Peroxidases that utilize ASCORBIC ACID as an electron donor to reduce HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to WATER. The reaction results in the production of monodehydroascorbic acid and DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.
An enzyme that converts ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid. EC 1.10.3.3.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.
An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.
A hemeprotein which catalyzes the oxidation of ferrocytochrome c to ferricytochrome c in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. EC 1.11.1.5.
An agent thought to have disinfectant properties and used as an expectorant. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p747)
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.
Proteins encoded by the CHLOROPLAST GENOME or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the CHOROPLASTS.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.2.
A widely cultivated plant, native to Asia, having succulent, edible leaves eaten as a vegetable. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A 66-kDa peroxidase found in EOSINOPHIL granules. Eosinophil peroxidase is a cationic protein with a pI of 10.8 and is comprised of a heavy chain subunit and a light chain subunit. It possesses cytotoxic activity towards BACTERIA and other organisms, which is attributed to its peroxidase activity.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
The reversibly oxidized form of ascorbic acid. It is the lactone of 2,3-DIKETOGULONIC ACID and has antiscorbutic activity in man on oral ingestion.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
A hemeprotein that catalyzes the oxidation of the iodide radical to iodine with the subsequent iodination of many organic compounds, particularly proteins. EC 1.11.1.8.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
Microbodies which occur in animal and plant cells and in certain fungi and protozoa. They contain peroxidase, catalase, and allied enzymes. (From Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A poisonous dipyridilium compound used as contact herbicide. Contact with concentrated solutions causes irritation of the skin, cracking and shedding of the nails, and delayed healing of cuts and wounds.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.

In vivo role of catalase-peroxidase in synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. (1/206)

The katG gene coding for the only catalase-peroxidase in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 was deleted in this organism. Although the rate of H2O2 decomposition was about 30 times lower in the DeltakatG mutant than in the wild type, the strain had a normal phenotype and its doubling time as well as its resistance to H2O2 and methyl viologen were indistinguishable from those of the wild type. The residual H2O2-scavenging capacity was more than sufficient to deal with the rate of H2O2 production by the cell, estimated to be less than 1% of the maximum rate of photosynthetic electron transport in vivo. We propose that catalase-peroxidase has a protective role against environmental H2O2 generated by algae or bacteria in the ecosystem (for example, in mats). This protective role is most apparent at a high cell density of the cyanobacterium. The residual H2O2-scavenging activity in the DeltakatG mutant was a light-dependent peroxidase activity. However, neither glutathione peroxidase nor ascorbate peroxidase accounted for a significant part of this H2O2-scavenging activity. When a small thiol such as dithiothreitol was added to the medium, the rate of H2O2 decomposition in the DeltakatG mutant increased more than 10-fold, indicating that a thiol-specific peroxidase, for which thioredoxin may be the physiological electron donor, is present. Oxidized thioredoxin is likely to be reduced again by photosynthetic electron transport. Therefore, under laboratory conditions, there are only two enzymatic mechanisms for H2O2 decomposition present in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. One is catalyzed by a catalase-peroxidase, and the other is catalyzed by thiol-specific peroxidase.  (+info)

Systemic signaling and acclimation in response to excess excitation energy in Arabidopsis. (2/206)

Land plants are sessile and have developed sophisticated mechanisms that allow for both immediate and acclimatory responses to changing environments. Partial exposure of low light-adapted Arabidopsis plants to excess light results in a systemic acclimation to excess excitation energy and consequent photooxidative stress in unexposed leaves. Thus, plants possess a mechanism to communicate excess excitation energy systemically, allowing them to mount a defense against further episodes of such stress. Systemic redox changes in the proximity of photosystem II, hydrogen peroxide, and the induction of antioxidant defenses are key determinants of this mechanism of systemic acquired acclimation.  (+info)

Induction of ascorbate peroxidase by ethylene and hydrogen peroxide during growth of cultured soybean cells. (3/206)

In cultured soybean cells, a transient ethylene burst in the pre-stationary phase was followed by an induction of ascorbate peroxidase (AsPOX) in the stationary phase. Treatment of cells with the ethylene antagonist, silver thiosulfate (STS), resulted in the suppression of enzyme activity. Application of the ethylene releasing agent 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (CEPA) in the medium led to an increased enzyme activity when treated in the pre-stationary phase. On the contrary, a remarkable inhibitory effect on enzyme activity was elicited by 1,3-dimethyl-2-thiourea (DMTU), trapping the hydrogen peroxide generated when treated in the stationary phase. Likewise, a steady level of AsPOX transcript was reduced by STS treatment. Furthermore, its effect appeared to be more rapid and prominent during the pre-stationary phase. It is suggested that the induction of AsPOX in cultured soybean cells during the stationary phase could result, at least in part, by the hydrogen peroxide generated as a result of preceding ethylene production.  (+info)

Stress-induced legume root nodule senescence. Physiological, biochemical, and structural alterations. (4/206)

Nitrate-fed and dark-stressed bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and pea (Pisum sativum) plants were used to study nodule senescence. In bean, 1 d of nitrate treatment caused a partially reversible decline in nitrogenase activity and an increase in O(2) diffusion resistance, but minimal changes in carbon metabolites, antioxidants, and other biochemical parameters, indicating that the initial decrease in nitrogenase activity was due to O(2) limitation. In pea, 1 d of dark treatment led to a 96% decline in nitrogenase activity and sucrose, indicating sugar deprivation as the primary cause of activity loss. In later stages of senescence (4 d of nitrate or 2-4 d of dark treatment), nodules showed accumulation of oxidized proteins and general ultrastructural deterioration. The major thiol tripeptides of untreated nodules were homoglutathione (72%) in bean and glutathione (89%) in pea. These predominant thiols declined by approximately 93% after 4 d of nitrate or dark treatment, but the loss of thiol content can be only ascribed in part to limited synthesis by gamma-glutamylcysteinyl, homoglutathione, and glutathione synthetases. Ascorbate peroxidase was immunolocalized primarily in the infected and parenchyma (inner cortex) nodule cells, with large decreases in senescent tissue. Ferritin was almost undetectable in untreated bean nodules, but accumulated in the plastids and amyloplasts of uninfected interstitial and parenchyma cells following 2 or 4 d of nitrate treatment, probably as a response to oxidative stress.  (+info)

Peroxisomal membrane ascorbate peroxidase is sorted to a membranous network that resembles a subdomain of the endoplasmic reticulum. (5/206)

The peroxisomal isoform of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) is a novel membrane isoform that functions in the regeneration of NAD(+) and protection against toxic reactive oxygen species. The intracellular localization and sorting of peroxisomal APX were examined both in vivo and in vitro. Epitope-tagged peroxisomal APX, which was expressed transiently in tobacco BY-2 cells, localized to a reticular/circular network that resembled endoplasmic reticulum (ER; 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide-stained membranes) and to peroxisomes. The reticular network did not colocalize with other organelle marker proteins, including three ER reticuloplasmins. However, in vitro, peroxisomal APX inserted post-translationally into the ER but not into other purified organelle membranes (including peroxisomal membranes). Insertion into the ER depended on the presence of molecular chaperones and ATP. These results suggest that regions of the ER serve as a possible intermediate in the sorting pathway of peroxisomal APX. Insight into this hypothesis was obtained from in vivo experiments with brefeldin A (BFA), a toxin that blocks vesicle-mediated protein export from ER. A transiently expressed chloramphenicol acetyltransferase-peroxisomal APX (CAT-pAPX) fusion protein accumulated only in the reticular/circular network in BFA-treated cells; after subsequent removal of BFA from these cells, the CAT-pAPX was distributed to preexisting peroxisomes. Thus, plant peroxisomal APX, a representative enzymatic peroxisomal membrane protein, is sorted to peroxisomes through an indirect pathway involving a preperoxisomal compartment with characteristics of a distinct subdomain of the ER, possibly a peroxisomal ER subdomain.  (+info)

Transgenic tobacco plants with reduced capability to detoxify reactive oxygen intermediates are hyperresponsive to pathogen infection. (6/206)

Reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) play a critical role in the defense of plants against invading pathogens. Produced during the "oxidative burst," they are thought to activate programmed cell death (PCD) and induce antimicrobial defenses such as pathogenesis-related proteins. It was shown recently that during the interaction of plants with pathogens, the expression of ROI-detoxifying enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) is suppressed. It was suggested that this suppression, occurring upon pathogen recognition and coinciding with an enhanced rate of ROI production, plays a key role in elevating cellular ROI levels, thereby potentiating the induction of PCD and other defenses. To examine the relationship between the suppression of antioxidative mechanisms and the induction of PCD and other defenses during pathogen attack, we studied the interaction between transgenic antisense tobacco plants with reduced APX or CAT and a bacterial pathogen that triggers the hypersensitive response. Transgenic plants with reduced capability to detoxify ROI (i.e., antisense APX or CAT) were found to be hyperresponsive to pathogen attack. They activated PCD in response to low amounts of pathogens that did not trigger the activation of PCD in control plants. Our findings support the hypothesis that suppression of ROI-scavenging enzymes during the hypersensitive response plays an important role in enhancing pathogen-induced PCD.  (+info)

Chlororespiration and poising of cyclic electron transport. Plastoquinone as electron transporter between thylakoid NADH dehydrogenase and peroxidase. (7/206)

Polypeptides encoded by plastid ndh genes form a complex (Ndh) which could reduce plastoquinone with NADH. Through a terminal oxidase, reduced plastoquinone would be oxidized in chlororespiration. However, isolated Ndh complex has low activity with plastoquinone and no terminal oxidase has been found in chloroplasts, thus the function of Ndh complex is unknown. Alternatively, thylakoid hydroquinone peroxidase could oxidize reduced plastoquinone with H(2)O(2). By immunoaffinity chromatography, we have purified the plastid Ndh complex of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to investigate the electron donor and acceptor specificity. A detergent-containing system was reconstructed with thylakoid Ndh complex and peroxidase which oxidized NADH with H(2)O(2) in a plastoquinone-dependent process. This system and the increases of thylakoid Ndh complex and peroxidase activities under photooxidative stress suggest that the chlororespiratory process consists of the sequence of reactions catalyzed by Ndh complex, peroxidase (acting on reduced plastoquinone), superoxide dismutase, and the non-enzymic one-electron transfer from reduced iron-sulfur protein (FeSP) to O(2). When FeSP is a component of cytochrome b(6).f complex or of the same Ndh complex, O(2) may be reduced with NADH, without requirement of light. Chlororespiration consumes reactive species of oxygen and, eventually, may decrease their production by lowering O(2) concentration in chloroplasts. The common plastoquinone pool with photosynthetic electron transport suggests that chlororespiratory reactions may poise reduced and oxidized forms of the intermediates of cyclic electron transport under highly fluctuating light intensities.  (+info)

