate. [EC:6.3.5.4, RHEA:12228] ...
Encode asparagines to URL-encoded format with various advanced options. Our site has an easy to use online tool to convert your ... Encode asparagines to URL-encoded format. Simply enter your data then push the encode button.. asparagines. To encode ... asparagines. Copy to clipboard. Encode files to URL-encoded format. Select a file to upload and process, then you can download ...
Explore the 2 papers that mention a possible interaction between Asparagine and NAD. ... asparagine residues increase the dissociation constants for the coenzymes (. NAD+ by ∼40-fold, NADH by ∼200-fold) and ... asparagine mutant was approximately 50-fold-attenuated in NAD glycohydrolase activity, however.. " ...
Next Peptide Cas 108258-31-7,D-Asparagine methyl ester;NP188064.
Send us your enquiry for D-ASPARAGINE MONOHYDRATE. We offer custom pack sizes at special prices. We aim to respond to your ... We value your input so if you have suggestions regarding new applications for D-ASPARAGINE MONOHYDRATE email us and we will ...
Primary cilia sense glutamine availability and respond via asparagine synthetase *Maria Elena Steidl ...

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