The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.
The geographical area of Asia comprising KAZAKHSTAN; KYRGYZSTAN; TAJIKISTAN; TURKMENISTAN; and UZBEKISTAN. The desert region of Kara Kum (Qara Qum) is largely in Turkmenistan and the desert region of Kyzyl Kum (Kizil Kum or Qizil Qum), is in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p233, 590, 636)
The geographical designation for the countries of the MIDDLE EAST and the countries BANGLADESH; BHUTAN; INDIA; NEPAL; PAKISTAN; and SRI LANKA. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993 & Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
A geographic area of east and southeast Asia encompassing CHINA; HONG KONG; JAPAN; KOREA; MACAO; MONGOLIA; and TAIWAN.
I'm afraid there seems to be a misunderstanding - "Africa" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, consisting of 54 countries with diverse cultures, peoples, languages, and landscapes. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help answer those for you!
The islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia. (Random House Dictionary, 2d ed)
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The islands of the Pacific Ocean divided into MICRONESIA; MELANESIA; and POLYNESIA (including NEW ZEALAND). The collective name Oceania includes the aforenamed islands, adding AUSTRALIA; NEW ZEALAND; and the Malay Archipelago (INDONESIA). (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p910, 880)
The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.
The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Australia, New Zealand and neighboring islands in the South Pacific Ocean. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)
I'm sorry for any confusion, but 'Europe' is a geographical continent and not a medical term; therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
A subregion of Asia, consisting of the Asian portion of Russia.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Uzbekistan" is a country located in Central Asia and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but there seems to be a misunderstanding as "South America" is not a medical term and cannot have a medical definition. It is a geographical term referring to the southern portion of the American continent, consisting of twelve independent countries and three territories of other nations.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Laos" is not a medical term; it is the name of a country located in Southeast Asia, officially known as the Lao People's Democratic Republic. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help with those!
While there isn't a specific medical definition for "North America," I can provide a geographical definition that is often used in public health and medical contexts: North America is the third largest continent by area, encompassing 23 independent states, including the United States, Canada, and Mexico, which are home to diverse populations, cultures, and ecosystems, and share common health-related challenges such as obesity, diabetes, and healthcare access disparities.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A republic of southeast Asia, northwest of Thailand, long familiar as Burma. Its capital is Yangon, formerly Rangoon. Inhabited by people of Mongolian stock and probably of Tibetan origin, by the 3d century A.D. it was settled by Hindus. The modern Burmese state was founded in the 18th century but was in conflict with the British during the 19th century. Made a crown colony of Great Britain in 1937, it was granted independence in 1947. In 1989 it became Myanmar. The name comes from myanma, meaning the strong, as applied to the Burmese people themselves. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p192 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p367)
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
The country is bordered by RUSSIA on the north and CHINA on the west, south, and east. The capita is Ulaanbaatar.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Kyrgyzstan" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition; it is the name of a country located in Central Asia, known officially as the Kyrgyz Republic.
The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "India" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context. It is a geographical location, referring to the Republic of India, a country in South Asia. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help with those!
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Vietnam" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context; it is a country located in Southeast Asia. If you have any questions related to medical conditions or terminology, I would be happy to help clarify those topics for you.
Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.
Events and activities of the Earth and its structures.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Kazakhstan" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition; it is the name of a country located in Central Asia, known officially as the Republic of Kazakhstan.
The collective name for the islands of the central Pacific Ocean, including the Austral Islands, Cook Islands, Easter Island, HAWAII; NEW ZEALAND; Phoenix Islands, PITCAIRN ISLAND; SAMOA; TONGA; Tuamotu Archipelago, Wake Island, and Wallis and Futuna Islands. Polynesians are of the Caucasoid race, but many are of mixed origin. Polynesia is from the Greek poly, many + nesos, island, with reference to the many islands in the group. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p966 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p426)
The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.
The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)
A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Cambodia" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context. It is the name of a country located in Southeast Asia, known officially as the Kingdom of Cambodia. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or science, I'd be happy to try and help answer those for you.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.
All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).
An island in the Malay Archipelago, east of Sumatra, north of Java, and west of Celebes. It is the third largest island in the world. Its name is a Portuguese alteration of BRUNEI, located on it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p163; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p73)
Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and severe viral disease in cloven-hoofed animals, characterized by fever, formation of vesicles and erosions in the mouth, on the tongue, lips, teats, and feet, causing significant economic losses in agriculture and livestock farming.
A mosquito-borne encephalitis caused by the Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE) occurring throughout Eastern Asia and Australia. The majority of infections occur in children and are subclinical or have features limited to transient fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges may occur and lead to transient or permanent neurologic deficits (including a POLIOMYELITIS-like presentation); SEIZURES; COMA; and death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p751; Lancet 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1094-7)
Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.
The collective name for the islands of the Pacific Ocean northeast of Australia, including NEW CALEDONIA; VANUATU; New Hebrides, Solomon Islands, Admiralty Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, FIJI, etc. Melanesia (from the Greek melas, black + nesos, island) is so called from the black color of the natives who are generally considered to be descended originally from the Negroid Papuans and the Polynesians or Malays. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p748 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p344)
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes MELIOIDOSIS. It has been isolated from soil and water in tropical regions, particularly Southeast Asia.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A disease of humans and animals that resembles GLANDERS. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA PSEUDOMALLEI and may range from a dormant infection to a condition that causes multiple abscesses, pneumonia, and bacteremia.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Philippines" is not a medical term; it is the name of a country located in Southeast Asia. It seems there might be some misunderstanding in your question. If you have a medical query related to the Philippines or its people, I'd be happy to help clarify that for you.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sri Lanka" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context; it is the name of a country located in South Asia, known for its diverse landscapes and rich biodiversity.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pakistan" is a country located in South Asia and it does not have a medical definition. If you have any medical question or term that you would like me to define, please provide it and I will be happy to help.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Singapore" is not a medical term or concept, it's a country in Southeast Asia. If you have any questions about medical topics, I'd be happy to try and help!
The total genetic information possessed by the reproductive members of a POPULATION of sexually reproducing organisms.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.
The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.

Cancer incidence in the south Asian population of England (1990-92). (1/700)

Cancer incidence among English south Asians (residents in England with ethnic origins in India, Pakistan or Bangladesh) is described and compared with non-south Asian and Indian subcontinent rates. The setting for the study was areas covered by Thames, Trent, West Midlands and Yorkshire cancer registries. The study identified 356 555 cases of incident cancer (ICD9:140-208) registered between 1990 and 1992, including 3845 classified as English south Asian. The main outcome measures were age specific and directly standardized incidence rates for all cancer sites (ICD9:140-208). English south Asian incidence rates for all sites combined were significantly lower than non-south Asian rates but higher than Indian subcontinent rates. English south Asian rates were substantially higher than Indian subcontinent rates for a number of common sites including lung cancer in males, breast cancer in females and lymphoma in both sexes. English south Asian rates for childhood and early adult cancer (0-29 years) were similar or higher than non-south Asian rates. English south Asian rates were significantly higher than non-south Asian rates for Hodgkin's disease in males, cancer of the tongue, mouth, oesophagus, thyroid gland and myeloid leukaemia in females, and cancer of the hypopharynx, liver and gall bladder in both sexes. The results are consistent with a transition from the lower cancer risk of the country of ethnic origin to that of the country of residence. They suggest that detrimental changes in lifestyle and other exposures have occurred in the migrant south Asian population.  (+info)

Partial remission phase of diabetes in children younger than age 10 years. (2/700)

There is renewed interest in the phase of partial remission in recently diagnosed diabetes because of the potential for pharmacological and immune intervention to preserve beta cell function. 95 children younger than 10 years were investigated to assess the influence of age, sex, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), admission at diagnosis, and ethnicity on the frequency of remission and insulin requirements during the first two years after diagnosis. Partial remission was defined as a requirement of insulin < 0.5 U/kg body weight/day. There was partial remission in 41 patients, with no differences for children aged 2-4 years and those aged 5-9 years. None of the five children aged < 2 years remitted. Forty five of 95 children were admitted to hospital at diagnosis, of whom 26 of 45 had DKA (blood pH < 7.25). In this number of children we were unable to show a statistical difference in the rate of remission with respect to DKA, admission to hospital at diagnosis, sex, or South Asian ethnic background. There were no differences in insulin requirements between the different groups by the end of two years and at that time seven of the children required insulin < 0.5 U/kg/day. The results suggest that even in preschool children there is potential for attempting to preserve beta cell function.  (+info)

Multicentric origin of hemochromatosis gene (HFE) mutations. (3/700)

Genetic hemochromatosis (GH) is believed to be a disease restricted to those of European ancestry. In northwestern Europe, >80% of GH patients are homozygous for one mutation, the substitution of tyrosine for cysteine at position 282 (C282Y) in the unprocessed protein. In a proportion of GH patients, two mutations are present, C282Y and H63D. The clinical significance of this second mutation is such that it appears to predispose 1%-2% of compound heterozygotes to expression of the disease. The distribution of the two mutations differ, C282Y being limited to those of northwestern European ancestry and H63D being found at allele frequencies>5%, in Europe, in countries bordering the Mediterranean, in the Middle East, and in the Indian subcontinent. The C282Y mutation occurs on a haplotype that extends +info)

Cancer mortality in East and Southeast Asian migrants to New South Wales, Australia, 1975-1995. (4/700)

Routinely collected data for New South Wales were used to analyse cancer mortality in migrants born in East or Southeast Asia according to duration of residence in Australia. A case-control approach compared deaths from cancer at particular sites with deaths from all other cancers, adjusting for age, sex and calendar period. Compared with the Australian-born, these Asian migrants had a 30-fold higher risk of dying from nasopharyngeal cancer in the first 2 decades of residence, falling to ninefold after 30 years, and for deaths from liver cancer, a 12-fold risk in the first 2 decades, falling to threefold after 30 years. The initial lower risk from colorectal, breast or prostate cancers later converged towards the Australian-born level, the change being apparent in the third decade after migration. The relative risk of dying from lung cancer among these Asian migrants was above unity for each category of duration of stay for women, but at or below unity for men, with no trend in risk over time. An environmental or lifestyle influence for nasopharyngeal and liver cancers is suggested as well as for cancers of colon/rectum, breast and prostate.  (+info)

