Asparagine: A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Aspartate-Ammonia Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of asparagine from ammonia and aspartic acid, in the presence of ATP. EC 6.3.1.1.Asparaginase: A hydrolase enzyme that converts L-asparagine and water to L-aspartate and NH3. EC 3.5.1.1.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) Asparagine Amidase: An amidohydrolase that removes intact asparagine-linked oligosaccharide chains from glycoproteins. It requires the presence of more than two amino-acid residues in the substrate for activity. This enzyme was previously listed as EC 3.2.2.18.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Aspartate-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates aspartic acid with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.12.RNA, Transfer, Asn: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying asparagine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Ligases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.Carbon-Nitrogen Ligases with Glutamine as Amide-N-Donor: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of glutamine-derived ammonia and another molecule. The linkage is in the form of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.5.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Isoaspartic Acid: An ASPARTIC ACID residue in polypeptide chains that is linked at the beta-carboxyl group instead of at the normal, alpha-carboxyl group, polypeptide linkage. It is a result of the spontaneous decomposition of aspartic acid or ASPARAGINE residues.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Nitrogenous Group Transferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of nitrogenous groups, primarily amino groups, from a donor, generally an amino acid, to an acceptor, usually a 2-oxoacid. EC 2.6.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.AmidohydrolasesCloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Deamination: The removal of an amino group (NH2) from a chemical compound.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.GlutaminaseChromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.RNA, Transfer, Amino Acyl: Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.PolysaccharidesHydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Nucleoside Q: A modified nucleoside which is present in the first position of the anticodon of tRNA-tyrosine, tRNA-histidine, tRNA-asparagine and tRNA-aspartic acid of many organisms. It is believed to play a role in the regulatory function of tRNA. Nucleoside Q can be further modified to nucleoside Q*, which has a mannose or galactose moiety linked to position 4 of its cyclopentenediol moiety.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Acrylamide: A colorless, odorless, highly water soluble vinyl monomer formed from the hydration of acrylonitrile. It is primarily used in research laboratories for electrophoresis, chromatography, and electron microscopy and in the sewage and wastewater treatment industries.RNA, Transfer, Asp: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying aspartic acid to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Hexosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Fluoroacetates: Derivatives of acetic acid with one or more fluorines attached. They are almost odorless, difficult to detect chemically, and very stable. The acid itself, as well as the derivatives that are broken down in the body to the acid, are highly toxic substances, behaving as convulsant poisons with a delayed action. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Protein O-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosylmethionine to free carboxyl groups of a protein molecule forming methyl esters. EC 2.1.1.-.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.

Hemoglobin Providence. A human hemoglobin variant occurring in two forms in vivo. (1/1939)

Hemoglobin Providence Asn and Hemoglobin Providence Asp are two abnormal hemoglobins which apparently arise from a single genetic change that substitutes asparagine for lysine at position 82 (EF6) in the beta chain of human hemoglobin. The second form appears to be thr result of a partial in vivo deamidation of the asparagine situated at position beta 82. Cellulose acetate and citrate agar electrophoresis of hemolysates from patients with this abnormality shows three bands. Globin chain electrophoresis at acid and alkaline pH shows three beta chains. These three chains correspond to the normal beta A chain and two abnormal beta chains. Sequence analysis indicates that the two abnormal chains differ from beta A at only position beta 82. In the two abnormal chains, the residue which is normally lysine is substituted either by asparagine or by aspartic acid. These substitutions are notable because beta 82 lysine is one of the residues involved in 2,3-diphosphoglycerate binding. Additionally, beta 82 lysine is typically invariant in hemoglobin beta chain sequences. Sequence data on the two forms of Hemoglobin Providence are given in this paper. The functional properties of these two forms are described in the next paper.  (+info)

Merbarone, a catalytic inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase II, induces apoptosis in CEM cells through activation of ICE/CED-3-like protease. (2/1939)

Merbarone (5-[N-phenyl carboxamido]-2-thiobarbituric acid) is an anticancer drug that inhibits the catalytic activity of DNA topoisomerase II (topo II) without damaging DNA or stabilizing DNA-topo II cleavable complexes. Although the cytotoxicity of the complex-stabilizing DNA-topo II inhibitors such as VP-16 (etoposide) has been partially elucidated, the cytotoxicity of merbarone is poorly understood. Here, we report that merbarone induces programmed cell death or apoptosis in human leukemic CEM cells, characterized by internucleosomal DNA cleavage and nuclear condensation. Treatment of CEM cells with apoptosis-inducing concentrations of merbarone caused activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase, c-jun gene induction, activation of caspase-3/CPP32-like protease but not caspase-1, and the proteolytic cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Treatment of CEM cells with a potent inhibitor of caspases, Z-Asp-2. 6-dichlorobenzoyloxymethyl-ketone, inhibited merbarone-induced caspase-3/CPP32-like activity and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that the catalytic inhibition of topo II by merbarone leads to apoptotic cell death through a caspase-3-like protease-dependent mechanism. These results further suggest that c-Jun and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase signaling may be involved in the cytotoxicity of merbarone.  (+info)

Distortion of the L-->M transition in the photocycle of the bacteriorhodopsin mutant D96N: a time-resolved step-scan FTIR investigation. (3/1939)

The D96N mutant of bacteriorhodopsin has often been taken as a model system to study the M intermediate of the wild type photocycle due to the long life time of the corresponding intermediate of the mutant. Using time-resolved step-scan FTIR spectroscopy in combination with a sample changing wheel we investigated the photocycle of the mutant with microsecond time resolution. Already after several microseconds an intermediate similar to the MN state is observed, which contrasts with the M state of the wild type protein. At reduced hydration M and N intermediates similar to those of wild type BR can be detected. These results have a bearing on the interpretation of the photocycle of this mutant. A mechanism is suggested for the fast rise of MN which provides some insight into the molecular events involved in triggering the opening of the cytosolic channel also of the wild type protein.  (+info)

Interaction of asparagine and EGF in the regulation of ornithine decarboxylase in IEC-6 cells. (4/1939)

Our laboratory has shown that asparagine (ASN) stimulates both ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and gene expression in an intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6). The effect of ASN is specific, and other A- and N-system amino acids are almost as effective as ASN when added alone. In the present study, epidermal growth factor (EGF) was unable to increase ODC activity in cells maintained in a salt-glucose solution (Earle's balanced salt solution). However, the addition of ASN (10 mM) in the presence of EGF (30 ng/ml) increased the activity of ODC 0.5- to 4-fold over that stimulated by ASN alone. EGF also showed induction of ODC with glutamine and alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, but ODC induction was maximum with ASN and EGF. Thus the mechanism of the interaction between ASN and EGF is important for understanding the regulation of ODC under physiological conditions. Therefore, we examined the expression of the ODC gene and those for several protooncogenes under the same conditions. Increased expression of the genes for c-Jun and c-Fos but not for ODC occurred with EGF alone. The addition of ASN did not further increase the expression of the protooncogenes, but the combination of EGF and ASN further increased the expression of ODC over that of ASN alone. Western analysis showed no significant difference in the level of ODC protein in Earle's balanced salt solution, ASN, EGF, or EGF plus ASN. Addition of cycloheximide during ASN and ASN plus EGF treatment completely inhibited ODC activity without affecting the level of ODC protein. These results indicated that 1) the increased expression of protooncogenes in response to EGF is independent of increases in ODC activity and 2) potentiation between EGF and ASN on ODC activity may not be due to increased gene transcription but to posttranslational regulation and the requirement of ongoing protein synthesis involving a specific factor dependent on ASN.  (+info)

Glycosylation of asparagine-28 of recombinant staphylokinase with high-mannose-type oligosaccharides results in a protein with highly attenuated plasminogen activator activity. (5/1939)

The properties of recombinant staphylokinase (SakSTAR) expressed in Pichia pastoris cells have been determined. The single consensus N-linked oligosaccharide linkage site in SakSTAR (at Asn28 of the mature protein) was occupied in approximately 50% of the expressed protein with high-mannose-type oligosaccharides. The majority of these glycans ranged in polymerization state from Man8GlcNAc2 to Man14GlcNAc2, with the predominant species being Man10GlcNAc2 and Man11GlcNAc2. Glycosylated SakSTAR (SakSTARg) did not differ from its aglycosyl form in its aggregation state in solution, its thermal denaturation properties, its ability to form a complex with human plasmin (hPm), the amidolytic properties of the respective SakSTAR-hPm complexes, or its ability to liberate the amino-terminal decapeptide required for formation of a functional SakSTAR-hPm plasminogen activator complex. However, this latter complex with SakSTARg showed a greatly reduced ability to activate human plasminogen (hPg) as compared with the same complex with the aglycosyl form of SakSTAR. We conclude that glycosylation at Asn28 does not affect the structural properties of SakSTAR or its ability to participate in the formation of an active enzymatic complex with hPm, but it is detrimental to the ability of the SakSTAR-hPm complex to serve as a hPg activator. This is likely due to restricted access of hPg to the active site of the SakSTARg-hPm complex.  (+info)

The presence of pseudouridine in the anticodon alters the genetic code: a possible mechanism for assignment of the AAA lysine codon as asparagine in echinoderm mitochondria. (6/1939)

