A C-type lectin that is a cell surface receptor for ASIALOGLYCOPROTEINS. It is found primarily in the LIVER where it mediates the endocytosis of serum glycoproteins.
Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.
A family of calcium-binding alpha-globulins that are synthesized in the LIVER and play an essential role in maintaining the solubility of CALCIUM in the BLOOD. In addition the fetuins contain aminoterminal cystatin domains and are classified as type 3 cystatins.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in cardiovascular and cerebral circulation.
A technetium imaging agent used in renal scintigraphy, computed tomography, lung ventilation imaging, gastrointestinal scintigraphy, and many other procedures which employ radionuclide imaging agents.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
An enzyme that oxidizes galactose in the presence of molecular oxygen to D-galacto-hexodialdose. It is a copper protein. EC 1.1.3.9.
An inhibitor of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES. Acts as an alkylating agent and is known to interfere with the translation process.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
A malignant neoplasm occurring in young children, primarily in the liver, composed of tissue resembling embryonal or fetal hepatic epithelium, or mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tissues. (Stedman, 25th ed)
An inhibitor of Serine Endopeptidases. Acts as alkylating agent and is known to interfere with the translation process.
An aminoquinoline that is given by mouth to produce a radical cure and prevent relapse of vivax and ovale malarias following treatment with a blood schizontocide. It has also been used to prevent transmission of falciparum malaria by those returning to areas where there is a potential for re-introduction of malaria. Adverse effects include anemias and GI disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeia, 30th ed, p404)
Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of galactose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-galactosides.
Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.
A peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)

A novel, orally administered nucleoside analogue, OGT 719, inhibits the liver invasive growth of a human colorectal tumor, C170HM2. (1/376)

OGT 719 is a novel p.o. bioavailable nucleoside analogue in which galactose is incorporated onto the fluoropyrimidine moiety of the cytotoxic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). OGT 719 has been designed to reduce the systemic toxicity normally associated with 5-FU while retaining activity against disease localized in the liver, in which it may be preferentially localized through the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R). We report studies confirming the activity of OGT 719 in inhibiting growth of metastatic human colorectal tumors in the liver of nude mice. The human colorectal cancer cell line C170HM2 readily forms liver metastases in vivo. Oral administration of 1500 mg/kg/day OGT 719 inhibited liver tumor burden by 95% compared with vehicle control, without any observable signs of toxicity. When the tumor burden was increased and the same OGT 719 treatment was compared with a standard clinical dose regimen of 25 mg/kg/day 5-FU/leucovorin given i.v., both treatments were equally efficacious, although 5-FU/leucovorin treatment started 7 days earlier. In contrast to 5-FU, OGT 719 is p.o. bioavailable and has a plasma half-life between 1.5 and 3 h. Several colorectal cancer cell lines express the asialoglycoprotein receptor, although no significant levels can be detected in C170HM2 cells, consistent with the observation that OGT 719 is approximately 3 log orders of magnitude less potent in vitro than 5-FU. Flux through thymidylate synthase, as measured by 3H release from [3H]dUrd, was inhibited by OGT 719 at 4 h. The notable difference in the potency of OGT 719 efficacy on C170HM2 cells in vitro and in vivo supports our model of liver-specific activation of OGT 719. As our data suggest, OGT 719 may significantly inhibit growth of metastatic colorectal tumors in the liver in vivo. This hypothesis is presently being explored in clinical trials for primary hepatocellular carcinoma and colorectal liver metastases.  (+info)

Nucleotide exchange in genomic DNA of rat hepatocytes using RNA/DNA oligonucleotides. Targeted delivery of liposomes and polyethyleneimine to the asialoglycoprotein receptor. (2/376)

Chimeric RNA/DNA oligonucleotides have been shown to promote single nucleotide exchange in genomic DNA. A chimeric molecule was designed to introduce an A to C nucleotide conversion at the Ser365 position of the rat factor IX gene. The oligonucleotides were encapsulated in positive, neutral, and negatively charged liposomes containing galactocerebroside or complexed with lactosylated polyethyleneimine. The formulations were evaluated for stability and efficiency in targeting hepatocytes via the asialoglycoprotein receptor. Physical characterization and electron microscopy revealed that the oligonucleotides were efficiently encapsulated within the liposomes, with the positive and negative formulations remaining stable for at least 1 month. Transfection efficiencies in isolated rat hepatocytes approached 100% with each of the formulations. However, the negative liposomes and 25-kDa lactosylated polyethyleneimine provided the most intense nuclear fluorescence with the fluorescein-labeled oligonucleotides. The lactosylated polyethyleneimine and the three different liposomal formulations resulted in A to C conversion efficiencies of 19-24%. In addition, lactosylated polyethyleneimine was also highly effective in transfecting plasmid DNA into isolated hepatocytes. The results suggest that both the liposomal and polyethyleneimine formulations are simple to prepare and stable and give reliable, reproducible results. They provide efficient delivery systems to hepatocytes for the introduction or repair of genetic mutations by the chimeric RNA/DNA oligonucleotides.  (+info)

Copper and zinc ions differentially block asialoglycoprotein receptor-mediated endocytosis in isolated rat hepatocytes. (3/376)