The sorting signals for peroxisomal membrane-bound ascorbate peroxidase are within its C-terminal tail. (8/206)

Peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase (APX) is a carboxyl tail-anchored, type II (N(cytosol)-C(matrix)) integral membrane protein that functions in the regeneration of NAD(+) in glyoxysomes of germinated oilseeds and protection of peroxisomes in other organisms from toxic H(2)O(2). Recently we showed that cottonseed peroxisomal APX was sorted post-translationally from the cytosol to peroxisomes via a novel reticular/circular membranous network that was interpreted to be a subdomain of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), named peroxisomal ER (pER). Here we report on the molecular signals responsible for sorting peroxisomal APX. Deletions or site-specific substitutions of certain amino acid residues within the hydrophilic C-terminal-most eight-amino acid residues (includes a positively charged domain found in most peroxisomal integral membrane-destined proteins) abolished sorting of peroxisomal APX to peroxisomes via pER. However, the C-terminal tail was not sufficient for sorting chloramphenicol acetyltransferase to peroxisomes via pER, whereas the peptide plus most of the immediately adjacent 21-amino acid transmembrane domain (TMD) of peroxisomal APX was sufficient for sorting. Replacement of the peroxisomal APX TMD with an artificial TMD (devoid of putative sorting sequences) plus the peroxisomal APX C-terminal tail also sorted chloramphenicol acetyltransferase to peroxisomes via pER, indicating that the peroxisomal APX TMD does not possess essential sorting information. Instead, the TMD appears to confer the proper context required for the conserved positively charged domain to function within peroxisomal APX as an overlapping pER sorting signal and a membrane peroxisome targeting signal type 2.  (+info)

