The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.
The geographical area of Asia comprising KAZAKHSTAN; KYRGYZSTAN; TAJIKISTAN; TURKMENISTAN; and UZBEKISTAN. The desert region of Kara Kum (Qara Qum) is largely in Turkmenistan and the desert region of Kyzyl Kum (Kizil Kum or Qizil Qum), is in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p233, 590, 636)
The geographical designation for the countries of the MIDDLE EAST and the countries BANGLADESH; BHUTAN; INDIA; NEPAL; PAKISTAN; and SRI LANKA. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993 & Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
A geographic area of east and southeast Asia encompassing CHINA; HONG KONG; JAPAN; KOREA; MACAO; MONGOLIA; and TAIWAN.
I'm afraid there seems to be a misunderstanding - "Africa" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, consisting of 54 countries with diverse cultures, peoples, languages, and landscapes. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help answer those for you!
The islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia. (Random House Dictionary, 2d ed)
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The islands of the Pacific Ocean divided into MICRONESIA; MELANESIA; and POLYNESIA (including NEW ZEALAND). The collective name Oceania includes the aforenamed islands, adding AUSTRALIA; NEW ZEALAND; and the Malay Archipelago (INDONESIA). (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p910, 880)
The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.
The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Australia, New Zealand and neighboring islands in the South Pacific Ocean. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)
I'm sorry for any confusion, but 'Europe' is a geographical continent and not a medical term; therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
A subregion of Asia, consisting of the Asian portion of Russia.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Uzbekistan" is a country located in Central Asia and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but there seems to be a misunderstanding as "South America" is not a medical term and cannot have a medical definition. It is a geographical term referring to the southern portion of the American continent, consisting of twelve independent countries and three territories of other nations.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Laos" is not a medical term; it is the name of a country located in Southeast Asia, officially known as the Lao People's Democratic Republic. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help with those!
While there isn't a specific medical definition for "North America," I can provide a geographical definition that is often used in public health and medical contexts: North America is the third largest continent by area, encompassing 23 independent states, including the United States, Canada, and Mexico, which are home to diverse populations, cultures, and ecosystems, and share common health-related challenges such as obesity, diabetes, and healthcare access disparities.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A republic of southeast Asia, northwest of Thailand, long familiar as Burma. Its capital is Yangon, formerly Rangoon. Inhabited by people of Mongolian stock and probably of Tibetan origin, by the 3d century A.D. it was settled by Hindus. The modern Burmese state was founded in the 18th century but was in conflict with the British during the 19th century. Made a crown colony of Great Britain in 1937, it was granted independence in 1947. In 1989 it became Myanmar. The name comes from myanma, meaning the strong, as applied to the Burmese people themselves. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p192 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p367)
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
The country is bordered by RUSSIA on the north and CHINA on the west, south, and east. The capita is Ulaanbaatar.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Kyrgyzstan" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition; it is the name of a country located in Central Asia, known officially as the Kyrgyz Republic.
The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "India" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context. It is a geographical location, referring to the Republic of India, a country in South Asia. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help with those!
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Vietnam" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context; it is a country located in Southeast Asia. If you have any questions related to medical conditions or terminology, I would be happy to help clarify those topics for you.
Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.
Events and activities of the Earth and its structures.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Kazakhstan" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition; it is the name of a country located in Central Asia, known officially as the Republic of Kazakhstan.
The collective name for the islands of the central Pacific Ocean, including the Austral Islands, Cook Islands, Easter Island, HAWAII; NEW ZEALAND; Phoenix Islands, PITCAIRN ISLAND; SAMOA; TONGA; Tuamotu Archipelago, Wake Island, and Wallis and Futuna Islands. Polynesians are of the Caucasoid race, but many are of mixed origin. Polynesia is from the Greek poly, many + nesos, island, with reference to the many islands in the group. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p966 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p426)
The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.
The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)
A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Cambodia" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context. It is the name of a country located in Southeast Asia, known officially as the Kingdom of Cambodia. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or science, I'd be happy to try and help answer those for you.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.
All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).
An island in the Malay Archipelago, east of Sumatra, north of Java, and west of Celebes. It is the third largest island in the world. Its name is a Portuguese alteration of BRUNEI, located on it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p163; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p73)
Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and severe viral disease in cloven-hoofed animals, characterized by fever, formation of vesicles and erosions in the mouth, on the tongue, lips, teats, and feet, causing significant economic losses in agriculture and livestock farming.
A mosquito-borne encephalitis caused by the Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE) occurring throughout Eastern Asia and Australia. The majority of infections occur in children and are subclinical or have features limited to transient fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges may occur and lead to transient or permanent neurologic deficits (including a POLIOMYELITIS-like presentation); SEIZURES; COMA; and death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p751; Lancet 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1094-7)
Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.
The collective name for the islands of the Pacific Ocean northeast of Australia, including NEW CALEDONIA; VANUATU; New Hebrides, Solomon Islands, Admiralty Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, FIJI, etc. Melanesia (from the Greek melas, black + nesos, island) is so called from the black color of the natives who are generally considered to be descended originally from the Negroid Papuans and the Polynesians or Malays. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p748 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p344)
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes MELIOIDOSIS. It has been isolated from soil and water in tropical regions, particularly Southeast Asia.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A disease of humans and animals that resembles GLANDERS. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA PSEUDOMALLEI and may range from a dormant infection to a condition that causes multiple abscesses, pneumonia, and bacteremia.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Philippines" is not a medical term; it is the name of a country located in Southeast Asia. It seems there might be some misunderstanding in your question. If you have a medical query related to the Philippines or its people, I'd be happy to help clarify that for you.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sri Lanka" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context; it is the name of a country located in South Asia, known for its diverse landscapes and rich biodiversity.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pakistan" is a country located in South Asia and it does not have a medical definition. If you have any medical question or term that you would like me to define, please provide it and I will be happy to help.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Singapore" is not a medical term or concept, it's a country in Southeast Asia. If you have any questions about medical topics, I'd be happy to try and help!
The total genetic information possessed by the reproductive members of a POPULATION of sexually reproducing organisms.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.
The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.

Life expectancy in Central and Eastern European countries and newly independent states of the former Soviet Union: changes by gender. (1/69)

AIM: To examine changes in life expectancy at birth for countries in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the Newly Independent States of the former Soviet Union (NIS) for the period 1989-1996. Differences in the change by gender were examined and several factors which likely bear on the changes were discussed. Methods. Data from the WHO Health for All European Data Base were used to determine changes in life expectancy and selected economic factors for CEE and NIS countries. RESULTS: Changes in life expectancy varied by gender in both CEE and the NIS, with the difference increasing for the two groups during the period with the largest increase occurring in the NIS. Both male and female life expectancy declined, with male life expectancy dropping at a more rapid rate. In 1994, the year in which most, but not all countries, reached a low point, life expectancy for males had declined below 60 years for two countries. CONCLUSIONS: The most striking point about the decline in life expectancies was the short period in which the declines occurred, especially in the NIS. It is not possible to determine the exact cause for the changes, but there are likely multiple reasons. It is not completely clear why the decline in life expectancy was greater for males, although the linkage between economic and behavioral and lifestyle factors appear to have some association. Further research is necessary to determine why effects by gender vary so greatly and whether the negative outcomes are a short-term anomaly or will persist.  (+info)

Task force for the urgent response to the epidemics of sexually transmitted diseases in eastern Europe and central Asia. (2/69)

In summary, members of the TF/STD: share the common goal of reducing the STD burden and slowing the spread of HIV in the most affected and vulnerable countries in eastern Europe and central Asia contribute financially, technically, or in kind to the implementation of a joint strategy which aims: to create an enabling environment for STD prevention and control, and to strengthen the local capacity for STD prevention and care engage in a continuous exchange of information, collaborative partnerships, and coordination of activities at regional as well as country level through the TF/STD and in-country interagency working groups, respectively concur with the priority areas for international support consisting of advocacy and policy, STD drugs, condoms, educational materials, training, applied research, and surveillance meet twice a year to review implementation progress and the need for additional assistance as advocates of TF/STD, call on partners and other organisations to join in this important new initiative.  (+info)

Recent declines in reported syphilis rates in eastern Europe and central Asia: are the epidemics over? (3/69)

BACKGROUND: Since the early 1990s, major syphilis epidemics have occurred in the Newly Independent States (NIS) of the former Soviet Union. The new and rapidly changing societal and economic conditions in these countries challenge their traditional approaches to the control of sexually transmitted infections (STI). Nevertheless, following a steady increase until 1997, reported syphilis incidence has declined during the past 3 years in most parts of the region. We examine these trends against a background of ongoing changes in service delivery, care seeking behaviour, and case finding practices. METHODS: National syphilis surveillance data reported to the WHO Regional Office for Europe were compiled and analysed, and supplemented with information presented at recent expert meetings and with results from ongoing research. RESULTS: Since 1997, reported syphilis incidence either stabilised or declined in many locations in the NIS, but further increased in others, especially in rural areas. Congenital syphilis continued to increase in all countries, except Latvia. The proportion of self presenting cases versus cases detected through screening declined, and so did notifications of early compared with late forms of syphilis. Patients increasingly seek care in the private formal and informal healthcare sectors which hardly participate in case reporting. CONCLUSIONS: Recent declines in syphilis notifications in the NIS are at least partially a reflection of a reduced intensity of active case finding and of changes in reporting completeness because of a shift in service utilisation from the public to the private/informal sectors. Syphilis rates are still high, indicating that both public and private sectors have to respond more efficiently to the needs of many people at risk of STI. The collection of serial STI prevalence data is recommended to be able to validate trends in notifications.  (+info)

Distribution and characterization of tick-borne encephalitis viruses from Siberia and far-eastern Asia. (4/69)

In this study, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) viruses from Siberia and far-eastern Asia were characterized in order to determine virus subtype distribution. TBE viruses were isolated from ticks (Ixodes persulcatus) collected in the far-eastern (Khabarovsk and Vladivostok) and Siberian (Irkutsk) regions of Russia in 1999. Phylogenetic analysis showed that isolates formed distinct clusters of far-eastern and Siberian subtypes. There was also a minor difference in antigenicity between the Irkutsk isolates and other TBE virus strains, as demonstrated by the reactivity of monoclonal antibodies. Amino acid alignments of the E gene showed that the Irkutsk isolates had a single amino acid change at position 234 (Q or H); this amino acid position is considered to be a 'signature' of Siberian subtype TBE viruses. Strains isolated in Irkutsk also exhibited equivalent or somewhat higher virulence in mice compared with far-eastern TBE virus isolates. All viruses isolated in this study (i.e. far-east Asian and Siberian isolates) have 3' non-coding regions (NCRs) of almost the same length, which contrasts with the various sizes of 3'NCRs of other TBE viruses strains reported previously. The data presented in this study show that the 3'NCR is uniform among TBE viruses isolated from Siberia and far-eastern Asia and that the 3'NCR is essential for TBE virus growth in tick and/or rodent host cells.  (+info)

Anemia prevention and control in four central Asian republics and Kazakhstan. (5/69)

Kazakhstan and the central Asian republics of Uzbekistan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan have developed anemia prevention and control (APC) policies based on multiple interventions, including education and promotion, oral supplementation of high risk groups and fortification of wheat flour with iron and other micronutrients. These national strategies are aimed at reducing the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency among young children and women of child-bearing age. Strategy development has been assisted by funding and technical assistance from the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) with additional technical support from the International Nutrition Foundation, the United Nations University and various national institutions. These countries have been among the most advanced in adopting national strategies that include multiple interventions in an overall package, and national interest in APC remains high. However, reviews of APC activities conducted in 2001 suggests the need for modification and enhancement of current efforts and for a shift to national-level actions if these countries are to progress toward current and future goals. Increased commitment and determination, by both national groups and international organizations, are required to achieve and sustain improvement in micronutrient nutrition.  (+info)

High-resolution analysis of Y-chromosomal polymorphisms reveals signatures of population movements from Central Asia and West Asia into India. (6/69)

Linguistic evidence suggests that West Asia and Central Asia have been the two major geographical sources of genes in the contemporary Indian gene pool. To test the nature and extent of similarities in the gene pools of these regions we have collected DNA samples from four ethnic populations of northern India, and have screened these samples for a set of 18 Y-chromosome polymorphic markers (12 unique event polymorphisms and six short tandem repeats). These data from Indian populations have been analysed in conjunction with published data from several West Asian and Central Asian populations. Our analyses have revealed traces of population movement from Central Asia and West Asia into India. Two haplogrops, HG-3 and HG-9, which are known to have arisen in the Central Asian region, are found in reasonably high frequencies (41.7% and 14.3% respectively) in the study populations. The ages estimated for these two haplogroups are less in the Indian populations than those estimated from data on Middle Eastern populations. A neighbour-joining tree based on Y-haplogroup frequencies shows that the North Indians are genetically placed between the West Asian and Central Asian populations. This is consistent with gene flow from West Asia and Central Asia into India.  (+info)

New sesquiterpenes from Ferula ferulaeoides (Steud.) Korovin. VI. Isolation and identification of three new dihydrofuro[2,3-b]chromones. (7/69)

Three novel 2-prenyl-dihydrofurochromone-type sesquiterpenoid derivatives, 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2S*,3R*-dimethyl-2-[4,8-dimethyl-3(E),7-nonadienyl]-furo[2, 3-b]chromone, 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2S*,3R*-dimethyl-2-[4-methyl-5-(4-methyl-2-furyl)-3(E),7-pe ntenyl]-furo[2,3-b]chromone, and 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2R*,3R*-dimethyl-2-[4-methyl-5-(4-methyl-2-furyl)-3(E),7-pe ntenyl]-furo[2,3-b]chromone, were isolated from the roots of Ferula ferulaeoides. The structures were established by comprehensive spectral analysis. The biosynthetic pathway leading to these 2-prenyl-dihydrofurochromone-type sesquiterpenoids is proposed based on their structures.  (+info)

The gender gap in primary health care resource utilization in Central Asia. (8/69)

There is a large gender gap in life expectancy in some countries of the former Soviet Union. Life expectancy of males is as much as 13 years less than that of females, and a significant portion of the excess male mortality is caused by cardiovascular disease. Although effective primary health care is necessary to manage cardiovascular disease and reduce acute episodes and mortality, the primary health care system is under-utilized by adult males in the region. This study combines disaggregated utilization data with cost data to analyze patterns of per capita primary care resource consumption in urban and rural regions of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. The results show that both in absolute and per capita terms, the principal users of primary health are women of reproductive age and children under five. Based on a combination of utilization and cost of services, women of reproductive age consume approximately 1.5 times the average per capita primary health care resources, while men in the same age group consume approximately one-half of the average. Children under five consume about three to five times the average per capita primary care resources. Based on the results of the study, regional government health purchasers worked together with providers to develop a new per capita payment system with age/sex adjustments and incentives for outreach to bring adult men into the primary care system.  (+info)

I apologize for any confusion, but "Asia" is not a medical term. It is the largest continent in the world, comprising about 30% of the Earth's total land area and containing around 60% of the world's current human population. It is divided into several regions, including Northern Asia (Siberia), Eastern Asia (China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Taiwan), Southern Asia (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Maldives), Southeastern Asia (Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Brunei), and Western Asia (Middle East).