Asialoglycoprotein receptors on hepatocytes lose endocytic and ligand binding activity when hepatocytes are exposed to iron ions. Here, we report the effects of zinc and copper ions on the endocytic and ligand binding activity of asialoglycoprotein receptors on isolated rat hepatocytes. Treatment of cells at 37 degrees C for 2 h with ZnCl2 (0-220 microM) or CuCl2 (0-225 microM) reversibly blocked sustained endocytosis of 125I-asialoorosomucoid by up to 93% (t1/2 = 62 min) and 99% (t1/2 = 54 min), respectively. Cells remained viable during such treatments. Zinc- and copper-treated cells lost approximately 50% of their surface asialoglycoprotein receptor ligand binding activity; zinc-treated cells accumulated inactive asialoglycoprotein receptors intracellularly, whereas copper-treated cells accumulated inactive receptors on their surfaces. Cells treated at 4 degrees C with metal did not lose surface asialoglycoprotein receptor activity. Exposure of cells to copper ions, but not to zinc ions, blocked internalization of prebound 125I-asialoorosomucoid, but degradation of internalized ligand and pinocytosis of the fluid-phase marker Lucifer Yellow were not blocked by metal treatment. Zinc ions reduced diferric transferrin binding and endocytosis on hepatocytes by approximately 33%; copper ions had no inhibitory effects. These findings are the first demonstration of a specific inhibition of receptor-mediated endocytosis by non-iron transition metals.  (+info)

Targeted delivery of oligodeoxynucleotides to parenchymal liver cells in vivo. (4/376)

Anti-sense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) hold great promise for correcting the biosynthesis of clinically relevant proteins. The potential of ODNs for modulating liver-specific genes might be increased by preventing untimely elimination and by improving the local bioavailability of ODNs in the target tissue. In the present study we have assessed whether the local ODN concentration can be enhanced by the targeted delivery of ODNs through conjugation to a ligand for the parenchymal liver cell-specific asialoglycoprotein receptor. A capped ODN (miscellaneous 20-mer sequence) was derivatized with a ligand with high affinity for this receptor, N2-[N2-(N2,N6-bis{N-[p-(beta-d-galactopyranosyloxy) anilino] thiocarbamyl}-L-lysyl)-N6-(N-{p-[beta-D -galactopyranosyloxy] anilino} thiocarbamyl)-L-lysyl]-N6-[N- (p-{beta-D-galactopyranosyloxy}anilino)thiocarbamyl]-L-lysine (L3G4) (Kd 6.5+/-0.2 nM, mean+/-S.D.). Both the uptake studies in vitro and the confocal laser scan microscopy studies demonstrated that L3G4-ODN was far more efficiently bound to and taken up by parenchymal liver cells than underivatized ODN. Studies in vivo in rats showed that hepatic uptake could be greatly enhanced from 19+/-1% to 77+/-6% of the injected dose after glycoconjugation. Importantly, specific ODN accumulation of ODN into parenchymal liver cells was improved almost 60-fold after derivatization with L3G4, and could be attributed to the asialoglycoprotein receptor. In conclusion, the scavenger receptor-mediated elimination pathway for miscellaneous ODN sequences can be circumvented by direct conjugation to a synthetic tag for the asialoglycoprotein receptor. In this manner a crucial requisite is met towards the application of ODNs in vivo to modulate the biosynthesis of parenchymal liver cell-specific genes such as those for apolipoprotein (a), cholesterol ester transfer protein and viral proteins.  (+info)

Expression of asialoglycoprotein receptor in human fetal liver. (5/376)

Asialoglycoprotein (ASGP) receptor, which exists in hepatic parenchymal cells, plays important roles in the clearance of desialylated glycoproteins from the circulation. To study the expression of ASGP receptor in human fetal liver, specimens were obtained after therapeutic/spontaneous abortion or at autopsy with informed consent. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining showed that ASGP receptor was present as early as 15 weeks of gestation in human fetal liver. In liver at 15 weeks-gestation it was stained uniformly in cytoplasm as seen in HepG2 cells. As gestation proceed the ASGP receptor was frequently observed on the cell surface and intracellular staining showed a spotted distribution. We conclude that the expression of ASGP receptor is an early event in the developmental process of fetal liver. Furthermore, the distribution of ASGP receptor changes as the liver develops.  (+info)

Enhancement of tumor-to-nontumor localization ratios by hepatocyte-directed blood clearance of antibodies labeled with certain residualizing radiolabels. (6/376)

To increase tumor-to-nontumor localization ratios of injected radiolabeled antibodies (Abs), several interrelated methods were used. METHODS: The model systems used were two human carcinoma xenografts grown in nude mice, targeted by antibodies RS11 (antiepithelial glycoprotein-2) or MN-14 (anticarcinoembryonic antigen). The Abs were conjugated with biotin and 111In-benzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid, and, at various times after injection, were cleared by intraperitoneal injection of galactosylated streptavidin, which delivers the complexes to hepatocytes. The radiolabel used was selected because it is retained within tumors after catabolism of the Ab by the tumor cell but is quite rapidly excreted from hepatocytes into bile. RESULTS: With blood clearance induced at 24 h, and dissection 5 h later, high tumor-to-nontumor ratios were attained. Depending on the model used, tumor-to-blood ratios were 16:1 to 31:1, and tumor-to-nontumor ratios for the kidney, lungs and bone were also high and greatly increased by the clearance regimen. Despite clearance into the liver, tumor-to-liver ratios remained >1, due to fairly rapid biliary excretion of the label. The absolute antibody uptake by the tumors was also high, because 24 h was allowed for the Ab to penetrate and bind to cells within the subcutaneous tumors. CONCLUSION: The method described produced high tumor-to-nontumor ratios at 1 d after injection and may be advantageous for tumor imaging with antibodies. Radiation dosimetry calculations indicate that there is only a slight advantage with this approach for radioimmunotherapy.  (+info)