Multispecies Plasmodium infections of humans. (5/700)

We analyzed point-prevalence data from 19 recent studies of human populations in which either Plasmodium ovale or Plasmodium vivax co-occur with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium malariae. Although the only statistical interactions among, sympatric congeners are pairwise, the frequencies of mixed-species infections relative to standard hypotheses of species sampling independence show no strong relation to overall malaria prevalence. The striking difference between the P. falciparum-P. malariae-P. ovale and the P. falciparum-P. malariae-P. vivax data is that the first typically shows a statistical surplus of mixed-species infections and the second a deficit. This suggests that the number of Plasmodium species present in a human population may be less important in determining the frequencies of mixed-species infections than is the identity of those species.  (+info)

Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--South East Asia Region, 1997-1998. (6/700)

In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis by 2000. To achieve this goal, in 1994 World Health Organization (WHO) South East Asia Region (SEAR) member countries accelerated implementation of polio eradication strategies. In 1994, Thailand became the region's first country to initiate National Immunization Days (NIDs), followed by Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka (1995); Myanmar and Nepal (1996); and Democratic People's Republic (DPR) of Korea and Maldives (1997). This report summarizes the progress in achieving routine and supplemental vaccination coverage and surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and the impact of these activities on polio eradication in the region.  (+info)

Barriers to meeting the mental health needs of the Chinese community. (7/700)

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to identify the barriers encountered by Chinese people with mental health needs in England which hindered their obtaining appropriate help from the National Health Service (NHS). METHODS: Attenders at Chinese community centres in health authority districts with resident Chinese population in excess of 2000 were invited to fill in a 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire (12-CHQ). Individuals who scored two or above, indicating a high probability of a mental health problem, were invited to undertake a semi-structured interview. RESULTS: A total of 401 completed the 12-CHQ. Eighty-six (21.4 per cent) screened positive and 71 (82.6 per cent) agreed to be interviewed. Although 70 (98.6 per cent) were registered with a general practitioner (GP), there were long delays before they made contact with health professionals, and the GP was the first port of call for help in only 27 (38.6 per cent) interviewees. Fifty-two (74.3 per cent) had encountered difficulties when they sought professional help. The main barriers were language, interviewees' perceptions of symptoms as somatic rather than psychiatric in origin, lack of knowledge about statutory services, and lack of access to bilingual health professionals. Doctors, particularly GPs, were pivotal in the management of their conditions. The majority were prescribed psychiatric medication with only a small number in contact with community psychiatric services. Unemployment and social exclusion were common. Stigma associated with mental illness and limited knowledge in the community were identified as the causes for the widespread discrimination experienced by the interviewees. CONCLUSION: The mental health needs of these Chinese people were not adequately met by statutory services, nor could they rely on family and friends for care and support. Training for health service staff and access to health advocates are essential to maximize the effectiveness of health professional-patient contacts. The promotion of better understanding of mental illness by the Chinese community is important, and greater flexibility within the NHS is required to ensure those professionals with bilingual skills are used to the best effect.  (+info)

Serum dioxin and immunologic response in veterans of Operation Ranch Hand. (8/700)

The authors studied immune response and exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin) among veterans of Operation Ranch Hand, the US Air Force unit responsible for the aerial spraying of herbicides in Vietnam from 1962 to 1971. A comparison group of Air Force veterans who served in Southeast Asia but were not involved in spraying herbicides was included. The authors studied delayed-type hypersensitivity skin test responses to Candida albicans, mumps, Trichophyton, and a bacterial antigen made from lysed Staphylococcus aureus. Lymphocyte measurements included total lymphocyte counts; T-cell (CD3, CD4, CD5, and CD8), B-cell (CD20), and NK-cell (CD16 and CD56) subsets; and expression of the activation antigen CD25 on CD3 T cells. The authors quantitated the serum concentrations of immunoglobulin (Ig)A, IgG, and IgM; examined sera for the presence of monoclonal immunoglobulins (M proteins); and looked for a broad range of autoantibodies (rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody, smooth muscle autoantibody, mitochondrial autoantibody, parietal cell autoantibody, and thyroid microsomal autoantibodies). They measured the level of dioxin in 1987 or 1992, extrapolated the result to the time of service in Vietnam, and assigned each veteran to one of four exposure categories: Comparison and three Ranch Hand groups (Background, Low, or High). Overall, the authors found no evidence of a consistent relation between dioxin exposure category and immune system alteration.  (+info)

I apologize for any confusion, but "Asia" is not a medical term. It is the largest continent in the world, comprising about 30% of the Earth's total land area and containing around 60% of the world's current human population. It is divided into several regions, including Northern Asia (Siberia), Eastern Asia (China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Taiwan), Southern Asia (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Maldives), Southeastern Asia (Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Brunei), and Western Asia (Middle East).

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to help.

Southeast Asia is a geographical region that consists of the countries that are located at the southeastern part of the Asian continent. The definition of which countries comprise Southeast Asia may vary, but it generally includes the following 11 countries:

* Brunei
* Cambodia
* East Timor (Timor-Leste)
* Indonesia
* Laos
* Malaysia
* Myanmar (Burma)
* Philippines
* Singapore
* Thailand
* Vietnam

Southeast Asia is known for its rich cultural diversity, with influences from Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity. The region is also home to a diverse range of ecosystems, including rainforests, coral reefs, and mountain ranges. In recent years, Southeast Asia has experienced significant economic growth and development, but the region still faces challenges related to poverty, political instability, and environmental degradation.

Central Asia is a geographical region in Asia that stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east, and from Russia in the north to Afghanistan in the south. It includes the former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.

The medical definition of Central Asia may refer to the epidemiology, healthcare systems, or health issues specific to this region. For example, Central Asia has a high prevalence of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, hepatitis, and HIV/AIDS, due to various factors including poverty, lack of access to healthcare, and mobility of populations. In addition, non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes are also becoming more prevalent in Central Asia, partly due to lifestyle changes such as unhealthy diets, physical inactivity, and tobacco use.

Overall, the medical definition of Central Asia encompasses the unique health challenges and healthcare systems that exist within this geographical region.

"Western Asia" is a geographical region that is defined by the United Nations as one of the five sub-regions within the larger continent of Asia. It is also known as "Southwestern Asia" or the "Middle East." The UN definition includes the following countries:

* Armenia
* Azerbaijan
* Bahrain
* Cyprus
* Georgia
* Iraq
* Israel
* Jordan
* Kuwait
* Lebanon
* Oman
* State of Palestine
* Qatar
* Saudi Arabia
* Syria
* Turkey
* United Arab Emirates
* Yemen
* Islamic Republic of Iran (but sometimes considered part of Central Asia)

It is important to note that there are different definitions and interpretations of what constitutes "Western Asia" or the "Middle East," and some sources may include or exclude certain countries. Additionally, it's worth noting that cultural, historical, and political factors also play a role in defining this region, and the boundaries between Western Asia and other regions such as Central Asia, South Asia, and North Africa can be fluid and contested.

The term "Far East" is a geographical term that has been used historically to describe the easternmost part of Asia, including countries such as China, Japan, Korea, and Southeast Asian nations. However, it's important to note that the use of this term can be seen as outdated and culturally insensitive, as it originated during a time when Western powers viewed these regions as distant and exotic.

In medical contexts, "Far East" may be used to describe medical conditions or treatments specific to populations in this region. However, it is generally more appropriate to use the specific names of countries or regions when discussing medical issues related to these areas.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Africa" actually refers to a continent, not a medical condition or concept. Africa is the second-largest continent in the world, consisting of 54 countries and a wide range of diverse ethnic groups, cultures, languages, and landscapes. It is home to a vast array of wildlife, including many species that are not found anywhere else in the world. If you have any questions about Africa's geography, history, or culture, I would be happy to try to help answer them!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Oceania" is not a medical term. It is a geographical term that refers to the region comprising of numerous countries and territories in the Pacific Ocean. This includes Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and many islands in the Pacific Ocean. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I'd be happy to help!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "geography" is not a term that has a medical definition. Geography is a field of study that deals with the location and distribution of physical and cultural features on Earth's surface, as well as how humans interact with and affect those features. It is not a concept that is typically used in a medical context. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pacific Islands" is a geographic term referring to the islands located in the Pacific Ocean, and it is not a medical term. It includes thousands of islands spread across the Pacific Ocean, which are categorized into three main groups: Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia.

If you have any medical terms you'd like defined, please let me know!

The "Americas" is a term used to refer to the combined landmasses of North America and South America, which are separated by the Isthmus of Panama. The Americas also include numerous islands in the Caribbean Sea, Atlantic Ocean, and Pacific Ocean. This region is home to a diverse range of cultures, ecosystems, and historical sites. It is named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci, who was one of the first Europeans to explore and map parts of South America in the late 15th century.

I'm not a medical professional, but the term "History, Ancient" is not a medical term per se. However, in a broader context, it could refer to the study of ancient medical practices, theories, and beliefs that existed in civilizations prior to the Middle Ages or Classical Antiquity. This might include the examination of ancient texts, artifacts, and archaeological evidence to understand how illnesses were treated and viewed in these historical periods. It forms an essential part of the evolution of medical knowledge and practices over time.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Thailand" is not a medical term. It is a country located in Southeast Asia. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help answer those for you!