It has been inferred from DNA sequence analyses that in echinoderm mitochondria not only the usual asparagine codons AAU and AAC, but also the usual lysine codon AAA, are translated as asparagine by a single mitochondrial (mt) tRNAAsn with the anticodon GUU. Nucleotide sequencing of starfish mt tRNAAsn revealed that the anticodon is GPsiU, U35 at the anticodon second position being modified to pseudouridine (Psi). In contrast, mt tRNALys, corresponding to another lysine codon, AAG, has the anticodon CUU. mt tRNAs possessing anti-codons closely related to that of tRNAAsn, but responsible for decoding only two codons each-tRNAHis, tRNAAsp and tRNATyr-were found to possess unmodified U35 in all cases, suggesting the importance of Psi35 for decoding the three codons. Therefore, the decoding capabilities of two synthetic Escherichia coli tRNAAla variants with the anticodon GPsiU or GUU were examined using an E.coli in vitro translation system. Both tRNAs could translate not only AAC and AAU with similar efficiency, but also AAA with an efficiency that was approximately 2-fold higher in the case of tRNAAlaGPsiU than tRNAAlaGUU. These findings imply that Psi35 of echinoderm mt tRNAAsn actually serves to decode the unusual asparagine codon AAA, resulting in the alteration of the genetic code in echinoderm mitochondria.  (+info)

L-Asparagine synthetase in serum as a marker for neoplasia. (7/1939)

L-Asparagine synthetase appears in serum approximately 7 days after the s.c. implantation of 1 X 10(5) cells of Leukemia 5178Y/AR (resistant to L-asparaginase) and increases in activity as the neoplasm grows and metastasizes. The principal source of the enzyme is the primary tumor. After intravranial inoculation of tumor, the rate of leakage of the enzyme is more pronounced than when the subcutaneous, intramuscular, or intraperitoneal routes are used. 1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (NSC 79037), a nitro-sourea effective in the palliation of L5178Y/AR, temporarily halts the influx of enzyme into the blood stream, as does surgical excision of the s.c. tumor nodules. Treatment of mice with L-asparaginase within 24 hr of inoculation of the tumor markedly augments both tumor growth and the rate of penetration of L-asparagine synthetase into the circulation. Several other L-asparagine synthetase into the circulation. Several other L-asparaginase-resistant tumors also were found to spill L-asparagine synthetase into the serum, but the correlation between this phenomenon and the specific activity of the enzyme in homogenates of the tumor was imperfect.  (+info)

Conserved polar residues in the transmembrane domain of the human tachykinin NK2 receptor: functional roles and structural implications. (8/1939)

We have studied the effects of agonist and antagonist binding, agonist-induced activation and agonist-induced desensitization of the human tachykinin NK2 receptor mutated at polar residues Asn-51 [in transmembrane helix 1 (TM1)], Asp-79 (TM2) and Asn-303 (TM7), which are highly conserved in the transmembrane domain in the rhodopsin family of G-protein-coupled receptors. Wild-type and mutant receptors were expressed in both COS-1 cells and Xenopus oocytes. The results show that the N51D mutation results in a receptor which, in contrast with the wild-type receptor, is desensitized by the application of a concentration of 1 microM of the partial agonist GR64349, indicating that the mutant is more sensitive to agonist activation than is the wild-type receptor. In addition, we show that, whereas the D79E mutant displayed activation properties similar to those of the wild-type receptor, the D79N and D79A mutants displayed a severely impaired ability to activate the calcium-dependent chloride current. This suggests that it is the negative charge at Asn-79, rather than the ability of this residue to hydrogen-bond, that is critical for the activity of the receptor. Interestingly, the placement of a negative charge at position 303 could compensate for the removal of the negative charge at position 79, since the double mutant D79N/N303D displayed activation properties similar to those of the wild-type receptor. This suggests that these two residues are functionally coupled, and may even be in close proximity in the three-dimensional structure of the human tachykinin NK2 receptor. A three-dimensional model of the receptor displaying this putative interaction is presented.  (+info)