A cDNA for thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase of pumpkin was cloned and characterized. Thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase had a high similarity to cytosolic ascorbate peroxidases, and the precursor contained a transit peptide to chloroplasts at its ammo-terminus and a putative membrane-spanning region at its carboxy-terminus.. ...
Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) is known to catalyze the reduction of H2O2 to water and enhance plants tolerance in stress environment. An ascorbate peroxidase protein (BnAPX) was previously isolated from Brassica napus in our laboratory and it was located in the chloroplast. In order to clarify the physiological function of BnAPX in plant response to photooxidative stress, 1562 bp upstream sequence of BnAPX was isolated by genomic walking and searched for cis-element by PROMOTER SCAN software and PLANTCARE website. Many light-responsive cis-elements were revealed in this prediction. Promoter activity analysis of this sequence was operated by transient expression in B. napus protoplasts. Results of promoter deletion analysis indicated that the core promoter element lied in 0.3 kb of BnAPX 5-flanking region. Moreover, our data showed that promoter of BnAPX could be activated by light.. Key words: BnAPX, H2O2, promoter analysis, transient expression, genomic walking, 5-flanking region.. ...
Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa; Lepistö, Anna; Hannikainen, Kati; Piippo, Mirva; Luomala, Eeva-Maria; Aro, Eva-Mari; Rintamäki, Eevi (2008 ...
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as O2 and H2O2, play a key role in plant metabolism, cellular signaling, and defense. In leaf cells, the chloroplast is considered to be a focal point of ROS metabolism. It is a major producer of O2 and H2O2 during photosynthesis, and it contains a large array of ROS-scavenging mechanisms that have been extensively studied. By contrast, the function of the cytosolic ROS-scavenging mechanisms of leaf cells is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that in the absence of the cytosolic H2O2-scavenging enzyme ascorbate peroxidase 1 (APX1), the entire chloroplastic H2O2-scavenging system of Arabidopsis thaliana collapses, H2O2 levels increase, and protein oxidation occurs. We further identify specific proteins oxidized in APX1-deficient plants and characterize the signaling events that ensue in knockout-Apx1 plants in response to a moderate level of light stress. Using a dominant-negative approach, we demonstrate that heat shock transcription factors play a ...
Department of Biological Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock 79409, USA.. An Arabidopsis 14-3-3 protein, AFT1, was used as a bait in the two-hybrid system to identify its interacting proteins. One of the candidate proteins, APX3, was identified as a putative peroxisomal membrane-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Ascorbate peroxidases are important defense enzymes that protect plant cells from oxidative stress damage. DNA blot analysis indicates that APX3 is encoded by a single-copy gene in the Arabidopsis genome. RNA blot analyses show that APX3 transcript levels increase slightly in response to cold, UV light, and treatments with hydrogen peroxide and paraquat. The activity of APX3 in Arabidopsis may be controlled in two ways: its enzymatic activity through protein-protein interactions and its transcription by transcriptional or posttranscriptional regulation.. MeSH Terms ...
We evaluated the H2O2-scavenging activity of the water-water cycle (WWC) in illuminated intact chloroplasts isolated from tobacco leaves. Illumination under conditions that limited photosynthesis [red light (,640 nm), 250 µmol photons m-2 s-1 in the absence of HCO3 -] caused chloroplasts to take up O2 and accumulate H2O2. Concomitant with the O2 uptake, both ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) lost their activities. However, superoxide dismutase (SOD), monodehydroascorbate radical reductase (MDAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities remained unaffected. The extent to which the photosynthetic linear electron flow decreased was small compared with the decline in APX activity. Therefore, the loss of APX activity lowered the electron flux through the WWC, as evidenced by a decrease in relative electron flux through PSII [Φ(PSII)×PFD]. To verify these interpretations, we created a transplastomic tobacco line in ...
Cold acclimation in woody perennials is a metabolically intensive process, but coincides with environmental conditions that are not conducive to the generation of energy through photosynthesis. While the negative effects of low temperatures on the photosynthetic apparatus during winter have been well studied, less is known about how this is reflected at the level of gene and metabolite expression, nor how the plant generates primary metabolites needed for adaptive processes during autumn. The MapMan tool revealed enrichment of the expression of genes related to mitochondrial function, antioxidant and associated regulatory activity, while changes in metabolite levels over the time course were consistent with the gene expression patterns observed. Genes related to thylakoid function were down-regulated as expected, with the exception of plastid targeted specific antioxidant gene products such as thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase, components of the reactive oxygen species scavenging cycle, and the
Cold acclimation in woody perennials is a metabolically intensive process, but coincides with environmental conditions that are not conducive to the generation of energy through photosynthesis. While the negative effects of low temperatures on the photosynthetic apparatus during winter have been well studied, less is known about how this is reflected at the level of gene and metabolite expression, nor how the plant generates primary metabolites needed for adaptive processes during autumn. The MapMan tool revealed enrichment of the expression of genes related to mitochondrial function, antioxidant and associated regulatory activity, while changes in metabolite levels over the time course were consistent with the gene expression patterns observed. Genes related to thylakoid function were down-regulated as expected, with the exception of plastid targeted specific antioxidant gene products such as thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase, components of the reactive oxygen species scavenging cycle, and the
Ascorbate peroxidase is a bifunctional peroxidase that catalyzes the H(2)O(2)-dependent oxidation of both ascorbate and various aromatic substrates. The ascorbate binding site was recently identified as being close to the gamma-heme edge [Sharp, K. H., Mewies, M., Moody, P. C. E., and Raven, E. L. (2003)Nat. Struct. Biol. 10, 303-307]. In this work, the X-ray crystal structure of recombinant soybean cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (rsAPX) in complex with salicylhydroxamic acid (SHA) has been determined to 1.46 A. The SHA molecule is bound close to the delta-heme edge in a cavity that connects the distal side of the heme to the surface of the protein. There are hydrogen bonds between the phenolic hydroxide of the SHA and the main chain carbonyl of Pro132, between the carbonyl oxygen of SHA and the side chain guanadinium group of Arg38, and between the hydroxamic acid group and the indole nitrogen of Trp41. The structure provides the first information about the location of the aromatic binding site ...
Different peroxidases, including 2-cysteine (2-Cys) peroxiredoxins (PRXs) and thylakoid ascorbate peroxidase (tAPX), have been proposed to be involved in the water-water cycle (WWC) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediated signaling in plastids. We generated an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) double-mutant line deficient in the two plastid 2-Cys PRXs (2-Cys PRX A and B, 2cpa 2cpb) and a triple mutant deficient in 2-Cys PRXs and tAPX (2cpa 2cpb tapx). In contrast to wild-type and tapx single-knockout plants, 2cpa 2cpb double-knockout plants showed an impairment of photosynthetic efficiency and became photobleached under high light (HL) growth conditions. In addition, double-mutant plants also generated elevated levels of superoxide anion radicals, H2O2, and carbonylated proteins but lacked anthocyanin accumulation under HL stress conditions. Under HL conditions, 2-Cys PRXs seem to be essential in maintaining the WWC, whereas tAPX is dispensable. By comparison, this HL-sensitive phenotype was more ...
Activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) (A), glutathione reductase (GR) (B), dehydroascorbate reductase (DR) (C), and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MR) (D) in
Using pharmacological and biochemical approaches, the role of maize polyamine oxidase (MPAO) in abscisic acid (ABA)-induced antioxidant defense in leaves of maize (Zea mays L.) plants was investigated. Exogenous ABA treatment enhanced the expression of the MPAO gene and the activities of apoplastic MPAO. Pretreatment with two different inhibitors for apoplastic MPAO partly reduced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation induced by ABA and blocked the ABA-induced expression of the antioxidant genes superoxide dismutase 4 and cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase and the activities of the cytosolic antioxidant enzymes. Treatment with spermidine, the optimum substrate of MPAO, also induced the expression and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, and the upregulation of the antioxidant enzymes was prevented by two inhibitors of MPAO and two scavengers of H2O2. These results suggest that MPAO contributes to ABA-induced cytosolic antioxidant defense through H2O2, a Spd catabolic product. Using ...
H2O2: A Common Denominator That Orchestrates the Molecular Response During Both Biotic and Abiotic Stresses. The signaling role of ROS during temperature stress has been thoroughly studied (34). In our study, the 16 heat shock genes follow the up-regulation of two heat shock transcription factors. This pronounced up-regulation probably reflects the refolding effort of the stressed cells toward oxidatively damaged proteins; however, it cannot be excluded that some specific HSPs play an essential role in the regulation of cell death (35). An oxidative stress-induced heat shock response in plants was evidenced before in Arabidopsis cell suspensions and plants deficient in cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (10, 12). In addition, several genes previously associated with hypersensitive cell death are also up-regulated (see Table 1). One of these genes, Hsr203J, accelerates the development of hypersensitive cell death when suppressed in transgenic tobacco, suggesting a role in scavenging ROS-derived ...
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 1iyn.1. Crystal structure of chloroplastic ascorbate peroxidase from tobacco plants and structural insights for its instability
Electron microscopy (EM) is the standard method for imaging cellular structures with nanometer resolution, but existing genetic tags are inactive in most cellular compartments1 or require light and are difficult to use2. Here we report the development of a simple and robust EM genetic tag, called APEX, that is active in all cellular compartments and does not require light. APEX is a monomeric 28 kDa peroxidase that withstands strong EM fixation to give excellent ultrastructural preservation. We demonstrate the utility of APEX for high-resolution EM imaging of a variety of mammalian organelles and specific proteins. We also fused APEX to the N- or C-terminus of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), a newly identified channel whose topology is disputed3,4. MCU-APEX and APEX-MCU give EM contrast exclusively in the mitochondrial matrix, suggesting that both the N-and C-termini of MCU face the matrix. ...
John, R., Raja, V., Ahmad, M., Jan, N., Kaul, T. 2017. Trehalose: Metabolism and Role in Stress Signaling in Plants, In: Stress Signaling in Plants: Genomics and Proteomics Perspective, Volume 2, pp.261-275, Sarwat Met al., Springer Publications Doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-42183-4_11. Pandey, S., Fartyal, D., Raina, V., Negi, Y.K., Reddy, M.K., Kaul, T. 2017. Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants: Myriad Roles of Ascorbate Peroxidase. Frontiers in Pl Sci 8, 581; Doi: 10.3389/fpls.2017.00581. Yadava, P., Alok, A., Singh, R., Singh, I., Kaul, T., Pattanayak, A., Agrawal, P.K. 2017. Advances in Maize Transformation Technologies and Development of Transgenic Maize. Front Plant Sci 7, 1949. Tripathi K, Pandey S, Sathelly K, Malik M, Kaul T. 2016. Molecular model of thylakoid membrane bound (SlAPX6) Ascorbate Peroxidase from Solanum lycopersicum. Bioinformation (In Press).. Tripathi K, Pandey S, Malik M, Kaul T. 2016. Fruit Ripening of Climacteric and Non Climacteric Fruit. J Environ Appl Bioresearch (In ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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Vitamin C is an effective antioxidant. This vitamin lessens oxidative stress and strengthens the immune system. Vitamin C also acts as a substrate for ascorbate peroxidases (enzymes that detoxify peroxides such as hydrogen peroxide).
The level of ascorbate peroxidase is enhanced in benznidazole-resistant populations of Trypanosoma cruzi and its expression is modulated by stress generated by hydrogen peroxide ...