Emigration is the process of leaving one's country of origin or habitual residence to settle in another country. It involves giving up the rights and privileges associated with citizenship in the country of origin and acquiring new rights and responsibilities as a citizen or resident of the destination country. Emigrants are people who choose to leave their native land to live elsewhere, often driven by factors such as economic opportunities, political instability, or conflict.

Immigration, on the other hand, is the process of entering and settling in a new country with the intention of becoming a permanent resident or citizen. Immigrants are individuals who come from another country to live in a new place, often seeking better job opportunities, education, or quality of life. They must comply with the immigration laws and regulations of the host country and may be required to undergo medical examinations, background checks, and other screening processes before being granted permission to enter and reside in the country.

In summary, emigration refers to leaving one's home country, while immigration refers to entering and settling in a new country.

Genetic variation refers to the differences in DNA sequences among individuals and populations. These variations can result from mutations, genetic recombination, or gene flow between populations. Genetic variation is essential for evolution by providing the raw material upon which natural selection acts. It can occur within a single gene, between different genes, or at larger scales, such as differences in the number of chromosomes or entire sets of chromosomes. The study of genetic variation is crucial in understanding the genetic basis of diseases and traits, as well as the evolutionary history and relationships among species.

Australasia is not a medical term, but a geographical region that includes Australia, New Zealand, and the islands of the Pacific Ocean that are southwest of the Asian continent. It is sometimes used in a broader sense to include Papua New Guinea, the eastern islands of Indonesia, and the island nations of the South Pacific.

Therefore, there is no medical definition for 'Australasia'. However, it is important to note that Australia and New Zealand have well-developed healthcare systems and high standards of medical care, while some of the smaller island nations in the region may have more limited resources and access to medical services.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Europe" is a geographical and political designation, rather than a medical one. It refers to the continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Europe is made up of approximately 50 countries, depending on how one defines a "country."

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to help answer them!

Human Y chromosomes are one of the two sex-determining chromosomes in humans (the other being the X chromosome). They are found in the 23rd pair of human chromosomes and are significantly smaller than the X chromosome.

The Y chromosome is passed down from father to son through the paternal line, and it plays a crucial role in male sex determination. The SRY gene (sex-determining region Y) on the Y chromosome initiates the development of male sexual characteristics during embryonic development.

In addition to the SRY gene, the human Y chromosome contains several other genes that are essential for sperm production and male fertility. However, the Y chromosome has a much lower gene density compared to other chromosomes, with only about 80 protein-coding genes, making it one of the most gene-poor chromosomes in the human genome.

Because of its small size and low gene density, the Y chromosome is particularly susceptible to genetic mutations and deletions, which can lead to various genetic disorders and male infertility. Nonetheless, the Y chromosome remains a critical component of human genetics and evolution, providing valuable insights into sex determination, inheritance patterns, and human diversity.

Northern Asia, also known as North Asia or Siberia, is not a formally defined region in terms of medical geography. However, in general usage, it refers to the vast northern part of the Asian continent, covering areas such as Russia (east of the Ural Mountains), Mongolia, and some parts of Northern China (north of the Yangtze River).

In terms of medical relevance, Northern Asia is home to a diverse range of populations, climates, and environments, which can all impact health outcomes and disease patterns. For example, certain regions in Northern Asia have high rates of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and hepatitis, while others have high rates of non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Additionally, the region's harsh climate and remote geography can pose challenges to accessing healthcare services, particularly in rural areas.

It is important to note that medical research and public health initiatives in Northern Asia may vary depending on the specific countries and regions involved, and further investigation would be needed to provide a more detailed medical definition of this region.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Uzbekistan" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in Central Asia. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Population Genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with the genetic composition of populations and how this composition changes over time. It involves the study of the frequency and distribution of genes and genetic variations in populations, as well as the evolutionary forces that contribute to these patterns, such as mutation, gene flow, genetic drift, and natural selection.

Population genetics can provide insights into a wide range of topics, including the history and relationships between populations, the genetic basis of diseases and other traits, and the potential impacts of environmental changes on genetic diversity. This field is important for understanding evolutionary processes at the population level and has applications in areas such as conservation biology, medical genetics, and forensic science.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the genetic material present in the mitochondria, which are specialized structures within cells that generate energy. Unlike nuclear DNA, which is present in the cell nucleus and inherited from both parents, mtDNA is inherited solely from the mother.

MtDNA is a circular molecule that contains 37 genes, including 13 genes that encode for proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, a process that generates energy in the form of ATP. The remaining genes encode for rRNAs and tRNAs, which are necessary for protein synthesis within the mitochondria.

Mutations in mtDNA can lead to a variety of genetic disorders, including mitochondrial diseases, which can affect any organ system in the body. These mutations can also be used in forensic science to identify individuals and establish biological relationships.

A haplotype is a group of genes or DNA sequences that are inherited together from a single parent. It refers to a combination of alleles (variant forms of a gene) that are located on the same chromosome and are usually transmitted as a unit. Haplotypes can be useful in tracing genetic ancestry, understanding the genetic basis of diseases, and developing personalized medical treatments.

In population genetics, haplotypes are often used to study patterns of genetic variation within and between populations. By comparing haplotype frequencies across populations, researchers can infer historical events such as migrations, population expansions, and bottlenecks. Additionally, haplotypes can provide information about the evolutionary history of genes and genomic regions.

In clinical genetics, haplotypes can be used to identify genetic risk factors for diseases or to predict an individual's response to certain medications. For example, specific haplotypes in the HLA gene region have been associated with increased susceptibility to certain autoimmune diseases, while other haplotypes in the CYP450 gene family can affect how individuals metabolize drugs.

Overall, haplotypes provide a powerful tool for understanding the genetic basis of complex traits and diseases, as well as for developing personalized medical treatments based on an individual's genetic makeup.

"World Health" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, it is often used in the context of global health, which can be defined as:

"The area of study, research and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide. It emphasizes trans-national health issues, determinants, and solutions; involves many disciplines within and beyond the health sciences and engages stakeholders from across sectors and societies." (World Health Organization)

Therefore, "world health" could refer to the overall health status and health challenges faced by populations around the world. It encompasses a broad range of factors that affect the health of individuals and communities, including social, economic, environmental, and political determinants. The World Health Organization (WHO) plays a key role in monitoring and promoting global health, setting international standards and guidelines, and coordinating responses to global health emergencies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Siberia" is not a medical term. It's a geographical region in Russia, known for its harsh, cold climate and vast wilderness. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I'd be happy to help answer those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "South America" is not a medical term. It is a geographical term that refers to the southern portion of the Americas, which is a continent in the Western Hemisphere. South America is generally defined as including the countries of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela, as well as the overseas departments and territories of French Guiana (France), and the Falkland Islands (UK).

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Laos" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, located in Southeast Asia. If you have any questions about medical terms or health-related topics, I'd be happy to try and help answer them!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "North America" is not a medical term. It is a geographical term that refers to the third largest continent in the world, which includes countries such as the United States, Canada, and Mexico, among others. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health topics, I'd be happy to help with those!

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Myanmar" is not a medical term or condition. It is the name of a country in Southeast Asia, also known as Burma. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terminology, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

I am not aware of a specific medical definition for the term "China." Generally, it is used to refer to:

1. The People's Republic of China (PRC), which is a country in East Asia. It is the most populous country in the world and the fourth largest by geographical area. Its capital city is Beijing.
2. In a historical context, "China" was used to refer to various dynasties and empires that existed in East Asia over thousands of years. The term "Middle Kingdom" or "Zhongguo" (中国) has been used by the Chinese people to refer to their country for centuries.
3. In a more general sense, "China" can also be used to describe products or goods that originate from or are associated with the People's Republic of China.

If you have a specific context in which you encountered the term "China" related to medicine, please provide it so I can give a more accurate response.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Middle East" is not a medical term. It is a geographical region that includes countries such as Saudi Arabia, Iran, Turkey, Egypt, and others. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mongolia" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in Central Asia. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terminology, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "travel" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. In general, travel refers to the act of moving or journeying from one place to another, often over long distances. However, in a medical context, it might refer to the recommendation that individuals with certain medical conditions or those who are immunocompromised avoid traveling to areas where they may be at increased risk of exposure to infectious diseases. It's always best to check with a healthcare professional for advice related to specific medical situations and travel.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Indonesia" is not a medical term. It is a country located in Southeast Asia and Oceania, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than thirteen thousand islands. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Kyrgyzstan" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in Central Asia. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

I believe you may have made a typo in your question. "Archaeology" is the scientific study of past human cultures and societies through the recovery, examination, and analysis of material remains such as artifacts, buildings, biofacts (e.g., bones, shells), and cultural landscapes. It is not typically associated with medical definitions. If you intended to ask for a different term related to medicine or healthcare, please let me know so I can provide the correct information.

For more information about archaeology, you may be interested in visiting the World Archaeological Congress () or the Society for American Archaeology () websites to learn more about this fascinating field of study.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "India" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country in South Asia, the second-most populous country in the world, known for its rich history, diverse culture, and numerous contributions to various fields including medicine. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer them!

The term "developing countries" is a socio-economic classification used to describe nations that are in the process of industrialization and modernization. This term is often used interchangeably with "low and middle-income countries" or "Global South." The World Bank defines developing countries as those with a gross national income (GNI) per capita of less than US $12,695.

In the context of healthcare, developing countries face unique challenges including limited access to quality medical care, lack of resources and infrastructure, high burden of infectious diseases, and a shortage of trained healthcare professionals. These factors contribute to significant disparities in health outcomes between developing and developed nations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Vietnam" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in Southeast Asia. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terminology, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

I'm happy to help! However, it looks like there might be a bit of confusion in your question. "Human migration" is not a medical term per se, but rather a sociological or anthropological concept that refers to the large-scale movement of human populations from one area to another.

That being said, human migration can certainly have significant impacts on health and healthcare systems, both for the migrating populations themselves and for the communities they move into. For example, migrants may face language barriers, discrimination, or other challenges that affect their access to care, while also potentially bringing new diseases or health risks into a community.

