Asialoglycoprotein Receptor: A C-type lectin that is a cell surface receptor for ASIALOGLYCOPROTEINS. It is found primarily in the LIVER where it mediates the endocytosis of serum glycoproteins.Asialoglycoproteins: Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.OrosomucoidFetuins: A family of calcium-binding alpha-globulins that are synthesized in the LIVER and play an essential role in maintaining the solubility of CALCIUM in the BLOOD. In addition the fetuins contain aminoterminal cystatin domains and are classified as type 3 cystatins.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Acetylgalactosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in cardiovascular and cerebral circulation.Technetium Tc 99m Pentetate: A technetium imaging agent used in renal scintigraphy, computed tomography, lung ventilation imaging, gastrointestinal scintigraphy, and many other procedures which employ radionuclide imaging agents.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Galactose Oxidase: An enzyme that oxidizes galactose in the presence of molecular oxygen to D-galacto-hexodialdose. It is a copper protein. EC 1.1.3.9.Tosyllysine Chloromethyl Ketone: An inhibitor of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES. Acts as an alkylating agent and is known to interfere with the translation process.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Hepatoblastoma: A malignant neoplasm occurring in young children, primarily in the liver, composed of tissue resembling embryonal or fetal hepatic epithelium, or mixed epithelial and mesenchymal tissues. (Stedman, 25th ed)Tosylphenylalanyl Chloromethyl Ketone: An inhibitor of Serine Endopeptidases. Acts as alkylating agent and is known to interfere with the translation process.Primaquine: An aminoquinoline that is given by mouth to produce a radical cure and prevent relapse of vivax and ovale malarias following treatment with a blood schizontocide. It has also been used to prevent transmission of falciparum malaria by those returning to areas where there is a potential for re-introduction of malaria. Adverse effects include anemias and GI disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeia, 30th ed, p404)Galactosides: Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of galactose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-galactosides.Coated Pits, Cell-Membrane: Specialized regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristle covering made of the protein CLATHRIN. These pits are the entry route for macromolecules bound by cell surface receptors. The pits are then internalized into the cytoplasm to form the COATED VESICLES.Polylysine: A peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Spermatids: Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Second Messenger Systems: Systems in which an intracellular signal is generated in response to an intercellular primary messenger such as a hormone or neurotransmitter. They are intermediate signals in cellular processes such as metabolism, secretion, contraction, phototransduction, and cell growth. Examples of second messenger systems are the adenyl cyclase-cyclic AMP system, the phosphatidylinositol diphosphate-inositol triphosphate system, and the cyclic GMP system.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Phorbol Esters: Tumor-promoting compounds obtained from CROTON OIL (Croton tiglium). Some of these are used in cell biological experiments as activators of protein kinase C.Technetium Tc 99m Diethyl-iminodiacetic Acid: A nontoxic radiopharmaceutical that is used in the clinical evaluation of hepatobiliary disorders in humans.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Oxamniquine: An anthelmintic with schistosomicidal activity against Schistosoma mansoni, but not against other Schistosoma spp. Oxamniquine causes worms to shift from the mesenteric veins to the liver where the male worms are retained; the female worms return to the mesentery, but can no longer release eggs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p121)Pennisetum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the millets used in EDIBLE GRAIN. It contains vitexin. The common name of buffelgrass is also used for CENCHRUS.Cenchrus: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The common name of buffelgrass is also used for PENNISETUM.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II: A group of familial disorders characterized by elevated circulating cholesterol contained in either LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS alone or also in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins).Receptors, LDL: Receptors on the plasma membrane of nonhepatic cells that specifically bind LDL. The receptors are localized in specialized regions called coated pits. Hypercholesteremia is caused by an allelic genetic defect of three types: 1, receptors do not bind to LDL; 2, there is reduced binding of LDL; and 3, there is normal binding but no internalization of LDL. In consequence, entry of cholesterol esters into the cell is impaired and the intracellular feedback by cholesterol on 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase is lacking.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.

A novel, orally administered nucleoside analogue, OGT 719, inhibits the liver invasive growth of a human colorectal tumor, C170HM2. (1/376)

OGT 719 is a novel p.o. bioavailable nucleoside analogue in which galactose is incorporated onto the fluoropyrimidine moiety of the cytotoxic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). OGT 719 has been designed to reduce the systemic toxicity normally associated with 5-FU while retaining activity against disease localized in the liver, in which it may be preferentially localized through the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R). We report studies confirming the activity of OGT 719 in inhibiting growth of metastatic human colorectal tumors in the liver of nude mice. The human colorectal cancer cell line C170HM2 readily forms liver metastases in vivo. Oral administration of 1500 mg/kg/day OGT 719 inhibited liver tumor burden by 95% compared with vehicle control, without any observable signs of toxicity. When the tumor burden was increased and the same OGT 719 treatment was compared with a standard clinical dose regimen of 25 mg/kg/day 5-FU/leucovorin given i.v., both treatments were equally efficacious, although 5-FU/leucovorin treatment started 7 days earlier. In contrast to 5-FU, OGT 719 is p.o. bioavailable and has a plasma half-life between 1.5 and 3 h. Several colorectal cancer cell lines express the asialoglycoprotein receptor, although no significant levels can be detected in C170HM2 cells, consistent with the observation that OGT 719 is approximately 3 log orders of magnitude less potent in vitro than 5-FU. Flux through thymidylate synthase, as measured by 3H release from [3H]dUrd, was inhibited by OGT 719 at 4 h. The notable difference in the potency of OGT 719 efficacy on C170HM2 cells in vitro and in vivo supports our model of liver-specific activation of OGT 719. As our data suggest, OGT 719 may significantly inhibit growth of metastatic colorectal tumors in the liver in vivo. This hypothesis is presently being explored in clinical trials for primary hepatocellular carcinoma and colorectal liver metastases.  (+info)

Nucleotide exchange in genomic DNA of rat hepatocytes using RNA/DNA oligonucleotides. Targeted delivery of liposomes and polyethyleneimine to the asialoglycoprotein receptor. (2/376)

Chimeric RNA/DNA oligonucleotides have been shown to promote single nucleotide exchange in genomic DNA. A chimeric molecule was designed to introduce an A to C nucleotide conversion at the Ser365 position of the rat factor IX gene. The oligonucleotides were encapsulated in positive, neutral, and negatively charged liposomes containing galactocerebroside or complexed with lactosylated polyethyleneimine. The formulations were evaluated for stability and efficiency in targeting hepatocytes via the asialoglycoprotein receptor. Physical characterization and electron microscopy revealed that the oligonucleotides were efficiently encapsulated within the liposomes, with the positive and negative formulations remaining stable for at least 1 month. Transfection efficiencies in isolated rat hepatocytes approached 100% with each of the formulations. However, the negative liposomes and 25-kDa lactosylated polyethyleneimine provided the most intense nuclear fluorescence with the fluorescein-labeled oligonucleotides. The lactosylated polyethyleneimine and the three different liposomal formulations resulted in A to C conversion efficiencies of 19-24%. In addition, lactosylated polyethyleneimine was also highly effective in transfecting plasmid DNA into isolated hepatocytes. The results suggest that both the liposomal and polyethyleneimine formulations are simple to prepare and stable and give reliable, reproducible results. They provide efficient delivery systems to hepatocytes for the introduction or repair of genetic mutations by the chimeric RNA/DNA oligonucleotides.  (+info)

Copper and zinc ions differentially block asialoglycoprotein receptor-mediated endocytosis in isolated rat hepatocytes. (3/376)

Asialoglycoprotein receptors on hepatocytes lose endocytic and ligand binding activity when hepatocytes are exposed to iron ions. Here, we report the effects of zinc and copper ions on the endocytic and ligand binding activity of asialoglycoprotein receptors on isolated rat hepatocytes. Treatment of cells at 37 degrees C for 2 h with ZnCl2 (0-220 microM) or CuCl2 (0-225 microM) reversibly blocked sustained endocytosis of 125I-asialoorosomucoid by up to 93% (t1/2 = 62 min) and 99% (t1/2 = 54 min), respectively. Cells remained viable during such treatments. Zinc- and copper-treated cells lost approximately 50% of their surface asialoglycoprotein receptor ligand binding activity; zinc-treated cells accumulated inactive asialoglycoprotein receptors intracellularly, whereas copper-treated cells accumulated inactive receptors on their surfaces. Cells treated at 4 degrees C with metal did not lose surface asialoglycoprotein receptor activity. Exposure of cells to copper ions, but not to zinc ions, blocked internalization of prebound 125I-asialoorosomucoid, but degradation of internalized ligand and pinocytosis of the fluid-phase marker Lucifer Yellow were not blocked by metal treatment. Zinc ions reduced diferric transferrin binding and endocytosis on hepatocytes by approximately 33%; copper ions had no inhibitory effects. These findings are the first demonstration of a specific inhibition of receptor-mediated endocytosis by non-iron transition metals.  (+info)

Targeted delivery of oligodeoxynucleotides to parenchymal liver cells in vivo. (4/376)