Raven, Emma L. et al Defining substrate specificity and catalytic mechanism in ascorbate peroxidase. Biochemical Society Symposia 71 (2004): 27-38. Web. 17 Jan. 2018. ...
Amplyx Pharmaceuticals is developing an intravenous and oral formulation of APX 001, for the treatment of multiple fungal infections and acute myeloid
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Sweet pepper is susceptible to changes in the environmental conditions, especially temperatures below 15 °C. In this work, two sets of pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum L.) which underwent distinct temperature profiles in planta were investigated. Accordingly, two harvesting times corresponding to each set were established: Harvest 1, whose fruits developed and ripened at 14.9 °C as average temperature; and Harvest 2, with average temperature of 12.4 °C. The oxidative metabolism was analyzed in all fruits. Although total ascorbate content did not vary between Harvests, a shift from the reduced to the oxidized form (dehydroascorbate), accompanied by a higher ascorbate peroxidase activity, was observed in Harvest 2 with respect to Harvest 1. Moreover, a decrease of the ascorbate-generating enzymatic system, the γ-galactono-lactone dehydrogenase, was found at Harvest 2. The activity values of the NADP-dependent dehydrogenases analyzed seem to indicate that a lower NADPH synthesis may occur in fruits which
Sweet pepper is susceptible to changes in the environmental conditions, especially temperatures below 15 °C. In this work, two sets of pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum L.) which underwent distinct temperature profiles in planta were investigated. Accordingly, two harvesting times corresponding to each set were established: Harvest 1, whose fruits developed and ripened at 14.9 °C as average temperature; and Harvest 2, with average temperature of 12.4 °C. The oxidative metabolism was analyzed in all fruits. Although total ascorbate content did not vary between Harvests, a shift from the reduced to the oxidized form (dehydroascorbate), accompanied by a higher ascorbate peroxidase activity, was observed in Harvest 2 with respect to Harvest 1. Moreover, a decrease of the ascorbate-generating enzymatic system, the γ-galactono-lactone dehydrogenase, was found at Harvest 2. The activity values of the NADP-dependent dehydrogenases analyzed seem to indicate that a lower NADPH synthesis may occur in fruits which
Drought stress occurring during the reproductive growth stage leads to considerable reductions in crop production and has become an important limiting factor for food security globally. In order to explore the possible role of drought priming (pre-exposure of the plants to mild drought stress) on the alleviation of a severe drought stress event later in development, wheat plants were subjected to single or double mild drought episodes (soil relative water content around 35-40%) before anthesis and/or to a severe drought stress event (soil relative water content around 20-25%) 15 d after anthesis. Here, single or double drought priming before anthesis resulted in higher grain yield than in non-primed plants under drought stress during grain filling. The photosynthesis rate and ascorbate peroxidase activity were higher while malondialdehyde content was lower in primed plants than in the non-primed plants under drought stress during grain filling. Proteins in flag leaves differently expressed by ...
The binding of substrates to heme enzymes has been widely assumed to occur at the so-called delta-heme edge. Recently, however, a number of examples have appeared in which substrate binding at an alternative site, the gamma-heme edge, is also possible. In previous work [Sharp et al. (2003) Nat. Struct. Biol. 10, 303-307], we showed that binding of ascorbate to ascorbate peroxidase occurred at the gamma-heme edge. Here, we show that the closely related cytochrome c peroxidase enzyme can duplicate the substrate binding properties of ascorbate peroxidase through the introduction of relatively modest structural changes at Tyr36 and Asn184. Hence, crystallographic data for the Y36A/N184R/W191F triple variant of cytochrome c peroxidase shows ascorbate bound to the gamma-heme edge, with hydrogen bonds to the heme propionate and Arg184. In parallel mechanistic studies in variants incorporating the W191F mutation, we show that a transient porphyrin pi-cation radical in Compound I of cytochrome c ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Changes in the contents of H2O2, malondialdehyde (MDA) and endogenous antioxidants, the activities of enzymes involving cell defense in leaves of strawberry (Fragaria Ananassa Duch.) plantlets under chilling acclimation and de-acclimation were studied. With the increase of chilling acclimation times, the contents of H2O2 and MDA increased to a certain degree and then decreased. The activities of cell defence enzymes, such as Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), Dehydroascorbate Reductase (DHAR), Monodehydroascorbate Reductase (MDAR), Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) were gradually increased to a certain degree and then kept at a high level. And it increased the contents of reduced ascorbate (ASA), dehydroascorbate (DHA) and reduced glutathione (GSH). Our results clearly suggested that cold-hardening triggers an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the early accumulation of ROS in plants might lead to the production of antioxidant defense ...
Abstract Ionizing radiation directly and indirectly affects gene expression within the plant genome. To access the antioxidant response of rice to different types of ionizing radiation, rice seeds were exposed to gamma-ray, cosmic-ray and ion beam radiation. Exposure to ionizing radiation dramatically decreased the shoot length in all plants but not the root length compared with a non-irradiated plant. Electron spin resonance, confirmed that the number of free radicals in cell was greatly increased by different types of ionizing radiation. The measurement of the MDA, chlorophyll, carotenoids contents and activity of antioxidant enzymes revealed that gamma-ray and cosmic-ray, but not ion beam, ionization deceased chlorophyll and carotenoids contents, while all three ionization treatments increased the activities of peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase compared with the non-irradiated plants. Microarray analysis using Affymetrix GeneChip was used to establish the gene transcript
Saldanha, Arun (2013) Bastard and mixed-blood are the true names of race:an introduction. In: Deleuze and race. Deleuze Connections . Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, pp. 6-34. ISBN 9780748669585. Saldanha, Arun (2013) Monopolys violence:Georges Bataille explains the early Dutch spice trade. In: Geographies of Race and Food. Ashgate, Aldershot. ISBN 978-1-4094-6927-8. Saldanha, Arun (2013) Power-geometry as philosophy of space. In: Spatial politics. Wiley-Blackwell, Malden, Mass., pp. 44-55. ISBN 9781444338317. Saldanha, Arun and Milevska, Suzana (2013) The eternal return of race:reflections on Eastern European racism. In: Deleuze and race. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, pp. 225-246. ISBN 9780748669585. Sales, Cristina R. G. and Ribeiro, Rafael Vasconcelos and Silveira, Joaquim Albenisio Gomes and Machado, Eduardo Caruso and Martins, Marcio Oliveira and Lagoa, Ana Maria Magalhaes Andrade (2013) Superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase improve the recovery of photosynthesis in ...
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And today, Xcel fired off this Reply, stating weve got our collective heads implanted regarding the statutory requirement of two distinct routes, and that the states MOES and federal RUS should work together on a joint Environmental Impact Statement. And on the other hand, they have no issue with multiple Task Forces and our Intervention:. ...
Lotus Engineering released Friday specs and photos for its APX crossover concept, ahead of its official debut at the Geneva Motor Show next week. In case
Do take a look at my capx, maybe there could be a way to allow enemy chess that are too far from the player chess to select a tile (tileframe =1) that would be in the right direction, towards the player chess (i.e. so as to eventually be within the moveable area on a next turn ...
No capx because this happens in new projects. Steps to reproduce: 1. Import any audio file. Observed result: File loads to the end of the bar, then just stops a...
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The effects of ozone exposure on lettuce leaves were investigated by means of gas exchange, modulated chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidants systems. High ozone concentration decreased the rate of photosynthesis at light saturation level and changes in stomatal conductance and transpiration rate. However, an increase in intercellular CO2 concentration indicated a decrease in the carboxylation efficiency. These data agreed with a reduction of non-cyclic electron flow and lower capacity to reduce the quinone pool. Ozone affected the ascorbate pool and decreased ascorbate peroxidase activity, increased lipid peroxidation, altered membrane properties and reduced the development of non-photochemical quenching ...
In this project, the promoter regions of sAPX (At4g08390) and tAPX (At1g77490) were cloned to pHGWFS 7.0 vector and transform to Arabidopsis thaliana. The constructs allow the analysis of the promoter activities by measuring GFP and GUS. Three independent transformation lines were studied for each promoter in order to study the regulation by a spectrum of environmental stimulus. The promoter of tAPX gene was found to be controlled by chloroplastic H2O2. Application of chemicals blocking photosynthestic electron transport upstream of photosystem I suppressed the tAPX promoter activity. However, methyl viologen causing chloroplast reactive oxygen species production increased the tAPX promoter driven reporter expression. mRNA levels of tAPX in 2cpa, 2cpb, and 2cpa2cpb mutants, which have higher chloroplastic H2O2, were higher than in wild type plants. These results suggest a role of chloroplastic H2O2 in regulating tAPX gene. tAPX promoter activity was also shown to be elevated mechanic wounding. Although
Mastocarpus stellatus and Chondrus crispus are red macroalgae that co-dominate the lower rocky intertidal zones of the northern Atlantic coast. M. stellatus is more tolerant than C. crispus of environmental stresses, particularly those experienced during winter. This difference in tolerance has been attributed, in part, to greater contents or activities of certain antioxidants in M. stellatus. We compared the photosynthetic capacities and activities of three antioxidant enzymes--superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR)--as well as the contents of ascorbate from fronds of M. stellatus and C. crispus collected over a year. Photosynthetic capacity increased in winter, but did not differ between species in any season. The activities of the three antioxidant enzymes and the contents of ascorbate were significantly greater in tissues collected during months with mean air and water temperatures below 7.5 degrees C (cold months; December, February, March, April)
Abstract:. The mixed salt stress is common in nature. Salt stressalways affects plant growth. Different plant species have different adaptive capacity to salty soil. Leymus chinensis is an herbaceous plant with different leaf colors. However, little research was conducted to explore the different tolerance mechanisms to salt stress among the three different leaf colour genotypes of Leymus chinensis (grey green, transitional color, yellow green). Pot experiments for Leymus chinensis in three leaf colors were conducted under mixed salt treatments in 2010. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein concentrations, and the activity of various antioxidant enzymes [i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR)] were determined and compared among the three leaf color genotypes of Leymus chinensis. The concentrations of MDA and protein, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes ...
Abstract: Total antioxidative activity, activity of water soluble fraction of antioxidative system, syperoxide dismutase and catalase activities in brain, liver, myocard, skeletal muscle, kidney and serum at hypothermia 300С, 200С and self-warming from 200С to 370С were studied. Activity of antioxidative system is sustained at high level, except superoxide dismutase. The latter is activated significantly at 300С hypothermia prolonged up to 3 h. Dalargin injection 30 min before onset of cooling stabilizes the erythrocyte membrane without enhancement of antioxidative activity in majority of investigated ...
One of the biggest problems today is pollution. Contamination with heavy metals which includes the lead (Pb), is a distinct problem because metals are not biodegradable and have negative impact on the living world. Ecologically and enivronmentally acceptable solution provides a new biotehnological process called phytoremediation, which is based on the ability of plants to clean and restore contaminated area. This study was used to assay the effect of lead on the growth of poplar (Populus nigra var. italica), phytoextraction potential of poplar for lead, his redistribution in certain parts of the plant, (H2O2), and the effects of lead in the soil on the activity of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APOX), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR). All of the results together inicate that the studied poplar (Populus nigra var. italica) can be considered as a species with the potential use in ...