In summary, while "human migration" is not a medical definition in and of itself, it is an important concept to consider in the context of public health and healthcare delivery.

The term "Asian Continental Ancestry Group" is a medical/ethnic classification used to describe a person's genetic background and ancestry. According to this categorization, individuals with origins in the Asian continent are grouped together. This includes populations from regions such as East Asia (e.g., China, Japan, Korea), South Asia (e.g., India, Pakistan, Bangladesh), Southeast Asia (e.g., Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand), and Central Asia (e.g., Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan). It is important to note that this broad categorization may not fully capture the genetic diversity within these regions or accurately reflect an individual's specific ancestral origins.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "geological processes" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Geological processes refer to the natural events that shape the Earth's surface and interior over time, such as volcanic activity, plate tectonics, erosion, and sedimentation. These processes are studied within the field of geology. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Kazakhstan" is not a medical term or concept. It is the world's largest landlocked country, located in Central Asia. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polynesia" is not a medical term. It is a geographical region in the Pacific Ocean, consisting of numerous island countries and territories. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the family Picornaviridae and the genus Aphthovirus. It is the causative agent of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD), a highly contagious and severe viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals, including cattle, swine, sheep, goats, and buffalo. The virus can be transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or their bodily fluids, as well as through aerosolized particles in the air. FMDV has seven distinct serotypes (O, A, C, Asia 1, and South African Territories [SAT] 1, 2, and 3), and infection with one serotype does not provide cross-protection against other serotypes. The virus primarily targets the animal's epithelial tissues, causing lesions and blisters in and around the mouth, feet, and mammary glands. FMD is not a direct threat to human health but poses significant economic consequences for the global livestock industry due to its high infectivity and morbidity rates.

Northern Africa is a geographical region that broadly consists of the countries of the African Transverse, which are Algeria, Libya, Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, and Western Sahara. Sometimes, it may also include Sudan, South Sudan, and Mauritania. This region is characterized by its proximity to the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlas Mountains, as well as its unique cultural and historical heritage. Northern Africa has a diverse climate, with a hot, dry desert climate in the interior and a milder, wetter climate along the coasts. The major languages spoken in this region include Arabic, Berber, and French.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Malaysia" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in Southeast Asia, consisting of thirteen states and three federal territories. If you have any questions about Malaysia's geography, culture, or people, I would be happy to try to help answer those! However, if you have a question related to medicine or healthcare, please provide more details so I can give you an accurate and helpful response.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Cambodia" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in Southeast Asia, bordered by Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, and the Gulf of Thailand. The capital city of Cambodia is Phnom Penh.

If you have any questions related to healthcare, medical conditions, treatments, or other health-related topics, I would be happy to help you with those!

In medical terms, "fossils" do not have a specific or direct relevance to the field. However, in a broader scientific context, fossils are the remains or impressions of prehistoric organisms preserved in petrified form or as a mold or cast in rock. They offer valuable evidence about the Earth's history and the life forms that existed on it millions of years ago.

Paleopathology is a subfield of paleontology that deals with the study of diseases in fossils, which can provide insights into the evolution of diseases and human health over time.

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus from the Togaviridae family that is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, primarily Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The name "Chikungunya" is derived from a Makonde word meaning "to become contorted," which describes the stooped posture developed as a result of severe arthralgia (joint pain) that is a primary symptom of infection with this virus.

CHIKV infection typically causes a febrile illness, characterized by an abrupt onset of high fever, severe joint pain, muscle pain, headache, nausea, fatigue, and rash. While the symptoms are usually self-limiting and resolve within 10 days, some individuals may experience persistent or recurring joint pain for several months or even years after the initial infection.

There is no specific antiviral treatment available for Chikungunya virus infection, and management primarily focuses on relieving symptoms with rest, fluids, and over-the-counter pain relievers such as acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito bites through the use of insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and pants, staying in air-conditioned or screened rooms, and eliminating standing water where mosquitoes breed.

Chikungunya virus is found primarily in Africa, Asia, and the Indian subcontinent, but it has also caused outbreaks in Europe and the Americas due to the spread of its vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The virus can cause large-scale epidemics, with millions of cases reported during outbreaks. There is currently no approved vaccine for Chikungunya virus infection.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Latin America" is not a medical term. It is a geographical and cultural region that includes parts of North America, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean where Romance languages (Spanish, Portuguese, and French) are predominantly spoken. The term does not have a specific medical relevance or definition.

"Africa South of the Sahara" is a term commonly used in medical and scientific literature to refer to the region of the African continent that lies south of the Sahara Desert. This region includes 48 countries, with a population of over 1 billion people, and is characterized by its tropical or subtropical climate, diverse cultures, and unique health challenges.

The term "South of the Sahara" is used to distinguish this region from North Africa, which is predominantly Arab and Berber in culture and has closer ties to the Middle East than to Sub-Saharan Africa. The Sahara Desert serves as a natural geographical boundary between these two regions.

In medical terms, "Africa South of the Sahara" encompasses a wide range of health issues, including infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and Ebola, which are prevalent in many parts of the region. The area also faces challenges related to maternal and child health, nutrition, water and sanitation, and non-communicable diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Medical research and interventions focused on "Africa South of the Sahara" aim to address these unique health challenges and improve the overall health outcomes of the population in this region.

I'm not aware of a medical definition specifically for "Borneo." Borneo is the third-largest island in the world, located in Southeast Asia and divided among three countries: Malaysia, Indonesia, and Brunei. It has a rich biodiversity with many plant and animal species, some of which have been studied in medical or scientific research. However, there is no established medical definition for "Borneo" itself.

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals, including cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, and buffalo. The virus can also infect wild animals like deer and antelope. FMD is not a direct threat to human health but may have significant economic impacts due to restrictions on trade and movement of infected animals.

The disease is characterized by fever, blister-like sores (vesicles) in the mouth, on the tongue, lips, gums, teats, and between the hooves. The vesicles can rupture, causing painful erosions that make it difficult for affected animals to eat, drink, or walk. In severe cases, FMD can lead to death, particularly among young animals.

The causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease is the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), which belongs to the Picornaviridae family and Aphthovirus genus. There are seven serotypes of FMDV: O, A, C, Asia 1, and South African Territories (SAT) 1, SAT 2, and SAT 3. Infection with one serotype does not provide cross-protection against other serotypes.

Prevention and control measures for foot-and-mouth disease include vaccination, quarantine, movement restrictions, disinfection, and culling of infected animals in severe outbreaks. Rapid detection and response are crucial to prevent the spread of FMD within and between countries.

Japanese encephalitis is a viral inflammation of the brain (encephalitis) caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Culex mosquitoes, particularly in rural and agricultural areas. The majority of JE cases occur in children under the age of 15. Most people infected with JEV do not develop symptoms, but some may experience mild symptoms such as fever, headache, and vomiting. In severe cases, JEV can cause high fever, neck stiffness, seizures, confusion, and coma. There is no specific treatment for Japanese encephalitis, and care is focused on managing symptoms and supporting the patient's overall health. Prevention measures include vaccination and avoiding mosquito bites in endemic areas.

'Avian influenza' refers to the infection caused by avian (bird) influenza A viruses. These viruses occur naturally among wild aquatic birds worldwide and can infect domestic poultry and other bird and animal species. Avian influenza viruses do not normally infect humans, but rare cases of human infection have occurred mainly after close contact with infected birds or heavily contaminated environments.

There are many different subtypes of avian influenza viruses based on two proteins on the surface of the virus: hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). There are 16 known HA subtypes and 9 known NA subtypes, creating a vast number of possible combinations. Some of these combinations cause severe disease and death in birds (e.g., H5N1, H7N9), while others only cause mild illness (e.g., H9N2).

Most avian influenza viruses do not infect humans. However, some forms are zoonotic, meaning they can infect animals and humans. The risk to human health is generally low. When human infections with avian influenza viruses have occurred, most have resulted from direct contact with infected poultry or surfaces contaminated by their feces.

Avian influenza viruses have caused several pandemics in the past, including the 1918 Spanish flu (H1N1), which was an H1N1 virus containing genes of avian origin. The concern is that a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus could mutate to become easily transmissible from human to human, leading to another pandemic. This is one of the reasons why avian influenza viruses are closely monitored by public health authorities worldwide.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Melanesia" is not a medical term. It is a geographical region in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, consisting of an island group including New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, and the Fiji islands. The term "Melanesia" comes from the Greek words "melas," meaning black, and "nesos," meaning island, referring to the dark skin of the inhabitants. It's primarily used in anthropological, geographical, and cultural contexts.

Molecular evolution is the process of change in the DNA sequence or protein structure over time, driven by mechanisms such as mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, and natural selection. It refers to the evolutionary study of changes in DNA, RNA, and proteins, and how these changes accumulate and lead to new species and diversity of life. Molecular evolution can be used to understand the history and relationships among different organisms, as well as the functional consequences of genetic changes.

'Burkholderia pseudomallei' is a Gram-negative, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped bacterium that is the causative agent of melioidosis. It is found in soil and water in tropical and subtropical regions, particularly in Southeast Asia and northern Australia. The bacterium can infect humans and animals through inhalation, ingestion, or direct contact with contaminated soil or water. Melioidosis can cause a wide range of symptoms, including pneumonia, sepsis, and abscesses in various organs. It is a serious and potentially fatal disease, especially in people with underlying medical conditions such as diabetes, kidney disease, or compromised immune systems. Proper diagnosis and treatment with appropriate antibiotics are essential for managing melioidosis.

"Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype" is a specific subtype of the Influenza A virus that is often found in avian species (birds) and can occasionally infect humans. The "H5N1" refers to the specific proteins (hemagglutinin and neuraminidase) found on the surface of the virus. This subtype has caused serious infections in humans, with high mortality rates, especially in cases where people have had close contact with infected birds. It does not commonly spread from person to person, but there is concern that it could mutate and adapt to efficiently transmit between humans, which would potentially cause a pandemic.