Follicular thyroglobulin (TG) suppression of thyroid-restricted genes involves the apical membrane asialoglycoprotein receptor and TG phosphorylation. (7/376)

Follicular thyroglobulin (TG) decreases expression of the thyroid-restricted transcription factors, thyroid transcription factor (TTF)-1, TTF-2, and Pax-8, thereby suppressing expression of the sodium iodide symporter, thyroid peroxidase, TG, and thyrotropin receptor genes (Suzuki, K., Lavaroni, S., Mori, A., Ohta, M., Saito, J., Pietrarelli, M., Singer, D. S., Kimura, S., Katoh, R., Kawaoi, A. , and Kohn, L. D. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 95, 8251-8256). The ability of highly purified 27, 19, or 12 S follicular TG to suppress thyroid-restricted gene expression correlates with their ability to bind to FRTL-5 thyrocytes and is inhibited by a specific antibody to the thyroid apical membrane asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR), which is related to the ASGPR of liver cells. Phosphorylating serine/threonine residues of TG, by autophosphorylation or protein kinase A, eliminates TG suppression and enhances transcript levels of the thyroid-restricted genes 2-fold in the absence of a change in TG binding to the ASGPR. Follicular TG suppression of thyroid-restricted genes is thus mediated by the ASPGR on the thyrocyte apical membrane and regulated by a signal system wherein phosphorylation of serine/threonine residues on the bound ligand is an important component. These data provide a hitherto unsuspected role for the ASGPR in transcriptional signaling, aside from its role in endocytosis. They establish a functional role for phosphorylated serine/threonine residues on the TG molecule.  (+info)

Segmental genomic replacement in embryonic stem cells by double lox targeting. (8/376)

We have applied Cre-mediated double lox recombination to embryonic stem (ES) cells to facilitate repeated knock-ins at a target locus, thus helping to assure correct temporal and spatial transgene expression in mice. Using homologous recombination, we inserted a double lox cassette a few nucleo-tides before the authentic ATG start of MHL-1, the gene coding for the major subunit of the asialoglycoprotein receptor. The cassette carries a marker gene bounded by heterospecific lox sites that cannot recombine with each other, but which can undergo recombination with like sites on an incoming double lox targeting vector. Cre-mediated replacement of the lox-delimited genomic segment at MHL-1 with targeting DNA occurs at a frequency three times that of random DNA integration and is sufficiently robust that correctly targeted ES colonies can be identified by PCR screening without relying on any drug selection procedure. Moreover, double lox recombination at the MHL-1 locus is not dependent on the presence or absence of a transcriptionally active promoter at the genomic target. The strategy and vectors described here are generally applicable to designing double lox targeted knock-ins at any locus in ES cells and should prove useful in more precise molecular engineering of the mouse genome.  (+info)

The exact cause of hepatoblastoma is not known, but it is believed to be linked to genetic mutations that occur during fetal development. Children with certain congenital conditions, such as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, are at higher risk of developing hepatoblastoma. The symptoms of hepatoblastoma can include abdominal pain, weight loss, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), but in many cases, the cancer may not cause any noticeable symptoms until it has reached an advanced stage.

Hepatoblastoma is diagnosed through a combination of imaging tests, such as ultrasound, CT scans, and MRI, and a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment typically involves surgery to remove the affected lobe of the liver, followed by chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. In some cases, a liver transplant may be necessary if the cancer has spread too far or if the child's liver is not functioning properly. The prognosis for hepatoblastoma depends on several factors, including the stage of the cancer at diagnosis and the effectiveness of treatment. With current treatments, the 5-year survival rate for children with hepatoblastoma is around 70%.

Liver neoplasms, also known as liver tumors or hepatic tumors, are abnormal growths of tissue in the liver. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant liver tumors can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or metastatic, meaning they spread to the liver from another part of the body.

There are several types of liver neoplasms, including:

1. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer and arises from the main cells of the liver (hepatocytes). HCC is often associated with cirrhosis and can be caused by viral hepatitis or alcohol abuse.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: This type of cancer arises from the cells lining the bile ducts within the liver (cholangiocytes). Cholangiocarcinoma is rare and often diagnosed at an advanced stage.
3. Hemangiosarcoma: This is a rare type of cancer that originates in the blood vessels of the liver. It is most commonly seen in dogs but can also occur in humans.
4. Fibromas: These are benign tumors that arise from the connective tissue of the liver (fibrocytes). Fibromas are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.
5. Adenomas: These are benign tumors that arise from the glandular cells of the liver (hepatocytes). Adenomas are usually small and do not spread to other parts of the body.

The symptoms of liver neoplasms vary depending on their size, location, and whether they are benign or malignant. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasound, and a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells.

Treatment options for liver neoplasms depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgery may be an option for some patients with small, localized tumors, while others may require chemotherapy or radiation therapy to shrink the tumor before surgery can be performed. In some cases, liver transplantation may be necessary.

Prognosis for liver neoplasms varies depending on the type and stage of the cancer. In general, early detection and treatment improve the prognosis, while advanced-stage disease is associated with a poorer prognosis.