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to help.

Southeast Asia is a geographical region that consists of the countries that are located at the southeastern part of the Asian continent. The definition of which countries comprise Southeast Asia may vary, but it generally includes the following 11 countries:

* Brunei
* Cambodia
* East Timor (Timor-Leste)
* Indonesia
* Laos
* Malaysia
* Myanmar (Burma)
* Philippines
* Singapore
* Thailand
* Vietnam

Southeast Asia is known for its rich cultural diversity, with influences from Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity. The region is also home to a diverse range of ecosystems, including rainforests, coral reefs, and mountain ranges. In recent years, Southeast Asia has experienced significant economic growth and development, but the region still faces challenges related to poverty, political instability, and environmental degradation.

Central Asia is a geographical region in Asia that stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east, and from Russia in the north to Afghanistan in the south. It includes the former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.

The medical definition of Central Asia may refer to the epidemiology, healthcare systems, or health issues specific to this region. For example, Central Asia has a high prevalence of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, hepatitis, and HIV/AIDS, due to various factors including poverty, lack of access to healthcare, and mobility of populations. In addition, non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes are also becoming more prevalent in Central Asia, partly due to lifestyle changes such as unhealthy diets, physical inactivity, and tobacco use.

Overall, the medical definition of Central Asia encompasses the unique health challenges and healthcare systems that exist within this geographical region.

"Western Asia" is a geographical region that is defined by the United Nations as one of the five sub-regions within the larger continent of Asia. It is also known as "Southwestern Asia" or the "Middle East." The UN definition includes the following countries:

* Armenia
* Azerbaijan
* Bahrain
* Cyprus
* Georgia
* Iraq
* Israel
* Jordan
* Kuwait
* Lebanon
* Oman
* State of Palestine
* Qatar
* Saudi Arabia
* Syria
* Turkey
* United Arab Emirates
* Yemen
* Islamic Republic of Iran (but sometimes considered part of Central Asia)

It is important to note that there are different definitions and interpretations of what constitutes "Western Asia" or the "Middle East," and some sources may include or exclude certain countries. Additionally, it's worth noting that cultural, historical, and political factors also play a role in defining this region, and the boundaries between Western Asia and other regions such as Central Asia, South Asia, and North Africa can be fluid and contested.

The term "Far East" is a geographical term that has been used historically to describe the easternmost part of Asia, including countries such as China, Japan, Korea, and Southeast Asian nations. However, it's important to note that the use of this term can be seen as outdated and culturally insensitive, as it originated during a time when Western powers viewed these regions as distant and exotic.

In medical contexts, "Far East" may be used to describe medical conditions or treatments specific to populations in this region. However, it is generally more appropriate to use the specific names of countries or regions when discussing medical issues related to these areas.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Africa" actually refers to a continent, not a medical condition or concept. Africa is the second-largest continent in the world, consisting of 54 countries and a wide range of diverse ethnic groups, cultures, languages, and landscapes. It is home to a vast array of wildlife, including many species that are not found anywhere else in the world. If you have any questions about Africa's geography, history, or culture, I would be happy to try to help answer them!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Oceania" is not a medical term. It is a geographical term that refers to the region comprising of numerous countries and territories in the Pacific Ocean. This includes Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and many islands in the Pacific Ocean. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I'd be happy to help!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "geography" is not a term that has a medical definition. Geography is a field of study that deals with the location and distribution of physical and cultural features on Earth's surface, as well as how humans interact with and affect those features. It is not a concept that is typically used in a medical context. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pacific Islands" is a geographic term referring to the islands located in the Pacific Ocean, and it is not a medical term. It includes thousands of islands spread across the Pacific Ocean, which are categorized into three main groups: Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia.

If you have any medical terms you'd like defined, please let me know!

The "Americas" is a term used to refer to the combined landmasses of North America and South America, which are separated by the Isthmus of Panama. The Americas also include numerous islands in the Caribbean Sea, Atlantic Ocean, and Pacific Ocean. This region is home to a diverse range of cultures, ecosystems, and historical sites. It is named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci, who was one of the first Europeans to explore and map parts of South America in the late 15th century.

I'm not a medical professional, but the term "History, Ancient" is not a medical term per se. However, in a broader context, it could refer to the study of ancient medical practices, theories, and beliefs that existed in civilizations prior to the Middle Ages or Classical Antiquity. This might include the examination of ancient texts, artifacts, and archaeological evidence to understand how illnesses were treated and viewed in these historical periods. It forms an essential part of the evolution of medical knowledge and practices over time.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Thailand" is not a medical term. It is a country located in Southeast Asia. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help answer those for you!

Emigration is the process of leaving one's country of origin or habitual residence to settle in another country. It involves giving up the rights and privileges associated with citizenship in the country of origin and acquiring new rights and responsibilities as a citizen or resident of the destination country. Emigrants are people who choose to leave their native land to live elsewhere, often driven by factors such as economic opportunities, political instability, or conflict.

Immigration, on the other hand, is the process of entering and settling in a new country with the intention of becoming a permanent resident or citizen. Immigrants are individuals who come from another country to live in a new place, often seeking better job opportunities, education, or quality of life. They must comply with the immigration laws and regulations of the host country and may be required to undergo medical examinations, background checks, and other screening processes before being granted permission to enter and reside in the country.

In summary, emigration refers to leaving one's home country, while immigration refers to entering and settling in a new country.

Genetic variation refers to the differences in DNA sequences among individuals and populations. These variations can result from mutations, genetic recombination, or gene flow between populations. Genetic variation is essential for evolution by providing the raw material upon which natural selection acts. It can occur within a single gene, between different genes, or at larger scales, such as differences in the number of chromosomes or entire sets of chromosomes. The study of genetic variation is crucial in understanding the genetic basis of diseases and traits, as well as the evolutionary history and relationships among species.

Australasia is not a medical term, but a geographical region that includes Australia, New Zealand, and the islands of the Pacific Ocean that are southwest of the Asian continent. It is sometimes used in a broader sense to include Papua New Guinea, the eastern islands of Indonesia, and the island nations of the South Pacific.

Therefore, there is no medical definition for 'Australasia'. However, it is important to note that Australia and New Zealand have well-developed healthcare systems and high standards of medical care, while some of the smaller island nations in the region may have more limited resources and access to medical services.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Europe" is a geographical and political designation, rather than a medical one. It refers to the continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Europe is made up of approximately 50 countries, depending on how one defines a "country."

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to help answer them!

Human Y chromosomes are one of the two sex-determining chromosomes in humans (the other being the X chromosome). They are found in the 23rd pair of human chromosomes and are significantly smaller than the X chromosome.

The Y chromosome is passed down from father to son through the paternal line, and it plays a crucial role in male sex determination. The SRY gene (sex-determining region Y) on the Y chromosome initiates the development of male sexual characteristics during embryonic development.

In addition to the SRY gene, the human Y chromosome contains several other genes that are essential for sperm production and male fertility. However, the Y chromosome has a much lower gene density compared to other chromosomes, with only about 80 protein-coding genes, making it one of the most gene-poor chromosomes in the human genome.

Because of its small size and low gene density, the Y chromosome is particularly susceptible to genetic mutations and deletions, which can lead to various genetic disorders and male infertility. Nonetheless, the Y chromosome remains a critical component of human genetics and evolution, providing valuable insights into sex determination, inheritance patterns, and human diversity.

Northern Asia, also known as North Asia or Siberia, is not a formally defined region in terms of medical geography. However, in general usage, it refers to the vast northern part of the Asian continent, covering areas such as Russia (east of the Ural Mountains), Mongolia, and some parts of Northern China (north of the Yangtze River).

In terms of medical relevance, Northern Asia is home to a diverse range of populations, climates, and environments, which can all impact health outcomes and disease patterns. For example, certain regions in Northern Asia have high rates of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and hepatitis, while others have high rates of non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Additionally, the region's harsh climate and remote geography can pose challenges to accessing healthcare services, particularly in rural areas.

It is important to note that medical research and public health initiatives in Northern Asia may vary depending on the specific countries and regions involved, and further investigation would be needed to provide a more detailed medical definition of this region.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Uzbekistan" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in Central Asia. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Population Genetics is a subfield of genetics that deals with the genetic composition of populations and how this composition changes over time. It involves the study of the frequency and distribution of genes and genetic variations in populations, as well as the evolutionary forces that contribute to these patterns, such as mutation, gene flow, genetic drift, and natural selection.

Population genetics can provide insights into a wide range of topics, including the history and relationships between populations, the genetic basis of diseases and other traits, and the potential impacts of environmental changes on genetic diversity. This field is important for understanding evolutionary processes at the population level and has applications in areas such as conservation biology, medical genetics, and forensic science.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the genetic material present in the mitochondria, which are specialized structures within cells that generate energy. Unlike nuclear DNA, which is present in the cell nucleus and inherited from both parents, mtDNA is inherited solely from the mother.

MtDNA is a circular molecule that contains 37 genes, including 13 genes that encode for proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, a process that generates energy in the form of ATP. The remaining genes encode for rRNAs and tRNAs, which are necessary for protein synthesis within the mitochondria.

Mutations in mtDNA can lead to a variety of genetic disorders, including mitochondrial diseases, which can affect any organ system in the body. These mutations can also be used in forensic science to identify individuals and establish biological relationships.

A haplotype is a group of genes or DNA sequences that are inherited together from a single parent. It refers to a combination of alleles (variant forms of a gene) that are located on the same chromosome and are usually transmitted as a unit. Haplotypes can be useful in tracing genetic ancestry, understanding the genetic basis of diseases, and developing personalized medical treatments.

In population genetics, haplotypes are often used to study patterns of genetic variation within and between populations. By comparing haplotype frequencies across populations, researchers can infer historical events such as migrations, population expansions, and bottlenecks. Additionally, haplotypes can provide information about the evolutionary history of genes and genomic regions.

In clinical genetics, haplotypes can be used to identify genetic risk factors for diseases or to predict an individual's response to certain medications. For example, specific haplotypes in the HLA gene region have been associated with increased susceptibility to certain autoimmune diseases, while other haplotypes in the CYP450 gene family can affect how individuals metabolize drugs.

Overall, haplotypes provide a powerful tool for understanding the genetic basis of complex traits and diseases, as well as for developing personalized medical treatments based on an individual's genetic makeup.

"World Health" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, it is often used in the context of global health, which can be defined as:

"The area of study, research and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide. It emphasizes trans-national health issues, determinants, and solutions; involves many disciplines within and beyond the health sciences and engages stakeholders from across sectors and societies." (World Health Organization)

Therefore, "world health" could refer to the overall health status and health challenges faced by populations around the world. It encompasses a broad range of factors that affect the health of individuals and communities, including social, economic, environmental, and political determinants. The World Health Organization (WHO) plays a key role in monitoring and promoting global health, setting international standards and guidelines, and coordinating responses to global health emergencies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Siberia" is not a medical term. It's a geographical region in Russia, known for its harsh, cold climate and vast wilderness. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I'd be happy to help answer those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "South America" is not a medical term. It is a geographical term that refers to the southern portion of the Americas, which is a continent in the Western Hemisphere. South America is generally defined as including the countries of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela, as well as the overseas departments and territories of French Guiana (France), and the Falkland Islands (UK).

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Laos" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, located in Southeast Asia. If you have any questions about medical terms or health-related topics, I'd be happy to try and help answer them!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "North America" is not a medical term. It is a geographical term that refers to the third largest continent in the world, which includes countries such as the United States, Canada, and Mexico, among others. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health topics, I'd be happy to help with those!