Anti-sense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) hold great promise for correcting the biosynthesis of clinically relevant proteins. The potential of ODNs for modulating liver-specific genes might be increased by preventing untimely elimination and by improving the local bioavailability of ODNs in the target tissue. In the present study we have assessed whether the local ODN concentration can be enhanced by the targeted delivery of ODNs through conjugation to a ligand for the parenchymal liver cell-specific asialoglycoprotein receptor. A capped ODN (miscellaneous 20-mer sequence) was derivatized with a ligand with high affinity for this receptor, N2-[N2-(N2,N6-bis{N-[p-(beta-d-galactopyranosyloxy) anilino] thiocarbamyl}-L-lysyl)-N6-(N-{p-[beta-D -galactopyranosyloxy] anilino} thiocarbamyl)-L-lysyl]-N6-[N- (p-{beta-D-galactopyranosyloxy}anilino)thiocarbamyl]-L-lysine (L3G4) (Kd 6.5+/-0.2 nM, mean+/-S.D.). Both the uptake studies in vitro and the confocal laser scan microscopy studies demonstrated that L3G4-ODN was far more efficiently bound to and taken up by parenchymal liver cells than underivatized ODN. Studies in vivo in rats showed that hepatic uptake could be greatly enhanced from 19+/-1% to 77+/-6% of the injected dose after glycoconjugation. Importantly, specific ODN accumulation of ODN into parenchymal liver cells was improved almost 60-fold after derivatization with L3G4, and could be attributed to the asialoglycoprotein receptor. In conclusion, the scavenger receptor-mediated elimination pathway for miscellaneous ODN sequences can be circumvented by direct conjugation to a synthetic tag for the asialoglycoprotein receptor. In this manner a crucial requisite is met towards the application of ODNs in vivo to modulate the biosynthesis of parenchymal liver cell-specific genes such as those for apolipoprotein (a), cholesterol ester transfer protein and viral proteins.  (+info)

Expression of asialoglycoprotein receptor in human fetal liver. (5/376)

Asialoglycoprotein (ASGP) receptor, which exists in hepatic parenchymal cells, plays important roles in the clearance of desialylated glycoproteins from the circulation. To study the expression of ASGP receptor in human fetal liver, specimens were obtained after therapeutic/spontaneous abortion or at autopsy with informed consent. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining showed that ASGP receptor was present as early as 15 weeks of gestation in human fetal liver. In liver at 15 weeks-gestation it was stained uniformly in cytoplasm as seen in HepG2 cells. As gestation proceed the ASGP receptor was frequently observed on the cell surface and intracellular staining showed a spotted distribution. We conclude that the expression of ASGP receptor is an early event in the developmental process of fetal liver. Furthermore, the distribution of ASGP receptor changes as the liver develops.  (+info)

Enhancement of tumor-to-nontumor localization ratios by hepatocyte-directed blood clearance of antibodies labeled with certain residualizing radiolabels. (6/376)

To increase tumor-to-nontumor localization ratios of injected radiolabeled antibodies (Abs), several interrelated methods were used. METHODS: The model systems used were two human carcinoma xenografts grown in nude mice, targeted by antibodies RS11 (antiepithelial glycoprotein-2) or MN-14 (anticarcinoembryonic antigen). The Abs were conjugated with biotin and 111In-benzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid, and, at various times after injection, were cleared by intraperitoneal injection of galactosylated streptavidin, which delivers the complexes to hepatocytes. The radiolabel used was selected because it is retained within tumors after catabolism of the Ab by the tumor cell but is quite rapidly excreted from hepatocytes into bile. RESULTS: With blood clearance induced at 24 h, and dissection 5 h later, high tumor-to-nontumor ratios were attained. Depending on the model used, tumor-to-blood ratios were 16:1 to 31:1, and tumor-to-nontumor ratios for the kidney, lungs and bone were also high and greatly increased by the clearance regimen. Despite clearance into the liver, tumor-to-liver ratios remained >1, due to fairly rapid biliary excretion of the label. The absolute antibody uptake by the tumors was also high, because 24 h was allowed for the Ab to penetrate and bind to cells within the subcutaneous tumors. CONCLUSION: The method described produced high tumor-to-nontumor ratios at 1 d after injection and may be advantageous for tumor imaging with antibodies. Radiation dosimetry calculations indicate that there is only a slight advantage with this approach for radioimmunotherapy.  (+info)

Follicular thyroglobulin (TG) suppression of thyroid-restricted genes involves the apical membrane asialoglycoprotein receptor and TG phosphorylation. (7/376)

Follicular thyroglobulin (TG) decreases expression of the thyroid-restricted transcription factors, thyroid transcription factor (TTF)-1, TTF-2, and Pax-8, thereby suppressing expression of the sodium iodide symporter, thyroid peroxidase, TG, and thyrotropin receptor genes (Suzuki, K., Lavaroni, S., Mori, A., Ohta, M., Saito, J., Pietrarelli, M., Singer, D. S., Kimura, S., Katoh, R., Kawaoi, A. , and Kohn, L. D. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 95, 8251-8256). The ability of highly purified 27, 19, or 12 S follicular TG to suppress thyroid-restricted gene expression correlates with their ability to bind to FRTL-5 thyrocytes and is inhibited by a specific antibody to the thyroid apical membrane asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR), which is related to the ASGPR of liver cells. Phosphorylating serine/threonine residues of TG, by autophosphorylation or protein kinase A, eliminates TG suppression and enhances transcript levels of the thyroid-restricted genes 2-fold in the absence of a change in TG binding to the ASGPR. Follicular TG suppression of thyroid-restricted genes is thus mediated by the ASPGR on the thyrocyte apical membrane and regulated by a signal system wherein phosphorylation of serine/threonine residues on the bound ligand is an important component. These data provide a hitherto unsuspected role for the ASGPR in transcriptional signaling, aside from its role in endocytosis. They establish a functional role for phosphorylated serine/threonine residues on the TG molecule.  (+info)

Segmental genomic replacement in embryonic stem cells by double lox targeting. (8/376)