There are several risk factors for developing HCC, including:

* Cirrhosis, which can be caused by heavy alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis (such as hepatitis B and C), or fatty liver disease
* Family history of liver disease
* Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
* Diabetes
* Obesity

HCC can be challenging to diagnose, as the symptoms are non-specific and can be similar to those of other conditions. However, some common symptoms of HCC include:

* Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
* Fatigue
* Loss of appetite
* Abdominal pain or discomfort
* Weight loss

If HCC is suspected, a doctor may perform several tests to confirm the diagnosis, including:

* Imaging tests, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, to look for tumors in the liver
* Blood tests to check for liver function and detect certain substances that are produced by the liver
* Biopsy, which involves removing a small sample of tissue from the liver to examine under a microscope

Once HCC is diagnosed, treatment options will depend on several factors, including the stage and location of the cancer, the patient's overall health, and their personal preferences. Treatment options may include:

* Surgery to remove the tumor or parts of the liver
* Ablation, which involves destroying the cancer cells using heat or cold
* Chemoembolization, which involves injecting chemotherapy drugs into the hepatic artery to reach the cancer cells
* Targeted therapy, which uses drugs or other substances to target specific molecules that are involved in the growth and spread of the cancer

Overall, the prognosis for HCC is poor, with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 20%. However, early detection and treatment can improve outcomes. It is important for individuals at high risk for HCC to be monitored regularly by a healthcare provider, and to seek medical attention if they experience any symptoms.