A disease outbreak is defined as the occurrence of cases of a disease in excess of what would normally be expected in a given time and place. It may affect a small and localized group or a large number of people spread over a wide area, even internationally. An outbreak may be caused by a new agent, a change in the agent's virulence or host susceptibility, or an increase in the size or density of the host population.

Outbreaks can have significant public health and economic impacts, and require prompt investigation and control measures to prevent further spread of the disease. The investigation typically involves identifying the source of the outbreak, determining the mode of transmission, and implementing measures to interrupt the chain of infection. This may include vaccination, isolation or quarantine, and education of the public about the risks and prevention strategies.

Examples of disease outbreaks include foodborne illnesses linked to contaminated food or water, respiratory infections spread through coughing and sneezing, and mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika virus and West Nile virus. Outbreaks can also occur in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and nursing homes, where vulnerable populations may be at increased risk of infection.

Melioidosis is a bacterial infection caused by the soil-dwelling gram-negative bacillus, Burkholderia pseudomallei. The disease primarily occurs in tropical areas such as Southeast Asia and northern Australia. It can present with a wide range of clinical manifestations including acute septicemia, pneumonia, and chronic suppurative infection. Risk factors for melioidosis include diabetes mellitus, renal disease, alcoholism, and lung disease. The diagnosis is confirmed by culturing B. pseudomallei from clinical specimens such as blood, sputum, or pus. Treatment typically involves a prolonged course of antibiotics, including intravenous ceftazidime followed by oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Philippines" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in Southeast Asia, comprised of over 7,000 islands. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terms, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sri Lanka" is not a medical term or concept. Sri Lanka is an island country located in the Indian Ocean, south of India. It is known for its diverse landscapes ranging from rainforests and arid plains to highlands and sandy beaches.

If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try and help answer them!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pakistan" is a country in South Asia and not a medical term or condition. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I would be happy to help!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Singapore" is not a medical term or concept. It is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

A gene pool refers to the total sum of genes contained within a population of interbreeding individuals of a species. It includes all the variations of genes, or alleles, that exist in that population. The concept of a gene pool is important in understanding genetic diversity and how traits are passed down from one generation to the next.

The size and diversity of a gene pool can have significant implications for the long-term survival and adaptability of a species. A larger and more diverse gene pool can provide a species with greater resistance to diseases, environmental changes, and other threats, as there is a wider variety of traits and genetic combinations available. On the other hand, a smaller or less diverse gene pool may make a species more susceptible to genetic disorders, reduced fitness, and extinction.

Geneticists and population biologists often study gene pools to understand the evolutionary history and dynamics of populations, as well as to inform conservation efforts for endangered species.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "International Cooperation" is not a medical term. It refers to the collaboration and exchange of resources and information between countries or international organizations in various fields, including politics, economics, culture, environment, and security, among others. In the context of healthcare and medicine, international cooperation can involve joint research projects, sharing of data and clinical trial results, collaborative efforts to combat global health issues (such as infectious diseases or chronic conditions), capacity building in low-resource settings, and standardizing medical practices and guidelines across countries.

Genotype, in genetics, refers to the complete heritable genetic makeup of an individual organism, including all of its genes. It is the set of instructions contained in an organism's DNA for the development and function of that organism. The genotype is the basis for an individual's inherited traits, and it can be contrasted with an individual's phenotype, which refers to the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism that result from the expression of its genes in combination with environmental influences.

It is important to note that an individual's genotype is not necessarily identical to their genetic sequence. Some genes have multiple forms called alleles, and an individual may inherit different alleles for a given gene from each parent. The combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular gene is known as their genotype for that gene.

Understanding an individual's genotype can provide important information about their susceptibility to certain diseases, their response to drugs and other treatments, and their risk of passing on inherited genetic disorders to their offspring.

Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) is a type of flavivirus that is the causative agent of Japanese encephalitis, a mosquito-borne viral infection of the brain. The virus is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Culex species mosquitoes, particularly Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex gelidus.

JEV is endemic in many parts of Asia, including China, Japan, Korea, India, Nepal, Thailand, and Vietnam. It is estimated to cause around 68,000 clinical cases and 13,000-20,000 deaths each year. The virus is maintained in a transmission cycle between mosquitoes and vertebrate hosts, primarily pigs and wading birds.

Most JEV infections are asymptomatic or result in mild symptoms such as fever, headache, and muscle aches. However, in some cases, the infection can progress to severe encephalitis, which is characterized by inflammation of the brain, leading to neurological symptoms such as seizures, tremors, paralysis, and coma. The case fatality rate for Japanese encephalitis is estimated to be 20-30%, and around half of those who survive have significant long-term neurological sequelae.

Prevention of JEV infection includes the use of insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and avoiding outdoor activities during peak mosquito feeding times. Vaccination is also an effective means of preventing Japanese encephalitis, and vaccines are available for travelers to endemic areas as well as for residents of those areas.

Alphavirus infections refer to a group of diseases caused by viruses belonging to the Alphavirus genus of the Togaviridae family. These viruses are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, and can cause a range of symptoms depending on the specific virus and the individual's immune response.

Some of the more common alphaviruses that cause human disease include:

* Chikungunya virus (CHIKV): This virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and can cause a fever, rash, and severe joint pain. While most people recover from CHIKV infection within a few weeks, some may experience long-term joint pain and inflammation.
* Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV): This virus is transmitted by mosquitoes that feed on both birds and mammals, including humans. EEEV can cause severe neurological symptoms such as fever, headache, seizures, and coma. It has a high mortality rate of up to 30-50% in infected individuals.
* Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV): This virus is also transmitted by mosquitoes that feed on both birds and mammals. WEEV can cause mild flu-like symptoms or more severe neurological symptoms such as fever, headache, and seizures. It has a lower mortality rate than EEEV but can still cause significant illness.
* Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV): This virus is transmitted by mosquitoes that feed on horses and other mammals, including humans. VEEV can cause mild flu-like symptoms or more severe neurological symptoms such as fever, headache, and seizures. It is considered a potential bioterrorism agent due to its ability to cause severe illness and death in large populations.

There are no specific treatments for alphavirus infections other than supportive care to manage symptoms. Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito bites through the use of insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and pants, and staying indoors during peak mosquito hours. Public health efforts also focus on reducing mosquito populations through environmental controls such as eliminating standing water and using insecticides.

Gene flow, also known as genetic migration or gene admixture, refers to the transfer of genetic variation from one population to another. It occurs when individuals reproduce and exchange genes with members of other populations through processes such as migration and interbreeding. This can result in an alteration of the genetic composition of both populations, increasing genetic diversity and reducing the differences between them. Gene flow is an important mechanism in evolutionary biology and population genetics, contributing to the distribution and frequency of alleles (versions of a gene) within and across populations.

Bacteriophage T4, also known as T4 phage, is a type of virus that infects and replicates within the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli). It is one of the most well-studied bacteriophages and has been used as a model organism in molecular biology research for many decades.

T4 phage has a complex structure, with an icosahedral head that contains its genetic material (DNA) and a tail that attaches to the host cell and injects the DNA inside. The T4 phage genome is around 169 kilobases in length and encodes approximately 289 proteins.

Once inside the host cell, the T4 phage DNA takes over the bacterial machinery to produce new viral particles. The host cell eventually lyses (bursts), releasing hundreds of new phages into the environment. T4 phage is a lytic phage, meaning that it only replicates through the lytic cycle and does not integrate its genome into the host's chromosome.

T4 phage has been used in various applications, including bacterial typing, phage therapy, and genetic engineering. Its study has contributed significantly to our understanding of molecular biology, genetics, and virology.

Microsatellite repeats, also known as short tandem repeats (STRs), are repetitive DNA sequences made up of units of 1-6 base pairs that are repeated in a head-to-tail manner. These repeats are spread throughout the human genome and are highly polymorphic, meaning they can have different numbers of repeat units in different individuals.

Microsatellites are useful as genetic markers because of their high degree of variability. They are commonly used in forensic science to identify individuals, in genealogy to trace ancestry, and in medical research to study genetic diseases and disorders. Mutations in microsatellite repeats have been associated with various neurological conditions, including Huntington's disease and fragile X syndrome.

Biological evolution is the change in the genetic composition of populations of organisms over time, from one generation to the next. It is a process that results in descendants differing genetically from their ancestors. Biological evolution can be driven by several mechanisms, including natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, and mutation. These processes can lead to changes in the frequency of alleles (variants of a gene) within populations, resulting in the development of new species and the extinction of others over long periods of time. Biological evolution provides a unifying explanation for the diversity of life on Earth and is supported by extensive evidence from many different fields of science, including genetics, paleontology, comparative anatomy, and biogeography.

Hominidae, also known as the "great apes," is a family of primates that includes humans (Homo sapiens), orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla and Gorilla beringei), bonobos (Pan paniscus), and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). This family is characterized by their upright walking ability, although not all members exhibit this trait. Hominidae species are known for their high intelligence, complex social structures, and expressive facial features. They share a common ancestor with the Old World monkeys, and fossil records suggest that this split occurred around 25 million years ago.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection that is primarily transmitted by the Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus species of mosquitoes. It is caused by one of four closely related dengue viruses (DENV 1, DENV 2, DENV 3, or DENV 4). The infection can cause a wide range of symptoms, ranging from mild fever and headache to severe flu-like illness, which is often characterized by the sudden onset of high fever, severe headache, muscle and joint pain, nausea, vomiting, and skin rash. In some cases, dengue can progress to more severe forms, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly and appropriately.