We have applied Cre-mediated double lox recombination to embryonic stem (ES) cells to facilitate repeated knock-ins at a target locus, thus helping to assure correct temporal and spatial transgene expression in mice. Using homologous recombination, we inserted a double lox cassette a few nucleo-tides before the authentic ATG start of MHL-1, the gene coding for the major subunit of the asialoglycoprotein receptor. The cassette carries a marker gene bounded by heterospecific lox sites that cannot recombine with each other, but which can undergo recombination with like sites on an incoming double lox targeting vector. Cre-mediated replacement of the lox-delimited genomic segment at MHL-1 with targeting DNA occurs at a frequency three times that of random DNA integration and is sufficiently robust that correctly targeted ES colonies can be identified by PCR screening without relying on any drug selection procedure. Moreover, double lox recombination at the MHL-1 locus is not dependent on the presence or absence of a transcriptionally active promoter at the genomic target. The strategy and vectors described here are generally applicable to designing double lox targeted knock-ins at any locus in ES cells and should prove useful in more precise molecular engineering of the mouse genome.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Asialoglycoprotein receptor phosphorylation and receptor-mediated endocytosis in hepatoma cells. Effect of phorbol esters. AU - Fallon, R. J.. AU - Schwartz, A. L.. PY - 1988/1/1. Y1 - 1988/1/1. N2 - The asialoglycoprotein (ASGP) receptor on Hep G2 cells undergoes constitutive recycling and ligand endocytosis in the presence of phorbol dibutyrate, at a 50% reduced rate relative to control cells (Fallon, R. J., and Schwartz, A. L. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 15081-15089). The relevance of receptor phosphorylation to these events was investigated by selective immunoprecipitation of surface receptors with polyclonal anti-human ASGP antiserum and pulse-chase labeling with [32P]orthophosphate to identify subcellular locations of initial receptor phosphorylation events as well as the eventual fate of phosphorylated receptor during recycling. The surface immunoprecipitation method recovers greater than 95% of surface ASGP receptors and only 5% or less of intracellular ...
Asialoglycoprotein Receptor 1兔多克隆抗体(ab42488)可与大鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被2篇文献引用并得到2个独立的用户反馈。
1FIH: Mechanism of pH-dependent N-acetylgalactosamine binding by a functional mimic of the hepatocyte asialoglycoprotein receptor.
1FIF: Mechanism of pH-dependent N-acetylgalactosamine binding by a functional mimic of the hepatocyte asialoglycoprotein receptor.
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-Asialoglycoprotein Receptor 2 Antibody. Validated: WB, IHC, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human. 100% Guaranteed.
A number of different families of proteins share a conserved domain which was first characterized in some animal lectins and which seem to function as a calcium-dependent carbohydrate-recognition domain [(PUBMED:3290208), (PUBMED:8341801)]. This domain, which is known as the C-type lectin domain (CTL) or as the carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD), consists of about 110 to 130 residues. There are four cysteines which are perfectly conserved and involved in two disulfide bonds.. There are proteins with modules similar in overall structure to CRDs that serve functions other than sugar binding. Therefore, a more general term C-type lectin-like domain was introduced to refer to such domains, although both terms C-type lectin and C-type lectin-like are sometimes used interchangeably [(PUBMED:16336259)].. C-type lectins can be further divided into seven subgroups based on additional non-lectin domains and gene structure: (I) hyalectans, (II) asialoglycoprotein receptors, (III) collectins, (IV) ...
Carbohydrate-oligonucleotide conjugates have become increasingly important in recent years, particularly with regard to an increased uptake and cell availability of siRNA and antisense oligonucleotides. Of particular interest here is N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), which can bind to the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) in hepatocytes.. The following picture shows some examples of the attachment of carbohydrates (sugars) to oligonucleotides via different linker structures:. ...
Carbohydrate-oligonucleotide conjugates have become increasingly important in recent years, particularly with regard to an increased uptake and cell availability of siRNA and antisense oligonucleotides. Of particular interest here is N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), which can bind to the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) in hepatocytes.. The following picture shows some examples of the attachment of carbohydrates (sugars) to oligonucleotides via different linker structures:. ...
RESULTS: We found a rare noncoding 12-base-pair (bp) deletion (del12) in intron 4 of ASGR1, which encodes a subunit of the asialoglycoprotein receptor, a lectin that plays a role in the homeostasis of circulating glycoproteins. The del12 mutation activates a cryptic splice site, leading to a frameshift mutation and a premature stop codon that renders a truncated protein prone to degradation. Heterozygous carriers of the mutation (1 in 120 persons in our study population) had a lower level of non-HDL cholesterol than noncarriers, a difference of 15.3 mg per deciliter (0.40 mmol per liter) (P=1.0×10(-16)), and a lower risk of coronary artery disease (by 34%; 95% confidence interval, 21 to 45; P=4.0×10(-6)). In a larger set of sequenced samples from Icelanders, we found another loss-of-function ASGR1 variant (p.W158X, carried by 1 in 1850 persons) that was also associated with lower levels of non-HDL cholesterol (P=1.8×10(-3 ...
Acetyl-LDL (Ac-LDL) bound to transformed mouse macrophage J774 cells in a high affinity, saturable and specific manner. When cells were cultured for 24h in the presence of tunicamycin such that incorporation of N-linked sugars into protein but not protein synthesis itself was inhibited significantly, the binding characteristics of Ac-LDL to the cells were unaltered. In this respect the Ac-LDL receptor of J774 cells is similar to the asialoglycoprotein receptor of HepG2 cells. ...
Presentation of sialic acid (Sia) varies among different tissues and organs within each species, and between species. This diversity has biologically important consequences regarding the recognition of cells by "xeno" antibodies (Neu5Gc vs Neu5Ac). Sia also plays a central role in inflammation by influencing binding of the asialoglycoprotein receptor 1 (ASGR-1), Siglec-1 (Sialoadhesin), and cellular interactions mediated by the selectin, integrin, and galectin receptor families. This review will focus on what is known about basic Sia structure and function in association with xenotransplantation, how changes in sialylation may occur in this context (through desialylation or changes in sialyltransferases), and how this fundamental pathway modulates adhesive and cell activation pathways that appear to be particularly crucial to homeostasis and inflammation for xenografts ...
The asialoglycoprotein (ASGP) receptor is a transmembrane hepatocellular surface carbohydrate binding glycoproteins lacking terminal sialic acid…
Purified DNA encoding CAR receptors and the recombinant proteins expressed from such DNA are disclosed. The recombinant receptor polypeptides are used to identify CAR ligands and CAR receptor binding sites and are also used to produce therapeutics. Antibodies specific for CAR receptor polypeptides are also disclosed.
Practical information about Kigali airport, visa and health care information, the weather, public transport and the local currency.
The number of Asialoglycoprotein (ASGP) receptors on the hepatocytes of patients with liver disease is reduced and is thus considered a good indicator for the evaluation of liver function. ASGP receptor-targeted radiopharmaceuticals permit a non-invasive way to evaluate total and regional hepatic function and hepatic functional reserve visually and quantitatively. Over the past three decades, a variety of ASGP receptor-targeted probes have been developed with different molecular backbones (albumin, polymer, small-molecular-weight ligand), different glycol-residues (galactose, lactose, N-acetyl-galactosamine) and different chelating systems suitable for radiolabeling with SPECT isotopes (Tc-99m, In-111, Ga-67, (131)/I-125, Sm-153) and PET isotopes (Ga-68, F-18). In this review, we present an overview of ASGP receptor-targeted radiopharmaceuticals, discuss their chemistry, biodistribution, catabolism and challenge as well as application for measurement of liver function ...
The major and minor forms of the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R), designated in the rat as RHL-1 and RHL-2/3, respectively, have traditionally been considered to be expressed exclusively in hepatic parenchymal cells. Northern blot analysis now demonstrates that rat and mouse testis express a receptor similar to the RHL-1 ASGP-R but not the RHL-2/3 receptor. In situ hybridization studies demonstrate that late-stage mouse and rat spermatids are the testicular cells that express the RHL-1 ASGP-R. The rat spermatid RHL-1 receptor has functional binding capability, with a KD of approximately 1.4 x 10(-8) M, and similar characteristics, compared with the hepatic RHL-1 receptor, regarding ligand binding specificity and ion dependence. These findings have major implications for therapeutic procedures attempting to target cytotoxic agents or DNA to hepatocytes using the ASGP-R. In addition, these findings demonstrate that late-stage spermatids are transcriptionally active and suggest that the RHL-1 ...
Formulated Receptor Polypeptides and Related Methods | AGENT FOR PROMOTING SUBSTANCE INCORPORATION IN INTESTINAL TRACT | Materials and Methods of Treating Dyslipidemia | FORMULATIONS OF VANCOMYCIN | NOVEL ENTERIC COMBINATION THERAPY |
Dave Weigel writes the smartest thing Ive read about the Sarah Palin phenomenon in some time. The problem is that Palin has put the political press in a submissive position, one in which the only information it prints about her...