The asialoglycoprotein receptor contains two subunits, asialoglycoprotein receptor 1 (ASGR1) and asialoglycoprotein receptor 2 ... The asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPR) are lectins which bind asialoglycoprotein and glycoproteins from which a sialic acid ... the Genes that Encode the Asialoglycoprotein Receptor (Ashwell Receptor), Are Expressed in Peripheral Blood Monocytes and Show ... of the asialoglycoprotein form hydrogen bonds with the CRD of the asialoglycoprotein receptor; proper positioning and ...
This gene encodes a subunit of the asialoglycoprotein receptor. This receptor is a transmembrane protein that plays a critical ... of the human asialoglycoprotein receptor are present with the major subunit H1 in different hetero-oligomeric receptor ... The asialoglycoprotein receptor is a hetero-oligomeric protein composed of major and minor subunits, which are encoded by ... "Entrez Gene: Asialoglycoprotein receptor 1". Retrieved 2018-10-02. Yik JH, Saxena A, Weigel PH (June 2002). "The minor subunit ...
The asialoglycoprotein receptors that bind Sendai virus. and serve as SeV cell entry receptors are highly expressed in liver ... Three SeV receptors are represented by molecules that are clusters of differentiation. Some SeV receptors are overexpressed in ... Stockert RJ (July 1995). "The asialoglycoprotein receptor: relationships between structure, function, and expression". ... entry by means of the asialoglycoprotein receptor of a Sendai virus mutant lacking its attachment protein". Proceedings of the ...
Weiss, P; Ashwell, G (1989). "The asialoglycoprotein receptor: properties and modulation by ligand". Progress in Clinical and ...
Stockert, R. J. (1995-07-01). "The asialoglycoprotein receptor: relationships between structure, function, and expression". ... Androgen receptors Calcitriol receptors Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 Corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 ... hormone receptors Glucagon receptors Gonadotropin receptors Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors Growth hormone receptors ... Insulin receptor Luteinizing hormone Progesterone receptors Retinoid receptors Somatostatin receptors Thyroid hormone receptors ...
Another potential characterization of the CLRs can be into mannose receptors and asialoglycoprotein receptors. The mannose ... mannose versus asialoglycoprotein) is a bit misleading as these the asialoglycoprotein receptors are not necessarily galactose ... and C-type lectin receptors (CLRs). Cytoplasmic PRRs include NOD-like receptors (NLRs) and RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs). PRRs ... For more details, see NOD-like receptor. The NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are cytoplasmic proteins, which recognize bacterial ...
"Plasticity of the asialoglycoprotein receptor deciphered by ensemble FRET imaging and single-molecule counting PALM imaging". ... Lippincott-Schwartz has used PALM to assess the stoichiometry and composition of membrane receptors and has collaborated with ...
Beltzer JP, Spiess M (December 1991). "In vitro binding of the asialoglycoprotein receptor to the beta adaptin of plasma ... Schleiff E, Shore GC, Goping IS (March 1997). "Human mitochondrial import receptor, Tom20p. Use of glutathione to reveal ...
Clearance of IgA is mediated at least in part by asialoglycoprotein receptors, which recognizes galactose-terminating IgA N- ... Proteolysis of the receptor occurs, and the dimeric IgA molecule, along with a portion of the receptor known as the secretory ... see B-cell receptor) It is also possible to distinguish forms of IgA based upon their location - serum IgA vs. secretory IgA. ... The receptor-IgA complex passes through the cellular compartments before being secreted on the luminal surface of the ...
... residues results in rapid clearance of the glycoproteins from the circulation through hepatocyte asialoglycoprotein receptors ... Asialoglycoproteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Gross, Hans Jürgen; Brossmer, ... Regoeczi, E.; Chindemi, P. A. (1981-01-01). "The net weight of the rabbit liver and its relevance for asialoglycoprotein ... If terminal sialic acid residues are removed from glycoproteins, the resulting proteins are known as asialoglycoproteins. The ...
... homology with asialoglycoprotein receptors and cartilage proteoglycan core protein". Biochemistry. 26 (21): 6757-64. doi: ...
... asialoglycoprotein receptors) group contains several sub-sub-families, many of which are important to innate immunity. A ... DC-SIGN is a C-type lectin receptor present on the surface of both macrophages and dendritic cells. DC-SIGN on macrophages ... Lozach PY, Burleigh L, Staropoli I, Amara A (2007). The C type lectins DC-SIGN and L-SIGN: receptors for viral glycoproteins. ... Cambi A, Figdor CG (2004). "Dual function of C-type lectin-like receptors in the immune system". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 15 (5 ...
... where it binds to the asialoglycoprotein receptors on hepatocytes. Galactosamine Globoside (N-Acetylglucosamine) GlcNAc Donald ...
... the hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptors, intestinal sucrose-isomaltase, the erythropoietin receptor, two subunits of the TGFß ... identified the intracellular organelles that mediate recycling of the asialoglycoprotein and transferrin receptors, and ... activation of and signal transduction by the erythropoietin receptor in erythroid progenitor cells, and the regulation of ... receptor, and several adipocyte-specific proteins including adiponectin (formerly Acrp30). These have been used to define the ...
... and adheres to the asialoglycoprotein receptor on urethral epithelium. LOS is highly stimulatory to the human immune system. ...
... to discover that a certain receptor in a human's liver is able to recognize a specific glycoprotein called asialoglycoprotein. ... Ashwell explained that he was not specifically looking for the asialoglycoprotein when he found it. Ashwell died on June 27, ... and discovered one of the earliest known carbohydrate receptors. They were able to devise a labeling procedure which allowed ... elected as a member of the National Academy of Sciences for his work with Anatol Morell in isolating the first cell receptor. ...
Mannose receptors MRC1 MRC2 DEC205 (CD205) Group 2 CLRs - Asialoglycoprotein receptor family DC-SIGN (CD209) Langerin (CD207) ... Anaphylatoxin receptors C3a receptor C5a receptor (CD88) C5AR2 Fc receptor Fc-gamma receptors (FcγR) FcγRI (CD64) FcγRIIA ( ... Prolactin receptor) Type II cytokine receptor - Lack WSXWS motif Interferon receptors Interferon-α/β receptor (IFNAR) - ... C chemokine receptors (XCRs) XCR1 CX3C chemokine receptors (CX3CRs) CX3CR1 (Fractalkine receptor) TGF beta receptors - Single ...