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Myanmar" is not a medical term or condition. It is the name of a country in Southeast Asia, also known as Burma. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terminology, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

I am not aware of a specific medical definition for the term "China." Generally, it is used to refer to:

1. The People's Republic of China (PRC), which is a country in East Asia. It is the most populous country in the world and the fourth largest by geographical area. Its capital city is Beijing.
2. In a historical context, "China" was used to refer to various dynasties and empires that existed in East Asia over thousands of years. The term "Middle Kingdom" or "Zhongguo" (中国) has been used by the Chinese people to refer to their country for centuries.
3. In a more general sense, "China" can also be used to describe products or goods that originate from or are associated with the People's Republic of China.

If you have a specific context in which you encountered the term "China" related to medicine, please provide it so I can give a more accurate response.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Middle East" is not a medical term. It is a geographical region that includes countries such as Saudi Arabia, Iran, Turkey, Egypt, and others. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mongolia" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in Central Asia. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terminology, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "travel" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. In general, travel refers to the act of moving or journeying from one place to another, often over long distances. However, in a medical context, it might refer to the recommendation that individuals with certain medical conditions or those who are immunocompromised avoid traveling to areas where they may be at increased risk of exposure to infectious diseases. It's always best to check with a healthcare professional for advice related to specific medical situations and travel.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Indonesia" is not a medical term. It is a country located in Southeast Asia and Oceania, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than thirteen thousand islands. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Kyrgyzstan" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in Central Asia. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

I believe you may have made a typo in your question. "Archaeology" is the scientific study of past human cultures and societies through the recovery, examination, and analysis of material remains such as artifacts, buildings, biofacts (e.g., bones, shells), and cultural landscapes. It is not typically associated with medical definitions. If you intended to ask for a different term related to medicine or healthcare, please let me know so I can provide the correct information.

For more information about archaeology, you may be interested in visiting the World Archaeological Congress () or the Society for American Archaeology () websites to learn more about this fascinating field of study.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "India" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country in South Asia, the second-most populous country in the world, known for its rich history, diverse culture, and numerous contributions to various fields including medicine. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer them!

The term "developing countries" is a socio-economic classification used to describe nations that are in the process of industrialization and modernization. This term is often used interchangeably with "low and middle-income countries" or "Global South." The World Bank defines developing countries as those with a gross national income (GNI) per capita of less than US $12,695.

In the context of healthcare, developing countries face unique challenges including limited access to quality medical care, lack of resources and infrastructure, high burden of infectious diseases, and a shortage of trained healthcare professionals. These factors contribute to significant disparities in health outcomes between developing and developed nations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Vietnam" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in Southeast Asia. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terminology, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

I'm happy to help! However, it looks like there might be a bit of confusion in your question. "Human migration" is not a medical term per se, but rather a sociological or anthropological concept that refers to the large-scale movement of human populations from one area to another.

That being said, human migration can certainly have significant impacts on health and healthcare systems, both for the migrating populations themselves and for the communities they move into. For example, migrants may face language barriers, discrimination, or other challenges that affect their access to care, while also potentially bringing new diseases or health risks into a community.

In summary, while "human migration" is not a medical definition in and of itself, it is an important concept to consider in the context of public health and healthcare delivery.

The term "Asian Continental Ancestry Group" is a medical/ethnic classification used to describe a person's genetic background and ancestry. According to this categorization, individuals with origins in the Asian continent are grouped together. This includes populations from regions such as East Asia (e.g., China, Japan, Korea), South Asia (e.g., India, Pakistan, Bangladesh), Southeast Asia (e.g., Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand), and Central Asia (e.g., Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan). It is important to note that this broad categorization may not fully capture the genetic diversity within these regions or accurately reflect an individual's specific ancestral origins.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "geological processes" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Geological processes refer to the natural events that shape the Earth's surface and interior over time, such as volcanic activity, plate tectonics, erosion, and sedimentation. These processes are studied within the field of geology. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Kazakhstan" is not a medical term or concept. It is the world's largest landlocked country, located in Central Asia. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polynesia" is not a medical term. It is a geographical region in the Pacific Ocean, consisting of numerous island countries and territories. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the family Picornaviridae and the genus Aphthovirus. It is the causative agent of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD), a highly contagious and severe viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals, including cattle, swine, sheep, goats, and buffalo. The virus can be transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or their bodily fluids, as well as through aerosolized particles in the air. FMDV has seven distinct serotypes (O, A, C, Asia 1, and South African Territories [SAT] 1, 2, and 3), and infection with one serotype does not provide cross-protection against other serotypes. The virus primarily targets the animal's epithelial tissues, causing lesions and blisters in and around the mouth, feet, and mammary glands. FMD is not a direct threat to human health but poses significant economic consequences for the global livestock industry due to its high infectivity and morbidity rates.

Northern Africa is a geographical region that broadly consists of the countries of the African Transverse, which are Algeria, Libya, Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, and Western Sahara. Sometimes, it may also include Sudan, South Sudan, and Mauritania. This region is characterized by its proximity to the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlas Mountains, as well as its unique cultural and historical heritage. Northern Africa has a diverse climate, with a hot, dry desert climate in the interior and a milder, wetter climate along the coasts. The major languages spoken in this region include Arabic, Berber, and French.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Malaysia" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in Southeast Asia, consisting of thirteen states and three federal territories. If you have any questions about Malaysia's geography, culture, or people, I would be happy to try to help answer those! However, if you have a question related to medicine or healthcare, please provide more details so I can give you an accurate and helpful response.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Cambodia" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in Southeast Asia, bordered by Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, and the Gulf of Thailand. The capital city of Cambodia is Phnom Penh.

If you have any questions related to healthcare, medical conditions, treatments, or other health-related topics, I would be happy to help you with those!

In medical terms, "fossils" do not have a specific or direct relevance to the field. However, in a broader scientific context, fossils are the remains or impressions of prehistoric organisms preserved in petrified form or as a mold or cast in rock. They offer valuable evidence about the Earth's history and the life forms that existed on it millions of years ago.

Paleopathology is a subfield of paleontology that deals with the study of diseases in fossils, which can provide insights into the evolution of diseases and human health over time.

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus from the Togaviridae family that is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, primarily Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The name "Chikungunya" is derived from a Makonde word meaning "to become contorted," which describes the stooped posture developed as a result of severe arthralgia (joint pain) that is a primary symptom of infection with this virus.

CHIKV infection typically causes a febrile illness, characterized by an abrupt onset of high fever, severe joint pain, muscle pain, headache, nausea, fatigue, and rash. While the symptoms are usually self-limiting and resolve within 10 days, some individuals may experience persistent or recurring joint pain for several months or even years after the initial infection.

There is no specific antiviral treatment available for Chikungunya virus infection, and management primarily focuses on relieving symptoms with rest, fluids, and over-the-counter pain relievers such as acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito bites through the use of insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and pants, staying in air-conditioned or screened rooms, and eliminating standing water where mosquitoes breed.

Chikungunya virus is found primarily in Africa, Asia, and the Indian subcontinent, but it has also caused outbreaks in Europe and the Americas due to the spread of its vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The virus can cause large-scale epidemics, with millions of cases reported during outbreaks. There is currently no approved vaccine for Chikungunya virus infection.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Latin America" is not a medical term. It is a geographical and cultural region that includes parts of North America, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean where Romance languages (Spanish, Portuguese, and French) are predominantly spoken. The term does not have a specific medical relevance or definition.

"Africa South of the Sahara" is a term commonly used in medical and scientific literature to refer to the region of the African continent that lies south of the Sahara Desert. This region includes 48 countries, with a population of over 1 billion people, and is characterized by its tropical or subtropical climate, diverse cultures, and unique health challenges.

The term "South of the Sahara" is used to distinguish this region from North Africa, which is predominantly Arab and Berber in culture and has closer ties to the Middle East than to Sub-Saharan Africa. The Sahara Desert serves as a natural geographical boundary between these two regions.

In medical terms, "Africa South of the Sahara" encompasses a wide range of health issues, including infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and Ebola, which are prevalent in many parts of the region. The area also faces challenges related to maternal and child health, nutrition, water and sanitation, and non-communicable diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Medical research and interventions focused on "Africa South of the Sahara" aim to address these unique health challenges and improve the overall health outcomes of the population in this region.

I'm not aware of a medical definition specifically for "Borneo." Borneo is the third-largest island in the world, located in Southeast Asia and divided among three countries: Malaysia, Indonesia, and Brunei. It has a rich biodiversity with many plant and animal species, some of which have been studied in medical or scientific research. However, there is no established medical definition for "Borneo" itself.

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals, including cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, and buffalo. The virus can also infect wild animals like deer and antelope. FMD is not a direct threat to human health but may have significant economic impacts due to restrictions on trade and movement of infected animals.

The disease is characterized by fever, blister-like sores (vesicles) in the mouth, on the tongue, lips, gums, teats, and between the hooves. The vesicles can rupture, causing painful erosions that make it difficult for affected animals to eat, drink, or walk. In severe cases, FMD can lead to death, particularly among young animals.

The causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease is the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), which belongs to the Picornaviridae family and Aphthovirus genus. There are seven serotypes of FMDV: O, A, C, Asia 1, and South African Territories (SAT) 1, SAT 2, and SAT 3. Infection with one serotype does not provide cross-protection against other serotypes.

Prevention and control measures for foot-and-mouth disease include vaccination, quarantine, movement restrictions, disinfection, and culling of infected animals in severe outbreaks. Rapid detection and response are crucial to prevent the spread of FMD within and between countries.

Japanese encephalitis is a viral inflammation of the brain (encephalitis) caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Culex mosquitoes, particularly in rural and agricultural areas. The majority of JE cases occur in children under the age of 15. Most people infected with JEV do not develop symptoms, but some may experience mild symptoms such as fever, headache, and vomiting. In severe cases, JEV can cause high fever, neck stiffness, seizures, confusion, and coma. There is no specific treatment for Japanese encephalitis, and care is focused on managing symptoms and supporting the patient's overall health. Prevention measures include vaccination and avoiding mosquito bites in endemic areas.

'Avian influenza' refers to the infection caused by avian (bird) influenza A viruses. These viruses occur naturally among wild aquatic birds worldwide and can infect domestic poultry and other bird and animal species. Avian influenza viruses do not normally infect humans, but rare cases of human infection have occurred mainly after close contact with infected birds or heavily contaminated environments.

There are many different subtypes of avian influenza viruses based on two proteins on the surface of the virus: hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). There are 16 known HA subtypes and 9 known NA subtypes, creating a vast number of possible combinations. Some of these combinations cause severe disease and death in birds (e.g., H5N1, H7N9), while others only cause mild illness (e.g., H9N2).

Most avian influenza viruses do not infect humans. However, some forms are zoonotic, meaning they can infect animals and humans. The risk to human health is generally low. When human infections with avian influenza viruses have occurred, most have resulted from direct contact with infected poultry or surfaces contaminated by their feces.

Avian influenza viruses have caused several pandemics in the past, including the 1918 Spanish flu (H1N1), which was an H1N1 virus containing genes of avian origin. The concern is that a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus could mutate to become easily transmissible from human to human, leading to another pandemic. This is one of the reasons why avian influenza viruses are closely monitored by public health authorities worldwide.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Melanesia" is not a medical term. It is a geographical region in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, consisting of an island group including New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, and the Fiji islands. The term "Melanesia" comes from the Greek words "melas," meaning black, and "nesos," meaning island, referring to the dark skin of the inhabitants. It's primarily used in anthropological, geographical, and cultural contexts.

Molecular evolution is the process of change in the DNA sequence or protein structure over time, driven by mechanisms such as mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, and natural selection. It refers to the evolutionary study of changes in DNA, RNA, and proteins, and how these changes accumulate and lead to new species and diversity of life. Molecular evolution can be used to understand the history and relationships among different organisms, as well as the functional consequences of genetic changes.

'Burkholderia pseudomallei' is a Gram-negative, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped bacterium that is the causative agent of melioidosis. It is found in soil and water in tropical and subtropical regions, particularly in Southeast Asia and northern Australia. The bacterium can infect humans and animals through inhalation, ingestion, or direct contact with contaminated soil or water. Melioidosis can cause a wide range of symptoms, including pneumonia, sepsis, and abscesses in various organs. It is a serious and potentially fatal disease, especially in people with underlying medical conditions such as diabetes, kidney disease, or compromised immune systems. Proper diagnosis and treatment with appropriate antibiotics are essential for managing melioidosis.

"Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype" is a specific subtype of the Influenza A virus that is often found in avian species (birds) and can occasionally infect humans. The "H5N1" refers to the specific proteins (hemagglutinin and neuraminidase) found on the surface of the virus. This subtype has caused serious infections in humans, with high mortality rates, especially in cases where people have had close contact with infected birds. It does not commonly spread from person to person, but there is concern that it could mutate and adapt to efficiently transmit between humans, which would potentially cause a pandemic.

A disease outbreak is defined as the occurrence of cases of a disease in excess of what would normally be expected in a given time and place. It may affect a small and localized group or a large number of people spread over a wide area, even internationally. An outbreak may be caused by a new agent, a change in the agent's virulence or host susceptibility, or an increase in the size or density of the host population.