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The glycine receptor of rat spinal cord is an oligomeric membrane glycoprotein of molecular mass 250,000 daltons that contains three polypeptides of 48,000, 58,000, and 93,000 daltons. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were prepared against the affinity-purified glycine receptor protein by using 125I-labeled receptor preparations for the detection of positive hybrids. From nine monoclonal antibodies obtained, six recognized denatured receptor polypeptides blotted to nitrocellulose paper. Two of these antibodies bound to more than one glycine receptor polypeptide: mAb GlyR 4a stained the 48,000- and 58,000-dalton polypeptides, and mAb GlyR 7a stained the 48,000- and 93,000-dalton polypeptides. Common antigenic determinants thus are shared by the different subunits of the glycine receptor. Complementary results were obtained by peptide mapping of 125I-labeled glycine receptor polypeptides with various proteases. A set of peptide fragments of the same apparent molecular mass was produced from the ...
0041]It is presently preferred to isolate E1 and/or E2 asialoglycoproteins from crude cell lysates by incubation with an immobilized mannose-binding protein, particularly a lectin such as ConA or GNA. Cells are lysed, e.g., by mechanical disruption in a hypotonic buffer followed by centrifugation to prepare a post-nuclear lysate, and further centrifuged to obtain a crude microsomal membrane fraction. The crude membrane fraction is subsequently solubilized in a buffer containing a detergent, such as Triton X-100, NP40, or the like. This detergent extract is further clarified of insoluble particulates by centrifugation, and the resulting clarified lysate incubated in a chromatography column comprising an immobilized mannose-binding protein, preferably GNA bound to a solid support such as agarose or Sepharose® for a period of time sufficient for binding, typically 16 to 20 hours. The suspension is then applied to the column until E1/E2 begins to appear in the eluent, then incubated in the column ...
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French Catholic philosopher Jacques Maritain once wrote that Americans "are the least materialist among the modern peoples which have attained the industrial stage.". Drawing on this sentiment, George Weigel argues that although materialism may reign in America more than it once did, "there remains a link between money-making and idealism in these United States that is distinctive, and perhaps even unique.". Pointing to President Calvin Coolidge (no fan of materialism), Weigel emphasizes that Coolidges famous line-"the chief business of the American people is business"-shouldnt be taken by itself. For Coolidge, and for most Americans (even today), promoting the dignity-conferring effects of business is part of a larger, deeper idealism.. As Weigel explains:. As for wealth, consider Silent Cals remarks at the end of the same speech: "We make no concealment of the fact that we want wealth, but there are many other things that we want very much more. We want peace and honor, and that charity ...
Welcome to Biology 1510 for Fall 2017! Select course readings from the menus above by Module: Evolution Ecology Molecules and Metabolism Genetics Integrative Human Health Lecture materials can be downloaded from t-square Instructions for the group video project will be … Continue reading →. ...
K. Schneeberger, Hagmann, J., Ossowski, S., Warthmann, N., Gesing, S., Kohlbacher, O., and Weigel, D., "Simultaneous alignment of short reads against multiple genomes", Genome Biol, vol. 10, p. R98, 2009. ...
Hodotermes is a genus that contains two species of African harvester termites known as H. mossambicus and H. erithreensis. The collective range of both species extends from some areas of South Africa through the savannas in East Africa to Palaearctic North Africa. Both species are subterraneous, nesting under the ground, but the nests of H. mossambicus can contain several sphere-shaped hives, and long tunnels connect the rooms of each nest. It is typical for all harvester termites to have compound eyes are serrated edges on the mandibles.. Breeding members of the Hodotermes genus, known as alates, emerge from nests in the summer months after evening hours. Once the alates land, they break off their wings and begin searching for suitable mates. When a pair has finished courtship, they will find a new area to start dig a nest and become the king and queen of a new colony. Eggs are laid about a week after breeding and soon after the resulting workers will begin to tend to new eggs and the nest. ...
Histamine is a ubiquitous messenger molecule released from mast cells, enterochromaffin-like cells, and neurons. Its various actions are mediated by histamine receptors H1, H2, H3 and H4. This gene encodes one of the histamine receptors (H3) which belongs to the family 1 of G protein-coupled receptors. It is an integral membrane protein and can regulate neurotransmitter release. This receptor can also increase voltage-dependent calcium current in smooth muscles and innervates the blood vessels and the heart in cardiovascular system. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
The obligate human pathogen, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, has evolved mechanisms to manipulate the apoptotic machinery in human epithelial cells in favor of host niche adaptation. In the present research, I investigated the apoptotic effect of N. gonorrhoeae on transduced human urethral epithelial cells (THUEC) and the underlying mechanism of apoptosis modulation. Flow cytometric analysis showed that gonococcal infection conferred an anti-apoptotic effect in early infection, but induced apoptosis during prolonged infection periods in THUEC. Intracellular gonococci were required to provide the anti-apoptotic effect. Furthermore, immunoblotting analysis of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways mapped the apoptosis resistance to a signaling cascade involving epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), and Bim/Bad, in which the inhibition of ERK activation by N. gonorrhoeae contributed to the anti-apoptotic effect on THUEC. A N. gonorrhoeae minD ...
Exactly. News organizations dont hire conservatives. Therefore, conservatives dont seek careers in journalism and instead become lawyers or accountants or stock brokers or whatever.. Ergo, none of the people making decisions in MSM newsrooms are conservatives. Where set A = "employees of news organizations" and set B = "conservatives," we see that as the closer set AB approaches to zero, the more likely journalists are to view conservatives as The Other, and vice-versa.. If you think such a situation is a good thing, then youre obviously congratulating yourself about Dave Weigels downfall, and you dont want to hear the explanation of my disagreement.. UPDATE VI: Not to say there isnt an upside: Ezra Klein has deep-sixed Journolist as a result of the Weigel affair. Little Miss Attila says the list had become "blackmail fodder.". I spoke to Weigel by phone this afternoon. Hes fine, and is currently deciding which of three or four job offers to accept. He admits that he succumbed to hubris, ...
Chao, D. (Creator), Borevitz, J. O. (Creator), Atwell, S. (Creator), Huang, Y. S. (Creator), Vilhjalmsson, B. J. (Creator), Willems, G. (Creator), Horton, M. (Creator), Li, Y. (Creator), Meng, D. (Creator), Platt, A. (Creator), Tarone, A. M. (Creator), Hu, T. T. (Creator), Jiang, R. (Creator), Muliyati, N. W. (Creator), Zhang, X. (Creator), Amer, M. A. (Creator), Baxter, I. (Creator), Brachi, B. (Creator), Chory, J. (Creator), Dean, C. (Creator), Debieu, M. (Creator), de Meaux, J. (Creator), Ecker, J. R. (Creator), Faure, N. (Creator), Kniskern, J. M. (Creator), Jones, J. D. G. (Creator), Michael, T. (Creator), Nemri, A. (Creator), Roux, F. (Creator), Salt, D. E. (Creator), Tang, C. (Creator), Todesco, M. (Creator), Traw, M. B. (Creator), Weigel, D. (Creator), Marjoram, P. (Creator), Bergelson, J. (Creator), Nordborg, M. (Creator), Silva, A. (Creator), GEO, 31 Jul 2012. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE39679 and 2 more links, ...
Histamine is a ubiquitous messenger molecule released from mast cells, enterochromaffin-like cells, and neurons. Its various actions are mediated by histamine receptors H1, H2, H3 and H4. This gene was thought to be intronless until recently. The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein and belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. It mediates the contraction of smooth muscles, the increase in capillary permeability due to contraction of terminal venules, the release of catecholamine from adrenal medulla, and neurotransmission in the central nervous system. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified ...
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George Weigel is Americans leading lay authority on the Roman Catholic Church, a biographer of John Paull II and benedict XVI, and one of the most sought-
The long read: For 25 years, invoking this vague and ever-shifting nemesis has been a favourite tactic of the right - and Donald Trumps victory is its greatest triumph
https://www.technologyreview.com/s/601495/amgen-finds-anti-heart-attack-gene/ http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1508419 Variant ASGR1 Associated with a Reduced Risk of Coronary Artery Disease In ~50,000 patients studied, two insertion/deletion variants were found in the paper cited above, amidst a region of seven linked SNPs. Each of these variants reduces risk for myocardial infarction by about a third (hazard ratio, 0.64, CI: 0.64 - 0.80, p=8.5×10e−5) and led to a life span that was on average 1.5 years longer than that for noncarriers (CI:, 0.2 to 2.8, p=0.02). The two variants are: ...
I. Groth <- Ch. Weigel; 2163-026 (= HKI 0122). Cave, soil between rocks; China. Type strain. Taxonomy/description (7551). Sequence accession no. Y18378, complete genome: CP001618 (16204). Murein: A11.54 (7551). (Medium 736, 28°C ...