Learn about Asialoglycoprotein Receptor at online-medical-dictionary.org ... Receptor, Asialoglycoprotein. Receptor, Asialoorosomucoid. Receptor, Hepatic Asialoglycoprotein. Receptors, Asialoglycoprotein ... Asialoglycoprotein Receptor. Synonyms. ASGP-R. Asialoglycoprotein Receptor, Hepatic. Asialoglycoprotein Receptors. ... A C-type lectin that is a cell surface receptor for ASIALOGLYCOPROTEINS. It is found primarily in the LIVER where it mediates ...
Asialoglycoprotein receptor-targeted superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles Guifang Huang 1 , James Diakur, Zhenghe Xu, ... Asialoglycoprotein receptor-targeted superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles Guifang Huang et al. Int J Pharm. 2008. . ... Asialoglycoprotein receptor mediated hepatocyte targeting - strategies and applications. DSouza AA, Devarajan PV. DSouza AA, ... Asialoglycoprotein Receptor-Targeted Superparamagnetic Perfluorooctylbromide Nanoparticles. Li Y, Yang CF, Zuo H, Li A, Das SK ...
... of proliferation of some but not all human colon carcinoma cell lines by immobilized hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptor 1. ... of proliferation of some but not all human colon carcinoma cell lines by immobilized hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptor 1 ...
In summary, the asialoglycoprotein receptor is important. It is a functional receptor. When there is impaired function in the ... There are many receptors in the liver cells, including receptors for protein in the cell membrane. They are specific for ... Casey focused on the hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR), present in high densities on hepatocytes, which binds ... In the process, the ligands or the receptor may be degraded or the receptor could be recycled. ...
Asialoglycoprotein receptor 1 is a novel PCSK9-independent ligand of liver LDLR cleaved by furin. Susan-Resiga D, Girard E, ... Glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) is an important cell surface receptor for viral invasion, cancers, and neurological disorders ...
McAbee DD, Jiang X. Copper and zinc ions differentially block asialoglycoprotein receptor-mediated endocytosis in isolated rat ... Caveolin-1 assembles type 1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors and canonical transient receptor potential 3 channels into a ... inhibits the internalization of asialoglycoprotein and transferrin receptor (TfR) in hepatocytes (39), we next examined whether ... Analysis of the kinetics of receptor entry. J Biol Chem. 1985;260(29):15938-15945.. View this article via: PubMed Google ...
Mechanism of the phorbol ester-mediated redistribution of asialoglycoprotein receptor: selective effects on receptor recycling ... 7. The large intracellular pool of asialoglycoprotein receptors functions during the endocytosis of asialoglycoproteins by ... The hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptor.. Schwartz AL. CRC Crit Rev Biochem; 1984; 16(3):207-33. PubMed ID: 6383714. [TBL] ... Recycling of the asialoglycoprotein receptor and the effect of lysosomotropic amines in hepatoma cells.. Schwartz AL; Bolognesi ...
Asialoglycoprotein (ASGP) is specifically taken into mammalian hepatocytes by binding to ASGP receptors (ASGP-Rs) (2). The ... Stockert R.J. The asialoglycoprotein receptor: relationships between structure, function, and expression. Physiol Rev. 1995;75( ...
Tailored presentation of carbohydrates on a coiled coil-based scaffold for asialoglycoprotein receptor targeting. ACS Chemical ... The C-type lectin receptor Mincle binds to Streptococcus pneumoniae but plays a limited tole in the anti-pneumococcal innate ... A platform to screen for C-type lectin receptor-binding carbohydrates and their potential for cell-specific targeting and ... 2-xylosylation on glycoprotein recognition by murine C-type lectin receptors and its impact on dendritic cell targeting. ACS ...
In vitro studies revealed that the asialoglycoprotein receptor-poor cell line MH1C1 has low uptake, while the receptor-rich ... In vitro studies revealed that the asialoglycoprotein receptor-poor cell line MH1C1 has low uptake, while the receptor-rich ... In vitro studies revealed that the asialoglycoprotein receptor-poor cell line MH1C1 has low uptake, while the receptor-rich ... In vitro studies revealed that the asialoglycoprotein receptor-poor cell line MH1C1 has low uptake, while the receptor-rich ...
... designed to enable targeted delivery of RNAi therapeutics to hepatocytes by way of uptake by the asialoglycoprotein receptor. ...
Hepatic Asialoglycoprotein Receptor Hepatic Lectin Liver Carbohydrate-Binding Protein Receptor, Asialoglycoprotein Receptor, ... Asialoglycoprotein receptor found in liver.. Terms. Hepatic Asialoglycoprotein Receptor Preferred Term Term UI T479240. Date01/ ... ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPT. Entry Term(s). ASGP-R Asialoglycoprotein Receptors Asialoorosomucoid Receptor Asialoorosomucoid ... Receptors, Cell Surface (1980-2002). See Also. Asialoglycoproteins. Public MeSH Note. 2003; ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR was ...
At the time, that was extremely timely because Gilbert Ashwell at the NIH had just discovered the asialoglycoprotein receptor, ... It was the first receptor identified. Ira was working on alpha 2-microglobulin receptor and had done a lot of the pioneer work ... I worked first on the receptor mediated endocytosis pathway, worked on finding the receptor for alpha 2-microglobulin, a very ... JH: I wanted to work on receptor-mediated endocytosis. I had decided that that was where my knowledge of carbohydrates and my ...
... delivering DNA to hepatocytes through recognition by asialoglycoprotein receptors, and releasing DNA from endosomes/lysosomes ... Selective Promotion of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Secretion by Activation of Proteinase-Activated Receptor-1 in Cultured ... the surface density of the sugar moiety on the protein derivative largely determines the binding affinity for the receptors and ... been developed by using glycosylated macromolecule as a vehicle that can be selectively recognized by carbohydrate receptors. ...
Asialoglycoprotein Receptor 80% * Liver Diseases 75% * Alcohols 67% * Down-Regulation 63% 3 Scopus citations ...