Bovine prothrombin contains three asparagine-linked sugar chains in 1 molecule. The sugar chains were quantitatively released from the polypeptide backbone by hydrazinolysis. All of the oligosaccharides thus obtained contain N-acetylneuraminic acid.
We have derived a novel method to assess compositional biases in biological sequences, which is based on finding the lowest-probability subsequences for a given residue-type set. As a case study, the distribution of prion-like glutamine/asparagine-rich ((Q+N)-rich) domains (which are linked to amyloidogenesis) was assessed for budding and fission yeasts and four other eukaryotes. We find more than 170 prion-like (Q+N)-rich regions in budding yeast, and, strikingly, many fewer in fission yeast. Also, some residues, such as tryptophan or isoleucine, are unlikely to form biased regions in any eukaryotic proteome.
Translations: Asparagīna Amino Acid, Asparaginas aminorūgšties, Asparagina aminoacizi, Asparagin Aminokiselinska, Amino Acid Asparagine, Asparaginy aminokwasów, Asparagine एमिनो एसिड, Aminoácido asparagina, Аспарагин Аминокислоты, Ασπαραγίνη Αμινοξύ, الهليونين الأحماض الأمينية, 아스파라긴 아미노산, Asparagin aminokyselin, Asparagina Asam Amino, Asparagine Amino acid, 天冬酰胺氨基酸, Asparagina Aminoàcids, Asparagin Amino Acid, Asparagín aminokyselín, Amminoacido asparagina, אספרגין חומצה אמינו, Asparagin Amino Acid, Аспарагин амино киселина, アスパラギンアミノ酸, Acide aminé asparagine, Asparagin Amino Acid, Asparagin Amino Acid, Asparaginer Amino Acid, Asparagina Aminoácidos, Аспарагін Амінокислоти, Asparagiini Aminohappo, Аспарагин амино ...
The structure of synC can be divided into three subdomains (Figure 1D): the amino‐terminal subdomain (residues 110‐223), the central subdomain (residues 246‐308) and the carboxy‐terminal subdomain (residues 224‐245 and 309‐420). The core of the amino‐terminal subdomain is a four‐stranded parallel β‐sheet (β1, β2, β6, β7), which is flanked by a helical loop (residues 124‐137) and helix α1. It resembles the nucleotide‐binding motif (NAD motif) found in numerous enzymes that bind substrates at the carboxyl end of the parallel β‐sheet. The parallel arrangement of helices α1 and α2 and their connection by strand β7 are remarkably well conserved in synC and GSHase. Even more remarkable is the existence of a cis‐asparagine residue at the carboxyl end of strand β7 in both synC (Asn214) and GSHase (Asn114). As the cis conformation is extremely rare in peptide bonds preceding residues other than proline, the use of cis‐asparagine at equivalent positions in synC and ...
Although bafilomycin induced HIF-1α levels under normoxic conditions, it has little effect on the expressions of HIF-1 targeted genes. This effect of bafilomycin on HIF-1α could be suspected of the factor-inhibiting HIF (FIH). In the absence of a hypoxic signal, HIF-1α can be inactivated by FIH. FIH hydroxylates an asparagine residue (Asn803) within the transactivation domain of HIF-1α, which blocks its recruitment of p300 coactivator (Lando et al., 2002). Moreover, under hypoxic conditions, asparagine hydroxylation is inhibited due to limited oxygen, and HIF-1α remains unmodified and activated. This seems to be one of the reasons why HIF-1α induced by bafilomycin has little transcriptional activity; similarly, HIF-1α induced by heat shock was found to have no transcriptional activity (Katschinski et al., 2002). However, HIF-1α induced by bafilomycin induced p21 transcription. Recently, Koshiji et al. (2004) demonstrated the mechanism of p21 induction by HIF-1α (i.e., c-Myc represses ...
The amino acid asparagine was until now considered non-essential because it is produced naturally by the body. However, researchers found that it is essential for normal brain development.
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The researchers narrow it down to a single change in the outer coat of the virus. S139N - the switch in amino acids from serine to asparagine at position 139 in the membrane protein (PrM). This change was sufficient to help Zika virus infect brain cells from both humans and mice efficiently. Contributing to an unprecedented outbreak.. Reference. 1. A single mutation in the prM protein of Zika virus contributes to fetal microcephaly.Yuan L, Huang XY, Liu ZY, Zhang F, Zhu XL, Yu JY, Ji X, Xu YP, Li G, Li C, Wang HJ, Deng YQ, Wu M, Cheng ML, Ye Q, Xie DY, Li XF, Wang X, Shi W, Hu B, Shi PY, Xu Z, Qin CF. Science. 2017 Sep 28. pii: eaam7120. doi: 10.1126/science.aam7120.. ...
Alg6 - Alg6 (untagged ORF) - Rat asparagine-linked glycosylation 6, alpha-1,3-glucosyltransferase homolog (S. cerevisiae) (Alg6), (10 ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Asparagine is an amino acid, which has recently been rumored to aid the spread of breast cancer. Trials on mice have shown that low-asparagine diets, combined with blocking asparagine production in the body, greatly reduced the breast cancers ability to spread.. ...
This gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes hydrolysis of an N(4)-(acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl) asparagine residue to N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylamine and a peptide containing an aspartate residue. The encoded enzyme may play a role in the proteasome-mediated degradation of misfolded glycoproteins. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene ...
Looking for online definition of Asparagine-linked glycosylation protein 6 homolog in the Medical Dictionary? Asparagine-linked glycosylation protein 6 homolog explanation free. What is Asparagine-linked glycosylation protein 6 homolog? Meaning of Asparagine-linked glycosylation protein 6 homolog medical term. What does Asparagine-linked glycosylation protein 6 homolog mean?
Activity of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) complex is controlled by oxygen-dependent hydroxylation of prolyl and asparaginyl residues. Hydroxylation of specific prolyl residues by 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG)-dependent oxygenases mediates ubiquitinylation and proteasomal destruction of HIF-alpha. Hydroxylation of an asparagine residue in the C-terminal transactivation domain (CAD) of HIF-alpha abrogates interaction with p300, preventing transcriptional activation. Yeast two-hybrid assays recently identified factor inhibiting HIF (FIH) as a protein that associates with the CAD region of HIF-alpha. Since FIH contains certain motifs present in iron- and 2-OG-dependent oxygenases we investigated whether FIH was the HIF asparaginyl hydroxylase. Assays using recombinant FIH and HIF-alpha fragments revealed that FIH is the enzyme that hydroxylates the CAD asparagine residue, that the activity is directly inhibited by cobalt(II) and limited by hypoxia, and that the oxygen in the alcohol of the hydroxyasparagine
Asparagine (Asn) is one of the 20 most common natural amino acids on Earth. It has carboxamide as the side chains functional group. Asparagine is not an essential amino acid, which means that it can be synthesized from central metabolic pathway intermediates in humans and is not required in the diet. The precursor to asparagine is oxaloacetate. Oxaloacetate is converted to aspartate using a transaminase enzyme. The enzyme transfers the amino group from glutamate to oxaloacetate producing alpha-ketoglutarate and aspartate. The enzyme asparagine synthetase produces asparagine, AMP, glutamate, and pyrophosphate from aspartate, glutamine, and ATP. In the asparagine synthetase reaction, ATP is used to activate aspartate, forming beta-aspartyl-AMP. Glutamine donates an ammonium group which reacts with beta-aspartyl-AMP to form asparagine and free AMP. Since the asparagine side chain can make efficient hydrogen bond interactions with the peptide backbone, asparagines are often found near the beginning ...
Background Polyglutamine expansion is responsible for several neurodegenerative disorders, among which Huntington disease is the most well-known. Studies in the yeast model demonstrated that both aggregation and toxicity of a huntingtin (htt) protein with an expanded polyglutamine region strictly depend on the presence of the prion form of Rnq1 protein ([PIN+]), which has a glutamine/asparagine-rich domain. Principal Findings Here, we showed that aggregation and toxicity of mutant htt depended on [PIN+] only quantitatively: the presence of [PIN+] elevated the toxicity and the levels of htt detergent-insoluble polymers. In cells lacking [PIN+], toxicity of mutant htt was due to the polymerization and inactivation of the essential glutamine/asparagine-rich Sup35 protein and related inactivation of another essential protein, Sup45, most probably via its sequestration into Sup35 aggregates. However, inhibition of growth of [PIN+] cells depended on Sup35/Sup45 depletion only partially, suggesting that
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Asparagine. Molecular model of the amino acid asparagine. Its chemical formula is C4.H8.N2.O3. Atoms are represented as spheres and are colour- coded: carbon (blue), hydrogen (gold), oxygen (red) and nitrogen (dark blue). Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. Asparagine is a non-essential amino acid. It can be synthesised by the body and so does not need to come from the diet. Asparagine plays an important role in the folding of protein molecules into their secondary structures (alpha helices and beta sheets). Some proteins (such as haemoglobin, the oxygen- carrying pigment in human blood) cannot function without being folded into the correct shape. - Stock Image A611/0042
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Asparagine-linked sugar chains of glycoproteins in calf thymocyte plasma membrane. Isolation and fractionation of oligosaccharides liberated by hydrazinolysis.:Isolation and Fractionation of Oligosaccharides Liberated by Hydrazinolysis (1980 ...
The mechanism by which asparaginase inhibits the 6C3HED tumor is probably not directly related to the cellular concentration of asparagine, since the concentration of asparagine decreases in resistant tumors, spleen, and liver, as well as in susceptible tumors. Amino acids other than asparagine may be affected by asparaginase because of the variety of metabolic relationships of the amino acids. In this study, analyses of all the amino acids of resistant 6C3HED tumor, susceptible 6C3HED tumor, spleen, and liver were undertaken.. Most of the amino acids of the susceptible tumor increased from 2- to 40-fold, while only slight changes occurred in the resistant tumor. The most dramatic change was a decrease in glycine in the susceptible tumor. No parallel change in glycine occurred in the resistant tumor, the spleen, or the liver. It is suggested that the susceptible tumor may synthesize glycine from asparagine; consequently, the decrease in asparagine is followed by a decrease in cellular glycine. ...
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The researchers narrow it down to a single change in the outer coat of the virus. S139N - the switch in amino acids from serine to asparagine at position 139 in the membrane protein (PrM). This change was sufficient to help Zika virus infect brain cells from both humans and mice efficiently. Contributing to an unprecedented outbreak.. Reference. 1. A single mutation in the prM protein of Zika virus contributes to fetal microcephaly.Yuan L, Huang XY, Liu ZY, Zhang F, Zhu XL, Yu JY, Ji X, Xu YP, Li G, Li C, Wang HJ, Deng YQ, Wu M, Cheng ML, Ye Q, Xie DY, Li XF, Wang X, Shi W, Hu B, Shi PY, Xu Z, Qin CF. Science. 2017 Sep 28. pii: eaam7120. doi: 10.1126/science.aam7120.. ...