DNA molecules complexed with an asialoglycoprotein-polycation conjugate, consisting of asialoorosomucoid (ASOR) coupled to poly-l-lysine, can enter hepatocytes which bear receptors for ASOR. We used this receptor-mediated DNA delivery system to deliver plasmid DNA encoding glycoprotein D (gD) of herpes simplex virus type 1 to ASOR-positive cells. Maximum expression of gD protein was seen at 3 days after injection of this preparation in approximately 13% of cells from BALB/c mice [hepatocytes from mice injected intravenously (i.v.) or peritoneal exudate cells from mice injected intraperitoneally (i.p.)]. In comparison with mice injected with either the plasmid vector alone or the gD-containing plasmid uncomplexed to ASOR, mice immunized with gD-containing plasmid complexed with ASOR-poly-l-lysine induced marked antigen-specific CTL responses. BALB/c mice immunized with gD-DNA developed a T-cell-mediated CTL response against target cells expressing gD and MHC class II glycoproteins, but not against cells
TY - JOUR. T1 - Receptor-mediated uptake of human α1-acid glycoprotein into liver parenchymal cells in mice. AU - Matsumoto, Kazuaki. AU - Nishi, Koji. AU - Kikuchi, Mari. AU - Watanabe, Hiroshi. AU - Nakajou, Keisuke. AU - Komori, Hisakazu. AU - Kadowaki, Daisuke. AU - Suenaga, Ayaka. AU - Maruyama, Toru. AU - Otagiri, Masaki. PY - 2010/1/1. Y1 - 2010/1/1. N2 - Human α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), a serum glycoprotein, is thought to have anti-inflammatory effects by a mechanism that is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the pharmacokinetics of AGP in mice using enzymatically modified AGP (AGP with the sialic acids removed, asialo-AGP, and with both sialic acids and galactose removed, agalacto-AGP). It was observed that AGP was eliminated from the circulation slowly, and was mainly taken up by the liver. The elimination of labeled AGP, asialo-AGP and agalacto-AGP from the circulation was suppressed in the presence of excess unlabeled AGP, asialo-AGP and agalacto-AGP, ...
Shop IgA receptor ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and IgA receptor Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
I. Groth; HKI 0119 <- Ch. Weigel; 2162-038. Cave, soil sample; China. Type strain. Taxonomy/description (8306). Murein: A31 (8306). (Medium 736, 28°C ...
The galactose group has been conjugated to the amino or carboxyl group on collagen molecules. Galactosylated was used as ECM for hepatocyte culture in two 3-D culture systems, which are microcapsules and porous PHEMA hydrogel scaffold.In microcapsule system, the character of mass transfer ans some physical characters have benn identified. The optimized cell functions of hepatocytes in microcapsules have been investigated, which were basing on different modification degree galactosylated collagen, different mixed ratio of methylated collagen and galactosylated collagen, and cell densities which were entrapped by microcapules.In Porous PHEMA scaffold and in situ forming galactosylated collagen system, the in situ forming modified collagen was prepared by interaction between galactosylated collagen and APBS. Hepatocytes were entrapped by in situ gelation galactosylated collagen in porous PHEMA scaffold. The material characters of PHEMA have been tested. The formation procedure of in situ felling ...
Histamine H4 Receptor antibody (histamine receptor H4) for IHC-P. Anti-Histamine H4 Receptor pAb (GTX71421) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Histamine H4 Receptor antibody (histamine receptor H4) for ICC/IF. Anti-Histamine H4 Receptor pAb (GTX78053) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
On the way out of Iowa, a spokesman for the state GOP gave me a small rubber chicken with the website called BraleyChicken. It was, he explained, part of the effort to further the negative brand of Democratic Senate candidate Bruce Braley, an effort to a make sure that every voter knows that Braley complained about a neighbor who let chickens roam onto the yard of his vacation home.. Oh, sorry, I forgot. The spokesman was Jeff Patch, a former Politico reporter who became an activist, later moving to Iowa. He broke the chicken story at the Iowa Republican. The next day, he said, he climbed on board with the state party. You can see why, because Patch wrote a hell of a narrative.. From the Classic Deli and Ice Cream Shoppe to the Caseys General Store, he started, folks are talking about the hometown boy-turned liberal trial lawyer-turned congressman and his bizarre legal battle with a neighbor over her chickens. In the story that followed, littered with chicken puns, Patch reported of $1,700 ...
I walk because I know that with every step, Im making a difference in someones life. And when combined with a million other Heart Walk Heroes across the nation, we have an even greater impact toward curing heart disease and stroke. Will you be a Heart Walk Hero with me?. Your donation will fund groundbreaking research that literally keeps hearts beating and helps people have longer, healthier lives.. Have a heart and help me reach my goal today!. ...
The University of Iowa has independently funded and established mentors in Surgical Oncology to train the next generation of surgeon-scientists to independently...
Inevitably, the other topic of interest is Babygate. David Wegel claimed that he contacted Mat-Su Regional Medical Center and obtained confirmation that Sarah Palin gave birth there, proving that all Trig Truthers are deranged and obsessed with with their theories about the pregnancy hoax. Does Weigel actually believe that all the bloggers who have been writing about this didnt think of phoning the hospital in the course of their investigations? After nearly three years he was the first person to get an answer out of them? How odd ...
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Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Alicja Jozkowicz, Halina Was, Hevidar Taha, Jerzy Kotlinowski, Katarzyna Mleczko, Jaroslaw Cisowski, Guenter Weigel, Jozef Dulak].
I am a lawyer who has practised in Australia and overseas for over 40 years. I resent the suggestion, now being made (especially by Americans and Europeans) that George Pells conviction was a travesty of justice that somehow reflects badly on the Australian judicial system. I am not surprized by the ignorance of those who criticise our system of justice, and Mr Weigel is a prime exemplar of that ignorance (but what can you expect of an American). I am the first to concede that our justice system may need overhaul, especially in cases concerning child sexual abuse, but changes should be based on fact and not ill informed slogans.. Is there evidence to suggest that Victorian Police had embarked on a tawdry fishing expedition to get Pell? I find it instructive that Dr Weigel uses the expression: "fishing expedition. "Its such a hackneyed court room expression that I wonder if lurking inside Dr Weigel is a lawyer in waiting just wishing to emerge, bewigged and gowned, ready to do battle. But ...
Updated: 8:38 PM ET Aug 25, 2008. A few years ago, Richard Doerflinger, a pro-life Roman Catholic intellectual with decades of experience in the trenches of Americas culture wars, was invited to debate the moral and legal status of the human embryo before a large class of Harvard undergraduates. During the course of the discussion, Doerflingers Harvard faculty interlocutor drew a timeline of human biological development on the blackboard: conception, implantation, brain waves, viability, birth and so forth. His challenge to Doerflinger was to defend, in a nonarbitrary way and without reference to religious principles, the notion that society should recognize moral value and legal rights at any particular point along that line. If here, why here? If there, why there?. After the class, as the conversation continued with a few students and the professor, Doerflinger took a piece of chalk and extended the timeline to the end of the blackboard, where he wrote Tenure. The students laughed, and got ...
R. Weigel General Virology Institute of Genetics University of Hohenheim Emil Wolff Str.14 70599 Stuttgart Germany Tel.: +049/711/4592395 Fax: ~4592937 -------------- next part -------------- An embedded message was scrubbed... From: Lee Smith ,lee.smith at bbsrc.ac.uk, Subject: Re: phase lock gel Date: Fri, 12 Dec 1997 12:02:39 +0000 Size: 1770 Url: http://iubio.bio.indiana.edu/bionet/mm/methods/attachments/19971212/d545482b/attachment.txt ...
NORWAY - In recognition of a strong fiscal year, Norway Savings Bank has made a special year-end gift of $70,000, distributed among 12 non-profits serving Oxford, Androscoggin, Cumberland, York and Sagadahoc Counties in Maine. These donations are in addition to more than $500,000 the bank has given to numerous other local organizations throughout the year.. "2019 was another very good year for the Bank, which is a testament to our employees, customers and communities," said Patricia Weigel, president and CEO of Norway Savings Bank. "Reinvesting in our communities is at the heart of what we do. We decided to target twelve organizations throughout our branch footprint and surprised them with donations that will help them continue to fulfill their missions and great work they are doing in our communities. ...
Stephens, Elizabeth H.; Saltarrelli, Jerome G. Jr.; Balaoing, Liezl R.; Baggett, L. Scott; Nandi, Indrajit; Anderson, Kristin M.; Morrisett, Joel D.; Reardon, Michael J.; Simpson, Melanie A.; Weigel, Paul H.; Olmsted-Davis, Elizabeth A.; Davis, Alan R.; Grande-Allen, K. Jane (2012) ...
Slotte T, Hazzouri KM, Agren JA, Koenig D, Maumus F, Guo YL, Steige K, Platts AE, Escobar JS, Newman LK, Wang W, Mandáková T, Vello E, Smith LM, Henz SR, Steffen J, Takuno S, Brandvain Y, Coop G, Andolfatto P, Hu TT*, Blanchette M, Clark RM, Quesneville H, Nordborg M, Gaut BS, Lysak MA, Jenkins J, Grimwood J, Chapman J, Prochnik S, Shu S, Rokhsar D, Schmutz J, Weigel D, Wright SI. 2013 . The Capsella rubella genome and the genomic consequences of rapid mating system evolution. Nat Genet. 45:831-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23749190 ...
Aaron R. Victor, Christoph Weigel, Steven D. Scoville, Wing Keung Chan, Kelsey Chatman, Mary M. Nemer, Charlene Mao, Karen A. Young, Jianying Zhang, Jianhua Yu, Aharon G. Freud, Christopher C. Oakes and Michael A. Caligiuri ...
Name: Altenb-2. ABRC stock number: CS76353. Description: Natural accession resequenced using the Illumina GA platform by the D. Weigel laboratory at the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology - Germany as part of the 1001 Genomes Project; single plant propagation from the sequenced plant.. Donation Date: 2010-01-29. ...