Dengue is prevalent in many tropical and subtropical regions around the world, particularly in urban and semi-urban areas with poor sanitation and inadequate mosquito control. There is no specific treatment for dengue, and prevention efforts focus on reducing mosquito populations and avoiding mosquito bites. Vaccines are available in some countries to prevent dengue infection, but they are not widely used due to limitations in their effectiveness and safety.

Archived from the original on April 30, 2022.[user-generated source] "UP, ADMU, UST, DLSU, USeP in Asia's top 300 universities ... The University of Southeastern Philippines (USeP), a state university in Davao City, was one of the 15 Philippine universities ... The University of Southeastern Philippines (USeP); Cebuano: Kinatumhaan sa Habagatan Sidlakang Pilipinas, Filipino: Pamantasan ... As a State University mandated to adopt a policy of transparency and accountability, the University of Southeastern Philippines ...
... southeastern Asia and Melanesia) Coelops (at least two species; southeastern Asia; Miocene fossils from Africa) Doryrhina (two ... from southeastern Asia". Mammalia. 50 (4): 535-540. doi:10.1515/mamm.1986.50.4.535. ISSN 1864-1547. Monadjem, Ara; Richards, ... Ruber (Hipposideridae) Exhibit High Mitochondrial Genetic Diversity in Southeastern Senegal". Acta Chiropterologica. 13 (1): 79 ... Africa and southwestern Asia; Miocene fossils from Europe) Aselliscus (three species; ...
... southeastern Sudan; and eastern Tanzania); Asia (in Burma; Cambodia; India; Pakistan; Iran; Indonesia; the Ryukyu Islands of ... R. mucronata is native to Africa (in southeastern Egypt; eastern Ethiopia; eastern Kenya; Madagascar; Mauritius; Mozambique; ...
North America, Asia. Cronartium ribicola: Pinus subgenus Strobus, Grossulariaceae. Europe, Asia. Cronartium stalactiforme: ... Southeastern North America. Some of the species have been introduced accidentally outside of their natural ranges, notably C. ... Europe, Asia. Cronartium occidentale: Strobus subgenus Strobus, Saxifragaceae. Southwestern North America. Cronartium orientale ...
Perspectives Africa Perspectives Asia Perspectives Middle East Perspectives Southeastern Europe Perspectives Turkey Konrad ... "Perspectives Asia". Retrieved 10 August 2015. "Perspectives Middle East". Archived from the original on 30 June 2015. Retrieved ... "Perspectives Southeastern Europe". Retrieved 10 August 2015. "Perspectives Turkey". Retrieved 10 August 2015. Wikimedia Commons ...
"Upcoming projects in South Eastern Railway". South Eastern Railway. Archived from the original on 1 April 2013. Retrieved 2 ... "Mahanadi River Delta, India, Asia". The World Delta Database. Retrieved 17 January 2013. "Major Events in the Formation of S.E ... In 1955, South Eastern Railway was carved out of Eastern Railway. It comprised lines mostly operated by BNR earlier. Amongst ... See Tatanagar-Bilaspur section for more information.) Howrah-Chennai Mail was the first train in South Eastern Railway to be ...
India and South East Asia. B.R. Pub. Corp., 1979 - Asia, Southeastern. p. 79. Benjamin Lewis Rice. Mysore Gazetteer, Volume 2, ... Encyclopedia of Modern Asia, Volume 2. Charles Scribner's Sons, 01-Jan-2002 - Asia. p. 57. Hermann Kulke; K Kesavapany; Vijay ... Nagapattinam to Suvarnadwipa: Reflections on the Chola Naval Expeditions to Southeast Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian ... Nagapattinam to Suvarnadwipa: Reflections on the Chola Naval Expeditions to Southeast Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian ...
The Far East 518.15-518.9.........Relation of individual countries to East Asia 520-560.72............Southeastern Asia 524- ... Central Asia 331-349.9.............Southern Asia. Indian Ocean Region 349.8-349.9..........Islands of the Indian Ocean 350-375 ... Southwestern Asia. Ancient Orient. Arab East. Near East 51-54.95...........Local history and description 54-54.95.......... ... "Library of Congress Classification Full Text: Class DS-DX - History of Asia" (PDF). Library of Congress. May 1, 2019. Retrieved ...
"Eastern Asia: Southeastern China". WWF. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 11 September 2017. (Articles with short description, ...
Southeastern Asia Ceradenia L.E.Bishop - mainly tropical Africa Chrysogrammitis Parris - Southeastern Asia Cochlidium Kaulf. ( ... Southeastern Asia Radiogrammitis Parris - Southeastern Asia, Pacific islands; sunk into Oreogrammitis in 2020 Scleroglossum ... Southeastern Asia, Australia Dasygrammitis Parris - Southeastern Asia Enterosora Baker - Neotropics, Madagascar Galactodenia ... Southeastern Asia Adenophorus Gaudich. - Hawaii) Alansmia M.Kessler, Moguel, Sundue & Labiak - Neotropics, Africa ...
Kinship in Southeastern Asia. ISBN 0-944613-45-4 STEDT Monograph 7: Helga So-Hartmann. A Descriptive Grammar of Daai Chin. ISBN ...
South Central Asia, 22; sub-Saharan Africa, 22; South-Eastern Asia, 26; North Africa and Western Asia, 28; South and Central ... In the twelve world regions, the annual age-standardized incidence rates per 100,000 women are as follows: in Eastern Asia, 18 ...
Eastern Asia); Thailand (South-Eastern Asia). The other very highly reported destination country is the United States (North ... Among Asian countries that score very high are Israel and Turkey (Western Asia and Turkey); Japan ( ... and Asia, according to a former prostitute who produced a report about the sex trade. European citizens of the 27 member EU ...
"Japanese Basketball, News, Teams, Scores, Stats, Standings, Awards - asia-basket". Eurobasket LLC. "Daichi Taniguchi - Men's ... Basketball". Southeastern Oklahoma State University Athletics. "選手/スタッフ/チアリスト". 川崎 ...
Nguyễn, Ngọc Thạch (2017). New Shells of Southeastern Asia. 48HrBooks Company. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-578-19432-5. (Articles with ...
It occurs throughout southeastern Asia. Gymnoderma coccocarpum Nyl. (1869) Gymnoderma favosum Hoffm. (1811) Gymnoderma insulare ...
Stuart-Fox, Martin (2007). "LAOS: Politics in a Single-party State". Southeastern Asian Affairs: 161-180. Retrieved 2021-07-27 ... Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University. Retrieved 2021-07-27. "China ready to deepen cooperation with Laos". China.org.cn. Xinhua ... Lintner, Bertil (2008). "LAOS: At the Crossroads". Southeastern Asian Affairs: 171-183. Retrieved 2021-07-27. Stuart-Fox, ...
It is native to Western Asia (Iran and Turkey), the Caucasus (Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Russia), and Southeastern Europe ( ... Flora of Western Asia, Flora of Armenia, Flora of Azerbaijan, Flora of Bulgaria, Flora of Georgia (country), Flora of Iran, ...
Thạch, Nguyễn Ngọc (2017). New Shells of Southeastern Asia. 48HrBooks Company. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-578-19432-5. Panha, Somsak; ...
Orchidaceae) from South-Eastern Asia. Fragm. Flor. Geobot. 43 (1): 7-12. Nicolas Halle, Dariusz L. Szlachetko, Hanna B. ...
southeastern USA Saccharum fallax Balansa - China, Assam, southeast Asia Saccharum filifolium Steud. - Afghanistan, Himalayas ... southeastern USA Saccharum coarctatum (Fern.) R. Webster - southeastern USA Saccharum contortum (Baldwin ex Elliott) Nutt. - ... southeastern USA, Cuba, Jamaica, Paraguay, Argentina Saccharum griffithii Munro ex Aitch. - from Yemen to Bangladesh Saccharum ... southeastern USA Saccharum angustifolium (Nees) Trin. - South America Saccharum asperum (Nees) Steud. - South America Saccharum ...
Nguyễn, Ngọc Thạch (2017). New Shells of Southeastern Asia. 48HrBooks Company. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-578-19432-5. "Specimen - ...
New Shells of Southeastern Asia. 48HrBooks Company. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-578-19432-5. (CS1 maint: location missing publisher, CS1 ...
Nguyễn, Ngọc Thạch (2017). New Shells of Southeastern Asia. 48HrBooks Company. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-578-19432-5. (Articles with ...
southeastern Asia) Elaeagnus tricholepis Momiy. Elaeagnus triflora Roxb. (southeastern Asia, northeast Australia) Elaeagnus ... ex Royle (central Asia) Elaeagnus pilostyla C.Y.Chang (China) Elaeagnus pingnanensis C.Y.Chang (China) Elaeagnus pungens Thunb ... southern Asia) Elaeagnus courtoisii Belval (China) Elaeagnus davidii Franch. (China) Elaeagnus delavayi Lecomte (China) ... eastern Asia) Elaeagnus gonyanthes Benth. (China) Elaeagnus griffithii Servett. (China) Elaeagnus grijsii Hance (China) ...
Nguyễn, Ngọc Thạch (2017). New Shells of Southeastern Asia. 48HrBooks Company. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-578-19432-5. v t e (Articles ...
... , also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia, South-eastern Asia or ... The term "Southeast Asia" was first used in 1839 by American pastor Howard Malcolm in his book Travels in South-Eastern Asia. ... Southeast Asia is bordered to the north by East Asia, to the west by South Asia and the Bay of Bengal, to the east by Oceania ... Atlas of Southeast Asia (Macmillan, 1989) online. Williams, Lea E. Southeast Asia : a history (1976) online Southeast Asia at ...
All is also available in nine regional surveys: Africa South of the Sahara; Central and South-Eastern Europe; Eastern Europe, ... South Asia; The USA and Canada; Western Europe. Almanacs issued by other publishers: The World Almanac and Book of Facts The ... Russia and Central Asia; The Far East and Australasia; The Middle East and North Africa; South America, Central America and the ...
... filling the knowledge gap in Central Asia". Ph.D. dissertation. University of South-Eastern Norway. Chadwick, Douglas (2017). ... Carnivorans of Asia, Critically endangered fauna of Asia, Endemic fauna of Mongolia, Gobi Desert, Mammals of Mongolia). ... and connectivity of brown bear populations in Central Asia". PLOS ONE. 14 (8): e0220746. Bibcode:2019PLoSO..1420746T. doi: ...