Most core residues of coiled coils are hydrophobic. Occasional polar residues are thought to lower stability, but impart structural specificity. The coiled coils of trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) are conspicuous for their large number of polar residues in position d of the core, which often leads to their prediction as natively unstructured regions. The most frequent residue, asparagine ([email protected]), can occur in runs of up to 19 consecutive heptads, frequently in the motif [I/V]xxNTxx. In the Salmonella TAA, SadA, the core asparagines form rings of interacting residues with the following threonines, grouped around a central anion. This conformation is observed generally in [email protected] layers from trimeric coiled coils of known structure. Attempts to impose a different register on the motif show that the asparagines orient themselves specifically into the core, even against conflicting information from flanking domains. When engineered into the GCN4 leucine zipper, [email protected] layers progressively ...
Product Number , 75190706. CAS Number , 5794-24-1. EC , 218-163-3. Molecular Formula , C4H8N2O3Ï H2O. Molecular Weight , 150.14. Storage Temp , +20°C. Harmonized Tariff code , 29241900900. Signal Word , ...
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BioAssay record AID 253508 submitted by ChEMBL: Concentration of compound inhibiting Lys103-Asn mutant HIV-1(IIIB) induced cytopathicity in CEM cell culture by 50%.
Research into the chemical biology of bromodomains has been driven by the development of acetyl-lysine mimetics. The ligands are typically anchored by binding to a highly conserved asparagine residue. Atypical bromodomains, for which the asparagine is mutated, have thus far proven elusive targets, including
Zotik an jî anûs di anatomî de ew qulika dervayî ji rektum (ji latînî hatiye, ango rast). Zotik beşeke navende di qûnê mirov de û beşa dawî ji sîstema givêrdarê (hezmê) de ku mayînên laşê wek gû (feces bi Înglîzî) ji têne avêtin ku ji bi Înglîzî defaction tê gotin, û ev jî erkeke bingeh û gelek pêwîste ji erkên (fanksiyonên) zûtik û qûn di laşê mirov de. Zotik roleke di zayenditî de dilîze di kirdarê anal seks ango kirdarê zayendî bi riya qûn yan qûnetî (lotî) ku li pir civaktiyên wek civaktiyên misilmana gune ye û dijî olê Îslamê ye. Bi riya zûtik çend înfeksiyonan peyda dibe wek şêrpençîr (cancer). Bo tendirustiya zûtik û qûn pakî (paqijî) divê bi av û sabûn pey destavê û di serşûştinê ne bi pelê tuwelêtê ku baş paqij nake. ...
Aspartate-Ammonia Ligase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of asparagine from ammonia and aspartic acid, in the presence of ATP. EC 6.3.1.1.
அஸ்பரஜின் (Asparagine) (அ) அஸ்பரமைடு [குறுக்கம்: Asn (அ) N; அஸ்பார்டிக் அமிலம் (அ) அஸ்பரஜின் அமினோ அமிலத்தை குறிக்கும் மற்றொரு குறுக்கம்: Asx or B][2] புரதங்களில் அடிப்படையாக உள்ள 20 அமினோ அமிலங்களில் ஒன்றாகும். இதனுடைய வாய்பாடு: 2HN-CO-CH2-CH(NH2)-COOH (அ) C4H8N2O3. இது ஒரு அத்தியாவசியமற்ற ஆல்ஃபா அமினோ அமிலமாகும். அஸ்பரஜின் விலங்குகளினால்/மனிதர்களால் தயாரிக்கப்படக்கூடியது. இதன் குறிமுறையன்கள்: AAU மற்றும் AAC. ...
Hydrolysis of an N(4)-(acetyl-beta-D- glucosaminyl)asparagine residue in which the glucosamine residue may be further glycosylated, to yield a (substituted) N-acetyl- beta-D-glucosaminylamine and a peptide containing an aspartate residue ...
1NJE: Partitioning roles of side chains in affinity, orientation, and catalysis with structures for mutant complexes: asparagine-229 in thymidylate synthase.
1NJB: Partitioning roles of side chains in affinity, orientation, and catalysis with structures for mutant complexes: asparagine-229 in thymidylate synthase.
II. LYMPHOMA 6C3HED CELLS CULTURED IN A MEDIUM DEVOID OF L-ASPARAGINE LOSE THEIR SUSCEPTIBILITY TO THE EFFECTS OF GUINEA PIG SERUM IN VIVO ...
Po e ndjekim hap pas hapi ecurinë e analizës së këtij shkruesi që lodhet shumë pa e ditur mirë se çfarë po shkruan, meqë ende nuk i ka fituar aftësitë e mundësitë e duhura me atë përvojë të pakët profesionale në fushën e letërsisë shqipe, e cila është një shkencë serioze dhe me kontribute të lashta sasiore e cilësore. Mbasi vlerat e saja estetiko-artistike janë të njohura me kohë kombëtarisht e botërisht. Le tua lëmë fjalën pjesëve problematike e thelbësore të këtij shkrimi. Shkruesi që në fillim arsyeton, me një analizë jo të thelluar dhe mjaft sipërfaqësore e hera-herës me një kuptim të kundërt me çfarë kumton përmbajtja e poezive të këtij autori, duke e krahasuar përmbajtjen e tyre me disa fjalë të huaja. Konkretisht ai shprehet:"Ditarët e mjegullës", një metaforë që në profecinë e saj paralajmëron...ngulmimet e poetit...në imazherinë e shoqërisë e të hapë rrugëkalimet drejt një prosperiteti të dëshirueshëm nën ...
سیانوباکترها یک گروه منحصر به فرد از باکتری-های فتواتوتروف هستند که برخی از آن‌ها به دلیل ویژگی-های ساختاری، تحمل قابل توجهی به تنش شوری نشان می-دهند. این موجودات نقش مهمی در محیط-های خاکی به ویژه در نواحی خشک و نیمه-خشک ایفا می-کنند. در مطالعه حاضر سیانوباکترهای خاک از مناطق بیابانی ایران جداسازی شده و سپس جدایه-های مقاوم به شرایط فوق شور شناسایی شدند. 40 نمونه خاک از پارک ملی کویر تهیه شد. نمونه-ها پس از کشت در محیط BG11 و ASN III (5/3، 5، 6 و 7 درصد کلرید سدیم) و انکوباسیون در شرایط مناسب دمایی و نور، جداسازی شده و با استفاده از کلیدهای مورفولوژیکی به طور اولیه و سپس با
TY - JOUR. T1 - Amino Acid Templating of Inorganic Networks. T2 - Synthesis and Structure of L-Asparagine Zinc Phosphite, C4N2O3H 8·ZnHPO3. AU - Gordon, Laura E.. AU - Harrison, William T.A.. PY - 2004/3/22. Y1 - 2004/3/22. N2 - C4N2O3H8·ZnHPO 3 is the first zincophosphite framework to be templated by an amino acid (L-asparagine), which bonds to Zn via a carboxyl O atom. It contains infinite, homochiral, helical 4-ring chains of ZnO4 and HPO 3 groups, stabilized by intra- and interchain N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. Crystal data: C4N2O3H 8·ZnHPO3, Mr = 277.49, orthorhombic, P212121 (No. 19), a = 5.0349(2) Å, b = 9.4539(4) Å, c = 18.6092(8) Å, V = 885,79 (6) Å3, Z = 4.. AB - C4N2O3H8·ZnHPO 3 is the first zincophosphite framework to be templated by an amino acid (L-asparagine), which bonds to Zn via a carboxyl O atom. It contains infinite, homochiral, helical 4-ring chains of ZnO4 and HPO 3 groups, stabilized by intra- and interchain N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. Crystal data: C4N2O3H 8·ZnHPO3, Mr = ...
The antileukemic activity of l-asparaginase (ASNase), an important component of therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, is thought to result from depletion of serum l-asparagine (Asn). In studies of the pharmacological effects of ASNase, investigators have reported prolonged reduction in the serum concentration of Asn after the administration of ASNase. Such measurements may not be valid because ASNase present in the blood sample may hydrolyze Asn before its determination. We examined recovery of [U-14C]Asn from blood samples with and without various concentrations of added ASNase. In the presence of ≥0.01 IU/ml of ASNase, the amount of [U-14C]Asn recovered was ,15% of that without ASNase. Utilizing this assay, we studied the effect of 2 known inhibitors of ASNase in an attempt to improve Asn recovery. In the presence of aspartic β semialdehyde (ASA), or 5-diazo-4-oxo-l-norvaline (DONV), and up to 1.0 IU/ml ASNase, Asn levels remained at ,90% of control. ASA prevented the hydrolysis of ...
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Targeting amino acid metabolism has therapeutic implications for aggressive brain tumors. Asparagine is an amino acid that is synthesized by normal cells. However, some cancer cells lack asparagine synthetase (ASNS), the key enzyme for asparagine synthesis. Asparaginase (ASNase) contributes to eradication of acute leukemia by decreasing asparagine levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. However, leukemic cells may become ASNase-resistant by up-regulating ASNS. High expression of ASNS has also been associated with biological aggressiveness of other cancers, including gliomas. Here, the impact of enzymatic depletion of asparagine on proliferation of brain tumor cells was determined. ASNase was used as monotherapy or in combination with conventional chemotherapeutic agents. Viability assays for ASNase-treated cells demonstrated significant growth reduction in multiple cell lines. This effect was reversed by glutamine in a dose-dependent manner -- as expected, because glutamine is the main amino ...
Sugar moieties on the cell surface play one of the most important roles in cellular recognition. In order to elucidate the molecular mechanism of these cellular phenomena, assessment of the structure...
Larsen TM, Boehlein SK, Schuster SM, Richards NG, Thoden JB, Holden HM, Rayment I (December 1999). "Three-dimensional structure of Escherichia coli asparagine synthetase B: a short journey from substrate to product". Biochemistry. 38 (49): 16146-57. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.453.5998. doi:10.1021/bi9915768. PMID 10587437 ...
Suolinna, E; Tritsch, G; and Hakala, M T., "Asparagine (asn) and glutamine (gln) metabolism in sarcoma 180 cells in vitro. Abstr." (1971). Subject Strain Bibliography 1971. 2397 ...
Asparagine is a nonessential amino acid, which means that it is manufactured from other amino acids in the liver; it does not have to be obtained directly through the diet.
... e (abbreviated as Asn or N; Asx or B represent either asparagine or aspartic acid) is one of the 20 most common natural amino acids on Earth. It has carboxamide as the side chains functional group. It is not an essential amino acid. Its codons are AAU and AAC. A reaction between asparagine and reducing sugars or reactive carbonyls produces acrylamide (acrylic amide) in food when heated to sufficient temperature. These products occur in baked goods such as french fries, potato chips, and roasted coffee.
Asparagine synthetase antibody (asparagine synthetase (glutamine-hydrolyzing)) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-Asparagine synthetase pAb (GTX114269) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase, catalyzes sequential addition of the two terminal alpha 1,2-mannose residues to the Man5GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol intermediate during asparagine-linked glycosylation in the ...
Alg1 - Alg1 (untagged) - Mouse asparagine-linked glycosylation 1 homolog (yeast, beta-1,4-mannosyltransferase) (cDNA clone MGC:18946, (10ug) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Complete information for ASNS gene (Protein Coding), Asparagine Synthetase (Glutamine-Hydrolyzing), including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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Creative Biolabs has established a platform predict and assess deamidation of antibody therapeutics as part of manufacturability assessment.