Outbreaks can have significant public health and economic impacts, and require prompt investigation and control measures to prevent further spread of the disease. The investigation typically involves identifying the source of the outbreak, determining the mode of transmission, and implementing measures to interrupt the chain of infection. This may include vaccination, isolation or quarantine, and education of the public about the risks and prevention strategies.

Examples of disease outbreaks include foodborne illnesses linked to contaminated food or water, respiratory infections spread through coughing and sneezing, and mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika virus and West Nile virus. Outbreaks can also occur in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and nursing homes, where vulnerable populations may be at increased risk of infection.

Melioidosis is a bacterial infection caused by the soil-dwelling gram-negative bacillus, Burkholderia pseudomallei. The disease primarily occurs in tropical areas such as Southeast Asia and northern Australia. It can present with a wide range of clinical manifestations including acute septicemia, pneumonia, and chronic suppurative infection. Risk factors for melioidosis include diabetes mellitus, renal disease, alcoholism, and lung disease. The diagnosis is confirmed by culturing B. pseudomallei from clinical specimens such as blood, sputum, or pus. Treatment typically involves a prolonged course of antibiotics, including intravenous ceftazidime followed by oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Philippines" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in Southeast Asia, comprised of over 7,000 islands. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terms, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sri Lanka" is not a medical term or concept. Sri Lanka is an island country located in the Indian Ocean, south of India. It is known for its diverse landscapes ranging from rainforests and arid plains to highlands and sandy beaches.

If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try and help answer them!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pakistan" is a country in South Asia and not a medical term or condition. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I would be happy to help!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Singapore" is not a medical term or concept. It is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

A gene pool refers to the total sum of genes contained within a population of interbreeding individuals of a species. It includes all the variations of genes, or alleles, that exist in that population. The concept of a gene pool is important in understanding genetic diversity and how traits are passed down from one generation to the next.

The size and diversity of a gene pool can have significant implications for the long-term survival and adaptability of a species. A larger and more diverse gene pool can provide a species with greater resistance to diseases, environmental changes, and other threats, as there is a wider variety of traits and genetic combinations available. On the other hand, a smaller or less diverse gene pool may make a species more susceptible to genetic disorders, reduced fitness, and extinction.

Geneticists and population biologists often study gene pools to understand the evolutionary history and dynamics of populations, as well as to inform conservation efforts for endangered species.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "International Cooperation" is not a medical term. It refers to the collaboration and exchange of resources and information between countries or international organizations in various fields, including politics, economics, culture, environment, and security, among others. In the context of healthcare and medicine, international cooperation can involve joint research projects, sharing of data and clinical trial results, collaborative efforts to combat global health issues (such as infectious diseases or chronic conditions), capacity building in low-resource settings, and standardizing medical practices and guidelines across countries.

Genotype, in genetics, refers to the complete heritable genetic makeup of an individual organism, including all of its genes. It is the set of instructions contained in an organism's DNA for the development and function of that organism. The genotype is the basis for an individual's inherited traits, and it can be contrasted with an individual's phenotype, which refers to the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism that result from the expression of its genes in combination with environmental influences.

It is important to note that an individual's genotype is not necessarily identical to their genetic sequence. Some genes have multiple forms called alleles, and an individual may inherit different alleles for a given gene from each parent. The combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular gene is known as their genotype for that gene.

Understanding an individual's genotype can provide important information about their susceptibility to certain diseases, their response to drugs and other treatments, and their risk of passing on inherited genetic disorders to their offspring.

Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) is a type of flavivirus that is the causative agent of Japanese encephalitis, a mosquito-borne viral infection of the brain. The virus is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Culex species mosquitoes, particularly Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex gelidus.

JEV is endemic in many parts of Asia, including China, Japan, Korea, India, Nepal, Thailand, and Vietnam. It is estimated to cause around 68,000 clinical cases and 13,000-20,000 deaths each year. The virus is maintained in a transmission cycle between mosquitoes and vertebrate hosts, primarily pigs and wading birds.

Most JEV infections are asymptomatic or result in mild symptoms such as fever, headache, and muscle aches. However, in some cases, the infection can progress to severe encephalitis, which is characterized by inflammation of the brain, leading to neurological symptoms such as seizures, tremors, paralysis, and coma. The case fatality rate for Japanese encephalitis is estimated to be 20-30%, and around half of those who survive have significant long-term neurological sequelae.

Prevention of JEV infection includes the use of insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and avoiding outdoor activities during peak mosquito feeding times. Vaccination is also an effective means of preventing Japanese encephalitis, and vaccines are available for travelers to endemic areas as well as for residents of those areas.

Alphavirus infections refer to a group of diseases caused by viruses belonging to the Alphavirus genus of the Togaviridae family. These viruses are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, and can cause a range of symptoms depending on the specific virus and the individual's immune response.

Some of the more common alphaviruses that cause human disease include:

* Chikungunya virus (CHIKV): This virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and can cause a fever, rash, and severe joint pain. While most people recover from CHIKV infection within a few weeks, some may experience long-term joint pain and inflammation.
* Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV): This virus is transmitted by mosquitoes that feed on both birds and mammals, including humans. EEEV can cause severe neurological symptoms such as fever, headache, seizures, and coma. It has a high mortality rate of up to 30-50% in infected individuals.
* Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV): This virus is also transmitted by mosquitoes that feed on both birds and mammals. WEEV can cause mild flu-like symptoms or more severe neurological symptoms such as fever, headache, and seizures. It has a lower mortality rate than EEEV but can still cause significant illness.
* Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV): This virus is transmitted by mosquitoes that feed on horses and other mammals, including humans. VEEV can cause mild flu-like symptoms or more severe neurological symptoms such as fever, headache, and seizures. It is considered a potential bioterrorism agent due to its ability to cause severe illness and death in large populations.

There are no specific treatments for alphavirus infections other than supportive care to manage symptoms. Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito bites through the use of insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and pants, and staying indoors during peak mosquito hours. Public health efforts also focus on reducing mosquito populations through environmental controls such as eliminating standing water and using insecticides.

Gene flow, also known as genetic migration or gene admixture, refers to the transfer of genetic variation from one population to another. It occurs when individuals reproduce and exchange genes with members of other populations through processes such as migration and interbreeding. This can result in an alteration of the genetic composition of both populations, increasing genetic diversity and reducing the differences between them. Gene flow is an important mechanism in evolutionary biology and population genetics, contributing to the distribution and frequency of alleles (versions of a gene) within and across populations.

Bacteriophage T4, also known as T4 phage, is a type of virus that infects and replicates within the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli). It is one of the most well-studied bacteriophages and has been used as a model organism in molecular biology research for many decades.

T4 phage has a complex structure, with an icosahedral head that contains its genetic material (DNA) and a tail that attaches to the host cell and injects the DNA inside. The T4 phage genome is around 169 kilobases in length and encodes approximately 289 proteins.

Once inside the host cell, the T4 phage DNA takes over the bacterial machinery to produce new viral particles. The host cell eventually lyses (bursts), releasing hundreds of new phages into the environment. T4 phage is a lytic phage, meaning that it only replicates through the lytic cycle and does not integrate its genome into the host's chromosome.

T4 phage has been used in various applications, including bacterial typing, phage therapy, and genetic engineering. Its study has contributed significantly to our understanding of molecular biology, genetics, and virology.

Microsatellite repeats, also known as short tandem repeats (STRs), are repetitive DNA sequences made up of units of 1-6 base pairs that are repeated in a head-to-tail manner. These repeats are spread throughout the human genome and are highly polymorphic, meaning they can have different numbers of repeat units in different individuals.

Microsatellites are useful as genetic markers because of their high degree of variability. They are commonly used in forensic science to identify individuals, in genealogy to trace ancestry, and in medical research to study genetic diseases and disorders. Mutations in microsatellite repeats have been associated with various neurological conditions, including Huntington's disease and fragile X syndrome.

Biological evolution is the change in the genetic composition of populations of organisms over time, from one generation to the next. It is a process that results in descendants differing genetically from their ancestors. Biological evolution can be driven by several mechanisms, including natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, and mutation. These processes can lead to changes in the frequency of alleles (variants of a gene) within populations, resulting in the development of new species and the extinction of others over long periods of time. Biological evolution provides a unifying explanation for the diversity of life on Earth and is supported by extensive evidence from many different fields of science, including genetics, paleontology, comparative anatomy, and biogeography.

Hominidae, also known as the "great apes," is a family of primates that includes humans (Homo sapiens), orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla and Gorilla beringei), bonobos (Pan paniscus), and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). This family is characterized by their upright walking ability, although not all members exhibit this trait. Hominidae species are known for their high intelligence, complex social structures, and expressive facial features. They share a common ancestor with the Old World monkeys, and fossil records suggest that this split occurred around 25 million years ago.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection that is primarily transmitted by the Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus species of mosquitoes. It is caused by one of four closely related dengue viruses (DENV 1, DENV 2, DENV 3, or DENV 4). The infection can cause a wide range of symptoms, ranging from mild fever and headache to severe flu-like illness, which is often characterized by the sudden onset of high fever, severe headache, muscle and joint pain, nausea, vomiting, and skin rash. In some cases, dengue can progress to more severe forms, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly and appropriately.

Dengue is prevalent in many tropical and subtropical regions around the world, particularly in urban and semi-urban areas with poor sanitation and inadequate mosquito control. There is no specific treatment for dengue, and prevention efforts focus on reducing mosquito populations and avoiding mosquito bites. Vaccines are available in some countries to prevent dengue infection, but they are not widely used due to limitations in their effectiveness and safety.