Several years ago it was reported that the entry of adenovirus particles could augment the uptake of polylysine-condensed DNA molecules ( Curielet al. 1991), a phenomenon similar to previously...
Zach and Alice and Poppy set off on one last adventure to lay the Queens ghost to rest. But nothing goes according to plan, and as their adventure turns into an epic journey, creepy things begin to happen. Is the doll just a doll or something more sinister? And if there really is a ghost, will it let them go now that it has them in its clutches ...
DOMINIC MCGOLDRICK, 2009. State Identity and Genocide: The Bosnian Genocide Case. In: KAIKOBAD K, BOHLANDER M, ed., International Law and Power: Perspectives on Legal Order and Justice Brill. 255-303 ...
Weiss, P; Ashwell, G (1989). "The asialoglycoprotein receptor: properties and modulation by ligand". Progress in Clinical and ...
"In vitro binding of the asialoglycoprotein receptor to the beta adaptin of plasma membrane coated vesicles". The EMBO Journal. ... Schleiff E, Shore GC, Goping IS (March 1997). "Human mitochondrial import receptor, Tom20p. Use of glutathione to reveal ...
... homology with asialoglycoprotein receptors and cartilage proteoglycan core protein". Biochemistry. 26 (21): 6757-64. doi: ...
Clearance of IgA is mediated at least in part by asialoglycoprotein receptors, which recognizes galactose-terminating IgA N- ... Proteolysis of the receptor occurs, and the dimeric IgA molecule, along with a portion of the receptor known as the secretory ... and mucosal epithelial cells that express an immunoglobulin receptor called the polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR). pIgA is released ... see B-cell receptor) It is also possible to distinguish forms of IgA based upon their location - serum IgA vs. secretory IgA. ...
... where it binds to the asialoglycoprotein receptors on hepatocytes. Galactosamine Globoside (N-Acetylglucosamine) GlcNAc Donald ...
... asialoglycoprotein receptors) group contains several sub-sub-families, many of which are important to innate immunity. A ... DC-SIGN is a C-type lectin receptor present on the surface of both macrophages and dendritic cells. DC-SIGN on macrophages ... Lozach PY, Burleigh L, Staropoli I, Amara A (2007). "The C type lectins DC-SIGN and L-SIGN: receptors for viral glycoproteins ... Cambi A, Figdor CG (2004). "Dual function of C-type lectin-like receptors in the immune system". Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 15 (5 ...
... the hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptors, intestinal sucrose-isomaltase, the erythropoietin receptor, two subunits of the TGFß ... identified the intracellular organelles that mediate recycling of the asialoglycoprotein and transferrin receptors, and ... Current efforts of his group focus on: Erythropoiesis - activation of and signal transduction by the erythropoietin receptor in ... receptor, and several adipocyte-specific proteins including adiponectin (formerly Acrp30). These have been used to define the ...
... residues results in rapid clearance of the glycoproteins from the circulation through hepatocyte asialoglycoprotein receptors ... Asialoglycoproteins at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... If terminal sialic acid residues are removed from glycoproteins, the resulting proteins are known as asialoglycoproteins. The ...
Stockert, R. J. (1995-07-01). "The asialoglycoprotein receptor: relationships between structure, function, and expression". ... Androgen receptors Calcitriol receptors Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 Corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 ... hormone receptors Glucagon receptors Gonadotropin receptors Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors Growth hormone receptors ... hormone Progesterone receptors Retinoid receptors Somatostatin receptors Thyroid hormone receptors Thyrotropin receptors Aranda ...
The asialoglycoprotein receptors are lectins which bind asialoglycoprotein, glycoproteins from which a sialic acid has been ... The asialoglycoprotein receptor has been demonstrated to have high expression on the surface of hepatocytes and several human ... Asialoglycoprotein receptor at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... Lactobionic acid has been used as a targeting moiety for drug delivery to cells expressing asialoglycoprotein receptors. ...
Another potential characterization of the CLRs can be into mannose receptors and asialoglycoprotein receptors. The mannose ... mannose versus asialoglycoprotein) is a bit misleading as these the asialoglycoprotein receptors are not necessarily galactose ... and C-type lectin receptors (CLRs). Cytoplasmic PRRs include NOD-like receptors (NLRs) and RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs). PRRs ... For more details, see NOD-like receptor. The NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are cytoplasmic proteins, which recognize bacterial ...
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor. *Aryl sulfotransferase. *Asialoglycoprotein receptor. *Aspartate carbamoyltransferase. * ...
... to discover that a certain receptor in a human's liver is able to recognize a specific glycoprotein called asialoglycoprotein. ... He is a member of the National Academy of Science for his work with Anatol Morell in isolating the first cell receptor. Ashwell ... Ashwell explained that he was not specifically looking for the asialoglycoprotein when he found it. Ashwell died on June 27, ... and discovered one of the earliest known carbohydrate receptors. They were able to devise a labeling procedure which allowed ...
Asialoglycoprotein receptor. *Tumor necrosis factor receptor. *Immunoglobulin superfamily. *N-Acetylglucosamine receptor. * ... Prostaglandin receptors or prostanoid receptors represent a sub-class of cell surface membrane receptors that are regarded as ... All of the prostanoid receptors are G protein-coupled receptors belonging to the Subfamily A14 of the rhodopsin-like receptor ... There are 9 established prostanoid receptors. The following table gives these receptors: a) full name; b) shortened names; c) ...
Asialoglycoprotein receptor. *Tumor necrosis factor receptor. *Immunoglobulin superfamily. *N-Acetylglucosamine receptor. * ... GABA receptors: GABA-A, GABA-C. GABA. Cl− , HCO−3 [11]. Glutamate receptors: NMDA receptor, AMPA receptor, and Kainate receptor ... toll-like receptors (TLRs), killer activated and killer inhibitor receptors (KARs and KIRs), complement receptors, Fc receptors ... receptors, G protein-linked (metabotropic) hormone receptors, and enzyme-linked hormone receptors.[1] Intracellular receptors ...
C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) Group 1 CLRs - Mannose receptors MRC1 MRC2 DEC205 (CD205) Group 2 CLRs - Asialoglycoprotein ... Anaphylatoxin receptors C3a receptor C5a receptor (CD88) C5AR2 Fc receptor Fc-gamma receptors (FcγR) FcγRI (CD64) FcγRIIA ( ... Prolactin receptor) Type II cytokine receptor - Lack WSXWS motif Interferon receptors Interferon-α/β receptor (IFNAR) - ... C chemokine receptors (XCRs) XCR1 CX3C chemokine receptors (CX3CRs) CX3CR1 (Fractalkine receptor) TGF beta receptors - Single ...
Asialoglycoprotein receptor. *Tumor necrosis factor receptor. *Immunoglobulin superfamily. *N-Acetylglucosamine receptor. * ... Rats rely heavily on olfactory sensory input from olfactory receptors for behavioral attitudes.[28] Studies show that bilateral ... The olfactory tubercle has been shown to be concerned primarily with the reception of sensory impulses from olfactory receptors ... receptor D3 is abundant in this two areas [6]). In addition, the OT contains tightly packed cell clusters known as the islands ...
Asialoglycoprotein receptor. *Tumor necrosis factor receptor. *Immunoglobulin superfamily. *N-Acetylglucosamine receptor. * ... An example of membrane receptors. *Ligands, located outside the cell. *Ligands connect to specific receptor proteins based on ... The receptor releases a messenger once the ligand has connected to the receptor. ... Wikipedia:MeSH D12.776#MeSH D12.776.543.750 - receptors.2C cell surface. അവലംബം[തിരുത്തുക]. *↑ Hall, JE (2016). Guyton and Hall ...
Receptor/signaling modulators. Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Growth factor receptor modulators. ... 4-1BB is a type 2 transmembrane glycoprotein receptor belonging to the TNF superfamily, expressed on activated T Lymphocytes.[1 ... Asialoglycoprotein. *Avidin. *B-cell activating factor. *4-1BB ligand. *Cholesterylester transfer protein ...
Miraculin, is a glycoprotein extracted from Synsepalum dulcificum a berry which alters human tongue receptors to recognize sour ... Asialoglycoprotein. *Avidin. *B-cell activating factor. *4-1BB ligand. *Cholesterylester transfer protein ...
... receptor and intracellular accumulation of cyclic AMP. High AGP concentrations, however, inhibited TSH signalling.[5][6] ... and its glycoforms on the function of human thyrocytes and CHO cells transfected with the human TSH receptor". Molecular and ... Asialoglycoprotein. *Avidin. *B-cell activating factor. *4-1BB ligand. *Cholesterylester transfer protein ...
cytokine receptor activity. Cellular component. • integral component of membrane. • Golgi apparatus. • macrophage migration ... CD44 is a receptor for hyaluronic acid and can also interact with other ligands, such as osteopontin, collagens, and matrix ... Aruffo A, Stamenkovic I, Melnick M, Underhill C, Seed B (Jul 1990). "CD44 is the principal cell surface receptor for ... "bone homing receptor", directing migration of human hematopoietic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells to bone marrow.[11] Ex ...
Clearance of IgA is mediated at least in part by asialoglycoprotein receptors, which recognizes galactose-terminating IgA N- ... Proteolysis of the receptor occurs, and the dimeric IgA molecule, along with a portion of the receptor known as the secretory ... and mucosal epithelial cells that express an immunoglobulin receptor called the polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR). pIgA is released ... Both IgA1 and IgA2 can be in membrane-bound form.[12] (see B-cell receptor) ...