ASN1_STRING_new() returns an allocated ASN1_STRING structure. Its type is undefined. ASN1_STRING_type_new() returns an allocated ASN1_STRING structure of type type. ASN1_STRING_free() frees up a. ...
L-Asparaginase (ASNase) is a drug used in treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In presence of this enzyme the asparagine, an essential amino acid for biosynthesis, is converted to aspartic acid and ammonia. The malignant cells in patients with ASNase sensitive leukemia depend on exogenous supply of asparagine for survival. Administration of ASNase results in rapid reduction of systemic asparagine causing apoptosis of cancer cells. The effect of this enzyme on normal cells is not significant compared to the malignant cells as the normal cells are capable of generating their own source of asparagine through aspartic acid by way of asparagine synthetase.. Despite its effectiveness, the use of ASNase is not without problems. Due to its bacterial origin, namely E. coli and Erwinia carotovora, ASNase causes immunogenic response in patients and requires administration in hospital setting. The problem is compounded by the fact that ASNase has short half-life which in turn necessitates frequent ...
N-glycans or asparagine-linked glycans are major constituents of glycoproteins in eukaryotes. N-glycans are covalently attached to asparagine with the consensus sequence of Asn-X-Ser/Thr by an N-glycosidic bond, GlcNAc b1- Asn. Biosynthesis of N-glycans begins on the cytoplasmic face of the ER membrane with the transferase reaction of UDP-GlcNAc and the lipid-like precursor P-Dol (dolichol phosphate) to generate GlcNAc a1- PP-Dol. After sequential addition of monosaccharides by ALG glycosyltransferases [MD:M00055], the N-glycan precursor is attached by the OST (oligosaccharyltransferase) complex to the polypeptide chain that is being synthesized and translocated through the ER membrane. The protein-bound N-glycan precursor is subsequently trimmed, extended, and modified in the ER and Golgi by a complex series of reactions catalyzed by membrane-bound glycosidases and glycosyltransferases. N-glycans thus synthesized are classified into three types: high-mannose type, complex type, and hybrid type. ...
The present protocol will compare the biologic effects of PEG-asparaginase vs native-forms of asparaginase in a randomized trial using the same dosages and schedules used in the POG 9411 study. Comprehensive studies, including the measurement of antibodies and asparagine levels as well as the pharmacokinetics of L-asparaginase, will be performed. This protocol will also study the changes in topoisomerase I and topoisomerase II levels and the fractions of topoisomerase I/II translocations in malignant lymphoblasts after upfront window topotecan therapy, and correlate oncolytic response with these changes. Secondary objectives include: - To compare changes in asparagine levels 28 days after initiation of treatment with asparaginase between the two groups. - To estimate the pharmacokinetics of L-asparaginase, compare the pharmacokinetics between the two groups of patients, and correlate the pharmacokinetics with the development of antibody to asparaginase and depletion of asparagine. - To measure ...
Antibodies and cell lines. MDX-060 and MDX-1401 are fully human IgG1 (κ) isotype mAbs specific for human CD30 antigen. MDX-060 was obtained by cloning of heavy and light chain cDNA from hybridoma 5F11 and reexpression in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells (28). Nonfucosylated MDX-1401 was obtained by expression of 5F11 heavy and light chain cDNA in a Ms704-PF FUT8 (α-1,6-fucosyl transferase) knockout CHO cell line (29). A variant of MDX-060 was also expressed in which site-directed mutagenesis was used to remove the site for N-linked carbohydrate addition from the Fc region by mutating the asparagine at position 297 to glutamine (N297Q). This antibody was used as a study control. Antibodies were subsequently produced and purified using standard mammalian cell cultivation and chromatographic purification techniques.. The Karpas-299 (ACC 31) human ALCL T-cell lymphoma line as well as L540 (ACC 72), L428 (ACC 197), and L1236 (ACC 530) human HL cell lines were purchased from the German Resource ...
Evidence that the transcriptional unit identified corresponds to fl(2)d: Several lines of evidence indicate that the transcriptional unit described above corresponds to fl(2)d. First, the site of P-element insertion in the fl(2)dP mutant disrupts the longer Fl(2)d ORF (Figures 2A and 4A). Second, sequence analysis of genomic DNA from fl(2)d1 flies, a recessive temperature-sensitive mutant of fl(2)d, revealed a single G to A nucleotide change at nucleotide position 939. This results in an amino acid change from aspartic acid to asparagine at position 180 of the longer version of Fl(2)d ORF (Figure 4, A and B). Third, sequence analysis of genomic DNA from fl(2)d2/+ heterozygous flies also revealed DNA alterations that are consistent with the stronger, non-sex-specific phenotype associated with this mutation (Granadinoet al. 1992). Because fl(2)d2 is lethal in homozygosis, DNA from fl(2)d2/+ heterozygous flies was amplified by PCR to generate products that span the complete ORF. The profile of the ...
It has been established that all cells carry an array of glycans attached to proteins and lipids that are crucial in the interaction between cells and the surrounding matrix. Proteins are mainly glycosylated on asparagines (N-glycosylation) and serine or threonine residues (O-glycosylation). Compared to N-glycans, O-glycans offer a higher degree of structural ambiguity due to the existence of several types and cores. This is believed to contribute to the relative lack of knowledge on these molecules. Therefore, improvement to the current methodologies of structural studies is a prerequisite to complement the immense functional findings of O-glycoconjugates in biological systems. This thesis discusses the structural characterisation, regulation and biological roles of O-glycans. The overall aim was to optimise O-glycomic mass spectrometric analysis to help illuminate the phenotypic findings from our collaborators in three separate but related projects. The methodologies utilised involving ...
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. During a fire, irritating and highly toxic gases may be generated by thermal decomposition or combustion. To extinguish fire use water spray, dry chemical, carbon dioxide, or appropriate foam ...
Berezov, T T., "Activity of omega-amidase in human and animal malignant neoplasms. (russ.)" (1966). Subject Strain Bibliography 1966. 266 ...
Complete information for ASNSP4 gene (Pseudogene), Asparagine Synthetase Pseudogene 4, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Solute carriers (SLCs) comprise the largest group of transporters in humans and there are currently 52 SLC families. They are embedded in cellular membranes and transport numerous molecules; defects in many of the genes encoding SLCs have been connected to pathological conditions, and several SLCs are potential drug targets.. The SLC38 family has in total eleven members in humans and they encode transporters called SNATs. In paper I and paper II, we reported molecular and functional characterization of Slc38a7 and Slc38a8, two of the previous orphan members in the family which we suggested to be named SNAT7 and SNAT8, respectively. Using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, these transporters showed similar expression pattern and localized to neurons in the brain For functional characterization proteins were overexpressed in X. laevis oocytes and an Uptake Assay and electrophysiological recordings showed preferred transport of L-glutamine, L-histidine, L-alanine, L-asparagine, ...
The cae8 promoter is sensitive to the amino acid L-asparagine.The figure shows measured β-galactosidase activities from wild-type BW25113 cells, carrying the c
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Site-directed mutagenesis has been used to remove 15 of the 18 potential N-linked glycosylation sites, in 16 combinations, from the human exon 11-minus receptor isoform. The three glycosylation sites not mutated were asparagine residues 25, 397 and 894, which are known to be important in receptor biosynthesis or function. The effects of these mutations on proreceptor processing into α and β subunits, cell-surface expression, insulin binding and receptor autophosphorylation were assessed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The double mutants 16+78, 16+111, 16+215, 16+255, 337+418, the triple mutants 295+337+418, 295+418+514, 337+418+514 and 730+743+881 and the quadruple mutants 606+730+743+881 and 671+730+743+881 seemed normal by all criteria examined. The triple mutant 16+215+255 showed only low levels of correctly processed receptor on the cell surface, this processed receptor being autophosphorylated in response to insulin. The quadruple mutant 624+730+743+881 showed normal processing and ligand ...
IN THIS FINAL REPORT ARE DESCRIBED THE MAIN RESULTS OF INVESTIGATIONS CARRIED OUT SINCE 1951. The investigations dealt with the metabolism of the dicarboxylic amino acids, glutamic and aspartic acids, and some of their metabolic derivatives, such as glutamine, asparagine, glutathione, and other peptides. Since various glutamic acid derivatives have been claimed to be breakdown products of histidine metabolism the enzymatic degradation of histidine was studied and a labile intermediate isolated and identified. The identification of formamidinoglutaric acid as a labile intermediate in enzymatic histidine breakdown led to an elucidation of the catabolic pathway of histidine and to a study of the mechanism of synthesis of histidine in bacteria. Another aspect of interest in glutamic acid metabolism led to the discovery of two enzymes which catalyze the exchange of the amide groups of free glutamine (glutamotransferase) and of protein bound glutamine (transglutaminase). Parallel with these studies,
The cell-cell adhesion molecule 1 (C-CAM1) plays an important role as a tumor suppressor for prostate cancer. Decreased expression of C-CAM1 was detected in prostate, breast, and colon carcinoma. Reexpression of C-CAM1 in prostate and breast cancer cell lines was able to suppress tumorigenicity in vivo. These observations suggest that C-CAM1 may be used as a marker for cancer detection or diagnosis. To generate monoclonal antibodies specific to C-CAM1, we have overexpressed full-length human C-CAM1 in Sf9 cells using a baculovirus expression system. The protein was purified 104-fold using nickel affinity chromatography. About 0.4 mg purified C-CAM1 was obtained from 200 mg of infected cells. When the purified protein was digested with peptidyl-N-glycosidase, the apparent mobility of the protein on SDS-PAGE changed from 90 to 58 kDa, which is close to the molecular weight predicted from the cloned cDNA sequence. This observation suggests that C-CAM1 was glycosylated on asparagine residues when expressed