Geography portal Asia portal Chinese Central Asia Central Asian Football Federation Central Asian Games Central Asia Regional ... more than 90 million people live in Central Asia, about 2% of Asia's total population. Of the regions of Asia, only North Asia ... Central Asia has served more as the battleground for outside powers than as a power in its own right. Central Asia had both the ... Central Asia is sometimes referred to as Turkestan. Central Asia is a region of varied geography, including high passes and ...
Politics of Central Asia, Foreign relations of Asia, All stub articles, Foreign relations stubs, India stubs, Central Asia ... India looks to Central Asia as a long term partner in energy, and natural resources. Central Asia possesses large cultivable ... 2010), Reconnecting India and Central Asia Emerging Security and Economic Dimensions (PDF), Central Asia-Caucasus Institute and ... in the respective central Asian countries as well as in India. Multilateral dialogues such as the "Central Asia Dialogue" have ...
... is known as "Asuransi Central Asia" or "ACA Asuransi", and is one of the five most important Indonesian ... Asuransi Central Asia". The company has 1300+ employees and grosses in the range of 958 million rupiah per year. "Winners of ...
... OCLC 25540767. Retrieved 3 May 2020 - via WorldCat. "Central Asia monitor: a bi-monthly magazine". PubMed ... Central Asia Monitor was an important publication for Central Asian Studies during the 1990s. It began publication one year ... Central Asia Monitor was in publication from 1992 to 2001. The journal focused on historical and current events in the five ... Eastern Europe, Russia and Central Asia 2003. Taylor & Francis. 2000. p. 665. ISBN 978-1-85743-137-7. Retrieved 3 May 2020. ...
... (Russian: Советская Средняя Азия, romanized: Sovetskaya Srednyaya Aziya) was the part of Central Asia ... ISBN 978-1-135-97169-4. Central Asian Studies Association (1990). Central Asia File: Newsletter of the Central Asian Studies ... "The Complexity of Central Eurasia". p. 16. Glenn, John (1999). The Soviet Legacy in Central Asia. doi:10.1057/9780230376434. ... Soviet Central Asia went through many territorial divisions before the current borders were created in the 1920s and 1930s. By ...
In 2022, Bank Central Asia was awarded to be the "Best Bank in Indonesia" by Forbes. Bank Central Asia's beginnings began in ... PT Bank Central Asia Tbk, commonly known as Bank Central Asia (BCA) is an Indonesian bank founded on 21 February 1957. Bank ... Bank Central Asia expanded rapidly during the 1980s and 90s, BCA works with well-known institutions, such as PT Telkom , ... Bank Central Asia (BCA) was founded by Salim Group as "NV Perseroan Dagang Dan Industrie Semarang Knitting Factory". Originally ...
"Central Asia Institute". Give.org. Better Business Bureau. November 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2015. "Central Asia Institute". ... "Monitoring of Greg Mortenson and Central Asia Institute by Montana Attorney General's Office Concluded" (PDF). Central Asia ... Central Asia Institute - Greg Mortenson - CharityWatch". www.charitywatch.org. "History". Central Asia Institute. Archived from ... Central Asia Institute (CAI) is an international non-profit organization, co-founded by Greg Mortenson and Jean Hoerni in 1996 ...
... (Korean: 중앙아시아거리) is the nickname for an area in Gwanghui-dong, Jung District, Seoul, South Korea. It is so ... Russian diaspora in Asia, Mongolian diaspora in Asia, Kazakhstani diaspora in Asia, Uzbekistani diaspora, Pages using the ... Lee, Joel (2017-05-29). "Relishing a piece of Central Asia in heart of Seoul". The Korea Herald. Retrieved 2023-09-26. Min-sik ... Cyrllic, a script used for many Central Asian and Slavic languages, can be widely seen in the area. The ground level of the ...
This article describes national internet structures in Central Asia which are referred to as freenet. A separate article ... Central Asia, United States Agency for International Development, Internet in Kazakhstan, Internet in Kyrgyzstan). ... Several Internet networks in Central Asia, specifically, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan are financed[citation needed] by ... staff and students in the use of email and the web to support research and communication with peers outside of Central Asia. ...
"China sends a subtle message to Central Asia". Washington Post. May 19, 2023. "China woos Central Asia as Ukraine war weakens ... China-Central Asia Summit (Chinese: 中国-中亚峰会) is a diplomatic summit held by the leaders of the People's Republic of China and ... The first China-Central Asia Summit was held at the Xi'an International Conference Center in Xi'an, Shaanxi Province from May ... "China's Xi unveils grand development plan for Central Asia". Reuters. May 19, 2023. " ...
Blood and Oil in Central Asia, Grove Press, 2004, ISBN 0-8021-4172-2 Ahmed Rashid. Jihad: The Rise of Militant Islam in Central ... subcommittee on the Middle East and Central Asia on 29 October 2003. Jones said the greatest threats to the Central Asian ... Terrorism in Central Asia is largely a cross-border phenomenon. The source of most terrorists and terrorist organizations that ... Radical Islam in Central Asia, Between Pen and Rifle, ISBN 0-7425-2930-4 Lutz Kleveman. The New Great Game: ...
Central Asia, Clans, Ethnic groups in Central Asia). ... The people of Central Asia self-identified by their clans prior ... Clans in Central Asia are political networks based on regional and tribal loyalties. Clans frequently control certain ... The weaker states of Central Asia have relied on the social salience of clans to secure their own legitimacy through pacts and ... The influence of the clans in the contemporary history of Central Asia is derived from the enormous importance that these have ...
Essays on Central Asia. Lawrence, KS: Carrie. Rashid, Ahmed (Spring 2001). "The Fires of Faith in Central Asia". World Policy ... Central Asian expert Adeeb Khalid, writes that the situation in Central Asia demonstrates most of all that Islam is a complex ... For this reason, governments in Central Asia consider it a threat and have outlawed it as a subversive group in the Central ... 1-5. (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Religion in Central Asia, Islam in Asia, Ziyarat). ...
Another large factor in the development of the drug trade in Central Asia is the region's geography. Three of Central Asia's ... "Security Challenges in Central Asia: A German and European Perspective" (PDF). SWP Berlin. Illicit Drug Trends in Central Asia ... Central Asia has had both the advantage and disadvantage of a central location between four historical seats of power. From its ... To the southeast, the demographic and cultural influence of South Asia is felt in Central Asia, notably in Tibet, the Hindu ...
... , Central Asian people, Central Asian culture, History of Central Asia). ... The below are demographic data on the ethnic groups in Central Asia Paleolithic and pre-Neolithic Central Asia were initially ... is still found in low amounts among modern day Central Asians. Mongolian ancestry is shared by some groups in Central Asia, ... is also sometimes considered part of Central Asia due to its Central Asian cultural ties and traditions, although ...
"School of Professional and Continuing Education". University of Central Asia. University of Central Asia. Archived from the ... Asia Plus. Archived from the original on 4 July 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2017. "Economics, BA". University of Central Asia. ... "Central Asian Faculty Development Programme (CAFDP) - University of Central Asia". www.ucentralasia.org. Archived from the ... "University of Central Asia opens its first campus as part of broad commitment to fostering social and economic development , ...
... (Russian: Центральная Азия ищет таланты, Tajik: Осиёи Марказӣ истеъдод меҷӯяд) is a televised Central ... "Определились победители Central Asia's Got Talent - Новости Казахстана и мира на сегодня". 24.kz (in Russian). 2019-12-22. ... "Winners of Central Asia's Got Talent announced - Новости Казахстана - свежие, актуальные, последние новости об о всем". www. ... "Ismaili musician wins Central Asia's Got Talent". the.Ismaili. 2019-12-29. Retrieved 2021-07-16. (CS1 Kazakh (Kazakhstan)- ...
Ethnic groups in Central Asia, Ethnic groups in Asia, Armenian people). ... The Armenian community of Uzbekistan is the largest community in Central Asia, and most of them live in Tashkent. The modern ... "Armenians in Central Asia". Archived from the original on 9 December 2010. Retrieved 22 April 2012. "Демоскоп Weekly - ... According to old historical records, Armenian warriors and traders once moved freely in many parts of Central Asia, often ...
... is a publicly funded, privately managed grant maker and program implementer working to mobilize ... The Eurasia Foundation of Central Asia implemented the "Reforming Legal Aid For the Vulnerable in Kazakhstan" project funded by ...
Known as the Aga Khan Music Initiative in Central Asia (AKMICA), the programme works with tradition-bearers throughout Central ... The music of Central Asia is as vast and unique as the many cultures and peoples who inhabit the region. Principal instrument ... Dayra, a frame drum with jingles played by men and women among sedentary populations in Central Asia. Dombra, a class of two- ... In 2000 the Aga Khan Trust for Culture established a music initiative with the goal of assisting to preserve Central Asia's ...
Dawn Over Samarkand: The Rebirth of Central Asia. READ BOOKS, 2008. ISBN 1-4086-5816-X, 9781408658161. Pg 253 v t e (Articles ... The Red Sticks were paramilitary organisation in Central Asia, formed by the Soviets to combat the basmachi rebels. The ... Soviet Central Asia, All stub articles, Paramilitary organization stubs). ...
The Central Asia Counternarcotics Initiative (CACI) is an American proposed plan to tackle illegal drug trafficking in Central ... counternarcotics initiative in Central Asia v t e v t e v t e (Illegal drug trade in Asia, All stub articles, International law ... Russian-based critics of the scheme have argued that it is an attempt by America to increase its influence in Central Asia. ... U.S. Department of State: CACI United States Diplomatic Mission to Kazakhstan:Central Asia Counternarcotics Initiative Fact ...
Association football Asian Football Confederation "the-afc.com". (Central Asian culture, Sport in Central Asia). ... The area of Central Asia has a wide variety of sports, many of which have close cultural ties to the countries involved. ... Football, the world's most popular sport, is played in the majority of countries in Central Asia. The Asian Football ... there are many different variations in Central Asia. Mongolian wrestling has been practised in the country for many centuries. ...
"About religion in Central Asia :: Islam Central Asia. Suphism Central Asia. Buddhism Central Asia. Zoroastrianism Central Asia ... Buddhism in Central Asia, Buddhism by country, Religion in Central Asia, History of Buddhism in Asia, Silk Road). ... Buddhism in Central Asia refers to the forms of Buddhism (mainly Mahayana) that existed in Central Asia, which were ... Klimkeit, Hans-Joachim (1990). Buddhism in Turkish Central Asia, Numen 37, 53 - 69 Puri, B. N. (1987). Buddhism in Central Asia ...
In Central Asia, a drought began in around April 2021, which affected most of Central Asia and parts of Russia. As a result, ... Satke, Ryskeldi (2021-07-12). "Central Asian drought highlights water vulnerability". The Third Pole. Archived from the ... April 2021 events in Asia, 2021 disasters in Asia). ... Droughts in Asia, 2021 in Kazakhstan, 2021 in Kyrgyzstan, 2021 ...
... refers to the architectural styles of the numerous societies that have occupied Central Asia ... Hattstein, Markus (2011). "Central Asia and Asia Minor: The Great Seljuks, the Anatolian Seljuks, and the Khwarazm-Shahs ( ... Central Asian art "Central Asia". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2020-05-15. "Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasawi". UNESCO ... Hattstein, Delius; Chmelnizkij, Sergej (2011). "Central Asia and Asia Minor: The Great Seljuks, the Anatolian Seljuks, and the ...
700 Million to Central Asia". The Gazette of Central Asia. Satrapia. 13 November 2012. Central Asia as a Corridor of Peace and ... Foreign relations of Japan Geostrategy in Central Asia Post-Soviet Regional Organizations Joint Statement "Central Asia + Japan ... "Central Asia plus Japan" dialogue is part of its "Silk Road diplomacy", a term used for Japan's current Central Asia policy. ... "Central Asia plus Japan" Dialogue/Foreign Ministers Meeting Foreign Ministry of Japan "Central Asia and Japan: 15 Years of ...
The Central Asia-Caucasus Institute or CACI was founded in 1996 by S. Frederick Starr, a research professor at Johns Hopkins ... The Central Asia-Caucasus Institute and the Silk Road Studies Program, which is housed within the Institute for Security and ... "Johns Hopkins SAIS Central Asia-Caucasus Institute , Home". Archived from the original on April 10, 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-19 ... "The Central Asia-Caucasus Institute moves to the American Foreign Policy Council". Silk Road Studies. January 24, 2017. ...
Central Asia, Economy of Central Asia, Agriculture in Asia). ... Agriculture in Central Asia provides a brief regional overview ... Central Asia is largely desert, and cotton production strongly relies on irrigation. More than 80% of arable land in Kyrgyzstan ... As a result, pasture-based livestock production is more prominent in Central Asia than in the core ClS countries. By far the ... Agricultural land in Central Asia is mostly desert and mountain pastures. Arable land suitable for crop production is around 20 ...
Geography of Central Asia, Mountain passes of Asia, Landforms of Uzbekistan, Geography of Uzbekistan, All stub articles, ... Masterpieces of Central Asia". Retrieved 2014-03-25. The Iron Gates were located on the old road in the canyon of Dara-i ... A History of Inner Asia. Cambridge University Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0521657044. "Islam Encyclopaedia". Retrieved 7 May 2014. ...
Geography portal Asia portal Chinese Central Asia Central Asian Football Federation Central Asian Games Central Asia Regional ... more than 90 million people live in Central Asia, about 2% of Asias total population. Of the regions of Asia, only North Asia ... Central Asia has served more as the battleground for outside powers than as a power in its own right. Central Asia had both the ... Central Asia is sometimes referred to as Turkestan. Central Asia is a region of varied geography, including high passes and ...
UNICEF works in countries and territories across Europe and Central Asia to uphold the rights of every child. We work to ensure ... In the last year, children in Europe and Central Asia have been living through war, crossing deadly migration routes in search ... The right to clean air is far from the reality for children and young people in Europe and Central Asia. ... How UNICEF works to protect the rights of every child in Europe and Central Asia ...
Concrete actions and benchmarks to promote human rights in Central Asia. The Central Asian governments human rights records ... The EU Central Asia strategy should contain clear goals, criteria or benchmarks, and the will to incorporate human rights ... The EU needs to act quickly to develop a set of criteria for the chairmanship that will also be retained in the Central Asia ... Concrete actions and benchmarks to promote human rights in Central Asia. Human Rights Watch welcomes the initiative of the EU ...
... first established a Central Asia office in Kazakhstan in 1995 and expanded operations ten years later with funds from the U.S. ... Presidents Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). CDC now has offices in four Central Asia countries, including Kazakhstan, ... The Central Asia FETP was established in 2003 in partnership with the MOHs across the region. In 2020, CDC partnered with the ... Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, CDC has worked in Central Asia to implement more than 44 projects that detect and ...
Central/SE Europe Bosnia Bulgaria Hungary Kosovo Moldova Montenegro North Macedonia Romania Serbia ...
Addressing Safety and Health at Work in Eastern Europe and Central Asia while Facing Pandemic" Brief description: ILO continues ...
Asia Society has continued to provide a forum for dialogue about how the region can increase security, manage conflicts, and ... Following ASPIs project examining the crisis of governance in Central Asia, ... Central Asias Crisis of Governance This report describes critical governance and stability challenges in a region marred by ... 2023 Asia Society , Privacy Statement , Accessibility , Terms & Conditions , Sitemap , Contact. Asia Society takes no ...