Receptor, Asialoglycoprotein. Receptor, Asialoorosomucoid. Receptor, Hepatic Asialoglycoprotein. Receptors, Asialoglycoprotein ... Receptor, Asialoorosomucoid Receptors, Asialoglycoprotein Receptors, Asialoorosomucoid Hepatic Asialoglycoprotein Receptor - ... Asialoglycoprotein Receptor Entry term(s). ASGP-R Asialoglycoprotein Receptors Asialoorosomucoid Binding Protein ... Hepatic Asialoglycoprotein Receptor Entry term(s). Asialoglycoprotein Receptor, Hepatic Carbohydrate-Binding Protein, Liver ...
Hepatic Asialoglycoprotein Receptor Hepatic Lectin Liver Carbohydrate-Binding Protein Receptor, Asialoglycoprotein Receptor, ... Asialoglycoprotein receptor found in liver.. Terms. Hepatic Asialoglycoprotein Receptor Preferred Term Term UI T479240. Date01/ ... ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPT. Entry Term(s). ASGP-R Asialoglycoprotein Receptors Asialoorosomucoid Receptor Asialoorosomucoid ... Receptors, Cell Surface (1980-2002). See Also. Asialoglycoproteins. Public MeSH Note. 2003; ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR was ...
Portal-Systemic shunts reduce asialoglycoprotein receptor density in rats. J Nucl Med. 2001 Jan; 42(1):110-6. Colquhoun SD, ...
Effect of gal/GalNAc regioisomerism in galactosylated liposomes on asialoglycoprotein receptor-mediated hepatocyte-selective ...
asialoglycoprotein receptor 1 [Source:HG.... BCL6. 604. BCL6. BCL6 transcription repressor [Source:HGN.... ...
The serum half-life is regulated by the expression of liver asialo-glycoprotein receptors. These receptors bind nonsialylated ... The serum half-life is regulated by the expression of liver asialo-glycoprotein receptors. These receptors bind nonsialylated ... The serum half-life is regulated by the expression of liver asialo-glycoprotein receptors. ... It is known that the receptors of the immune system (T- and B-cell receptors) often prefer nonsialylated structures. Terminal ...
The receptor then returns to the cell membrane surface. This gene encodes a subunit of the asialoglycoprotein receptor. This ... The asialoglycoprotein receptor is a hetero-oligomeric protein composed of major and minor subunits, which are encoded by ... The asialoglycoprotein receptor may facilitate hepatic infection by multiple viruses including hepatitis B, and is also a ... After ligand binding to the receptor, the resulting complex is internalized and transported to a sorting organelle, where ...
The receptor then returns to the cell membrane surface. This gene encodes a subunit of the asialoglycoprotein receptor. This ... The asialoglycoprotein receptor is a hetero-oligomeric protein composed of major and minor subunits, which are encoded by ... The asialoglycoprotein receptor may facilitate hepatic infection by multiple viruses including hepatitis B, and is also a ... After ligand binding to the receptor, the resulting complex is internalized and transported to a sorting organelle, where ...
Design, synthesis and evaluation of monovalent ligands for the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R). Bioorganic & Medicinal ...
Asialoglycoprotein Receptor. *Autoreceptors. *Cysteine Loop Ligand-Gated Ion Channel Receptors. *Folate Receptors, GPI-Anchored ... Transmitter receptors on or near presynaptic terminals (or varicosities) which are sensitive to the transmitter(s) released by ... Avenues for the development of therapeutics that target trace amine associated receptor 1 (TAAR1). J Med Chem. 2012 Mar 08; 55( ... Receptors for the hormones released by hormone-releasing cells are also included. ...
Recycling of the asialoglycoprotein receptor and the effect of lysosomotropic amines in hepatoma cells.. 98:732-738. 1984 ... The signal sequence receptor, unlike the signal recognition particle receptor, is not essential for protein translocation.. 117 ... Phosphoinositide 3-kinase regulates beta2-adrenergic receptor endocytosis by AP-2 recruitment to the receptor/beta-arrestin ... A chemoattractant receptor on macrophages exists in two affinity states regulated by guanine nucleotides.. 98:444-448. 1984 ...
Ascorbate Peroxidases N0000006439 Ascorbic Acid N0000169160 Asialoglycoprotein Receptor N0000169172 Asialoglycoproteins ... Type 3 N0000168822 Receptor, IGF Type 1 N0000168823 Receptor, IGF Type 2 N0000168857 Receptor, Insulin N0000175243 Receptor, ... 5-HT2B N0000168886 Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2C N0000168812 Receptor, TIE-1 N0000168813 Receptor, TIE-2 N0000168854 Receptor, ... FSH N0000168879 Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled N0000168772 Receptors, GABA N0000168773 Receptors, GABA-A N0000168944 Receptors, ...
N0000167795 Ascorbate Oxidase N0000006439 Ascorbic Acid N0000169160 Asialoglycoprotein Receptor N0000169172 Asialoglycoproteins ... Type 3 N0000168822 Receptor, IGF Type 1 N0000168823 Receptor, IGF Type 2 N0000168857 Receptor, Insulin N0000175243 Receptor, ... 5-HT2B N0000168886 Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2C N0000168812 Receptor, TIE-1 N0000168813 Receptor, TIE-2 N0000168854 Receptor, ... FSH N0000168879 Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled N0000168772 Receptors, GABA N0000168773 Receptors, GABA-A N0000168944 Receptors, ...
Triantennary N-acetyl galactosamine is a high affinity ligand for liver cell surface specific asialoglycoprotein receptor ( ...
He is world-renowned for co-discovering the asialoglycoprotein receptor in the liver, also referred to as the Ashwell-Morell ... These sugars affect receptor binding and immune response as described by several NIH scientists by creating a physical barrier ... Researchers worldwide use the basis of Ashwells work to deliver drugs specifically to the liver and the receptor also plays a ... which signals a response through its receptor CD47 that regulates tumor growth. CD47 is glycan-modified, and Roberts lab is ...
  • The target for galactose-terminal-ASPIO is the cell-surface asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) expressed by hepatocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Asialoglycoprotein (ASGP) is specifically taken into mammalian hepatocytes by binding to ASGP receptors (ASGP-Rs) ( 2 ). (nih.gov)
  • GalNAc-siRNA conjugates are Alnylam's proprietary delivery platform, designed to enable targeted delivery of RNAi therapeutics to hepatocytes by way of uptake by the asialoglycoprotein receptor. (drugdiscoverynews.com)
  • Finally, hepatocyte-targeted in vivo gene transfer was achieved by synthesizing a multi-functional carrier molecule, which condenses plasmid DNA, delivering DNA to hepatocytes through recognition by asialoglycoprotein receptors, and releasing DNA from endosomes/lysosomes into cytoplasm. (go.jp)