1.1 (via one step): A suspension of 1.12 g of 60 % NaH in 75 ml of THF is treated with 7.50 g of Z-(D)-asparagine methyl ester (99.9% (R)-isomer) (synthesized according to J. Liq. Chromatogr. (1994), 17(13), 2759 or for example starting with D-asparagine (Fluka) and protecting the free amino function with a benzyloxycarbonyl group and subsequent esterification to the corresponding methyl ester asparagine derivative of formula I; the reactions are carried out according to textbook of organic chemistry e.g. J. March (1992), "Advanced Organic Chemistry: Reactions, Mechanisms, and Structure" 4th ed. John Wiley & Sons) over 5 min at rt. After 20 min, 3.57 ml of benzyl bromide (commercially available from Fluka) was added, followed by 120 ml of DMR After 3 h, the conversion was completed (indicated by HPLC). The reaction was quenched with 150 ml H2O and extracted three times with 120 ml of toluene. The organic layer was washed with H?0, dried over MgSO,*, filtered and the filtrate was evaporated to ...
In the present study, we demonstrate that GnT-V expression is decreased or lost in about half of NSCLCs, although GnT-V is expressed in bronchial epithelial cells, bronchial gland cells, and alveolar pneumocytes. Histology was significantly correlated with GnT-V expression; low GnT-V expression was more frequently found in squamous cell carcinomas than in non-squamous cell carcinomas. Furthermore, low GnT-V expression was associated with a shorter survival period and was an unfavorable prognostic factor in pStage I resected non-squamous cell carcinomas.. GnT-V expression is not equal to the expression of β1-6 branching asparagine-linked oligosaccharides analyzed by L-PHA histochemistry, because (a) GnT-V has been shown to have a function as an inducer of angiogenesis (26) that is a completely different function from the original function of glycosyltransferase, and (b) GnT-V expression does not necessarily result in the synthesis of β1-6 branching oligosaccharides, depending on the cell and ...
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In mathematics, a left (or right) quaternionic vector space is a left (or right) H-module where H denotes the noncommutative ring of the quaternions. The space Hn of n-tuples of quaternions is both a left and right H-module using the componentwise left and right multiplication: q ( q 1 , q 2 , … q n ) = ( q q 1 , q q 2 , … q q n ) {\displaystyle q(q_{1},q_{2},\ldots q_{n})=(qq_{1},qq_{2},\ldots qq_{n})} ( q 1 , q 2 , … q n ) q = ( q 1 q , q 2 q , … q n q ) {\displaystyle (q_{1},q_{2},\ldots q_{n})q=(q_{1}q,q_{2}q,\ldots q_{n}q)} for quaternions q and q1, q2, ... qn. Since H is a division algebra, every finitely generated (left or right) H-module has a basis, and hence is isomorphic to Hn for some n. Vector space General linear group Special linear group SL(n,H) Symplectic group Harvey, F. Reese (1990). Spinors and Calibrations. San Diego: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-329650-1 ...
Learn how to call Caracas Venezuela from Jamaica. Plus, our complete resource guide gives you the Venezuelan country code, Caracas area codes, area codes, and Venezuela dialing codes to help you make your international call.
Del 25 al 27 de enero de 2013. Espacios ACCEDE, Macaracuay.. El Caracas Game Jam 2013 se hizo en los espacios ACCEDE en Macaracuay, del 25 al 27 de enero de 2013. 67 participantes hicieron 18 juegos en 48 horas, en base a un tema sonoro correspondiente al de un corazón latiendo. A continuación, el índice de juegos hechos en 2013.. ...
Del 25 al 27 de enero de 2013. Espacios ACCEDE, Macaracuay.. El Caracas Game Jam 2013 se hizo en los espacios ACCEDE en Macaracuay, del 25 al 27 de enero de 2013. 67 participantes hicieron 18 juegos en 48 horas, en base a un tema sonoro correspondiente al de un corazón latiendo. A continuación, el índice de juegos hechos en 2013.. ...
cDNA cloning and expression of bovine aspartyl (asparaginyl) beta-hydroxylase.: Aspartyl (asparaginyl) beta-hydroxylase which specifically hydroxylates 1 Asp or
Rabbit recombinant monoclonal Asparagine synthetase antibody [EP282Y] validated for WB, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. Referenced in 3…
Yeast, Stem Cells, Cobalt, Asparagine, Glutamine, Patients, Neoplasms, Pancreas, Biomarkers, Cyst, Mutations, Tumor, and Mutation
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N-glycans or asparagine-linked glycans are major constituents of glycoproteins in eukaryotes. N-glycans are covalently attached to asparagine with the consensus sequence of Asn-X-Ser/Thr by an N-glycosidic bond, GlcNAc b1- Asn. Biosynthesis of N-glycans begins on the cytoplasmic face of the ER membrane with the transferase reaction of UDP-GlcNAc and the lipid-like precursor P-Dol (dolichol phosphate) to generate GlcNAc a1- PP-Dol. After sequential addition of monosaccharides by ALG glycosyltransferases [MD:M00055], the N-glycan precursor is attached by the OST (oligosaccharyltransferase) complex to the polypeptide chain that is being synthesized and translocated through the ER membrane. The protein-bound N-glycan precursor is subsequently trimmed, extended, and modified in the ER and Golgi by a complex series of reactions catalyzed by membrane-bound glycosidases and glycosyltransferases. N-glycans thus synthesized are classified into three types: high-mannose type, complex type, and hybrid type. ...
Asparaginase is one of the key therapeutic agents for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) [ 1 ]. Asparaginase is an active bacterial enzyme
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structural Analysis of Invariant Chain Subsets as a Function of Their Association with MHC Class II Chains. AU - Nguyen, Q. V.. AU - Reyes, Victor. AU - Humphreys, R. E.. PY - 1995/2/20. Y1 - 1995/2/20. N2 - Respective subsets of human invariant chain (Ii), as identified with antibodies to two different epitopes, were characterized as a function of their associations with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II α,β chains and intracellular processing. E1 antiserum to Ii(183-193) and VIC-Y1 monoclonal antibody to an N-terminal determinant identified Ii(E1) and Ii(VIC) populations, respectively. Ii proteins comprise several species which have been defined with either genomic or post-translational processes: Ii itself; IpN and IpO, which represent the glycosylated forms on asparagine or threonine/serine, respectively; γ2 and γ3, which originate from an alternative initiation site for transcription; and p41, which has a 64-amino-acid insert which originated from an ...
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PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Cleaves the GlcNAc-Asn bond which joins oligosaccharides to the peptide of asparagine-linked glycoproteins. Requires that the glycosylated asparagine moiety is not substituted on its N-(R1) and C- (R2) terminus.
Involved in the maturation of Asn-linked oligosaccharides. Progressively trims alpha-1,2-linked mannose residues from Man(9)GlcNAc(2) to produce Man(5)GlcNAc(2) (By similarity).
I know that there are polar uncharged amino acids (serine, threonine, asparagine, glutamine, cysteine) and polar charged amino acids (the basic and acidic amino acids). Does the charge on the acidic and basic amino acids make them more polar and hydrophilic than the uncharged polar amino acids? Moreover, cysteine is classified as an uncharged amino acid, but because it has an ionizable side chain, would it be more polar than serine, asparagine, etc.? ...
Omega-amidase; Omega-amidase involved in the metabolism of asparagine. Probably also closely coupled with glutamine transamination in the methionine salvage cycle. Can use alpha-ketosuccinamate and alpha- hydroxysuccinamate as substrates, producing respectively oxaloacetate and malate, or alpha-ketoglutaramate, producing alpha-ketoglutarate (369 aa ...
... ,Rabbit monoclonal [EP282Y] to Asparagine synthetase ( P08243,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
TABLE-US-00003 TABLE 6 Atomic coordinates for the motavizumab binding peptide ATOM 3243 N ASN P 254 7.154 8.372 -9.660 1.00 124.11 N ANISOU 3243 N ASN P 254 13767 16195 17192 -3482 2530 2430 N ATOM 3244 CA ASN P 254 7.612 9.736 -9.412 1.00 121.53 C ANISOU 3244 CA ASN P 254 13313 15765 17097 -3858 2355 2424 C ATOM 3245 C ASN P 254 6.768 10.583 -8.462 1.00 111.67 C ANISOU 3245 C ASN P 254 12385 14386 15658 -4047 1969 2168 C ATOM 3246 O ASN P 254 5.706 11.098 -8.827 1.00 107.07 O ANISOU 3246 O ASN P 254 12235 13626 14819 -4027 2035 2025 O ATOM 3247 CB ASN P 254 7.853 10.480 -10.730 1.00 123.56 C ANISOU 3247 CB ASN P 254 13592 15864 17490 -3953 2745 2570 C ATOM 3248 CG ASN P 254 9.265 10.333 -11.225 1.00 130.78 C ANISOU 3248 CG ASN P 254 13976 16914 18799 -4017 2965 2837 C ATOM 3249 OD1 ASN P 254 10.213 10.485 -10.461 1.00 132.18 O ANISOU 3249 OD1 ASN P 254 13727 17233 19260 -4212 2717 2883 O ATOM 3250 ND2 ASN P 254 9.416 10.009 -12.511 1.00 136.19 N ANISOU 3250 ND2 ASN P 254 14673 17575 19498 -3837 ...
In certain, the tip of a310 loop reaches across the rigid b barrel producing a number of contacts with PBC. The aspect chain of Asn116 types a hydrogen bond with Glu183 which anchors the 29 OH of the ribose. As in PKG Ib CNBD-A, the H-form of PKA RIa shows a hydrogen bond between the corresponding asparagine and glutamate residues. In the B-type…[Read more]. ...
N-linked glycosylation is not required for hIL-6 receptor binding, STAT signaling or cytokine-dependent B9.11 cell proliferation. (A) Calibration of quantities
Franca vjen një lajm që mund të përforcojë dyshimet për sa i përket rastit të parë me koronavirus. Në fakt është regjistruar një rast me Covid-19 që në 27 dhjetor të…. ...
... Cardiologo pediatrico em caracas. Facebook em catala ao mobil. English jose ovejero livros. A gata cap 68 completos.
About tinks599, ASN - Welcome to my allnursesPage! You can learn all about me here. Together, we can learn, share, and network with nurses and nursing students from all around the world.
Zielinska DF, Gnad F, Wiśniewski JR, Mann M (2010) Precision mapping of an in vivo N-glycoproteome reveals rigid topological and sequence constraints. Cell 141, 897-907 ...
Aspartic acid (D) or Asparagine (N) C Cysteine D Aspartic acid E Glutamic acid ...
Asparagine Asn N MT-TN 5,657-5,729 H Aspartic acid Asp D MT-TD 7,518-7,585 L ...
Asparagine. Asp. -. NMDA receptors. Small: Amino acids. Glutamate. Glu. Metabotropic glutamate receptors. NMDA receptors, ...
... asparagine mutant". Biochemistry. 36 (46): 13979-88. doi:10.1021/bi971004s. PMID 9369469. Maruyama T, Kitaoka Y, Sachi Y, ...
In N-glycosylation, sugars are attached to nitrogen, typically on the amide side-chain of asparagine. ... For example, inhibition of asparagine-linked, i.e. N-linked, glycosylation can prevent proper glycoprotein folding and full ...
Asn/N) Asparagine AGT (Ser/S) Serine T ATC ACC AAC AGC C ...
Asparagine AGT Serine ATC ACC AAC AGC ATA ACA AAA Lysine AGA Arginine ...
Asparagine H2N-CO-CH2- Aspartic Acid → Asparagine (asparagine synthetase) ...
In addition, although the amide of asparagine is a weak nucleophile, it can serve as an attachment point for glycans. Rarer ... glycosylation, the addition of a glycosyl group to either arginine, asparagine, cysteine, hydroxylysine, serine, threonine, ... deamidation, the conversion of glutamine to glutamic acid or asparagine to aspartic acid ... isoaspartate formation, via the cyclisation of asparagine or aspartic acid amino-acid residues ...