Asialoglycoprotein Receptor 1兔多克隆抗体(ab42488)可与大鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, ICC/IF实验 ... Anti-Asialoglycoprotein Receptor 1抗体. 参阅全部 Asialoglycoprotein Receptor 1 一抗. ... Anti-Asialoglycoprotein Receptor 1 antibody (ab42488) at 0.5 µg/ml (in 5% skim milk / PBS buffer) + human fetal liver lysate at ... Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence - Anti-Asialoglycoprotein Receptor 1 antibody (ab42488)This image is
Asialoglycoprotein receptor phosphorylation and receptor-mediated endocytosis in hepatoma cells. Effect of phorbol esters. ... Asialoglycoprotein receptor phosphorylation and receptor-mediated endocytosis in hepatoma cells. Effect of phorbol esters. / ... T1 - Asialoglycoprotein receptor phosphorylation and receptor-mediated endocytosis in hepatoma cells. Effect of phorbol esters ... Asialoglycoprotein receptor phosphorylation and receptor-mediated endocytosis in hepatoma cells. Effect of phorbol esters. ...
The asialoglycoprotein receptors are lectins which bind asialoglycoprotein, glycoproteins from which a sialic acid has been ... The asialoglycoprotein receptor has been demonstrated to have high expression on the surface of hepatocytes and several human ... Asialoglycoprotein receptor at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... Lactobionic acid has been used as a targeting moiety for drug delivery to cells expressing asialoglycoprotein receptors. ...
Rabbit polyclonal Asialoglycoprotein Receptor 1/HL-1 antibody. Validated in WB, IHC and tested in Human. Cited in 1 publication ... Anti-Asialoglycoprotein Receptor 1/HL-1 antibody. See all Asialoglycoprotein Receptor 1/HL-1 primary antibodies. ... Anti-Asialoglycoprotein Receptor 1/HL-1 antibody (ab49355) at 0.6 µg/ml + Fetal liver lysate at 10 µg with 5% skim milk in PBS. ... Protein - Recombinant Human Asialoglycoprotein Receptor 1/HL-1 (ab151893) SDS-PAGE, HPLC ...
What is asialoglycoprotein receptor? Meaning of asialoglycoprotein receptor medical term. What does asialoglycoprotein receptor ... Looking for online definition of asialoglycoprotein receptor in the Medical Dictionary? asialoglycoprotein receptor explanation ... This study evaluated the usefulness of asialoglycoprotein receptor scintigraphy with [sup.. Asialoglycoprotein receptor ... asialoglycoprotein receptor. Also found in: Wikipedia. a·si·a·lo·gly·co·pro·tein re·cep·tor. a surface receptor found in ...
A C-type lectin that is a cell surface receptor for ASIALOGLYCOPROTEINS. It is found primarily in the LIVER where it mediates ... Receptor, Hepatic Asialoglycoprotein; Receptors, Asialoglycoprotein; Receptors, Asialoorosomucoid; Asialoglycoprotein Receptors ... Hepatic Asialoglycoprotein Receptor; Hepatic Lectin; Liver Carbohydrate-Binding Protein; Receptor, Asialoglycoprotein; Receptor ... Asialoglycoprotein Receptor. Subscribe to New Research on Asialoglycoprotein Receptor A C-type lectin that is a cell surface ...
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-Asialoglycoprotein Receptor 2 Antibody. Validated: WB, IHC, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human. 100% ... Additional Asialoglycoprotein Receptor 2 Products. Asialoglycoprotein Receptor 2 NBP1-52958 * Asialoglycoprotein Receptor 2 ... Home » Asialoglycoprotein Receptor 2 » Asialoglycoprotein Receptor 2 Antibodies » Asialoglycoprotein Receptor 2 Antibody ... Blogs on Asialoglycoprotein Receptor 2. There are no specific blogs for Asialoglycoprotein Receptor 2, but you can read our ...
Effect of chronic ethanol administration on total asialoglycoprotein receptor content and intracellular processing of ... In addition to a decreased number of intracellular receptors, an impairment in intracellular processing of receptor-ligand ... These results indicate that chronic ethanol administration decreases ligand binding due to a decreased number of receptors and ... Ethanol administration for 5-7 weeks decreased intracellular ASOR receptor content by 40%, a result which was confirmed by ...
Hodgkins Cell Lectin: An Ectosialyltransferase and Lymphocyte Agglutinant Related to the Hepatic Asialoglycoprotein Receptor. ... Hodgkins Cell Lectin: An Ectosialyltransferase and Lymphocyte Agglutinant Related to the Hepatic Asialoglycoprotein Receptor ... Hodgkins Cell Lectin: An Ectosialyltransferase and Lymphocyte Agglutinant Related to the Hepatic Asialoglycoprotein Receptor ... Hodgkins Cell Lectin: An Ectosialyltransferase and Lymphocyte Agglutinant Related to the Hepatic Asialoglycoprotein Receptor ...
Effects of vanadate on receptor-mediated endocytosis of asialoglycoproteins in isolated rat hepatocytes TROND BERG TROND BERG ... TROND BERG, OLA GUDMUNDSEN, GRETE M. KINDBERG; Effects of vanadate on receptor-mediated endocytosis of asialoglycoproteins in ...
The major subunit of the human asialoglycoprotein receptor contains signals for efficient endocytosis and specific basolateral ... The major subunit of the human asialoglycoprotein receptor contains signals for efficient endocytosis and specific basolateral ... Related signals for endocytosis and basolateral sorting of the asialoglycoprotein receptor. Journal of Biological Chemistry, ... The kinetics of appearance of newly synthesized wild-type and mutant receptor protein at the apical and basolateral surfaces ...
The human asialoglycoprotein receptor, an endocytic transport receptor of the basolateral surface of hepatocytes, is a hetero- ... The human asialoglycoprotein receptor, an endocytic transport receptor of the basolateral surface of hepatocytes, is a hetero- ... Fuhrer, C; Geffen, I; Huggel, K; Spiess, M (1994). The two subunits of the asialoglycoprotein receptor contain different ... Thus, whereas the endocytosis signal of the hetero-oligomeric asialoglycoprotein receptor resides exclusively in subunit H1, ...
Late-stage spermatids are characterized by expression of the "liver-specific" asialoglycoprotein receptor, RHL-1.. B E Huber ... Late-stage spermatids are characterized by expression of the "liver-specific" asialoglycoprotein receptor, RHL-1.. B E Huber ... Late-stage spermatids are characterized by expression of the "liver-specific" asialoglycoprotein receptor, RHL-1.. B E Huber ... The major and minor forms of the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R), designated in the rat as RHL-1 and RHL-2/3, respectively ...
Apparent lack of second messenger involvement in receptor-mediated endocytosis of asialoglycoproteins by isolated rat ... Apparent lack of second messenger involvement in receptor-mediated endocytosis of asialoglycoproteins by isolated rat ... Apparent lack of second messenger involvement in receptor-mediated endocytosis of asialoglycoproteins by isolated rat ... Apparent lack of second messenger involvement in receptor-mediated endocytosis of asialoglycoproteins by isolated rat ...
When the COOH terminus of the rat liver receptor is aligned with the corresponding portions of the chicken liver receptor, the ... Sequence homology between residues 50-79 and residues 121-150 of the rat receptor suggests that the additional length of this ... The overall arrangement of the polypeptide is similar to the chicken receptor for asialoagalactoglycoproteins; it consists of ... there must be at least two genes coding for receptor polypeptides. RHL-2 and RHL-3 may differ in their extent of ...
Asialoglycoprotein receptor 2 (Asgr2) Recombinant Protein-NP_001300854.1 (MBS7053730) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ... "Impaired receptor-mediated endocytosis by the asialoglycoprotein receptor in ethanol-fed mice: implications for studying the ... This gene encodes a subunit of the asialoglycoprotein receptor. This receptor is a transmembrane protein that plays a critical ... The asialoglycoprotein receptor is a hetero-oligomeric protein composed of major and minor subunits, which are encoded by ...
study of their receptor specificity (hepatic ASGP receptor versus galactosespecific receptors on the surfaces of other cells) ... The asialoglycoprotein-receptor (ASGP-R) is a C-type lectin predominantly expressed on the sinusoidal surface of mammalian ... Targeting hepatocytes via the asialoglycoprotein-receptor. 2010, PhD Thesis, University of Basel, Faculty of Science. ... to the receptor with known galactose-derived compounds. In this assay, the purified human H1-CRD of the ASGP-R expressed in E. ...
Alcohol Alters Hepatic Immune Function: Role of the Asialoglycoprotein Receptor Mcvicker, Benita L. Omaha VA Medical Center, ... Alcohol Alters Hepatic Immune Function: Role of the Asialoglycoprotein Receptor. Mcvicker, Benita L. / Omaha VA Medical Center ... Alcohol Alters Hepatic Immune Function: Role of the Asialoglycoprotein Receptor. Mcvicker, Benita L. / Omaha VA Medical Center ... Alcohol Alters Hepatic Immune Function: Role of the Asialoglycoprotein Receptor. Mcvicker, Benita L. / Omaha VA Medical Center ...
Regulation of asialoglycoprotein receptor expression in the proliferative state of hepatocytes. Shinichi Hirose, Hirohiko Ise, ... Hirose S, Ise H, Uchiyama M, Cho CS, Akaike T. Regulation of asialoglycoprotein receptor expression in the proliferative state ... Hirose, S., Ise, H., Uchiyama, M., Cho, C. S., & Akaike, T. (2001). Regulation of asialoglycoprotein receptor expression in the ... Regulation of asialoglycoprotein receptor expression in the proliferative state of hepatocytes. / Hirose, Shinichi; Ise, ...
The asialoglycoprotein receptor is associated with a tyrosine kinase in HepG2 cells. In: Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1994 ... The asialoglycoprotein receptor is associated with a tyrosine kinase in HepG2 cells. / Fallon, Robert; Danaher, Maria; Saxena, ... Fallon R, Danaher M, Saxena A. The asialoglycoprotein receptor is associated with a tyrosine kinase in HepG2 cells. Journal of ... Fallon, R, Danaher, M & Saxena, A 1994, The asialoglycoprotein receptor is associated with a tyrosine kinase in HepG2 cells, ...
Erratum to: Lactosaminated mesoporous silica nanoparticles for asialoglycoprotein receptor targeted anticancer drug delivery. * ... Lactosaminated mesoporous silica nanoparticles for asialoglycoprotein receptor targeted anticancer drug delivery. J Nanobiotech ...
... and the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR). The ASGPR and the ManR are carbohydrate-specific, endocytic receptors expressed by ... Stefanich EG, Ren S, Danilenko DM, Lim A, Song A, Iyer S, Fielder PJ (2008) Evidence for an asialoglycoprotein receptor on ... Mi Y, Lin A, Fiete D, Steirer L, Baenziger JU (2014) Modulation of mannose and asialoglycoprotein receptor expression ... This may occur, for example, when targeting a receptor on a solid tumor which is poorly accessible, and the receptor is also ...