Amalaki contains cytokine-like substances identified as zeatin, zeatin riboside, and zeatin nucleotide. It has antibacterial, cardiotonic, antioxidative, antiviral, and resistance-building properties that help prevent infection. This fruit is one of the richest natural sources of vitamin C, containing up to 720 mg of vitamin C per 100 g of fresh pulp and 921 mg per 100 cc of pressed juice. This is approximately 20 times the vitamin C content of an orange. Vitamin C is an antioxidant and acts as a substrate for ascorbate peroxidase which is an enzyme that detoxifies peroxides to reduce oxidative damage to biomolecules and cells. Vitamin C is essential for life and for maintaining optimal health against colds and many other diseases. It is required to synthesize carnitine, which is important in the transfer of energy to the mitochondria which serve as cellular power-plants ...
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MONTEIRO, Carolina C. et al. Biochemical and histological characterization of tomato mutants. An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc. [online]. 2012, vol.84, n.2, pp.573-585. Epub Apr 19, 2012. ISSN 0001-3765. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0001-37652012005000022.. Neste trabalho, analisamos as respostas bioquímicas inerentes ao sistema antioxidante, assim como propriedades morfológicas e anatômicas de mutantes fotomorfogenéticos e hormonais de tomateiro. Comparados ao não mutante Micro-Tom (MT), observamos que o conteúdo de malondialdeído (MDA) aumentou nos mutantes diageotropica (dgt) e lutescent (l), enquanto os maiores níveis de H2O2 foram encontrados nos mutantes high pigment 1 (hp1) e aurea (au). Análises de enzimas antioxidantes mostraram que todos os mutantes reduziram a atividade de catalase (CAT) quando comparado a MT. A guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX) aumentou em ambos os mutantes sitiens (sit) e notabilis (not), enquanto no mutante not houve aumento da atividade de ascorbato peroxidase (APX). ...
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Have you had a chance to watch our latest video series?. Audio Test Sessions with APx are designed to educate engineers and technicians about everything from specific audio measurement applications to getting started with APx, and even a few hidden gems in our software. These are available to watch at your leisure and can be shared with your colleagues who may want to brush up their own audio test knowledge.. In this session, Joe Begin provides a detailed discussion of how to use a variety of automation and production (or manufacturing) test-oriented features. While these features are valuable for production test, any users that need to conduct the same tests in a repeatable way will likely find them useful.. Topics in this video include:. ...
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"Characterization of ascorbate peroxidases from unicellular red alga Galdieria partita". Plant & Cell Physiology. 42 (4): 433- ...
... such as ascorbate in the glutathione-ascorbate cycle, glutathione peroxidases and glutaredoxins, as well as reacting directly ... In addition to its direct antioxidant effects, ascorbic acid is also a substrate for the redox enzyme ascorbate peroxidase, a ... There are at least four different glutathione peroxidase isozymes in animals. Glutathione peroxidase 1 is the most abundant and ... "Regulation and function of ascorbate peroxidase isoenzymes". Journal of Experimental Botany. 53 (372): 1305-19. doi:10.1093/ ...
"Substrate Binding and Catalytic Mechanism in Ascorbate Peroxidase: Evidence for Two Ascorbate Binding Sites †". Biochemistry. ... "Crystal structure of the ascorbate peroxidase-ascorbate complex". Nature Structural & Molecular Biology. 10 (4): 303-307. doi: ... "Neutron cryo-crystallography captures the protonation state of ferryl heme in a peroxidase" (PDF). Science. 345 (6193): 193-197 ...
Martell, JD (2012). "Engineered ascorbate peroxidase as a genetically encoded reporter for electron microscopy". Nature ... Martell, JD (2016). "A split horseradish peroxidase for the detection of intercellular protein-protein interactions and ... Paek, J (2017). "Multidimensional Tracking of GPCR Signaling via Peroxidase-Catalyzed Proximity Labeling". Cell. 169 (2): 338- ... the peroxidase APEX2, and the biotin ligases TurboID and miniTurbo. In addition, Ting and her lab developed monovalent ...
... expression and functional validation of drought inducible ascorbate peroxidase (Ec-apx1) from Eleusine coracana". Molecular ...
Dietz KJ (January 2016). "Thiol-Based Peroxidases and Ascorbate Peroxidases: Why Plants Rely on Multiple Peroxidase Systems in ... Glutathione peroxidase reduces hydrogen peroxide by transferring the energy of the reactive peroxides to a sulfur-containing ... 2 H2O2 → 2 H2O + O2 (catalase) 2GSH + H2O2 → GS-SG + 2H2O (glutathione peroxidase) Another type of reactive oxygen species is ... ascorbate) and β-carotene and anti-oxidant enzymes. If too much damage is present in mitochondria, a cell undergoes apoptosis ...
Both taxifolin and coniferyl alcohol will be oxidized by ascorbate peroxidase 1 to enable the single electron reaction to ... "4-Coumarate 3-hydroxylase in the lignin biosynthesis pathway is a cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase". Nature Communications. 10 (1 ...
In UV-B exposed plants, the antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase are synthesized. The exposed ... plants also synthesize the non-enzymatic antioxidants ascorbate, carotenoids, and flavonoids. All these antioxidants are also ...
M. mediterraneum helped chickpea resist osmotic stress by enhancing nodular peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase activities. ...
This photochemical H 2O 2 is then reduced by the action of ascorbate peroxidase to form water and oxidized ascorbate. Asada ...
Pal, Swati; Dolai, Subhankar; Yadav, Rajesh K.; Adak, Subrata (23 June 2010). "Ascorbate Peroxidase from Leishmania major ... Pal, Swati; Dolai, Subhankar; Yadav, Rajesh K.; Adak, Subrata (23 June 2010). "Ascorbate Peroxidase from Leishmania major ...
"Inactivation of Ascorbate Peroxidase in Spinach Chloroplasts on Dark Addition of Hydrogen Peroxide: Its Protection by Ascorbate ... "Monodehydroascorbate Reductase in Spinach Chloroplasts and Its Participation in Regeneration of Ascorbate for Scavenging ...
... and ascorbate peroxidase (to scavenge hydrogen peroxide). After conducting his research on M. stellatus and C. crispus in 1999 ...
... ascorbate, carotenoids, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. These antioxidants provide protection from ...
... ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione peroxidase). The antioxidant superoxide dismutase catalyses the formation of hydrogen ... "Temporal mismatch between induction of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase correlates with high H2O2 concentration in ...
... which is a signal to downregulate its own expression of ascorbate oxidase and ascorbate peroxidase. AO and AP are reactive ...
APEX is an ascorbate peroxidase derivative reliant on hydrogen peroxide for catalyzing the oxidation of biotin-tyramide, also ... Kalocsay, Marian (2019). "APEX Peroxidase-Catalyzed Proximity Labeling and Multiplexed Quantitative Proteomics". In Sunbul, ... "Multidimensional Tracking of GPCR Signaling via Peroxidase-Catalyzed Proximity Labeling". Cell. 169 (2): 338-349.e11. doi: ...
... an early computer software publisher Ascorbate peroxidase, an antioxidant enzyme Lotus APX, a 2006 concept car Beretta APX, a ...
One of these proximity labeling approaches is the ascorbate peroxidase (APEX) method, in which cells are engineered to express ... fused to a modified ascorbate peroxidase enzyme called APEX. Upon incubating the cells in biotin and treating the cells with ...
... iodide peroxidase EC 1.11.1.9: glutathione peroxidase EC 1.11.1.10: chloride peroxidase EC 1.11.1.11: L-ascorbate peroxidase EC ... NADH peroxidase EC 1.11.1.2: NADPH peroxidase EC 1.11.1.3: fatty-acid peroxidase EC 1.11.1.4: Now EC 1.13.11.11 EC 1.13.11.11 ... versatile peroxidase EC 1.11.1.17: glutathione amide-dependent peroxidase EC 1.11.1.18: bromide peroxidase EC 1.11.1.19: dye ... 1.11.1.12: phospholipid-hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase EC 1.11.1.13: manganese peroxidase EC 1.11.1.14: lignin peroxidase ...
H2O2 is reduced to water by ascorbate peroxidase (APX) using ascorbate (ASC) as the electron donor. The oxidized ascorbate ( ... Antioxidant Oxidative stress Peroxidases Noctor G, Foyer CH (Jun 1998). "ASCORBATE AND GLUTATHIONE: Keeping Active Oxygen Under ... Nevertheless, other enzymes (peroxidases) including peroxiredoxins and glutathione peroxidases, which use thioredoxins or ... ascorbate and NADPH are present in high concentrations in plant cells it is assumed that the glutathione-ascorbate cycle plays ...
Ascorbate peroxidase Chloride peroxidase Cytochrome c peroxidase Haloperoxidase Hemoprotein Immunoperoxidase Lactoperoxidase ... Haem-using haem peroxidase and the related animal heme-dependent peroxidases DyP-type peroxidase family Catalase some ... Peroxidases are sometimes used as histological markers. Cytochrome c peroxidase is used as a soluble, easily purified model for ... Peroxidases typically catalyze a reaction of the form: ROOR ′ + 2 e − electron donor + 2 H + → Peroxidase ROH + R ′ OH {\ ...
doi:10.1016/0959-440X(92)90230-5. Dalton DA (1991). "Ascorbate peroxidase". 2: 139-153. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ... peroxidases, exhibiting both peroxidase and catalase activities. It is thought that catalase-peroxidase provides protection to ... Haem peroxidases (or heme peroxidases) are haem-containing enzymes that use hydrogen peroxide as the electron acceptor to ... Another family of haem peroxidases is the DyP-type peroxidase family. Nelson RE, Fessler LI, Takagi Y, Blumberg B, Keene DR, ...
... ascorbate peroxidase, and ascorbic acid peroxidase. This enzyme participates in ascorbate and aldarate metabolism. Ascorbate- ... Ascorbate peroxidase (or L-ascorbate peroxidase, APX) (EC 1.11.1.11) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L- ... Cytochrome c peroxidase Manganese peroxidase Kelly GJ, Latzko E (December 1979). "Soluble ascorbate peroxidase: detection in ... ascorbate peroxidases is a class I peroxidase enzyme. APXs catalyse the H2O2-dependent oxidation of ascorbate in plants, algae ...
CCP has high sequence identity to the closely related ascorbate peroxidase enzyme. Amino acid analyzer studies reveal presence ... Plant peroxidase such as horseradish peroxidase and pineapple peroxidase B have low lysine, tryptophan, and tyrosine contents ... Cytochrome c peroxidase, or CCP, is a water-soluble heme-containing enzyme of the peroxidase family that takes reducing ... Cytochrome c peroxidase, maintained by the Kraut Research Group. The UniProt entry for yeast cytochrome c peroxidase. Portal: ...
In plants, vitamin C is a substrate for ascorbate peroxidase. This enzyme utilizes ascorbate to neutralize excess hydrogen ... Ascorbate salts such as sodium ascorbate and calcium ascorbate are used in some dietary supplements. These release ascorbate ... However, taking vitamin C in the form of sodium ascorbate and calcium ascorbate may minimize this effect. Other symptoms ... The most commonly used supplement compounds are ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate and calcium ascorbate. Vitamin C molecules can ...
"Regulation and function of ascorbate peroxidase isoenzymes". J Exp Bot. 53 (372): 1305-19. doi:10.1093/jexbot/53.372.1305. PMID ... Brigelius-Flohé R (1999). "Tissue-specific functions of individual glutathione peroxidases". Free Radic Biol Med. 27 (9-10): ... "Mechanisms of compound I formation in heme peroxidases". J Inorg Biochem. 91 (1): 27-34. doi:10.1016/S0162-0134(02)00390-2. ... "Mice deficient in cellular glutathione peroxidase develop normally and show no increased sensitivity to hyperoxia". J Biol ...
Wefers H, Sies H (June 1988). "The protection by ascorbate and glutathione against microsomal lipid peroxidation is dependent ... Alpha-tocopherol is a lipid-soluble antioxidant functioning within the glutathione peroxidase pathway, and protecting cell ... such as ascorbate, retinol or ubiquinol. Other forms of vitamin E have their own unique properties; for example, γ-tocopherol ...
It is a component of the glutathione-ascorbate cycle, a system that reduces poisonous hydrogen peroxide. It is the precursor of ... It is a cofactor and acts on glutathione peroxidase. Glutathione facilitates metabolism of xenobiotics. Glutathione S- ... Noctor G, Foyer CH (June 1998). "Ascorbate and Glutathione: Keeping Active Oxygen Under Control". Annual Review of Plant ... a tool to measure the cellular glutathione redox potential Glutathione-ascorbate cycle Bacterial glutathione transferase ...
Glutathione-ascorbate cycle Antioxidant Meister A, Anderson ME (1983). "Glutathione". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 52: 711-60 ... Antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidases and peroxiredoxins, generate glutathione disulfide during the reduction of ...