In inteins, the new ester bond is broken by an intramolecular attack by the soon-to-be C-terminal asparagine. ... Hydrolysis of the intermediate produces either aspartate or the β-amino acid, iso(Asp). For asparagine, either product results ... In this modification, an asparagine or aspartate side chain attacks the following peptide bond, forming a symmetrical ...
Asparagine Asn N 0.65 2.72 Aspartic acid Asp D 0.69 2.89 Cysteine Cys C 0.68 2.85 ...
Other names in common use include asparagine synthetase (ADP-forming), and asparagine synthetase (adenosine diphosphate-forming ... Nair PM (1969). "Asparagine synthetase from gamma-irradiated potatoes". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 133 (2): 208-15. doi:10.1016/ ... L-asparagine The 3 substrates of this enzyme are ATP, L-aspartate, and NH3, whereas its 3 products are ADP, phosphate, and L- ... asparagine. This enzyme belongs to the family of ligases, specifically those forming carbon-nitrogen bonds as acid-D-ammonia ( ...
Asparagine-linked glycosylation protein 11 is an enzyme encoded by the ALG11 gene. Congenital disorder of glycosylation GRCh38 ... asparagine-linked glycosylation 11". Cipollo, JF; Trimble, RB; Chi, JH; Yan, Q; Dean, N (2001). "The yeast ALG11 gene specifies ...
In both cases, the acceptor substrate is an asparagine residue. The asparagine residue linked to an N-linked oligosaccharide ... N-linked oligosaccharides are always pentasaccharides attached to asparagine via a beta linkage to the amine nitrogen of the ... N-linked glycosylation involves oligosaccharide attachment to asparagine via a beta linkage to the amine nitrogen of the side ...
Asparagine peptide lyases - using an asparagine to perform an elimination reaction (not requiring water) ... the catalytic asparagine forms a cyclic chemical structure that cleaves itself at asparagine residues in proteins under the ... A seventh catalytic type of proteolytic enzymes, asparagine peptide lyase, was described in 2011. Its proteolytic mechanism is ... "Asparagine peptide lyases: a seventh catalytic type of proteolytic enzymes". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 286 (44): ...
Mammals do possess the enzymes to synthesize alanine, asparagine, aspartate, cysteine, glutamate, glutamine, glycine, proline, ... "alanine-glycine-tryptophan-serine-glutamate-asparagine-glycine-lysine-…". Secondary structure is concerned with local ...
These five are alanine, aspartic acid, asparagine, glutamic acid and serine (i.e., A D N E S).[2] ...
The difucosylation of asparagine-bound N-acetylglucosamine". Eur. J. Biochem. 199 (3): 745-51. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1991. ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is GDP-L-fucose:glycoprotein (L-fucose to asparagine-linked N-acetylglucosamine of N4 ... asparagine The 5 substrates of this enzyme are GDP-L-fucose, [[N4-{N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-(1->2)-alpha-D-mannosyl-(1->3 ... asparagine) 3-alpha-L-fucosyl-transferase. Other names in common use include GDP-L-Fuc:N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide alpha1,3- ...
It has fewer aspartate, glutamate, and asparagine. The high ratio of basic to acidic amino acids contributes to the protein's ...
50mg each asparagine, cystine, leucine, and isoleucine; 40mg lysine hydrochloride; 30mg serine; 20mg each aspartic acid, ...
Inhibition of L-'asparagine synthetase in vivo". Biochem. Pharmacol. 25 (16): 1851-8. doi:10.1016/0006-2952(76)90189-1. PMID ... "Reactions of Pseudomonas 7A glutaminase-asparaginase with diazo analogues of glutamine and asparagine result in unexpected ...
Role of histidine 191 and asparagine 194". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 273 (49): 32753-32762. ISSN 0021-9258. Messiha ...
Ambasta RK, Ai X, Emerson CP (November 2007). "Quail Sulf1 function requires asparagine-linked glycosylation". The Journal of ...
Other names in common use include asparagine synthetase, and L-asparagine synthetase. This enzyme participates in 3 metabolic ... "Asparagine biosynthesis in Lactobacillus arabinosus and its control by asparagine through enzyme inhibition and repression". J ... Webster GC & Varner JE (1955). "Aspartate metabolism and asparagine synthesis in plant systems". J. Biol. Chem. 215: 91-99. ... L-asparagine The 3 substrates of this enzyme are ATP, L-aspartate, and NH3, whereas its 3 products are AMP, diphosphate, and L- ...
This enzyme participates in alanine and asparagine metabolism. Ibba, M.; Söll, D. (2000). "Aminoacyl-tRNA synthesis". Annu. Rev ... L-asparagine, and tRNAAsx, whereas its 3 products are AMP, diphosphate, and asparaginyl-tRNAAsx. When this enzyme acts on ...
... asparagine synthetase (glutamine-hydrolysing), glutamine-dependent asparagine synthetase, asparagine synthetase B, AS, AS-B) is ... AMP + diphosphate + L-asparagine + L-glutamate (overall reaction). (1a) L-glutamine + H2O ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons ... AMP + diphosphate + L-asparagine. The enzyme from Escherichia coli has two active sites6]. ... Asparagine+synthase+(glutamine-hydrolysing) at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
First isolated in 1932 from asparagus, from which its name is derived, asparagine is widely distributed in plant proteins. It ... Asparagine, an amino acid closely related to aspartic acid, and an important component of proteins. ... are aspartic acid, asparagine, threonine, and methionine. Aspartic acid and asparagine, which occur in large amounts, can be ... More About Asparagine. 1 reference found in Britannica articles. Assorted References. *proteins* In protein: Structures of ...
Since the asparagine side-chain can form hydrogen bond interactions with the peptide backbone, asparagine residues are often ... The enzyme asparagine synthetase produces asparagine, AMP, glutamate, and pyrophosphate from aspartate, glutamine, and ATP. In ... Glutamine donates an ammonium group, which reacts with β-aspartyl-AMP to form asparagine and free AMP. Asparagine usually ... Asparagine (abbreviated as Asn or N), encoded by the codons AAU and AAC, is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of ...
Other names: L-Asparagine, N,N2-bis(trimethylsilyl)-, trimethylsilyl ester; Asparagine, tris-TMS; Asparagine-3TMS ... Asparagine, 3TMS derivative. *Formula: C13H32N2O3Si3 ...
Fructose-asparagine can be prepared by refluxing D-glucose with sodium bisulfite in methanol, and then adding L-asparagine, and ... fraA a fructose-asparagine transporter, and fraE a L-asparaginase. Fructose-asparagine is a aminodeoxysugar. It takes the form ... Fructose-asparagine is found naturally in some foods, with dried asparagus containing 1.4% and carrot containing 0.1%. "N-(1- ... Fructose-asparagine is a glycosylamine compound that is used during Salmonella-mediated inflammation of the intestine. The name ...
Asparagine synthetase (or aspartate-ammonia ligase) is a chiefly cytoplasmic enzyme that generates asparagine from aspartate. ... This depletion of serum asparagine leads to a subsequent rapid efflux of cellular asparagine, which is immediately acted upon ... In addition, these normal cells are able to upregulate their expression of asparagine synthetase in response to the asparagine ... Hamster BHK ts11 cells produce an inactive asparagine synthetase enzyme, and this loss of asparagine synthetase activity ...
The catalytic mechanism of the asparagine peptide lyases involves an asparagine residue acting as nucleophile to perform a ... Asparagine peptide lyase are one of the seven groups in which proteases, also termed proteolytic enzymes, peptidases, or ... The main residue of the active site is the asparagine and there are other residues involved in the catalytic mechanism, which ... The C-terminal residue of the intein domain is always an asparagine, which cyclizes to form a succinimide, cleaving its own ...
In enzymology, an asparagine-tRNA ligase (EC 6.1.1.22) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-asparagine + ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-asparagine:tRNAAsn ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include ... L-asparagine, and tRNA(Asn), whereas its 3 products are AMP, diphosphate, and L-asparaginyl-tRNA(Asn). This enzyme belongs to ... and asparagine translase. This enzyme participates in alanine and aspartate metabolism and aminoacyl-trna biosynthesis. As of ...
The asparagine amide group is liberated by the reaction catalyzed by asparaginase (ASPG) and also the amino group of asparagine ... A small multigene family encodes isoenzymes of each step of asparagine metabolism in Arabidopsis, except for asparagine ... Asparagine plays a primary role in nitrogen recycling, storage and transport in developing and germinating seeds, as well as in ... Asparagine Metabolic Pathways in Arabidopsis.. Gaufichon L1, Rothstein SJ2, Suzuki A3. ...
Asparagine, the beta-amido derivative of aspartic acid, is considered a non-essential amino acid. This amino acid plays an ... Asparagine, the beta-amido derivative of aspartic acid, is considered a non-essential amino acid. This amino acid plays an ... On a per-mole basis, asparagine is incorporated into proteins and enzymes at a rate of 4.4 percent with respect to the other ...
In enzymology, an asparagine-oxo-acid transaminase (EC 2.6.1.14) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-asparagine ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-asparagine:2-oxo-acid aminotransferase. This enzyme is also called asparagine- ... MEISTER A, FRASER PE (1954). "Enzymatic formation of L-asparagine by transamination". J. Biol. Chem. 210 (1): 37-43. PMID ... the two substrates of this enzyme are L-asparagine and 2-oxo acid, whereas its two products are 2-oxosuccinamate and amino acid ...
... asparagine synthetase (glutamine-hydrolysing), glutamine-dependent asparagine synthetase, asparagine synthetase B, AS, AS-B) is ... L-asparagine The enzyme from Escherichia coli has two active sites6]. Patterson, M.K.; Jr.; Orr, G.R. (1968). "Asparagine ... Asparagine synthase (glutamine-hydrolysing) at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular ... Boehlein, S.K.; Richards, N.G.; Schuster, S.M. (1994). "Glutamine-dependent nitrogen transfer in Escherichia coli asparagine ...
S)-2-Aminosuccinic acid 4-amide, L-Aspartic acid 4-amide, L-Asparagine ...
3-hydroxy-L-asparagine + succinate + CO2 Hypoxia-inducible factor-asparagine dioxygenase contains iron, and requires ascorbate ... Hypoxia-inducible factor-asparagine dioxygenase (EC 1.14.11.30, HIF hydroxylase) is an enzyme with systematic name hypoxia- ... Hypoxia-inducible factor-asparagine dioxygenase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Lando, D.; Peet, D.J.; Whelan, D.A.; Gorman, J.J.; Whitelaw, M.L. (2002). "Asparagine hydroxylation of the HIF transactivation ...
This page features an image of asparagine (an amino acid) mixed with and acetaminophen (a common medication). ... Asparagine-Acetaminophen Mixture. Asparagine is one of twenty primary amino acids that occurs naturally in proteins. ... As a crucial building block in major biochemical pathways, asparagine is vital for the metabolism of ammonia in the liver, and ... Interestingly, aspartic acid and asparagine are found in high concentrations in the hippocampus, which is the portion of the ...