ISBN 978-81-926687-2-7. Fantz, Paul R.; Pradeep, S. V. (1995). Clitoria (Leguminosae) of South Eastern Asia. https://press. ... Former monarchies of Asia, 12th-century establishments in India, 1110 establishments in Asia, 1949 disestablishments in India, ... Laichen, Sun (2003). "Military Technology Transfers from Ming China and the Emergence of Northern Mainland Southeast Asia (c. ... ISBN 978-0-521-88992-6. Somorjit, Wangam (1 March 2016). Manipur: The Forgotten Nation of Southeast Asia. Waba Publications & ...
Southeastern Asia: Eastern Papua New Guinea. Please note: These biome and ecoregion pages (and associated data) are no longer ...
... appears to affect large numbers of school-aged children in South-East Asia. However, nationally representative data on the ... Vitamin A deficiency and xerophthalmia among school-aged children in Southeastern Asia Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 Oct;58(10):1342-9. ... appears to affect large numbers of school-aged children in South-East Asia. However, nationally representative data on the ...
Economic Indicators for Southeastern Asia and the Pacific: Input-Output Tables. Publication , December 2018 ... Economic Insights from Input-Output Tables for Asia and the Pacific. *Economic Indicators for South and Central Asia: Input- ... Economic Indicators for Eastern Asia: Input-Output Tables. * Economic Indicators for South and Central Asia: Input-Output ... 50160-002: Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2018-2020 - Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2018 (Subproject 1) ...
SEGi Ranks 57 in QS Asia University Rankings 2023: South-Eastern Asia. 9 November 2022 ... SEGi University ranked 57 in South-East Asia and amongst the top 261-270 universities in Asia in the Asian University Ranking ... In the 2023 edition, SEGi University performed among the top 35% in the QS Asia University Rankings." ...
Archived from the original on April 30, 2022.[user-generated source] "UP, ADMU, UST, DLSU, USeP in Asias top 300 universities ... The University of Southeastern Philippines (USeP), a state university in Davao City, was one of the 15 Philippine universities ... The University of Southeastern Philippines (USeP); Cebuano: Kinatumhaan sa Habagatan Sidlakang Pilipinas, Filipino: Pamantasan ... As a State University mandated to adopt a policy of transparency and accountability, the University of Southeastern Philippines ...
Chikungunya Virus, Southeastern France Marc Grandadam. , Valérie Caro, Sébastien Plumet, Jean-Michel Thiberge, Yvan Souarès, ... ECSA, east/central/south Asia.. Main Article. Page created: August 14, 2011 ...
Eastern and South‐Eastern Europe Competition Update: OECD/Hungary Centre Newsletter Published regularly, this newsletter ... In this issue: The fight against bid rigging: a goal for competition authorities in Eastern Europe and Central Asia,Corruption ... OECD Home AzerbaijanEastern and South‐Eastern Europe Competition Update: OECD/Hungary Centre Newsletter Azerbaijan. ... The following articles are also included: Competitive Neutrality in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: A key tool to foster ...
Asia *. AllCentral AsiaChinaEastern AsiaIndiaSouth-Eastern AsiaSouthern AsiaWestern Asia ... Southeast Asia Map free templates. January 1, 2018. The Map of Southeast Asia Template in PowerPoint format includes three ... the Southeast Asia map of outline and Southeast Asia map... ... South-Eastern Asia Asia Map with Countries - Outline Bundle. ...
SOUTHEASTERN IRAN Distances 241 km (150 miles) SW (232°) from Zahedan, Iran 287 km (178 miles) ENE (67°) from Bandar-e Abbas, ... We have always been at war with East Asia.. DeliciousTears Looks like she spent it on fish, chips and icecream ... ...
Bigo Live South Eastern Asia :. Bigo Live gives you the ability to watch live streaming around the clock to kill time, interact ... 55 Diamond Bigo Live South Eastern Asia. 55 Diamond Bigo Live South Eastern Asia quantity. ...
Browse through running races 2023 2024 marathons in south eastern asia ✔️27 different sports ✔️biggest race calendar ✔️races ... Running races 2023 - 2024: marathons in South-eastern Asia. Sorry, no results found ...
South-Eastern Asia PC and Mobile Gaming Report - 2022. Report 01 Apr 2022 Chenyu Cui ... Chenyus research responsibilities include coverage of all Asia Pacific markets with a specific focus on China, and include ...
Learn more about total fertility rate of South-Eastern Asia ... Population of South-Eastern Asia * Births in South-Eastern Asia ... Historic Total Fertility Rate of South-Eastern Asia (1950-2023). South-Eastern Asia has seen a decrease of the population ... Future Total Fertility Rate of South-Eastern Asia (2023-2100). South-Eastern Asias negative downward trend in fertility rate ... In the future, South-Eastern Asias fertility rate is projected to decrease to 1.7314 childern born per woman, by the year 2100 ...
Politics - Region: South Asia 66 eBooks * Politics - Region: Southeastern Europe 23 eBooks ...
South-Eastern Asia. Gross domestic product (GDP). USD 3,350,736.75 million. Population. 675,308,570. Countries. Brunei, ...
The five countries of Central Asia - Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan - are closely linked in ... IOM has been active in South-Eastern, Eastern Europe and Central Asia since 1990. ... In Central Asia, which has been a crossroads of goods and people from the days of the Silk Road, hundreds of thousands of ... In Central Asia, IOMs integrated approach has created a strong competitive advantage. This advantage arises from three factors ...
SOUTH EASTERN ASIA at the most attractive prices on the market. Dont overpay - buy cheap on G2A.COM! ... Below are the minimum and recommended system specifications for Grand Theft Auto V (PC) - Rockstar Key - SOUTH EASTERN ASIA. ... Due to potential programming changes, the minimum system requirements for Grand Theft Auto V (PC) - Rockstar Key - SOUTH EASTERN ...
Southeastern Asia; South-east Asia; South East Asia; SE Asia; Asia, Southeastern; SEA; 동남아시아; เอเชียอาคเนย์; อุษาคเนย์; HS Asya ... subdaerah di Asia; Rehiyon sa Asya; subrehion ti Asia; south-eastern region of Asia; อนุภูมิภาคของทวีปเอเชีย; region ... Sudeste de Asia; Asia Sudoriental; Sureste Asiático; Sureste de Asia; Asia Suroriental; Sudeste Asiatico; Sureste Asiatico; Sud
Ironies of History in Southeastern Papua New Guinea. Demian, M.. Drawing on twenty years of research, this book examines the ... Abortion in Asia. Local Dilemmas, Global Politics Whittaker, A. (ed). Subjects: Anthropology (General) Medical Anthropology Add ... By Area: Asia-Pacific. View: By Date , Alphabetical , eBooks , Paperbacks. * eBook available Published May 2011 The 1926/27 ... The Body in Asia. Turner, B. & Yangwen, Z. (Eds.). Subjects: Anthropology (General) Sociology Political and Economic ...
The parasite is believed to have originated from parts of Asia, where most human cases developed thus far. ... In the southeastern US, only a few sporadic cases have been recorded. ... The parasite is found in the lungs of brown rats around southeastern US (Getty Images). ... has become more widespread across the southeastern region of the US, a new study by the Centers for Disease Control and ...
Co-Publication Chair, 9th International Symposium of South Eastern University of Sri Lanka, Organized by South Eastern ... Fowsar, M.A.M. (2014). Militarization in Politics of South Asia: Experiences of Pakistan. Journal of Social Review, 3(2), 24-31 ... Copyright © 2017 South Eastern University of Sri Lanka. All rights reserved. , Develop By SEUSL Web Team ... South Eastern University Arts Research Session (SEUARS 2014) - 3rd International Symposium on Promoting Research and ...
... consists of Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan); Central Europe and the ... Post-Arab Spring Life in the Southeastern Mediterranean. by Cevat Giray Aksoy and Ralph De Haas ... Southeastern Europe (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Macedonia, Greece, Kosovo, Montenegro, Romania and ... publishes assessments for its countries of operation in the southeastern Mediterranean region (SEMED): Egypt, Jordan, Morocco ...
Southeastern Europe - Eastern Mediterranean. Greece - Asia Minor - Southern Italy. 15th - 20th century. ...
South-Eastern Asia: 🇧🇳 Brunei (bn) 🇮🇩 Indonesia (id) 🇰🇭 Cambodia (kh) 🇱🇦 Laos (la) 🇲🇾 Malaysia (my) 🇵🇭 Philippines (ph) 🇸🇬 ... Southern Asia: 🇮🇳 India (in) 🇱🇰 Sri Lanka (lk) 🇲🇻 Maldives (mv) 🇳🇵 Nepal (np). *Eastern Asia: 🇨🇳 China (cn) 🇭🇰 Hong Kong (hk ... Western Asia: 🇦🇪 United Arab Emirates (ae) 🇦🇲 Armenia (am) 🇦🇿 Azerbaijan (az) 🇧🇭 Bahrain (bh) 🇮🇱 Israel (il) 🇯🇴 Jordan (jo) 🇱🇧 ... Central Asia: 🇰🇬 Kyrgyzstan (kg) 🇰🇿 Kazakhstan (kz) 🇹🇯 Tajikistan (tj) 🇹🇲 Turkmenistan (tm) 🇺🇿 Uzbekistan (uz) ...
Eastern Asia and South-eastern Asia. 2.2 [0.7-3.7]. 2.20000. 0.70000. 3.70000. Severe wasted numbers among children under 5 ... Eastern Asia and South-eastern Asia. 1.5 [0.5-2.5]. 1.50000. 0.50000. 2.50000. Severe wasting prevalence among children under 5 ... South-Eastern Asia. 1.9 [0.9-4.2]. 1.90000. 0.90000. 4.20000. Severe wasted numbers among children under 5 years of age ( ... South-Eastern Asia. 3.4 [1.5-7.4]. 3.40000. 1.50000. 7.40000. Severe wasting prevalence among children under 5 years of age ...
The Southeastern Asia Wall Map by National Geographic is available in sizes from 3x4 feet to 9x12 feet. Order your Southeastern ... Southeastern Asia Wall Map. by National Geographic Our Southeastern Asia Political map accurately shows country boundaries, ... Home , Continent Wall Maps , Continent Wall Maps of Asia , Southeastern Asia Wall Map by National Geographic ...
3. To accept the Southeastern Asia Union Mission (SSD) into the world sisterhood of unions of the Seventh-day Adventist Church. ... MALAYSIA UNION MISSION AND SOUTHEASTERN ASIA UNION MISSION-NEW UNION MISSIONS. VOTED, 1. To recognize and record the ... the former Southeast Asia Union Mission into two union missions known as the Malaysia Union Mission and the Southeastern Asia ...
Southeastern Europe - Eastern Mediterranean. Greece - Asia Minor - Southern Italy. 15th - 20th century. ...