Alpha-tocopherol is a lipid-soluble antioxidant functioning within the glutathione peroxidase pathway,[15] and protecting cell ... Wefers H, Sies H (June 1988). "The protection by ascorbate and glutathione against microsomal lipid peroxidation is dependent ... such as ascorbate, retinol or ubiquinol.[17] Other forms of vitamin E have their own unique properties; for example, γ- ...
For instance, glutathione peroxidases catalyze the oxidation of GSH to glutathione disulfide (GSSG) by reducing free radicals ... Jain A, Buist NR, Kennaway NG, Powell BR, Auld PA, Mårtensson J (Feb 1994). "Effect of ascorbate or N-acetylcysteine treatment ... After the final GSH product is made, it can be used by glutathione peroxidase to neutralize reactive oxygen species (ROS) such ... ascorbate and N-acetylcysteine have been shown to increase glutathione levels and increase erythrocyte production. It is ...
Sulfite may also be oxidized to sulfate, extra- and intracellularly by peroxidases or non-enzymatically catalyzed by metal ions ... Glutathione functions as reductant in the enzymatic detoxification of reactive oxygen species in the glutathione-ascorbate ...
Vegetable peroxidase and bacterial enzymes, including an Escherichia coli peroxidase, may also cause false-positive reactions. ... Some test strips include a test for urinary ascorbate. During routine screening, if a positive test for leukocytes, blood, ... The urine test strip test for blood is based on hemoglobin's pseudo peroxidase activity in catalysing a reaction between ... A second linked reaction, mediated by a peroxidase, catalyses the reaction between the peroxide and a chromogen (a substance ...
April 2009). "The gel state of the vitreous and ascorbate-dependent oxygen consumption: relationship to the etiology of nuclear ... Microwaves, a type of nonionizing radiation, may cause harm by denaturing protective enzymes (e.g., glutathione peroxidase), by ...
Dominguez, E.; Perez, M. D.; Calvo, M. (1997). "Effect of heat treatment on the antigen-binding activity of anti-peroxidase ... "Inhibition of Iron/Ascorbate-Induced Lipid Peroxidation by an N-Terminal Peptide of Bovine Lactoferrin and Its Acylated ...
Reduced glutathione reduces the oxidized form of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, which in turn reduces hydrogen peroxide ( ... In plants, reduced glutathione participates in the glutathione-ascorbate cycle in which reduced glutathione reduces ...
Electron donors may include ascorbate, cytochrome b5 or ferredoxin reductase. The catalytic NO dioxygenation can be written in ... and peroxidase. NODs, as well as many hemoglobins that function as NODs, are distributed to most life forms including bacteria ...
Monteiro G, Horta BB, Pimenta DC, Augusto O, Netto LE (March 2007). "Reduction of 1-Cys peroxiredoxins by ascorbate changes the ... Other names include thiol specific antioxidant (TSA) and thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx). Mammals express six peroxiredoxins:. 1- ... Poole LB (January 2005). "Bacterial defenses against oxidants: mechanistic features of cysteine-based peroxidases and their ... Catalase Oxidative stress Peroxidase Peroxiredoxin classification index Reactive oxygen species Superoxide dismutase Rhee, Sue ...
... ascorbate peroxidase, and ascorbic acid peroxidase. This enzyme participates in ascorbate and aldarate metabolism. Ascorbate- ... Ascorbate peroxidase (or L-ascorbate peroxidase, APX) (EC 1.11.1.11) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L- ... Cytochrome c peroxidase Manganese peroxidase Kelly GJ, Latzko E (December 1979). "Soluble ascorbate peroxidase: detection in ... ascorbate peroxidases is a class I peroxidase enzyme. APXs catalyse the H2O2-dependent oxidation of ascorbate in plants, algae ...
... peroxidase effect), and (3) ascorbate (inhibition). Such errors may be diminished by dilution 1:40, or w … ... In the determination of unbound bilirubin by rate of oxidation with peroxidase, errors may be caused by (1) phenol, ... peroxidase effect), and (3) ascorbate (inhibition). Such errors may be diminished by dilution 1:40, or with an anti-oxidant, ... Kinetics of bilirubin oxidation with peroxidase, as applied to studies of bilirubin-albumin binding Scand J Clin Lab Invest. ...
In the present study, expression levels of PR proteins, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and ... involving in the production of defense-related compounds and guaiacol peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase ( ... In the present study, expression levels of PR proteins, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and ...
... influence on the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defence system involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle under ... Activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX; EC 1.11.1.11) and glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2) increased under saline ... Ascorbate and glutathione contents were increased with the increasing salt concentration; moreover they further increased in ... Therefore, as a first approach, this article focuses on the contribution of EM to the scavenging capacity of the ascorbate- ...
Lung microsomes were assayed for glutathione, superoxide-dismutase, glutathione-peroxidase, ascorbate, and glutathione- ... The authors note that an active transport system for ascorbate exists in lung cells. This ensures the availability of ascorbate ... Only ascorbate was found to protect the lungs against lipid peroxidation. ...
... production under prolonged heat stress conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana plants deficient in cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase 2 ...
9. Effect of Azospirillum Lectins on the Ascorbate Peroxidase Activity and Ascorbic Acid Content in Wheat Seedling Roots ... Azospirillum brasilense; Triticum aestivum; abiotic stress; acetates; antioxidant activity; ascorbate peroxidase; ascorbic acid ... on the ascorbate peroxidase activity and ascorbic acid content in roots of etiolated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings ...
... and ascorbate peroxidase [EC 1.11.1.11]. Lipid peroxidation induced by Al was found reduced with the supplementation of 24- ... peroxidase [EC 1.11.1.7]; superoxide dismutase [EC 1.15.1.1] ... Ascorbate peroxidase (APX, E.C.1.11.1.11) activity was assayed ... peroxidase [EC 1.11.1.7]; superoxide dismutase [EC 1.15.1.1] and ascorbate peroxidase [EC 1.11.1.11]. Lipid peroxidation ... Nakano, Y. and Asada, K. (1981) Hydrogen Peroxide Is Scavenged by Ascorbate Specific Peroxidase in Spinach Chloroplasts. Plant ...
... from a.93.1.1 Ascorbate peroxidase: *Species Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) [TaxId:4097] from a.93.1.1 Ascorbate peroxidase first ... from a.93.1.1 Ascorbate peroxidase. *Species Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) [TaxId:4097] from a.93.1.1 Ascorbate peroxidase ... Protein Ascorbate peroxidase [48123] (3 species). *. Species Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) [TaxId:4097] [101336] (1 PDB entry). ... More info for Species Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) [TaxId:4097] from a.93.1.1 Ascorbate peroxidase. Timeline for Species Tobacco ...
Furthermore, in the presence of oxygen, oxidative enzymes, e.g. ascorbate oxidase and peroxidase (Davey et al. 2000), or local ... Peroxidase was more resistant to PL than polyphenol oxidase, whereas the bromelain activity was completely retained in all PL- ... Residual enzyme activities of bromelain (a), peroxidase (b), and polyphenol oxidase (c) of fresh (F), thermally pasteurised (TP ... The activities of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were quantitated according to the method described by ...
... by various enzymes like peroxidase (POX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) (Asada, ... Ascorbate peroxidase-a hydrogen scavenging enzyme in plants. plants. Physiologia Plantarum 85:235-241. Ashraf, M. 2001. ... Ascorbate and glutathione: keeping active oxygen under control. Annual Review of Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants 49: ... Photosynthesis and activity of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and glutathione reductase in cotton under salt stress. ...
The first line of mitochondrial antioxidants is composed of superoxide dismutase and the enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione ... The first line of mitochondrial antioxidants is composed of superoxide dismutase and the enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione ... 2011). Role of peroxidases in the compensation of cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase knockdown in rice plants under abiotic stress ... ascorbate (ASC) for the hemo-containing enzyme ascorbate peroxidase (APX; Figure 1), (II) the thiol reductant glutathione (GSH ...
Ascorbate peroxidase 2 of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is involved in the regulation of the plastocyanin levels ... Ascorbate peroxidase 2 of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is involved in the regulation of the plastocyanin levels ...
"Regulation and function of ascorbate peroxidase isoenzymes". J Exp Bot. 53 (372): 1305-19. PMID 11997377.. CS1 maint: Multiple ... There are at least four different glutathione peroxidase isozymes in animals.[87] Glutathione peroxidase 1 is the most abundant ... ascorbic acid is also a substrate for the antioxidant enzyme ascorbate peroxidase, a function that is particularly important in ... 2 Fe3+ + Ascorbate → 2 Fe2+ + Dehydroascorbate 2 Fe2+ + 2 H2O2 → 2 Fe3+ + 2 OH· + 2 OH−. The relative importance of the ...
"Regulation and function of ascorbate peroxidase isoenzymes". J Exp Bot. 53 (372): 1305-19. doi:10.1093/jexbot/53.372.1305. PMID ... Brigelius-Flohé R (1999). "Tissue-specific functions of individual glutathione peroxidases". Free Radic Biol Med. 27 (9-10): ... "Mechanisms of compound I formation in heme peroxidases". J Inorg Biochem. 91 (1): 27-34. doi:10.1016/S0162-0134(02)00390-2. ... "Mice deficient in cellular glutathione peroxidase develop normally and show no increased sensitivity to hyperoxia". J Biol ...
Group A includes all the knockout of cytoplasmic ascorbate peroxidase (KO-APX1) experiments, which are thought to represent ... In agreement a gene encoding a cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (APX1; PPN071A07 Additional file 6: Table S5) was found among ...
... formed by ascorbate oxidation). Here we show that the metabolic effects and cytotoxicity of high-dose ascorbate in vitro result ... Hardell, L., Degerman, A., Tomic, ., Marlund, S. L. & Bergfors, M. Levels of Selenium in Plasma and Glutathione Peroxidase in ... High-dose ascorbate (vitamin C) has shown promising anticancer activity. Two redox mechanisms have been proposed: hydrogen ... from antioxidant to anti-inammatory eects2, particularly the families of glutathione peroxidases (GPxs) and ...
The H2O2 reacts in the presence of peroxidase (POD) with phenol and 4-aminophenazone to form a 0-quinone amine dye. The ... The sample is initially incubated with a reagent mixture containing ascorbate oxidase and a clearing system. In this test ... In the presence of peroxidase, the peroxide reacts with 4-aminophenazone and 4-chlorophenol in a Trinder reaction to a ...
Nitric Oxide (NO) Differentially Modulates the Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX) Isozymes of Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Fruits ... Salicylic acid-induced nitric oxide enhances arsenic toxicity tolerance in maize plants by upregulating the ascorbate- ...
Enzymatic activities (glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)) were also determined. ... activities in earthworms increased while the peroxidase (POD) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities decreased after ...
... peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and catalase (CAT) were determined as described previously [37,38,39,40]. ... Nakano Y, Asada K. Hydrogen peroxide is scavenged by ascorbate specific peroxidase in spinach chloroplasts. Plant Cell Physiol ... Iron deficiency induced changes in ascorbate content and enzyme activities related to ascorbate metabolism in cucumber roots. ...
The activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), another antioxidative enzyme, in R-biotype was doubled by 50 µM paraquat and ... Analysis of several antioxidants and pertinent enzymes revealed that ascorbate peroxidase activity was decreased by paraquat ... The content of ascorbate was higher in R-biotype, but glutathione contents were similar in both biotypes. Observation on the ... In addition, the high level of ascorbate in R-biotype treated with paraquat throughout the experiment, in contrast with a low ...
Magnesium deficiency and high light intensity enhance activities of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione ... Reducing sugars, amino acids and activity of peroxidase POD: All storage treatments (anti-sprouting agent/monoterpenes) gave ... Enzyme analysis peroxidase POD was determined using standard methods described by Yamazaki and Piette (1963). At the end of ... Reducing sugars, amino acids and peroxidase enzyme of potato tubers as affected by anti-sprouting agent during 2012 and 2013 ( ...
Isolation and characterisation of a cDNA encoding a novel cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase from potato plants (Solanum tuberosum ... Organ-specific distribution and subcellular localisation of ascorbate peroxidase isoenzymes in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) ...