The Europe and Central Asia region faces increasing vulnerability to climate change, as warmer temperatures and more volatile ... Europe and Central Asia - Vulnerability to Climate Change. The Europe and Central Asia region faces increasing vulnerability to ... If no action is taken, economic damages from droughts and floods in Central Asia are projected to be up to 1.3% of GDP per ... Moreover, many countries have a unique opportunity to make use of their landscapes - countries in Europe and Central Asia are ...
South Asia, East Asia and the Pacific*South East Asia and the Pacific ... Law Enforcement and Border Control in Central Asia (Sub-programme XAC/Z60 and projects TAJ/E24, TAJ/H03, RER/H22, and XAC/K22) ... XCE/A01: OFID/UNODC Partnership on Effective HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care among Vulnerable Groups In Central Asia and Eastern ... RER/E29: Precursor Control in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) and Azerbaijan. ...
Europe and Central Asia lags behind its EU-15 counterparts in the health sector, with cardiovascular disease and neonatal ... "The three major objectives of the health systems in Europe and Central Asia are improving population health outcomes, ... Moscow, June 4, 2013 - While the countries of Europe and Central Asia (ECA)[1] have enjoyed robust economic growth in the last ... World Bank Vice President for Europe and Central Asia. "Its a top priority for populations across the region and a major ...
... and foster change, but perhaps nowhere more so than in the neighboring ... The United States and Europe have urged authorities in Central Asia that free and fair elections would go a long way toward ... Meanwhile, the United States is warning that it has continued concerns about security in Central Asia. ... highlight a whole new way of thinking in Central Asia.. This unrest shows that even in the most traditional societies of the ...
In Central Asia). Orchestral picture by Borodin, comp. 1880 to acc. Source for information on In the Steppes of Central Asia ... In the Steppes of Central Asia (V sredney Azii, ... In the Steppes of Central Asia (V sredney Azii, In Central Asia ... Central Asia , Unlike most regions of the world, there is no universally accepted definition of what constitutes Central Asia ... Asia Minor , ASIA MINOR . The westernmost peninsula of Asia, also known as Anatolia. There is no specific information as to ...
The five states of Central Asia are now independent. For many political experts, the question today is whether these countries ... Each aspires to be the leading state in Central Asia. Kazakhstan is much bigger geographically, but Uzbekistan can boast a ... Garmisch, Germany; 11 December 1998 (RFE/RL) -- The five states of Central Asia are now independent. For many political experts ... Kangas argued that most of the problems facing Central Asia today are too big for any one country to handle. He said:. Whether ...
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... once prowled throughout Central Asia, from Turkey to the Takla Makan desert in China, via Iran and Kazakhstan. Sadly, due to ...
"Central Asia is lagging in this regard and looking for technical and financial support from the international community. We are ... The Fergana Valley, home to more than 15 million people, is the agricultural powerhouse of Central Asia. First mentioned in the ... In response, the European Union (EU) broadened its support for Central Asia, while the International Atomic Energy Agency led ... In 2015, the Environmental Remediation Account for Central Asia (ERA) was established on the initiative of the EU. The European ...
... and ethnic connections between Transcaucasian and Central Asian Countries (CACs) and Turkey, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Russia. ... Karasik, Theodore W., Azerbaijan, Central Asia, and Future Persian Gulf Security, RAND Corporation, N-3579-AF/A, 1993. As of ... Azerbaijan, Central Asia, and Future Persian Gulf Security. by Theodore W. Karasik ... Karasik, Theodore W., Azerbaijan, Central Asia, and Future Persian Gulf Security. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 1993. ...
Meanwhile, growth in the Caucasus and Central Asia region exceeded expectations in 2017, but momentum is set to fade. At ... Chapter 4 - Fiscal Policy for Durable and Inclusive Growth in the Middle East and Central Asia Middle East and Central Asia ... Middle East and Central Asia. Regional Economic Outlook: Middle East and Central Asia November 2018. November 2018 ... After a recovery in 2017, GDP growth in the Caucasus and Central Asia (CCA) region is expected to stabilize in 2018 and in the ...
Central Asia gets closer, boosts trade. By Chen Yingqun , China Daily , Updated: 2017-06-01 07:29 ... Thanks to the Belt and Road Initiative, Horgos has experienced a boom in business and trade with a number of Central Asian ... "In the past few years, we have seen great demand from Central Asian countries, so establishing a factory here would make it ... Second, Horgos proximity to Central Asian markets. Many Chinese companies want to do business with them now as they are able ...
We are going to start with opening remarks from Jihad Azour, Director of the Middle East and Central Asia Department, and then ... Thank you for joining our Press Briefing on the Economic Outlook for the Middle East and Central Asia, and many thanks to many ... Moving to Caucasus and Central Asia. For the Caucuses and Central Asia, GDP growth is projected to remain relatively robust 4.6 ... but you asked me about the independency of the Central Bank or Central Banks. Generally speaking, the independency of Central ...
Facts and figures about South and Central Asia. South and Central Asian Agriculture 218 South and Central Asian Geography 51 ... South and Central Asian Media 195 South and Central Asian Crime 101 South and Central Asian Government 133 South and Central ... South and Central Asian People 486 South and Central Asian Economy 3242 South and Central Asian Import 1 South and Central ... South and Central Asian Sports 109 South and Central Asian Energy 1674 South and Central Asian Labor 243 South and Central ...
Central Asia and the South Caucasus have long been within Russias geopolitical orbit. But as the Kremlins war in Ukraine ... Central Asia and the South Caucasus have long been within Russias geopolitical orbit. But as the Kremlins war in Ukraine ... expect its leaders to use every tool at their disposal to achieve the economic and energy goals they covet in Central Asia. ... Turkmenistan plays a key role in Ankaras Central Asia strategy. As Erdogan put it bluntly last month, "I hope that Turkmen gas ...
Central Asia BriefingCentral Asia. The U.S. Should Seize Its Strategic Opening in Central Asia. Michael Rossi. Sep 26, 2023. ... BriefingCentral Asia. The U.S. Should Seize Its Strategic Opening in Central Asia. Michael Rossi. Sep 26, 2023. September 26, ... BriefingCentral Asia. Chinas Charm Offensive Highlights Central Asias Rising Profile. Emil Avdaliani. Jun 8, 2023. June 8, ... BriefingCentral Asia. Chinas Charm Offensive Highlights Central Asias Rising Profile. Emil Avdaliani. Jun 8, 2023. June 8, ...
Central Asia has long remained mysterious to many people who view the region with half-lidded exoticism; embedded halfway ... This is the gripping narrative of intelligence work in the midst of the pandemonium that was rampant in Central Asia following ... "The Great Game: The Struggle for Empire in Central Asia" by Peter Hopkirk (1992). ... when European imperialists struggled to bury their claws into the inaccessible realm of Central Asia, often under the pretense ...
Population, total - Europe & Central Asia. ( 1 ) United Nations Population Division. World Population Prospects: 2022 Revision ... Central Asia from The World Bank: Data ...
AfghanistanChinaCentral AsiaIndia-PakistanIndonesiaKoreaMyanmarNepalPhilippinesMicronesiaSri LankaThailand ... Central Asia: Current 2012 2011 2010 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 . ...
AfghanistanChinaCentral AsiaIndia-PakistanIndonesiaKoreaMyanmarNepalPhilippinesMicronesiaSri LankaThailand ... Central Asia: Current 2012 2011 2010 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 . ...
Since 1991, the EBRD has invested over €1.5 billion in more than 250 agrifood projects in Central Asia to foster the transition ... Addressing the agrifood energy-water-land nexus in Central Asia. By Cecilia Calatrava. ... Initiative to assist with low-carbon, climate-resilient transformation in Central Asia ... 6 million package aimed at addressing the energy-water-land nexus in the agrifood sector of countries in Central Asia. The ...
... unveiled a grand plan for Central Asias development, from building infrastructure to boosting trade, taking on a new ... Chinas support for Central Asia also appear to be a counter-weight to US accusations of its coercive diplomacy. ... Two-way trade between China and Central Asia hit a record US$70 billion last year, with Kazakhstan leading with US$31 billion, ... It will encourage Chinese-funded businesses in Central Asia to create more jobs, build warehouses, and launch a special train ...
  • While the predominant role of cardiovascular disease is common everywhere, the significance of infant deaths is more marked in Central Asia and the Caucasus, and the importance of external causes is most notable in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, Ukraine, and the three Baltic nations. (worldbank.org)
  • Meanwhile, growth in the Caucasus and Central Asia region exceeded expectations in 2017, but momentum is set to fade. (imf.org)
  • Moving to Caucasus and Central Asia. (imf.org)
  • In the Caucasus and Central Asia, price pressures are expected to continue abating, easing from 11 percent in 2023 to 8.3 percent next year. (imf.org)
  • Central Asia and the South Caucasus have long been within Russia's geopolitical orbit. (arabnews.com)
  • Sam Bhutia is a country analyst covering Central Asia and South Caucasus at The Economist Intelligence Unit. (eurasianet.org)
  • Beijing's wider policy to develop industrial and agroindustrial capacity in Central Asia, the Caucasus and the Middle East means that these economies can use short-term structural changes in global trade dynamics to their longer term advantage. (cacianalyst.org)
  • Book S. Frederick Starr and Svante E. Cornell, Strong and Unique: Three Decades of U.S.-Kazakhstan Partnership , Central Asia-Caucasus Institute, December 2021. (cacianalyst.org)
  • This set the scene for improved connectivity not only in the South Caucasus, but also for the landlocked Central Asian states. (rusi.org)
  • The project opens a rail corridor potentially connecting Central Asia with European markets through the South Caucasus. (rusi.org)
  • Central Asia and the Caucasus are the only place where Moscow can still advance this fantasy. (silkroadstudies.org)
  • The United Nations (UN) Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has met this week in Bucharest, Romania, where malnutrition issues have been highlighted in a paper ​ focused non-Euroepan Union countries in eastern Europe, the Balkans, Central Asia and Caucasus, and Turkey. (foodnavigator.com)
  • Poverty has been seen as the key constraint to the improvement of household food security, primarily in the Caucasus and Central Asia (CCA) sub-region. (foodnavigator.com)
  • In a positive sign it found fruit and vegetable production in Caucasus and Central Asia was rising. (foodnavigator.com)
  • Asia Society Australia Executive Director of Policy, Richard Maude, writes his forecast for 2023. (asiasociety.org)
  • MENA central banks have continued raising rates in 2023, albeit at a slower pace than that of last year. (imf.org)
  • Chinese President Xi Jinping (3rd R), Kazakhstan's President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev (3rd L), Kyrgyzstan's President Sadyr Japarov (2nd R), Tajikistan's President Emomali Rahmon (2nd L), Turkmenistan's President Serdar Berdymukhamedov (R) and Uzbekistan's President Shavkat Mirziyoyev at the joint press conference of the China-Central Asia Summit in Xian, China on May 19, 2023. (channelnewsasia.com)
  • Silk Road Paper S. Frederick Starr, U.S. Policy in Central Asia through Central Asian Eyes , May 2023. (cacianalyst.org)
  • These guest research stays (secondments) took place in the framework of the EU-funded project "Central Asian Law: Legal Cultures and Business Environments in Central Asia" (project number 870647 H2020 MSCA-RISE 2019-2023), which runs from 01/03/2020 through 28/02/2024. (lu.se)
  • Central Asia is a subregion of Asia that stretches from the Caspian Sea in the southwest and Eastern Europe in the northwest to Western China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia in the north. (wikipedia.org)
  • Russian culture has two distinct terms: Средняя Азия (Srednyaya Aziya or "Middle Asia", the narrower definition, which includes only those traditionally non-Slavic, Central Asian lands that were incorporated within those borders of historical Russia) and Центральная Азия (Tsentralnaya Aziya or "Central Asia", the wider definition, which includes Central Asian lands that have never been part of historical Russia). (wikipedia.org)
  • This Note examines the economic, religious, and ethnic connections between Transcaucasian and Central Asian Countries (CACs) and Turkey, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Russia. (rand.org)
  • Yu Chengzhong, chairman of Horgos Jinyi International Trade Co Ltd, said they export about 1,000 metric tons of vegetables and fruits in 50 trucks every day to Central Asian countries, Russia and Belarus. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • Peter Hopkirk is known in scholarly realms as the "laureate of the Great Game," referring to his numerous books on the strategic conflict between Tsarist Russia and Victorian England for supremacy over Central Asia, for which India was the ultimate prize. (matadornetwork.com)
  • When Russia hurts, Central Asians feel the pain. (eurasianet.org)
  • According to data from the Central Bank of Russia, of the $13.99 billion in personal remittances sent from Russia to other members of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in 2018, about 68.1 percent went to these three countries. (eurasianet.org)
  • In Central Asian capitals as well as in Moscow and Beijing, these three events served to alter the existing geopolitical calculus: Washington effectively reminded Central Asians and U.S. rivals Russia and China of itself and its interests. (cacianalyst.org)
  • From the end of the 19th century to the mid-1990s, Central Asia was almost the exclusive domain of Tsarist, Soviet, and post-Soviet Russia. (fpif.org)
  • A "Great Game" involving Tsarist Russia and the British Empire dominated the region's history in the mid-19th century and what is now South Asia. (fpif.org)
  • Despite the revolution's central importance in world history and its global importance, the centennial received scant attention in Russia. (cacianalyst.org)
  • Although China and Russia loom large in the region, Turkey could tap into the significant cultural leverage it has, along with Central Asian states' willingness to diversify their foreign relations away from Moscow and Beijing. (rusi.org)
  • While the U.S. has rightly focused on Ukraine and the nearby members of NATO, Russia and China have launched serious threats to Russia's other former colonies in Central Asia. (silkroadstudies.org)
  • In September, the United States has what might very well be its last chance to play the kind of balancing role that will prevent Central Asia from coming solely under the purview of China and Russia. (silkroadstudies.org)
  • The signing of the Caspian convention in August 2018 has opened up exciting new possibilities for getting Central Asian oil and gas to European and global markets. (cacianalyst.org)
  • At its June 22, 2018, plenary session, the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution on "Strengthening regional and international cooperation to ensure peace, stability and sustainable development in the Central Asian Region. (cacianalyst.org)
  • Soon after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the leaders of the four former Soviet Central Asian Republics met in Tashkent and declared that the definition of Central Asia should include Kazakhstan as well as the original four included by the Soviets. (wikipedia.org)
  • But given Russia's isolation in the global arena, it is doubtful that the former Soviet Central Asian republics would be willing to do business with the Kremlin. (arabnews.com)
  • Turkiye was the first country in the world to recognize the independence of the former Soviet Central Asian republics in the 1990s. (arabnews.com)
  • Other Central Asians took issue with the idea of clearly defined borders for the five states, all created by the Soviet Union in the 1920s and 1930s. (rferl.org)
  • Central Asians can build on a relatively rich experience of regional cooperation two decades ago, which culminated in the Central Asian Cooperation Organization (CACO). (cacianalyst.org)