  • This receptor is a transmembrane protein that plays a critical role in serum glycoprotein homeostasis by mediating the endocytosis and lysosomal degradation of glycoproteins with exposed terminal galactose or N-acetylgalactosamine residues. (nih.gov)
  • These receptors bind nonsialylated glycoproteins on free galactose residues and bound asialo-glycoproteins are removed from the serum.by endocytosis. (tsijournals.com)
  • Asialoglycoprotein receptor 1 is a novel PCSK9-independent ligand of liver LDLR cleaved by furin. (nih.gov)
  • Asialoglycoprotein receptor found in liver. (nih.gov)
  • In vivo, the uptake of the compound in receptor-rich organ liver was very high. (northwestern.edu)
  • Blocking the receptor in vivo, reduced liver uptake by 90% suggesting that the compound localizes in receptor-enriched tissues by binding to the asialoglycoprotein receptor. (northwestern.edu)
  • The asialoglycoprotein receptor may facilitate hepatic infection by multiple viruses including hepatitis B, and is also a target for liver-specific drug delivery. (nih.gov)
  • The serum half-life is regulated by the expression of liver asialo-glycoprotein receptors. (tsijournals.com)
  • He is world-renowned for co-discovering the asialoglycoprotein receptor in the liver, also referred to as the Ashwell-Morell receptor. (nih.gov)
  • Researchers worldwide use the basis of Ashwell's work to deliver drugs specifically to the liver and the receptor also plays a key role in limiting the aggregation of platelets in life-threatening complications of infection. (nih.gov)
  • Triantennary N-acetyl galactosamine is a high affinity ligand for liver cell surface specific asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR). (nadcro.com)
  • Influence of core β-1,2-xylosylation on glycoprotein recognition by murine C-type lectin receptors and its impact on dendritic cell targeting. (mpg.de)
  • Role of the C-type lectin receptors MCL and DCIR in experimental colitis. (mpg.de)
  • After ligand binding to the receptor, the resulting complex is internalized and transported to a sorting organelle, where receptor and ligand are disassociated. (nih.gov)
  • Pharmacokinetic analyses of the tissue distribution of glycosylated proteins came to the conclusion that the surface density of the sugar moiety on the protein derivative largely determines the binding affinity for the receptors and plasma lectin. (go.jp)
  • In vitro studies revealed that the asialoglycoprotein receptor-poor cell line MH1C1 has low uptake, while the receptor-rich cell lines BNL-CL2 and Hep G2 have higher uptake. (northwestern.edu)
  • The use of carbohydrate-functionalized NPs for active targeting depends on the level of receptors and transporters that are in a state of flux providing a potential strategy to control the cellular uptake of carbohydrate-functionalized NPs through modulation of ASGP13 and GLUT14 levels. (technuc.com)
  • Kopp, E. & Medzhitov, R. Recognition of microbial infection by Toll-like receptors. (nature.com)
  • The respective sialic acids possess different highly specific recognition and binding properties for a variety of cellular receptors. (tsijournals.com)
  • Phosphoinositide 3-kinase regulates beta2-adrenergic receptor endocytosis by AP-2 recruitment to the receptor/beta-arrestin complex. (duke.edu)
  • The C-type lectin receptor CLEC12A recognizes plasmodial hemozoin and contributes to cerebral malaria development. (mpg.de)
  • Rhesus monkey trace amine-associated receptor 1 signaling: enhancement by monoamine transporters and attenuation by the D2 autoreceptor in vitro. (harvard.edu)
  • 9 For good examples galactose-functionalized NPs can be selectively accumulated in hepatocellular carcinoma cell collection HepG2 that expresses asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R).10 Also 2 NPs can target mammary tumor cells11 and migrate across the blood brain barrier12 where glucose transporters (GLUT) are highly indicated. (technuc.com)
  • Effect of gal/GalNAc regioisomerism in galactosylated liposomes on asialoglycoprotein receptor-mediated hepatocyte-selective targeting in vivo . (bvsalud.org)
  • The netrin receptor DCC focuses invadopodia-driven basement membrane transmigration in vivo. (duke.edu)
  • The receptor recognizes terminal galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine units. (nih.gov)
  • Cell-specific targeting systems for drugs and genes have been developed by using glycosylated macromolecule as a vehicle that can be selectively recognized by carbohydrate receptors. (go.jp)
  • This gene encodes a subunit of the asialoglycoprotein receptor. (nih.gov)
  • His Small interfering RNA study integrates concerns from other disciplines, such as Asialoglycoprotein receptor, Oligonucleotide, Gene knockdown and Cell biology. (research.com)
  • Description: This is Double-antibody Sandwich Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Human Toll Like Receptor 6 (TLR6) in tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates and other biological fluids. (jemsec.com)
  • Description: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the Double-antibody Sandwich method for detection of Human Toll Like Receptor 6 (TLR6) in samples from tissue homogenates, cell lysates, cell culture supernates and other biological fluids with no significant corss-reactivity with analogues from other species. (jemsec.com)
  • Avenues for the development of therapeutics that target trace amine associated receptor 1 (TAAR1). (harvard.edu)
  • 16. Engagement of transferrin receptor by polymeric IgA1: evidence for a positive feedback loop involving increased receptor expression and mesangial cell proliferation in IgA nephropathy. (nih.gov)
  • Cholesterol-induced macrophage apoptosis requires ER stress pathways and engagement of the type A scavenger receptor. (duke.edu)
  • The role of asialoglycoprotein receptors. (nih.gov)
  • 15. Role of IgA receptors in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy. (nih.gov)
  • 9. Evidence for a specific IgA receptor in rat and human mesangial cells. (nih.gov)
  • The C-type lectin receptor Mincle binds to Streptococcus pneumoniae but plays a limited tole in the anti-pneumococcal innate immune response. (mpg.de)
  • the complex also influences the Golgi structural integrity, as well as the processing, activity, and endocytic recycling of LDL receptors (By similarity). (nih.gov)
  • 3. Absence of CD89, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, and asialoglycoprotein receptor on human mesangial cells. (nih.gov)
  • Receptors for the hormones released by hormone-releasing cells are also included. (harvard.edu)