... and peroxidase) significantly increased as a result of all treatments. The results may suggest that UV-B irradiation induces ... Activities of 3 H_2O_2-detoxifying antioxidant enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, ... Activities of 3 H_2O_2-detoxifying antioxidant enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and peroxidase) ...
The activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), another antioxidative enzyme, in R-biotype was doubled by 50 µM paraquat and ... Analysis of several antioxidants and pertinent enzymes revealed that ascorbate peroxidase activity was decreased by paraquat ... The content of ascorbate was higher in R-biotype, but glutathione contents were similar in both biotypes. Observation on the ... In addition, the high level of ascorbate in R-biotype treated with paraquat throughout the experiment, in contrast with a low ...
Intercladal sequence variations were found to be much higher in both peroxidases, compared to SODs. For APX, these variable ... Different degrees of sequence evolution between SODs and peroxidases might be the result of potential selective pressure on the ... In contrast, genetic redundancy of hydrogen peroxide scavenging enzymes might permit the observed variations in peroxidase ... catalase peroxidase [KatG], manganese superoxide dismutase [MnSOD]) are present in the genus Symbiodinium. Amino acid sequences ...
... and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). Non-enzymatic antioxidants, such as glutathione, ascorbate and α-tocopherol, are also ... Bellisola G, Galassini S, Moschini G, Poli G, Perona G, Guidi G: Selenium and glutathione peroxidase variations induced by ... whereas glutathione peroxidases were down-regulated in both normo- and dyslipidemic subjects. MMPs were down-regulated in both ... Effects of dietary fish oil on malondialdehyde production and glutathione peroxidase activity in hyperlipidaemic patients. ...
  • superoxide dismutase [EC 1.15.1.1] and ascorbate peroxidase [EC 1.11.1.11]. (scirp.org)
  • The first line of mitochondrial antioxidants is composed of superoxide dismutase and the enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, which are not only able to scavenge ROS but also to repair cell damage and possibly serve as redox sensors. (frontiersin.org)
  • hence, plants and animals maintain complex systems of multiple types of antioxidants, such as glutathione, vitamin C , and vitamin E as well as enzymes such as catalase , superoxide dismutase and various peroxidases . (wikidoc.org)
  • This study aimed at determining the level of reduced and oxidized forms of ascorbic acid, and the activity of ASCORBATE peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase enzymes changes in pulp of Golden delicious APPLE cultivar during cold storage. (sid.ir)
  • Superoxide dismutase and ASCORBATE peroxidase activities were decreased while the activity of catalase was increased. (sid.ir)
  • Important antioxidative enzymes include catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), heme oxygenase (HMOX), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In general, Zn induced oxidative stress which could be verified by increased lipid peroxidation rates and changes in catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase activities. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The effect of this gene overexpression was superimposed by the treatments of high or low temperature in tobacco, since the activities of both chloroplastic SOD (superoxide dismutase EC 1.15.1.1), APX (ascorbate peroxidase EC 1.11.1.7) and the content of AsA in leaves were significantly higher in transgenic plants than those of WT, while the contents of H(2)O(2) and O(2)(-·) were reduced. (cornell.edu)
  • Principal component analysis capturing 91.3% phenotypic variations, revealed that the shoot samples treated with both Streptomyces and the pathogen exhibited significantly enhanced antioxidant parameters including superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, glutathione reductase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase, and total phenolic contents when compared to shoot samples treated with only M. phaseolina. (cgiar.org)
  • Hasanuzzaman and Fujita 2011 2013 Antioxidant defense enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalase (CAT) ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) have been reported to reduce the concentrations of superoxide (L.) is an essential legume crop produced worldwide because it serves as a primary source of proteins for the growing population and it is also used as green manure and fodder for animals. (mirc-undernet.org)
  • Further, we observed increased activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase in A. doliolum exposed to elevated temperature. (who.int)
  • 2012). In enzymatic systems, superoxide dismutase (SOD) scavenges O 2- with reaction product H 2 O 2 , whereas peroxidase, catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) decompose H 2 O 2 to H 2 O at different cellular locations (Noctor & Foyer 1998). (ukdiss.com)
  • The activities of enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase are inhibited by heavy metals. (scienceabc.com)
  • First line defence antioxidants-superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX): Their fundamental role in the entire antioxidant defence grid. (quicksilverscientific.com)
  • Five were oxidative stress associated enzymes, including phospholipid glutathione peroxidase, a salt stressed associated protein, ascorbate peroxidase and Mn-superoxide dismutase. (uniss.it)
  • They can be endogenously synthesised, which can be enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and the glutathione peroxidase/glutathione reductase system, or non-enzymatic compounds such as peroxiredoxins, ceruloplasmin, ferritin, and albumin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • No significant change was observed in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities in the symplast of leaf during the rolling. (erdogan.edu.tr)
  • The activity of antioxidant enzymes [ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT)] increased with the duration and severity of drought treatment. (elsevier.com)
  • The study was extended to the analysis of enzymes involved in removing reactive oxygen species, namely ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, total peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. (unicatt.it)
  • In resistant seedlings, before infection, ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzyme activities were higher than in the susceptible ones and, 5 days after treatment, they remained unchanged. (unicatt.it)
  • Under abiotic stresses, KAR 1 -treated seedlings had a higher activity of the key antioxidative enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase, in comparison with the control, which leads to a lower level of hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde, and electrolyte leakage. (figshare.com)
  • Immediately (0 h) or 24 h after ultrasonication, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activity increased significantly, as did the concentration of low molecular weight antioxidants (GSSG, GSH, AA, TCPa). (researcher-app.com)
  • In comparison, low Zn decreased specific activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and increased glutathione reductase (GR), where supra-optimal temperature increased SOD, decreased GR and did not change APX activity in leaves and roots. (sabanciuniv.edu)
  • Also, melatonin has been reported to alter the activities of enzymes which improve the total antioxidative defense capacity of the organism, i.e., superoxide dimutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and nitric oxide synthase. (integratedhealthblog.com)
  • lipid peroxidation products: malonyldialdehyde (MDA) together with 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and two antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were examined. (lifeextension.com)
  • Examples include enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and thioreductase, and antioxidant molecules such as glutathione and vitamins C and E. In normal healthy cellular metabolism, the production of oxidants is balanced by the action of antioxidant mechanisms that prevent free radical damage from getting out of hand and overwhelming the cell. (oasisofhope.com)
  • SRB has one of nature`s highest concentrations of the vitamin E-related compounds tocopherols and tocotrienols, as well as B-vitamins, fibre, essential fatty acids, minerals and more than 100 different antioxidant compounds (such as alpha lipoic acid [which also recycles antioxidants such as vitamins C and E], co-enzyme Q10 (CoQ10), carotenoids and the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase and catalase). (bodykind.com)
  • Isolation and characterisation of a cDNA encoding a novel cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase from potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.) . Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 28 (1), 41 - 47. (up.pt)
  • Non-enzymatic antioxidants, such as glutathione, ascorbate and α-tocopherol, are also important regulators of the oxidative status. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Increase in the temperature resulted in enhanced level of non-enzymatic antioxidants such as carotenoid, proline and ascorbate. (who.int)
  • But also there are exogenous or diet-derived antioxidants such as tocopherols, carotenes, ascorbate, and some minerals (e.g. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The ratio of variable to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence (FJFm) was estimated as a measure of PSII activity Activities of the enzymes catalase, glutathione reductase and guaiacol-dependent peroxidase and contents o f the antioxidants ascorbate and glutathione were assayed as poten- tial indicators of oxidative stress. (mpg.de)
  • The cytotoxicity induced by 4-A2CP was reduced by pretreatment with the peroxidase inhibitor mercaptosuccinic acid, and some antioxidants (ascorbate, glutathione, N-acetyl-L-cysteine) but not by others (α-tocopherol, DPPD). (marshall.edu)
  • L-carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) and carcinine (beta-alanylhistamine) act as natural antioxidants with hydroxyl-radical-scavenging and lipid-peroxidase activities. (supp.ai)
  • Such errors may be diminished by dilution 1:40, or with an anti-oxidant, tert-butyl-p-hydroxyanisole, and ascorbate oxidase. (nih.gov)
  • Peroxidase was more resistant to PL than polyphenol oxidase, whereas the bromelain activity was completely retained in all PL-treated juices. (springer.com)
  • Immunogen Recombinant Cucurbita maxima L-ascorbate oxidase protein, amino acids: 31-579. (agrisera.com)
  • Background L-ascorbate oxidase has oxidoreductase activity and belongs to multicopper oxidase family and is an apoplastic enzyme involved in metabolism of plant ascorbate (AA). (agrisera.com)
  • In addition, 10 mg/L Na 2 SeO 3 decreased the activity of ascorbate oxidase (AAO) at WFP and CFP. (agriculturejournals.cz)
  • With the addition of the farm in Tulelake we are assured a consistent supply of raw materials, including horseradish (peroxidase), zucchini (ascorbate acid oxidase) and other specialty products. (calzyme.com)
  • Unit of measure is \"U\".", "Name": "CB - Order Information" }, { "Language": "en", "Value": "Use Oxalate Oxidase in diagnostic tests for the determination of oxalate. (roche.com)
  • Activities of 3 H_2O_2-detoxifying antioxidant enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and peroxidase) significantly increased as a result of all treatments. (tubitak.gov.tr)
  • In addition, analysis of antioxidant enzymes showed that AsA pretreatment causes an increase in catalase (EC 1.11.1.6), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) (EC 1.11.1.11) and guaiacol peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) activities under salinity stress. (verlag-berger.at)
  • Gene expression cluster analysis of antioxidant enzymes identified two distinct populations of high-grade serous adenocarcinomas (HGSA), the most common ovarian cancer subtype, which specifically separated into clusters based on glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) expression. (uab.edu)
  • In consistent with these observations, the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase, ascorbate peroxide, and peroxidase in the GmsSOS1-expressing plants were higher than those in wild type under salt stress. (ttu.edu)
  • The super oxide dismutase activity increased in PEG treatment alone or in combination with PBZ and/or GA. Interaction of PBZ and/or GA with PEG increased the catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activity to a level more than PEG treatment, which resulted in H 2 O 2 scavenging. (ukdiss.com)
  • Under salinity condition, peroxidase activity was significantly higher in imbibitions than in germination whereas catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activity was higher in germination than in imbibitions. (ac.ir)
  • Other names in common use include L-ascorbic acid peroxidase, L-ascorbic acid-specific peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, and ascorbic acid peroxidase. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been found that At4g21570.1 has an effect on the expression of a number of HL-responsive genes encoding ascorbate peroxidase 2, early light-induced protein 1 (ELIP1), type II peroxiredoxin F and two types of glutathione-S-transferases. (biosciencehorizons.com)