  • Reporting on these developments, Central Asians never fail to note that, since their new nations gained independence in 1991, no U.S. president has ever visited the region and that there are no prospects for such a visit until at least after the American elections in the Fall of 2024. (silkroadstudies.org)
  • Central Asians cooperated by opening their territories to the transport of NATO war materiel, but the U.S. and NATO did not reciprocate. (silkroadstudies.org)
  • Disappointed, Central Asians wonder why the U.S. is so passive in advancing its own interests in their region. (silkroadstudies.org)
  • Central Asians have no intention to roll back their ties with their large neighbors, but seek rather to balance them with ties with the West. (silkroadstudies.org)
  • Report by ASPI, AidData, and CSIS on China's public diplomacy efforts in South and Central Asia. (asiasociety.org)
  • The gathering was the latest demonstration of China's growing geo-economic role in Central Asia, marking what Xi called a "new era" in Beijing's relations with the region. (worldpoliticsreview.com)
  • China's support for Central Asia also appear to be a counter-weight to US accusations of its coercive diplomacy. (channelnewsasia.com)
  • Despite several reports and information on Chinese projects with this aim, the question remains how effective China's soft power in Central Asia really is. (cacianalyst.org)
  • If Central Asian, U.S. and European producers all had open access to China's markets, all sides would benefit in the long run. (cacianalyst.org)
  • In the short term though, a U.S.-China trade war is a huge opportunity for Central Asian economies to soak up China's heavy industry outward direct investment despite the risk of a China policy bank debt-trap. (cacianalyst.org)
  • China's BRI can transform Central Asia from its landlocked state to a transit region between Asia and Europe. (cacianalyst.org)
  • and the announcement of a new U.S. Strategy for Central Asia 2019-2025. (cacianalyst.org)
  • On October 17-18, 2019, the 7th China-Central Asia Cooperation Forum, was held in Nanning, Guanxi province. (cacianalyst.org)
  • In March 2019, the second yearly summit of Central Asian leaders will be held in Tashkent. (cacianalyst.org)
  • Illustrating the group's growing interest in Central Asia and China, the DOC organized a symposium in late 2019 at the Tajik National University in Dushanbe. (eurasianet.org)
  • Traveler to Central Asia, 2019 of recurrent fever episodes separated by asymptom- atic intervals of 1 week. (cdc.gov)
  • The Agency presents here the second volume in the series, which includes wider geographical coverage and is based on data from 27 registries in 14 countries in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and Central America. (who.int)
  • Wendy Cutler, Tim Groser, Yeo Han-koo, Elizabeth Chelliah, Kurt Tong, and Candi Wolff discuss Asia Society Policy Institute's latest report on Asia's critical role in the future of trade negotiations. (asiasociety.org)
  • XIAN: Chinese President Xi Jinping on Friday (May 19) unveiled a grand plan for Central Asia's development, from building infrastructure to boosting trade, taking on a new leadership role in a region that has traditionally been a Russian sphere of influence. (channelnewsasia.com)
  • Despite significant improvements in per capita expenditures and a marked decline in poverty over the 2000s, a large fraction of Eastern Europe and Central Asia's population reports their economic situation in the late 2000s to be worse than in 1989. (repec.org)
  • This NOFO aims to enhance Central Asia's capacity to provide high-quality HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, laboratory, and strategic information (SI) programs. (cdc.gov)
  • Central Asia has a population of about 72 million, in five countries: Kazakhstan (19 million), Kyrgyzstan (7 million), Tajikistan (10 million), Turkmenistan (6 million), and Uzbekistan (35 million). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Russian geographer Nikolaĭ Khanykov questioned the latitudinal definition of Central Asia and preferred a physical one of all countries located in the region landlocked from water, including Afghanistan, Khorasan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uyghuristan (Xinjiang), and Uzbekistan. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most limited definition was the official one of the Soviet Union, which defined Middle Asia as consisting solely of Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, omitting Kazakhstan. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human rights section of recent EU draft strategies implies that human rights conditionality especially in policy toward Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan and public expressions of concern on individual cases by EU governments have hampered the development of relationships with Central Asia and produced little result. (hrw.org)
  • One example Kangas cited is the Central Asian Peacekeeping Battalion, established in December 1995, which is made up of units from Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. (rferl.org)
  • In response, the European Union (EU) broadened its support for Central Asia, while the International Atomic Energy Agency led efforts to develop a strategic master plan for the most contaminated sites in the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. (ebrd.com)
  • China is ready to coordinate development strategies with Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, and promote the modernisation of all, Xi said in an address to a China-Central Asia Summit in northwest China. (channelnewsasia.com)
  • TASHKENT, Uzbekistan - An INTERPOL training course targeting human trafficking and migrant smuggling across Central Asia has concluded in the Uzbek capital. (interpol.int)
  • Uzbekistan has emerged as the Central Asian country with which India has not only accelerated but also diversified engagements in the past few years. (cacianalyst.org)
  • According to Uzbekistan's Foreign Ministry, all UN members unanimously supported the draft document, developed by Uzbekistan along with other Central Asian states. (cacianalyst.org)
  • During the ten-plus years of U.S. presence in Afghanistan, the U.S. depended on Central Asian countries, particularly Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, to funnel military supplies through the Northern Distribution Network into Afghanistan. (cacianalyst.org)
  • Ankara seeks to expand its reach further east into Central Asia, in the hope of forming an alliance with the other Turkic-speaking countries: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan. (rusi.org)
  • Asia (Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan). (cdc.gov)
  • A U.S. expert, Roger Kangas from the Foreign Service Institute at Georgetown University, argued that there is already some military cooperation in Central Asia, although not all states participate in every venture. (rferl.org)
  • To bolster our cooperation and Central Asian development, China will provide Central Asian countries with a total of 26 billion yuan (US$3.8 billion) of financing support and grants," Xi said. (channelnewsasia.com)
  • He also called on China and Central Asia to increase their oil and gas trade, develop energy cooperation across industrial chains, and boost cooperation on new energy and the peaceful use of nuclear energy. (channelnewsasia.com)
  • Central Asian states are embarking on a new effort to build regional cooperation. (cacianalyst.org)
  • Today Sino-Russian energy cooperation outside Central Asia and deepening political elite-level friendships signify the re-assertion of that bilateral entente as the U.S. diminishes its profile in Central Asia. (cacianalyst.org)
  • The word "integration" reminds us of previous, less successful attempts at regional cooperation in Central Eurasia and so far, no comprehensive integrational concept has materialized. (cacianalyst.org)
  • Most economies in Southeast Asia are net food importers. (asiasociety.org)
  • Energy-hungry economies, substantial demands for heating, and a high energy and fiscal reliance on fossil fuels mean that countries in Europe and Central Asia are a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. (worldbank.org)
  • Thanks to the Belt and Road Initiative, Horgos has experienced a boom in business and trade with a number of Central Asian economies over the past few years. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • Growth in many economies in the Middle East and Central Asia is slowing, reflecting the combined effect of tighter policies, oil production cuts, geopolitical tensions, and other domestic challenges. (imf.org)
  • Since 1991, the EBRD has invested over €1.5 billion in more than 250 agrifood projects in Central Asia to foster the transition to open market-oriented economies and to promote private and entrepreneurial initiative. (ebrd.com)
  • His legacy is still seen: Humboldt University of Berlin, named after him, offers a course in Central Asian studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • A central thrust of this strategy should be securing greater compliance by the governments of Central Asian countries with their international human rights obligations. (hrw.org)
  • It also provides a brief summary of human rights concerns in several Central Asian countries and suggests key actions and benchmarks to address them. (hrw.org)
  • Some of the ideas they presented were supported by the audience of Central Asian diplomats and security experts, but others were not. (rferl.org)
  • Similarly, another Central Asian expert said that area countries should not get involved in the issue of 'inviolability of borders. (rferl.org)
  • Both Naumkin and Kangas also argued that, although relations among the Central Asian states appeared to be generally good now, there were a number of issues which might lead to problems in the future. (rferl.org)
  • And beyond are other central Asian countries. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • In the past, it took about two to three days for vegetables and fruits from Horgos to go through the customs and then be sent to Central Asian countries. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • In the past few years, we have seen great demand from Central Asian countries, so establishing a factory here would make it easier for our products to reach these markets," he said. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • Second, Horgos' proximity to Central Asian markets. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • This summit has added new impetus to the development and revitalisation of the six counties, and injected strong positive energy into regional peace and stability," Xi said later at a press conference with his Central Asian counterparts. (channelnewsasia.com)
  • Xi said China and the Central Asian countries should deepen trust and offer "clear and strong support" on core interests such as sovereignty, independence, national dignity and long-term development. (channelnewsasia.com)
  • He did not mention Ukraine, which like the Central Asian nations, was part of the Soviet Union. (channelnewsasia.com)
  • China is ready to help Central Asian countries improve their law enforcement, security, and defence capability construction," he said. (channelnewsasia.com)
  • The five-day training event brought together law enforcement experts from 14 Central Asian countries to learn how to tackle the region's trafficking and smuggling challenge. (interpol.int)
  • The five-day (30 April - 4 May) event brought together law enforcement experts from 14 Central Asian countries to learn the latest investigative skills required to coordinate transnational responses to the region's trafficking and smuggling challenge. (interpol.int)
  • According to the Congressional Budget Justification by the Department of State (FY2013), the U.S. will make a cut of 13 percent in aid to the Central Asian region. (cacianalyst.org)
  • After the March 15 meeting of Central Asian leaders in Astana, analyses, news and reports increasingly use words such as "integration" or "new beginning" to describe political developments in Central Asia. (cacianalyst.org)
  • Throughout this phase, the IAEA's CGULS has facilitated participation of Central Asian experts in practical workshops and coordination meetings and provided logistical assistance for the field work. (iaea.org)
  • Practical training for Central Asian experts by the IAEA on the use of the system in the region is scheduled to take place later this year. (iaea.org)
  • U.S. policy in the region is based on the understanding that achieving long-term stability in Central Asia is a primary objective, but will not be possible without significant internal reform in each of the five Central Asian republics. (brookings.edu)
  • It is understandable that the Central Asian countries will be affected by this, but Afghanistan has the right to use the water of the Amu Darya River for its development," Najibullah Sadid, a water and environmental expert at Germany's University of Stuttgart, told IWPR, adding that successive wars had put the project on hold. (eurasiareview.com)
  • Turkey's wider ambition to position itself as an energy transit hub dovetails with its aspiration to reach out to the Central Asian states. (rusi.org)
  • In marking UN Day to Combat Desertification and Droughts this week, Central Asian countries are convening in Tashkent to discuss how the power of nature and nature-based solutions (NBS) can be harnessed to restore landscapes, improve water security, and enhance climate resilience of the region's people, ecosystems, and infrastructure. (preventionweb.net)
  • As a reliable partner, the World Bank is supporting Central Asian countries to achieve green growth and to implement environmental conservation and sustainable management of landscapes, water resources, and disaster risks. (preventionweb.net)
  • A number of Chinese nationals also join Yakunin and Otorbayev in the group's leadership ranks, including Wang Huiyao, the president of the Center for China and Globalization, and Li Xin, the director of Russian and Central Asian Studies at the Shanghai Institute for International Studies. (eurasianet.org)
  • Besides its numerous threats to invade Kazakhstan, Moscow is actively courting the five Central Asian states. (silkroadstudies.org)
  • Like the Baltic states and Ukraine, all five Central Asian countries are struggling to preserve their independence. (silkroadstudies.org)
  • Back in 2015, then-Secretary of State John Kerry approved the creation of the "C5+1," a consultative body involving all five Central Asian states and the U.S. However, this project - a copy of arrangements that Japan, Korea, and the EU had long since instituted - was proposed not by Washington but by Kazakhstan. (silkroadstudies.org)
  • The main idea behind publishing this preliminary research report is to provide a platform for Central Asian guest researchers to present the research projects they developed during their research stay in Lund and share their initial research findings with the Central Asian Law project team and the wider academic and policy audiences. (lu.se)
  • These landlocked countries urgently pleaded for the West to open a transport route across Afghanistan to the southern seas, India and Southeast Asia. (silkroadstudies.org)
  • One of the first geographers to mention Central Asia as a distinct region of the world was Alexander von Humboldt. (wikipedia.org)
  • Central Asia is a region of varied geography, including high passes and mountains (Tian Shan), vast deserts (Kyzyl Kum, Taklamakan), and especially treeless, grassy steppes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human Rights Watch welcomes the initiative of the EU and the German presidency to embark upon a Central Asia strategy, following years of neglect of this important region by the EU. (hrw.org)
  • CDC works in the Central Asia region with local, regional, and global public health organizations to support disease outbreak response, surveillance, laboratory systems, and workforce development. (cdc.gov)
  • The Central Asia FETP was established in 2003 in partnership with the MOHs across the region. (cdc.gov)
  • Following ASPI's project examining the crisis of governance in Central Asia, ASPI has continued to provide a forum for dialogue about how the region can increase security, manage conflicts, strengthen the rule of law, and deepen ties with the rest of Asia. (asiasociety.org)
  • An Asia Society leadership group's report recommends a ten-point policy agenda for preventing a water crisis in Asia, which could have a profound impact on security throughout the region. (asiasociety.org)
  • The Europe and Central Asia region faces increasing vulnerability to climate change, as warmer temperatures and more volatile weather patterns disrupt ecosystems and increase the frequency of extreme droughts, floods, heat waves, and forest fires. (worldbank.org)