The purpose of this study was to define the distribution of the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) main peptide, rat hepatic ... The purpose of this study was to define the distribution of the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) main peptide, rat hepatic ... The lobular expression of the rat asialoglycoprotein receptor is regulated at post-transcriptional level. ... The lobular expression of the rat asialoglycoprotein receptor is regulated at post-transcriptional level ...
Asialoglycoprotein Receptor 1) ELISA Kit based in Delhi, India ... Rat ASGR1(Asialoglycoprotein Receptor 1) ELISA Kit Rat ASGR1( ... Rat ASGR1(Asialoglycoprotein Receptor 1) ELISA Kit Synonyms:ASGR1. Intended use. This ELISA kit applies to the in vitro ... Rat AIP(Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Interacting Protein) ELISA Kit. *Rat ARNT2(Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator 2) ... Rat RANκ(Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa B) ELISA Kit ... Rat ASGR1(Asialoglycoprotein Receptor 1) ELISA Kit. *Rat AST( ...
Diao, Jingyu (1996) Pathogenesis of liver injury : virus-induced autoantibody response against asialoglycoprotein receptor in ... Pathogenesis of liver injury : virus-induced autoantibody response against asialoglycoprotein receptor in woodchuck (Marmota ... Pathogenesis of liver injury : virus-induced autoantibody response against asialoglycoprotein receptor in woodchuck (Marmota ... The isolated receptor is a hetero-oligomeric complex constituted of two subunits with molecular masses of 40- and 47-kDa. ...
  • In contrast, examination of intracellular receptor during the pulse-chase experiment in phorbol dibutyrate-treated cells showed the presence of phosphorylated pool(s) of ASGP receptors which were detectable for 6 h of chase. (elsevier.com)
  • Surface immunoprecipitation during this chase period showed the phosphorylated ASGP receptors were rapidly lost from the cell surface (t( 1/2 ) = 20 min). (elsevier.com)
  • The surface immunoprecipitation method recovers greater than 95% of surface ASGP receptors and only 5% or less of intracellular (brief[ 35 S]methionine pulse-labeled) receptors. (elsevier.com)
  • Since no labeled receptor can be detected at the cell surface at this time, the described intracellular phosphorylated receptors are in a non-recycling pool. (elsevier.com)
  • Further, iLNPs were engineered with the carbohydrate N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) to achieve targeting to the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) as an alternative targeting strategy for the hepatic delivery of RNAi therapeutics. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The purpose of this research was to recognize the induction and pathogenic potential of autoantibodies against a liver-specific asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) in the course of hepadnavirus infection. (mun.ca)
  • Western blot analyses showed that WHV-induced anti-ASGPR autoantibodies recognized both 40- and 47-kDa subunits of wASGPR and rASGPR, implying that both receptor polypeptides may serve as targets for the pathogenic immune reactions. (mun.ca)
  • These findings indicate that virus-induced autoantibodies against hepatic ASGPR have the potential to directly contribute to liver injury and to the distortion of the hepatocyte clearance of asialoglycoproteins in viral hepatitis. (mun.ca)
  • Lactoferrin (Lf) is a potential-targeting ligand for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells because of its specific binding with asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR). (dovepress.com)
  • Asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) as target autoantigen in liver autoimmunity: Lost and found. (biomedsearch.com)
  • ASGPR1 is the major subunit of the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) and is specifically expressed on the sinusoidal and basolateral hepatocellular membranes, but not on the bile canalicular membrane. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Examination of the pharmacokinetics of FST-ΔHBS-Fc molecules containing variable sialic acid content in asialoglycoprotein receptor 1 (ASPGR-1) knockout mice supports the receptor's role as part of the clearance mechanism of the molecules. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Synthetic peptides corresponding to ASGR2 (asialoglycoprotein receptor 2) The peptide sequence was selected from the N terminal of ASGR2. (novusbio.com)
  • Here, we investigated the interaction of different stable gonoccocal LOS phenotypes with human dendritic cells and demonstrate that each variant targets a different set of receptors on the dendritic cell, including the C-type lectins MGL and DC-SIGN. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Activation of type I IFN secretion depends on the pattern recognition receptors TLR7 and TLR9, which sense microbial RNA and DNA, respectively. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • DCs recognize pathogens through various pattern-recognition receptors, including toll-like receptors and C-type lectin receptors (CLRs). (bloodjournal.org)
  • Here, we review the pattern recognition receptors that identify invading microbes, as well as the innate immune effector mechanisms that they activate in zebrafish embryos. (hindawi.com)
  • The innate immune system utilizes a limited number of germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to recognize evolutionary conserved structures on pathogens, named pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) [ 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Our results showed that ethanol metabolism impaired internalization of asialoorosomucoid, a ligand for the asialoglycoprotein receptor. (hindawi.com)
  • We propose that internalization occurs via a receptor-mediated pathway, requiring the participation of cytoskeletal elements, principally actin. (asm.org)
  • Nevertheless, it was not until 1984 when the first Cyp, specifically cyclophilin A (Cyp A), was purified from bovine thymocytes, and it was confirmed as the primary intracellular receptor of the immunosuppressive drug CsA ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Effect of chronic ethanol administration on total asialoglycoprotein receptor content and intracellular processing of asialoorosomucoid in isolated. (nih.gov)
  • Chronic ethanol administration markedly impairs the process of receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME) of a representative asialoglycoprotein, asialoorosomucoid (ASOR), by the liver (Casey et al. (nih.gov)
  • Quan GL, Pan X, Wang ZH, Wu QL, Li G, Dian LH et al (2015) Lactosaminated mesoporous silica nanoparticles for asialoglycoprotein receptor targeted anticancer drug delivery. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Consistent with this observation, ligand uptake by receptors composed of H1 lacking tyrosine 5 and H2 was inefficient. (uzh.ch)
  • The selective binding (calcium and pH depended) and uptake of terminal galactosyl bearing proteins requires the formation of hetero-oligomers between these major and minor forms The total ASGP receptor population consisted of two functionally distinct receptor populations, designated State 1 and State 2, which were involved in the endocytosis and intracellular processing of ligands by different pathways. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • 5 - 7 The low-density lipoprotein receptor was also shown to play a role in FVIII clearance, potentially by cooperating with LRP1. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptor is closely related in structure to the low density lipoprotein receptor. (biologists.org)
  • 1995 ). The very low density lipoprotein receptor mediates the cellularcatabolism of lipoprotein lipase and urokinase-plasminogen activator inhibitor type I complexes. (biologists.org)
  • 1997 ). The atherogenic lipoprotein Lp(a) is internalized and degraded in a process mediated by the VLDL receptor. (biologists.org)
  • Therefore, MGL acts as an efficient endocytic antigen receptor on dermal DCs in vivo, able to prime Tn-specific T- and B-cell responses. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The ectodomain of these endocytic receptors is composed of modules which include clusters of cysteine-rich class A repeats, epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats, tyrosine-tryptophan-threonine-aspartic acid (YWTD) repeats and an O-linked sugar domain. (biologists.org)
  • Influence of Core β-1,2-Xylosylation on Glycoprotein Recognition by Murine C-type Lectin Receptors and Its Impact on Dendritic Cell Targeting. (mpg.de)
  • Role of the C-Type Lectin Receptors MCL and DCIR in Experimental Colitis. (mpg.de)
  • To identify regions responsible for ligand recognition, soluble receptor fragments containing the eight cysteine-rich class A repeats were produced. (biologists.org)
  • The asialoglycoprotein receptor may facilitate hepatic infection by multiple viruses including hepatitis B and is also a target for liver-specific drug delivery. (bio-rad.com)
  • The sole viral envelope glycoprotein, which is a principal immunogenic target, contains a heavy shield of glycans surrounding the conserved receptor-binding domain. (asm.org)
  • 1990 ). The human2-macroglobulin receptor: identification of a 420-kD cell surface glycoprotein specific for the activated conformation of 2-macroglobulin. (biologists.org)
  • Before funding for knockout mice was discontinued, the CFG developed the DNA construct to create a mouse line lacking the scavenger receptor. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • We also tested the utility of this system for investigating the cellular receptors for Ebola virus. (pnas.org)
  • Although many vaccines are first tested in rodents, this may not be ideal for protection studies because mice are resistant to many human pathogens (like HIV) due to sequence differences in their cellular receptors. (jimmunol.org)
  • In addition, receptor kinase association is not dependent on the single cytoplasmic tyrosine at position 5. (elsevier.com)