  • In the leaf symplast, the highest changes were found in catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) activities when compared to score 1 during leaf rolling. (erdogan.edu.tr)
  • Immediately after the heat shock, an increase in lipid peroxidation and guaiacol peroxidase activity, as well as DNA damage measured by the Comet assay were induced to higher extent in the young plants than in the senescent ones compared to their respective controls. (springer.com)
  • Only ascorbate was found to protect the lungs against lipid peroxidation. (cdc.gov)
  • dependent iron-ascorbate and lipid-peroxyl-radical-generating linoleic acid 13-monohydroperoxide (LOOH)-activated haemoglobin systems, as measured by thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substance. (supp.ai)
  • The relationship between, lipid peroxidation induced by ascorbate and adenosine ADP/Fe3+, and its effect on the respiratory chain activities of beef heart submitochondrial particles has been investigated. (lifeextension.com)
  • This enzyme participates in ascorbate and aldarate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis of Ascorbate Metabolism in Arabidopsis Under High-Light Stress. (shimane-univ-biochemistry.jp)
  • Activation of ascorbate metabolism by nitrogen starvation and its physiological impacts in Arabidopsis thaliana . (shimane-univ-biochemistry.jp)
  • Cadred (Selenium (Selenium Dioxide)) is part of glutathione peroxidase which protects cell components from oxidative damage due to peroxides produced in cellular metabolism. (sdrugs.com)
  • As water deficit stress increased, shoot and root dry weights decreased, while Catalase (CAT), Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD) and Ascorbate PeroXidase (APX) activities, in roots, increased. (ac.ir)
  • GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMPase: EC 2.7.7.22) plays a crucial role in the synthesis of L-ascorbate (AsA) and the consequent detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS). (cornell.edu)
  • Furthermore, various reactive oxygen species - scavenging gene s, such as 66 peroxidase ( POD ) and 8 ascorbate peroxidase ( APx ) genes, were significantly upregulated after S. graminum feeding, whereas only 15 POD and one APx genes were induced by S. avenae feeding. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-ascorbate:hydrogen-peroxide oxidoreductase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, genetic redundancy of hydrogen peroxide scavenging enzymes might permit the observed variations in peroxidase sequences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Peroxidases or peroxide reductases (POD, EC number 1.11.1.x) are a large group of oxidases existing in animals, plants and microorganisms, which catalyzes the oxidation of a particular substrate by hydrogen peroxide [1]. (researchsquare.com)
  • In the ASC-GSH routine, using ascorbate as an electron donor, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.1) scavenges potentially harmful hydrogen peroxide to drinking water through the chloroplasts and mitochondria, and also other organelles [10],[11]. (cancer-ecosystem.com)
  • Recently, researchers at the National Institutes of Health have discovered that high concentrations of vitamin C (ascorbate) can react spontaneously with molecular oxygen within tumors to generate large amounts of hydrogen peroxide, which can be lethal to tumor cells whose catalase activity is low (8,9). (oasisofhope.com)
  • Name": "Applications" }, { "Language": "en", "Value": "Oxidoreductase that catalyzes the interconversion of oxalate to carbon dioxide and hydrogen peroxide. (roche.com)
  • 2007) to be essential for full activation of genes for components of the chloroplast antioxidant system, such as peroxiredoxins and ascorbate peroxidases, and for biosynthesis of the glutathione and phytochelatin precursor gamma-glutamyl cysteine. (fu-berlin.de)
  • In rice (Oryza sativa L.) there are two chloroplast ascorbate peroxidases isoforms, OsAPX7 (stromal) and OsAPX8 (thylakoidal). (unl.pt)
  • Cooperation of chloroplast ascorbate peroxidases and proton gradient regulation 5 is critical for protecting Arabidopsis plants from photooxidative stress. (shimane-univ-biochemistry.jp)
  • Chloroplast development activates the expression of ascorbate biosynthesis-associated genes in Arabidopsis roots. (shimane-univ-biochemistry.jp)
  • APX enzymes show high specificity for ascorbate as an electron donor, but most APXs will also oxidise other organic substrates that are more characteristic of the class III peroxidases (such as horseradish peroxidase), in some cases at rates comparable to that of ascorbate itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • Background: Class III peroxidases (POD) proteins are widely present in the plant kingdom that are involved in a broad range of physiological processes including stress responses and lignin polymerization throughout the plant life cycle. (researchsquare.com)
  • Among them, class III peroxidases, belonging to the haem peroxidase subfamily, exist only in plants and have an extremely widespread presence in the plant kingdom [2]. (researchsquare.com)
  • Understanding functional diversity and substrate specificity in haem peroxidases: what can we learn from ascorbate peroxidase? (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on a peroxide as acceptor (peroxidases). (wikipedia.org)
  • El mejorado rendimiento de 'Bam' bajo alta salinidad se acompanó por un aumento en actividad SOD (EC 1.15.1.1) y contenido de prolina en todos los estados de crecimiento. (scielo.cl)
  • Some proteins from the APX family lack the ascorbate-binding amino acid residues suggesting that they might oxidize other molecules than ascorbate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus organellar Prx proteins enable an alternative water-water cycle for detoxification of photochemically produced H2O2, which acts independently from the ascorbate-dependent Asada-Halliwell-Foyer cycle. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Trx peroxidases, GSH peroxidases, catalase, and SOD) as well as REDOX regulatory systems that recycle/reactivate the ROS scavenging proteins and other REDOX sensitive proteins (e.g. (hindawi.com)
  • Here, we used enhanced ascorbate peroxidase (APEX)-tagged PB2 proteins and electron microscopy to study the localization of PB2 in mitochondria. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Under physiological conditions, the immediate product of the reaction, the monodehydroascorbate radical, is reduced back to ascorbate by a monodehydroascorbate reductase (monodehydroascorbate reductase (NADH)) enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the absence of a reductase, two monodehydroascorbate radicals disproportionate rapidly to dehydroascorbic acid and ascorbate. (wikipedia.org)
  • EC 1.11.1.6), glutathione peroxidases (GPXs) and peroxiredoxin reductases (PrxRs), as well as the ascorbateCglutathione (ASC-GSH) routine, the ROS amounts are maintained inside a homeostatic condition. (cancer-ecosystem.com)
  • Using rational enzyme engineering and directed evolution, we developed APEX (enhanced ascorbate peroxidase), a heme peroxidase that functions as a versatile genetic tag for electron microscopy and several other applications in cell biology. (rutgers.edu)
  • Ascorbate peroxidase (or L-ascorbate peroxidase, APX) (EC 1.11.1.11) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-ascorbate + H2O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } dehydroascorbate + 2 H2O It is a member of the family of heme-containing peroxidases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heme peroxidases catalyse the H2O2-dependent oxidation of a wide range of different, usually organic, substrates in biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • H2O [3] In ascorbate peroxidase, Compound I is a transient (green) species and contains a high-valent iron species (known as ferryl heme, FeIV) and a porphyrin pi-cation radical,, as found in horseradish peroxidase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the first part, I will describe the development of heme peroxidase enzymes as genetically encoded probes for cell biology. (rutgers.edu)
  • Proline itself, on the contrary, may not be able to directly control the levels of H2O2, although it seems able to enhance the enzymatic activity of catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), the two most effective scavengers of H2O2 in plant cells. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • Despite substantial varietal differences, increases in Cd 2+ concentration and the soaking duration caused a linear decrease in growth and a reduced activity of catalase and peroxidase for all varieties. (ac.be)
  • Ascorbate (AA) plays a key role in defense against oxidative stress and is particularly abundant in photosynthetic tissues. (agrisera.com)
  • EN] The presence of antibiotics in soils could be due to natural production by soil microorganisms or to the effect of anthropogenic activities. (upv.es)
  • Under control condition, catalase, peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase activities were greater in germination than in imbibition. (ac.ir)
  • However, increases of the activities of glutathione reductase and peroxidase observed during a period of recovery following the cold-exposures were markedly higher in 0 3-fumigated plants, as compared to plants grown in filtered air or fumigated with car exhaust alone. (mpg.de)
  • APXs catalyse the H2O2-dependent oxidation of ascorbate in plants, algae and certain cyanobacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the determination of unbound bilirubin by rate of oxidation with peroxidase, errors may be caused by (1) phenol, propylparaben, and phenothiazines (free radical acceleration), (2) haemoglobin (peroxidase effect), and (3) ascorbate (inhibition). (nih.gov)
  • Karaseva EI, Naumchik IV, Metelitza DI (2003) Noncompetitive activation of the peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of o-phenylenediamine by melamine (in Russian). (enzyme-modifier.ch)
  • Ascorbate-dependent peroxidase activity was first reported in 1979,, more than 150 years after the first observation of peroxidase activity in horseradish plants and almost 40 years after the discovery of the closely related cytochrome c peroxidase enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • APX has high sequence identity to cytochrome c peroxidase, which is also a class I peroxidase enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytochrome c peroxidase Manganese peroxidase Kelly GJ, Latzko E (December 1979). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytochrome c Peroxidase" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytochrome c peroxidase, mitochondrial OS=Cryptococcus neoformans var. (uu.nl)
  • In some experiments, cells were pretreated with an antioxidant or cytochrome P450 (CYP), flavin monooxygenase (FMO), peroxidase or cyclooxygenase inhibitor prior to 4-A2CP (1.0 mM). (marshall.edu)
  • Peroxidases have been classified into three types (class I, class II and class III): ascorbate peroxidases is a class I peroxidase enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • This means that defining an enzyme as an APX is not straightforward, but is usually applied when the specific activity for ascorbate is higher than that for other substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enzyme-dependent ascorbate recycling in human erythrocytes: role of thioredoxin reductase. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • Identification of a cDNA encoding Ascorbate peroxidase from Pinus Pinaster Ait. (uminho.pt)
  • The thioredoxin-dependent peroxidase activity can be measured in crude plant extracts and contributes significantly to the overall H2O2 detoxification capacity. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • The results of biochemical analysis showed ascorbate peroxidase and peroxidase enzymes activity was significantly higher in Majar than Amol. (ac.ir)
  • glutathione peroxidase and catalase to protect against specific free radicals in combination with specific amino acids and minerals to enhance effectiveness. (petcarerx.com)
  • Variable trends in amino acids and ascorbate peroxidase were observed by drought. (cyberleninka.org)
  • Enhancing the H2O2-scavenging capacity of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in EM-treated plants may be an efficient mechanism to attenuate the activation of plant defences. (nih.gov)
  • Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase plays a role in protecting cancer cells from docosahexaenoic acid-induced cytotoxicity. (ouhsc.edu)
  • Glutathione Peroxidase" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (ouhsc.edu)
  • In addition, 4-A2CP may be bioactivated by cyclooxygenase and peroxidases, and free radicals appear to play a role in 4-A2CP cytotoxicity. (marshall.edu)
  • Probable L-ascorbate peroxidase 4 OS=Oryza sativa subsp. (uu.nl)
  • Peroxidase 2 OS=Oryza sativa subsp. (uu.nl)
  • Suppression of the lycopene cyclase gene causes downregulation of ascorbate peroxidase activity and decreased glutathione pool size, leading to H 2 O 2 accumulation in Euglena gracilis . (shimane-univ-biochemistry.jp)
  • A high-valent iron-oxo species analogous to the compound I of peroxidases has been thought to be the activated oxygen species in P450-catalyzed reactions. (wichita.edu)