... in southeastern Asia: Anisops breddini Kirkaldy, 1901, A. kuroiwae Matsumura, 1915, A. nasutus Fieber, 1851, A. nigrolineatus ... Abstract: Updated distribution data are presented for the following species of Notonectidae (Heteroptera) in southeastern Asia ... Notes on Notonectidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) from southeastern Asia, mostly from Brunei and the Philippines. Zettel Herbert, ... Notes on Notonectidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) from southeastern Asia, mostly from Brunei and the Philippines ...
  • Although native to Africa, oil palm is grown throughout the humid tropics, and the largest producers are now in Southeast Asia. (academicjournals.org)
  • A. braziliense occurs in the southeastern United States, Latin America, South America, and Africa and has been reported sporadically in the Australasian region. (cdc.gov)
  • Since 1961, cholera caused by the El Tor biotype has been epidemic throughout much of Asia, the Middle East, and Africa and in certain parts of Europe. (cdc.gov)
  • It is less common closer to the equator, such as in Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, and parts of South America, where about 1 in 20,000 people are affected. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Incidence rates of hepatocellular carcinoma were highest in Eastern Asia, Northern Africa, and South-Eastern Asia. (who.int)
  • Zika virus is found in parts of Africa and Southeast Asia, and seems to be primarily associated with monkeys. (cdc.gov)
  • 12 was passed, thereby creating the University of Southern Philippines, the givers of the university's initial name not knowing that there was already a university of the same name, the University of Southern Philippines in Cebu, to be later renamed as the University of Southeastern Philippines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The University of Southeastern Philippines (USeP), a state university in Davao City, was one of the 15 Philippine universities that made it to the 2011 list of top Asian universities done by Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) with a rank of 201+. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Map of Southeast Asia Template in PowerPoint format includes three slides, that is, the Southeast Asia map of outline and Southeast Asia map. (yourfreetemplates.com)
  • This might be something that is only suited for the most extreme hikers and trekkers, but the truth is that Southeast Asia is the perfect location for even the most novice of hikers to try out a trek. (hubpages.com)
  • There is perhaps no better place to do this than in Southeast Asia. (hubpages.com)
  • Most of the treks you are going to go on in Southeast Asia are going to be nice, light exercise. (hubpages.com)
  • Title : How to prepare food safely [Southeast Asia] Corporate Authors(s) : National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (U.S.). Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • In the 2023 edition, SEGi University performed among the top 35% in the QS Asia University Rankings. (segi.edu.my)
  • IOM has been active in South-Eastern, Eastern Europe and Central Asia since 1990. (iom.int)
  • The Migration of Culinary Traditions in the Region" is a book of recipes garnered by IOM staff in Missions across South-Eastern Europe, Eastern Europe and Central Asia. (iom.int)
  • Uncinaria stenocephala is found in dogs and cats in cool-weather regions of the Americas, Europe, Asia, Australia, and New Zealand. (cdc.gov)
  • To monitor how this transformative process affects people's perceptions and attitudes, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) publishes assessments for its countries of operation in the southeastern Mediterranean region (SEMED): Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia. (gallup.com)
  • A worm parasite that is typically found in rats and slugs, but can jump to mammals, has become more widespread across the southeastern region of the US, a new study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention claims. (yahoo.com)
  • Several invasive mosquito species that are nuisances or of medical and veterinary importance have been introduced into the Southeastern region of the USA, posing a threat to other species and the local ecosystems and/or increasing the risk of pathogen transmission to people, livestock, and domestic pets. (cdc.gov)
  • To facilitate the development of invasive mosquito surveillance in the region, we, the Mosquito BEACONS (Biodiversity Enhancement and Control of Non-native Species) working group, conducted a survey on the capacities of various public health agencies and pest control agencies engaged in mosquito surveillance and control in seven Southeastern states (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina). (cdc.gov)
  • Not only do IOM missions within Central Asia work closely together on regional projects, but there is also close co-operation with IOM missions outside the immediate cluster area, especially with Russia. (iom.int)
  • The five countries of Central Asia - Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan - are closely linked in terms of history and culture. (iom.int)
  • In an effort to address these issues, and to support economic and political co-operation among the five Central Asia states, IOM has recently adopted an area-based approach to the five countries of Central Asia with a co-ordination office in Astana, Kazakhstan. (iom.int)
  • It also helps the Coordination Office to manage and oversee programmes, enabling IOM to increase its capacity in Central Asia while decreasing operational costs. (iom.int)
  • In Central Asia, IOM's integrated approach has created a strong competitive advantage. (iom.int)
  • IOM has extensive knowledge about the programmatic, geo-political, cultural and socio-economic dynamics of Central Asia. (iom.int)
  • In Central Asia, which has been a crossroads of goods and people from the days of the Silk Road, hundreds of thousands of people move daily across the international borders in search of employment and opportunity. (iom.int)
  • Our Southeastern Asia Political map accurately shows country boundaries, place names, and bodies of water for the entire continent. (mapsales.com)
  • This printout helps the student do a short report on an Asian country, prompting the student to draw a map of the country, locate it on a map of Asia, draw the country's flag, and write the country's continent, capital city, area, population, name of currency, and language(s). (enchantedlearning.com)
  • Information on Afghanistan, a small, landlocked country in Southwestern Asia (in the Middle East). (enchantedlearning.com)
  • Information on Bangladesh, a small, landlocked country in southern Asia. (enchantedlearning.com)
  • You might want to give students clues, such as the continent the country is in (Asia), that it is in the Northern Hemisphere, or that its name starts with "C." Answer: China. (enchantedlearning.com)
  • Acid is cheap and easy," said Ramana Sorn, project coordinator for the Cambodian Center for Human Rights (CCHR), which has published reports on acid attacks, more commonly associated with South Asia. (peacewomen.org)
  • Historically, endemic and epidemic cholera commonly has occurred in parts of southern and southeastern Asia. (cdc.gov)
  • Chenyu's research responsibilities include coverage of all Asia Pacific markets with a specific focus on China, and include analysis of massively multiplayer online games, multiplayer online games, social network games and other online games markets. (informa.com)
  • The leading source for your Southeastern Asia Wall Map! (mapsales.com)
  • Reproductive swarming phenology, swarm sizes, and cavity selection were studied in a European-derived population of Apis mellifera L. in southeastern Louisiana before and immediately after the initial detection in 1992 of Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae). (researchgate.net)
  • This interview was conducted following Lt General Eikenberry's participation in the Asia Society program, Assessing the Afghanistan Campaign on May 1, 2006. (asiasociety.org)
  • Comparing first-person ethnographic accounts of young people living, working, and creating relationships in cities across Asia, this volume explores their contemporary lives, pressures, ideals, and aspirations. (berghahnbooks.com)
  • LISBON, Portugal (AP) - Pope Francis told young people on Sunday the Catholic Church needs them and urged them to follow their dreams as he wrapped up World Youth Day in Portugal with a massive open-air Mass and an announcement that the next edition would be held in Asia for the first time in three decades. (wdtn.com)
  • ADB is committed to achieving a prosperous, inclusive, resilient, and sustainable Asia and the Pacific, while sustaining its efforts to eradicate extreme poverty. (adb.org)
  • Work with us to find fulfillment in sharing your knowledge and skills, and be a part of our vision in achieving a prosperous, inclusive, resilient, and sustainable Asia and the Pacific. (adb.org)
  • The current population fertility rate of South-Eastern Asia is 2.1058 births per woman. (database.earth)
  • South-Eastern Asia has seen a decrease of the population fertility rate since the 1950's. (database.earth)
  • The parasite is believed to have originated from parts of Asia, where most human cases developed thus far. (yahoo.com)
  • Being able to visit the local hill tribes in Southeastern Asia is another major benefit of trekking in this part of the world. (hubpages.com)
  • The burden of influenza in East and South-East Asia: a review of the English language literature. (who.int)
  • VA deficiency, including mild xerophthalmia, appears to affect large numbers of school-aged children in South-East Asia. (nih.gov)
  • SEGi University ranked 57 in South-East Asia and amongst the top 261-270 universities in Asia in the Asian University Ranking published by QS World University Rankings. (segi.edu.my)
  • We have always been at war with East Asia. (sott.net)
  • What is Trekking In South East Asia Like? (hubpages.com)
  • How To Choose the Best South East Asia Jungle Trek? (hubpages.com)
  • American scientists were working and living in villages in southeastern Senegal all of August of that year, on a project involving research on mosquitoes and malaria. (cdc.gov)