  • "Health is a major development challenge facing the region today," said Philippe Le Houérou, World Bank Vice President for Europe and Central Asia . (worldbank.org)
  • The report suggests that both prevention and treatment must play a central role in the future health agenda in countries across the region, in particular through wider implementation of cost-effective measures. (worldbank.org)
  • A combination of corruption scandals and increasing awareness of the need for greater transparency and less favouritism is reflected throughout the Europe and Central Asia region, even in the cleanest countries . (transparency.org)
  • With illegal migration into Central Asia becoming an increasingly serious security threat in the region, improving the exchange of police information and boosting the use of tailored INTERPOL capabilities was central to the training programme. (interpol.int)
  • With a view to producing country-specific and regional reports on people smuggling and human trafficking in Central Asia, INTERPOL is currently conducting an environmental scan in the region. (interpol.int)
  • but by the time the U.S. military established a presence in Central Asia in support of Afghanistan operations, a Sino-Russian entente had begun to close over the region. (cacianalyst.org)
  • Uranium mining and processing in this region between the 1940s and 1990s has left behind a number of radioactively contaminated uranium legacy sites," said Sven Altfelder, an IAEA remediation safety specialist, adding that 'experts in Central Asia monitor these sites for radioactivity on foot, wearing backpacks equipped with gamma-ray spectrometers that detect the presence of natural radionuclides, including uranium. (iaea.org)
  • The four speakers offered an overview of the changes in United States policy toward Central Asia since September 11, 2001, and of recent developments in the region. (brookings.edu)
  • Security issues have thus taken priority in U.S. policy approaches toward the region in 2001-2002, but the U.S. is still very much concerned with accelerating economic growth, fostering political development including the promotion of human rights, and facilitating international integration in Central Asia. (brookings.edu)
  • The goal of increasing connections to Central Asia is also reflected in the outlined intentions behind the construction of the port at Alat, one of the largest ports in the Caspian Sea region. (rusi.org)
  • The findings from this study confirm that factors beyond objective well-being are associated with the perceptions of mobility observed in Europe and Central Asia and may explain why the region has had such a pessimistic view of economic mobility during the past two decades. (repec.org)
  • For Eastern Europe and Central Asia, a region that has undergone substantive transformations and which is still going through a reform process, accounting for these aspects is critical. (repec.org)
  • Meanwhile, the fact that China is outmaneuvering Moscow in the region only serves to remind us of Beijing's larger aspirations, which embrace all Central Asia as much as Taiwan. (silkroadstudies.org)
  • Central Asia was historically closely tied to the Silk Road trade routes, acting as a crossroads for the movement of people, goods, and ideas between Europe and the Far East. (wikipedia.org)
  • UNICEF works in countries and territories across Europe and Central Asia to uphold the rights of every child. (unicef.org)
  • The right to clean air is far from the reality for children and young people in Europe and Central Asia. (unicef.org)
  • Addressing Safety and Health at Work in Eastern Europe and Central Asia while Facing Pandemic" Brief description: ILO continues to offer support to its constituents and proposes solutions to face pandemic and its consequences on labour market, OSH and working conditions and access to social protection floor. (ilo.org)
  • Countries in Europe and Central Asia have all made commitments to decarbonize and will face significant challenges in a rapidly changing global policy environment. (worldbank.org)
  • Moreover, many countries have a unique opportunity to make use of their landscapes - countries in Europe and Central Asia are the world's largest source of carbon absorbing boreal forests and grasslands - as a source of climate mitigation. (worldbank.org)
  • The market and climate transition in Europe and Central Asia will have large and uneven impacts, with some workers and communities hit especially hard, as labor markets shift from brown to green jobs, and energy prices adjust to new market realities. (worldbank.org)
  • Turkey has experienced very large health gains, Central Europe has steadily improved since the 1990s, and the Western Balkan countries have performed in line with global norms. (worldbank.org)
  • "The three major objectives of the health systems in Europe and Central Asia are improving population health outcomes, protecting households against the high and uncertain costs of medical care, and ensuring the efficiency of government health spending," emphasized Ana Revenga, World Bank Director for Human Development in Europe and Central Asia . (worldbank.org)
  • The package is part of a broader consortium programme between the EBRD, the FAO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the Scientific-Information Center of the Interstate Commission for Water Coordination of Central Asia (SIC ICWC), as well as ministries from participating countries. (ebrd.com)
  • Europe, Central Asia and the state of corruption in 2014: The gold standard? (transparency.org)
  • Yet, the Astana meeting was the first of its kind in many years and President Nazarbaev, summing up the results, underlined its informal character and even compared the format to the Visegrad group in Central Europe. (cacianalyst.org)
  • Back to Work : Growing with Jobs in Europe and Central Asia ," World Bank Publications - Books , The World Bank Group, number 16570, October. (repec.org)
  • Few may go hungry but vitamin and mineral deficiencies and health problems like growth stunting in children are widespread among the 53 countries of Europe and central Asia, according to the FAO. (foodnavigator.com)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) first established a Central Asia office in Kazakhstan in 1995 and expanded operations ten years later with funds from the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). (cdc.gov)
  • For more intriguing reads, delve into Hopkirk's other works, including Setting the East Ablaze: Lenin's Dream of an Empire in Asia (1995) and Trespassers on the Roof of the World: The Secret Exploration of Tibet (1995). (matadornetwork.com)
  • Elections in Central Asia continue to pose challenges and foster change, but perhaps nowhere more so than in the neighboring countries of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. (voanews.com)
  • Two-way trade between China and Central Asia hit a record US$70 billion last year, with Kazakhstan leading with US$31 billion, as China seeks deeper links in its quest for greater food and energy security. (channelnewsasia.com)
  • Xi said the building of Line D of the China-Central Asia natural gas pipeline should be accelerated. (channelnewsasia.com)
  • With several pipeline projects under way, Central Asia is readying itself for a new "Great Game. (fpif.org)
  • However, with the U.S. withdrawal from Afghanistan and Kyrgyzstan opposing continuing the lease, there are doubts whether the U.S. will retain any influence in Central Asia after 2014. (cacianalyst.org)
  • Finally, the geopolitical implications of events in Central and South Asia - the NATO military operation in Afghanistan and the uprising in Kyrgyzstan - also presented a major obstacle to the effective fulfillment of the energy export and the security plan. (fpif.org)
  • As a result, the United States is pursuing its policy objectives in Central Asia through a combination of diplomacy, relationship building, and foreign assistance, in addition to increasing its military presence to pursue the campaign in Afghanistan. (brookings.edu)
  • Each of these developments plays a part in the Chinese initiative and in its impact on Central Asia. (cacianalyst.org)
  • Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, CDC has worked in Central Asia to implement more than 44 projects that detect and respond to SARS-CoV-2, including direct donations of supplies and equipment to laboratories, research studies, and investigations supported by FETP residents. (cdc.gov)
  • If no action is taken, economic damages from droughts and floods in Central Asia are projected to be up to 1.3% of GDP per annum, while crop yields are expected to decrease by 30% by 2050, leading to around 5.1 million internal climate migrants by that time. (worldbank.org)
  • Efforts to extend Turkish influence eastward begin at the 114 km border with Georgia, which provides the most stable land route from Turkey to the Caspian Sea and Central Asia. (rusi.org)
  • La información en esta página debería ser considerada como ejemplos de información de antecedentes para la temporada de influenza 2021-2022 para la práctica médica respecto del uso de medicamentos antivirales contra la influenza. (cdc.gov)
  • Colin Thubron, a well-known traveler in Asia and the Middle East, has published a canon of travel epics over the course of his life. (matadornetwork.com)
  • The Central Asia offices help strengthen emergency preparedness by training key staff across government agencies, supporting cross-sectoral collaboration, and helping to develop emergency preparedness guidelines. (cdc.gov)
  • Most countries in Central Asia are still integral to parts of the world economy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The EU draft strategy states that the EU s overall aim is The establishment of stable, independent and prosperous countries adhering to democratic values and market economy principles in Central Asia. (hrw.org)
  • Additionally, in the four Central Asia countries, CDC supports FETP-Frontline courses, which are shorter, three-month on-the-job trainings for working public health professionals that strengthen skills to conduct disease surveillance and response activities. (cdc.gov)
  • Despite not being a member of the Organization of Turkic States - an influential regional grouping of Turkic-speaking countries - Turkmenistan plays a key role in Ankara's Central Asia strategy. (arabnews.com)
  • The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) has launched a €6 million package aimed at addressing the energy-water-land nexus in the agrifood sector of countries in Central Asia. (ebrd.com)
  • The goal of the Forum was to further strengthen ties between China and the countries of Central Asia. (cacianalyst.org)
  • A new generation of projects centered around NBS is emerging in Central Asia as part of this support helping countries achieve their development goals and creating green jobs . (preventionweb.net)
  • As part of the World Bank's flagship RESILAND CA+ Regional Landscape Restoration Program across Central Asia, NBS are deployed to restore degraded lands, enhance resilience, and foster collaboration among these countries for transboundary landscape restoration. (preventionweb.net)
  • Analysis Svante E. Cornell, Kazakhstan's Crisis Calls for a Central Asia Policy Reboot , The National Interest, January 34, 2022. (cacianalyst.org)
  • The way is clear for a project that will boost Beijing's economic ties and diplomatic influence within Central Asia', writes Asia Society Policy Institute's Genevieve Donnellon-May in the South China Morning Post. (asiasociety.org)
  • The international community has recognized the challenges associated with achieving safe, sustainable remediation of the ULS in Central Asia and requested action be taken by adopting a number of United Nations (UN) General Assembly resolutions. (iaea.org)
  • Is the Central Asia Metals (CAMLF) dividend sustainable? (benzinga.com)
  • The present-day challenges confronting Central Asia are highly likely to persist over the coming years: some internal, others having to do with regional trends and tensions. (asiasociety.org)
  • This research report consists of introduction and five papers that explore contemporary issues and challenges in Central Asia, such as the problems accompanying the internationalization of higher education and research, anticorruption legal frameworks and the business climate, cultural branding, legal culture education, and the digital economy. (lu.se)
  • Essentially, China is unlocking landlocked Central Asia. (cacianalyst.org)
  • A Berlin-based outfit with close links to a Russian oligarch under Western sanctions is expanding its activities in Central Asia and China. (eurasianet.org)
  • Central Asia, particularly China, is also an endemic area. (medscape.com)
  • Buddhist leadership is a central issue in the relationship between China and Tibet. (lu.se)
  • Wendy Cutler, Vali Nasr, and John Park join Tom Nagorski for Asia Society's annual look at the year ahead. (asiasociety.org)
  • These well-researched biographical bits are set against the geopolitical backdrop of the Great Game, when European imperialists struggled to bury their claws into the inaccessible realm of Central Asia, often under the pretense of mercantile or exploratory ventures. (matadornetwork.com)
  • The meeting, organized by the U.S.-supported European Center for Security Studies, brought together top Western and indigenous experts on Central Asia. (rferl.org)
  • After the events of September 11, 2001, the United States' national security interests in Central Asia underwent a drastic shift. (brookings.edu)
  • During the Soviet period, Moscow was the guarantor of security in Central Asia. (brookings.edu)
  • In addition, we were excited to be able to offer, in conjunction with The Rural Development Group (RuDe), an open lecture by Dr. Peter Timmer of Stanford University on food security in Asia. (lu.se)
  • However, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, scholars and analysts began to see Central Asia as an "emerging zone of no control. (brookings.edu)
  • In 2015, the Environmental Remediation Account for Central Asia (ERA) was established on the initiative of the EU. (ebrd.com)
  • Turkey's support for Azerbaijan in its latest war with Armenia could have much greater ramifications, with Turkey using Azerbaijan's geographic position as a springboard to reach out to Central Asia. (rusi.org)
  • The governments of Central Asia have recognized the need to transition to a green economy and have made considerable commitments towards this goal. (preventionweb.net)
  • 3 For example, while there are clear differences between the Central Asia strategy and the European Neighborhood Policy, the latter s Action Plans, which incorporated, among other things, specific human rights objectives, could be a useful model for the Central Asia strategy. (hrw.org)
  • 11 December 1998 (RFE/RL) -- The five states of Central Asia are now independent. (rferl.org)
  • The borders of Central Asia are subject to multiple definitions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Historically, political geography and culture have been two significant parameters widely used in scholarly definitions of Central Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Fergana Valley, home to more than 15 million people, is the agricultural powerhouse of Central Asia. (ebrd.com)
  • This unique ecosystem is facing an environmental threat, however, which is not widely known, but which could have irreversible consequences for both the Fergana Valley itself and for Central Asia more broadly. (ebrd.com)
  • Degraded landscapes across Central Asia require a comprehensive approach that incorporates nature, environmental engineering, community engagement, job creation, and effective policies. (preventionweb.net)
  • From the mid-19th century until almost the end of the 20th century, Central Asia was colonised by the Russians, and incorporated into the Russian Empire, and later the Soviet Union, which led to Russians and other Slavs emigrating into the area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thank you for joining our Press Briefing on the Economic Outlook for the Middle East and Central Asia, and many thanks to many of you who have come to Marrakech to cover our Annual Meetings. (imf.org)
  • We are going to start with opening remarks from Jihad Azour, Director of the Middle East and Central Asia Department, and then we will take your questions. (imf.org)
  • Last week, U.S. President Joe Biden met with his counterparts from the five states of Central Asia in the first-ever leaders' summit of the so-called C5+1 format. (worldpoliticsreview.com)
  • The success of the recent summit between the Russian and Chinese presidents is significant not only for agreements reached between the two sides but also for the absence of disagreements over Central Asia. (cacianalyst.org)