Asparagine 42 of the conserved endo-inulinase INU2 motif WMNDPN from Aspergillus ficuum plays a role in activity specificity. * ... Vandamme, A. M., Michaux, C., Mayard, A., & Housen, I. (2013). Asparagine 42 of the conserved endo-inulinase INU2 motif WMNDPN ...
Nα-Acetyl-L-asparagine for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references ... Amino Acids & Derivatives, Asparaginase II, Asparagine, Biochemicals and Reagents, Chemical Biology, Chemical Synthesis, Enzyme ...
Rabbit recombinant monoclonal Asparagine synthetase antibody [EP282Y] validated for WB, IHC, ICC/IF and tested in Human, Mouse ... Amino-acid biosynthesis; L-asparagine biosynthesis; L-asparagine from L-aspartate (L-Gln route): step 1/1. ... Anti-Asparagine synthetase antibody [EP282Y] (ab40850) at 1/2000 dilution + K562 cell lysate at 10 µg. Predicted band size : 61 ... Anti-Asparagine synthetase antibody (Alexa Fluor® 647) [EP282Y] (ab207508). Our RabMAb® technology is a patented hybridoma- ...
The amino acid asparagine was until now considered non-essential because it is produced naturally by the body. However, ... For example, asparagine supplement could be given to infants to ensure an adequate level of asparagine in the brain and the ... Asparagine essential for brain development. The amino acid asparagine was until now considered non-essential because it is ... "The cells of the body can do without it because they use asparagine provided through diet. Asparagine, however, is not well ...
Compare Asparagine synthetase ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews ... Asparagine synthetase ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody-based tool for ... Your search returned 68 Asparagine synthetase ELISA ELISA Kit across 6 suppliers. ...
Properties and functions of asparagine, a non-essential amino acid with a great importance for brain functioning and muscle ... Properties of asparagine. Asparagus is very rich in aspartic acid, a derivative of the amino acid asparagine.. Asparagine has ... Characteristics of asparagine. What is asparagine?. Asparagine is an amino acid from the metabolism of other amino acids, which ... Contraindications of asparagine. Pregnant women or people suffering from liver and kidney diseases should not take asparagine ...
In enzymology, a peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl)asparagine amidase (EC 3.5.1.52) is an enzyme that catalyzes a chemical ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is N-linked-glycopeptide-(N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl)-L-asparagine amidohydrolase. ... Tarentino AL, Gómez CM, Plummer TH (Aug 1985). "Deglycosylation of asparagine-linked glycans by peptide:N-glycosidase F". ... asparagine amidase A and its N-glycans". European Journal of Biochemistry / FEBS. 252 (1): 118-23. doi:10.1046/j.1432-1327.1998 ...
... Mol Microbiol. 1996 Jun;20(5):1001-11. ... aspartate or asparagine; it was resistant to toxic analogues of Glu, Asp, and Asn at concentrations that inhibited growth of ...
Asparagine, N-trifluoroacetyl, 1-methylethyl ester , C9H13F3N2O4 , CID 6431461 - structure, chemical names, physical and ...
Distribution of glutamine and asparagine residues and their near neighbors in peptides and proteins.. A B Robinson and L R ... Distribution of glutamine and asparagine residues and their near neighbors in peptides and proteins. ... Distribution of glutamine and asparagine residues and their near neighbors in peptides and proteins. ... Distribution of glutamine and asparagine residues and their near neighbors in peptides and proteins. ...
  • We provide independent and unbiased information on manufacturers, prices, production news and consumers for the global and regional (North America, Asia and Europe) market of DL-Asparagine monohydrate. (reportsnreports.com)
  • Radical formation in single crystals of L-asparagine monohydrate following X-irradiation at 6 K has been investigated at 6 K and at elevated temperatures using various electron magnetic resonance (EMR) techniques such as electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR), and ENDOR-induced EPR (EIE) spectroscopy. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Peptides with deamidated asparagine residues and oxidized methionine residues are often not resolved sufficiently to allow quantitation of their native and modified forms using reversed phase (RP) chromatography. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This reaction is spontaneous and non-enzymatic, where asparagine residues undergo formation of a five-membered succinimide ring intermediate from an intramolecular attack, and subsequently hydrolyze under physiological conditions to form either aspartyl or isoaspartyl peptides, which can be found in both the D and L configurations ( Figure 1 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteomes were assessed for yeast-prion-like domains that comprised a total of 30 or more glutamines and asparagines in an 80-amino-acid stretch [ 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since the asparagine side-chain can form hydrogen bond interactions with the peptide backbone, asparagine residues are often found near the beginning of alpha-helices as asx turns and asx motifs, and in similar turn motifs, or as amide rings, in beta sheets. (wikipedia.org)
  • The self-cleaving nature of asparagine peptide lyases contradicts the general definition of an enzyme given that the enzymatic activity destroys the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • All the proteolytic activity of the asparagine peptide lyases is only self-cleavages, then no further peptidase activity occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • In certain conditions, the asparagine cyclic structure nucleophilically attacks its C-terminal peptide bond to the main chain forming a new bond to create a stable succinimide, cleaving itself from the main chain and consequently releasing the two halves of the product. (wikipedia.org)
  • The MEROPS protease database includes the following ten families of asparagine peptide lyases, which are included in 6 different clans of proteases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The active site residues in family N4 asparagine peptide lyases are N1100, Y1227, E1249 and R1282. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthetic peptide corresponding to residues in the C-terminus of Human Asparagine synthetase. (abcam.com)
  • Deglycosylation of asparagine-linked glycans by peptide:N-glycosidase F". Biochemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the asparagine side chain can make efficient hydrogen bond interactions with the peptide backbone, asparagines are often found near the beginning and end of alpha-helices, and in turn motifs in beta sheets. (hmdb.ca)
  • A seventh catalytic type of proteolytic enzymes, asparagine peptide lyase, was described in 2011. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peptide:N-Glycosidase F, commonly referred to as PNGase F, is an amidase of the peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminyl) asparagine amidase class. (wikipedia.org)
  • Asparagine was first isolated in 1806 in a crystalline form by French chemists Louis Nicolas Vauquelin and Pierre Jean Robiquet (then a young assistant) from asparagus juice, in which it is abundant, hence the chosen name. (wikipedia.org)
  • Traditionally, the name of an amino acid is related to its discovery, and since asparagine was first purified from asparagus juice, it was given a similar name. (fsu.edu)
  • Asparagine was first isolated in 1806 from asparagus juice, in which it is abundant--hence its name--becoming the first amino acid to be isolated. (hmdb.ca)
  • The smell observed in the urine of some individuals after their consumption of asparagus is attributed to a byproduct of the metabolic breakdown of asparagine, asparagine-amino-succinic-acid monoamide. (hmdb.ca)
  • While the body can make asparagine, it's also found in our diet, with higher concentrations in some foods, including asparagus. (reliawire.com)
  • Fructose-asparagine is a glycosylamine compound that is used during Salmonella-mediated inflammation of the intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fructose-asparagine is a aminodeoxysugar. (wikipedia.org)
  • It decomposes above 120 °C. Fructose-asparagine is formed when cooking food by way of the Maillard reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fructose-asparagine can be prepared by refluxing D-glucose with sodium bisulfite in methanol, and then adding L-asparagine, and then acetic acid or malonic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to Salmonella , several other species of bacteria may utilize fructose-asparagine as a nutrient. (handwiki.org)
  • Many gastrointestinal Salmonella serovars encode the fra locus, presumably to utilize fructose-asparagine within the inflamed gut environment. (handwiki.org)
  • These results suggest that reducing asparagine levels through dietary restriction or chemotherapeutic treatment could limit HCMV replication in patients. (asm.org)
  • Enhanced expression of asparagine synthetase under glucose-deprived conditions protects pancreatic cancer cells from apoptosis induced by glucose deprivation and cisplatin. (diff.org)
  • It uses a catalytic triad of Cysteine-Histidine-Asparagine in its active site to perform covalent proteolysis of its substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • This review summarizes experimental studies addressing structural features of tandem repeats of short oligopeptides that are rich in proline, glycine, asparagine, serine, and/or threonine. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Certain tumor cells in contrast, exhibit little or no AS activity and rely on the surrounding medium as a source of exogenous asparagines (1). (novusbio.com)
  • In several other cancer types, researchers found that the increased ability of tumor cells to make asparagine was associated with reduced survival. (reliawire.com)
  • CATALYTIC ACTIVITY: ATP + L-asparagine + tRNA(Asn) = AMP + diphosphate + L-asparaginyl-tRNA(Asn). (mybiosource.com)
  • Although ordinarily obtained from a balanced diet, asparagine may be synthesized within the human body itself, and is therefore considered a nonessential amino acid. (fsu.edu)
  • This study represents the most comprehensive siRNA screen for the identification of host factors involved in HCMV replication and identifies the nonessential amino acid asparagine as a critical factor in regulating HCMV virus replication. (asm.org)
  • Addition of asparagine was sufficient to restore cell viability following glutamine withdrawal, but did not alter cell proliferation or rescue TCA cycle intermediates or nonessential amino acid synthesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • belongs to the class of organic compounds known as asparagine and derivatives. (hmdb.ca)
  • Asparagine, however, is not well transported to the brain via the blood-brain barrier," said senior co-author of the study Dr Jacques Michaud, who found that brain cells depend on the local synthesis of asparagine to function properly. (health24.com)