A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates VANILLOID RECEPTORS. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.
Peroxidases that utilize ASCORBIC ACID as an electron donor to reduce HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to WATER. The reaction results in the production of monodehydroascorbic acid and DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
A modification of the freeze-drying method in which the ice within the frozen tissue is replaced by alcohol or other solvent at a very low temperature.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
Amides of salicylic acid.
An enzyme that converts ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid. EC 1.10.3.3.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A class of weak acids with the general formula R-CONHOH.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A plant species cultivated for the seed used as animal feed and as a source of canola cooking oil.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.2.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.
A plant species of the genus ARTEMISIA, family ASTERACEAE that has been used in ABSINTHE. The oil contains neurotoxic 1-thujone and d-isothujone.
A plant genus of the family MYRTACEAE that bears an edible fruit and contains guavin B and quercetin glycosides.
A plant genus of the family SIMAROUBACEAE. Members produce quassinoids.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE with strong-smelling foliage. It is a source of SANTONIN and other cytotoxic TERPENES.
A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. The common name of rock rose is used with several plants of this family.
The reversibly oxidized form of ascorbic acid. It is the lactone of 2,3-DIKETOGULONIC ACID and has antiscorbutic activity in man on oral ingestion.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.

In vivo role of catalase-peroxidase in synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. (1/206)

The katG gene coding for the only catalase-peroxidase in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 was deleted in this organism. Although the rate of H2O2 decomposition was about 30 times lower in the DeltakatG mutant than in the wild type, the strain had a normal phenotype and its doubling time as well as its resistance to H2O2 and methyl viologen were indistinguishable from those of the wild type. The residual H2O2-scavenging capacity was more than sufficient to deal with the rate of H2O2 production by the cell, estimated to be less than 1% of the maximum rate of photosynthetic electron transport in vivo. We propose that catalase-peroxidase has a protective role against environmental H2O2 generated by algae or bacteria in the ecosystem (for example, in mats). This protective role is most apparent at a high cell density of the cyanobacterium. The residual H2O2-scavenging activity in the DeltakatG mutant was a light-dependent peroxidase activity. However, neither glutathione peroxidase nor ascorbate peroxidase accounted for a significant part of this H2O2-scavenging activity. When a small thiol such as dithiothreitol was added to the medium, the rate of H2O2 decomposition in the DeltakatG mutant increased more than 10-fold, indicating that a thiol-specific peroxidase, for which thioredoxin may be the physiological electron donor, is present. Oxidized thioredoxin is likely to be reduced again by photosynthetic electron transport. Therefore, under laboratory conditions, there are only two enzymatic mechanisms for H2O2 decomposition present in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. One is catalyzed by a catalase-peroxidase, and the other is catalyzed by thiol-specific peroxidase.  (+info)

Systemic signaling and acclimation in response to excess excitation energy in Arabidopsis. (2/206)

Land plants are sessile and have developed sophisticated mechanisms that allow for both immediate and acclimatory responses to changing environments. Partial exposure of low light-adapted Arabidopsis plants to excess light results in a systemic acclimation to excess excitation energy and consequent photooxidative stress in unexposed leaves. Thus, plants possess a mechanism to communicate excess excitation energy systemically, allowing them to mount a defense against further episodes of such stress. Systemic redox changes in the proximity of photosystem II, hydrogen peroxide, and the induction of antioxidant defenses are key determinants of this mechanism of systemic acquired acclimation.  (+info)

Induction of ascorbate peroxidase by ethylene and hydrogen peroxide during growth of cultured soybean cells. (3/206)

In cultured soybean cells, a transient ethylene burst in the pre-stationary phase was followed by an induction of ascorbate peroxidase (AsPOX) in the stationary phase. Treatment of cells with the ethylene antagonist, silver thiosulfate (STS), resulted in the suppression of enzyme activity. Application of the ethylene releasing agent 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (CEPA) in the medium led to an increased enzyme activity when treated in the pre-stationary phase. On the contrary, a remarkable inhibitory effect on enzyme activity was elicited by 1,3-dimethyl-2-thiourea (DMTU), trapping the hydrogen peroxide generated when treated in the stationary phase. Likewise, a steady level of AsPOX transcript was reduced by STS treatment. Furthermore, its effect appeared to be more rapid and prominent during the pre-stationary phase. It is suggested that the induction of AsPOX in cultured soybean cells during the stationary phase could result, at least in part, by the hydrogen peroxide generated as a result of preceding ethylene production.  (+info)

Stress-induced legume root nodule senescence. Physiological, biochemical, and structural alterations. (4/206)

Nitrate-fed and dark-stressed bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and pea (Pisum sativum) plants were used to study nodule senescence. In bean, 1 d of nitrate treatment caused a partially reversible decline in nitrogenase activity and an increase in O(2) diffusion resistance, but minimal changes in carbon metabolites, antioxidants, and other biochemical parameters, indicating that the initial decrease in nitrogenase activity was due to O(2) limitation. In pea, 1 d of dark treatment led to a 96% decline in nitrogenase activity and sucrose, indicating sugar deprivation as the primary cause of activity loss. In later stages of senescence (4 d of nitrate or 2-4 d of dark treatment), nodules showed accumulation of oxidized proteins and general ultrastructural deterioration. The major thiol tripeptides of untreated nodules were homoglutathione (72%) in bean and glutathione (89%) in pea. These predominant thiols declined by approximately 93% after 4 d of nitrate or dark treatment, but the loss of thiol content can be only ascribed in part to limited synthesis by gamma-glutamylcysteinyl, homoglutathione, and glutathione synthetases. Ascorbate peroxidase was immunolocalized primarily in the infected and parenchyma (inner cortex) nodule cells, with large decreases in senescent tissue. Ferritin was almost undetectable in untreated bean nodules, but accumulated in the plastids and amyloplasts of uninfected interstitial and parenchyma cells following 2 or 4 d of nitrate treatment, probably as a response to oxidative stress.  (+info)

Peroxisomal membrane ascorbate peroxidase is sorted to a membranous network that resembles a subdomain of the endoplasmic reticulum. (5/206)

The peroxisomal isoform of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) is a novel membrane isoform that functions in the regeneration of NAD(+) and protection against toxic reactive oxygen species. The intracellular localization and sorting of peroxisomal APX were examined both in vivo and in vitro. Epitope-tagged peroxisomal APX, which was expressed transiently in tobacco BY-2 cells, localized to a reticular/circular network that resembled endoplasmic reticulum (ER; 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide-stained membranes) and to peroxisomes. The reticular network did not colocalize with other organelle marker proteins, including three ER reticuloplasmins. However, in vitro, peroxisomal APX inserted post-translationally into the ER but not into other purified organelle membranes (including peroxisomal membranes). Insertion into the ER depended on the presence of molecular chaperones and ATP. These results suggest that regions of the ER serve as a possible intermediate in the sorting pathway of peroxisomal APX. Insight into this hypothesis was obtained from in vivo experiments with brefeldin A (BFA), a toxin that blocks vesicle-mediated protein export from ER. A transiently expressed chloramphenicol acetyltransferase-peroxisomal APX (CAT-pAPX) fusion protein accumulated only in the reticular/circular network in BFA-treated cells; after subsequent removal of BFA from these cells, the CAT-pAPX was distributed to preexisting peroxisomes. Thus, plant peroxisomal APX, a representative enzymatic peroxisomal membrane protein, is sorted to peroxisomes through an indirect pathway involving a preperoxisomal compartment with characteristics of a distinct subdomain of the ER, possibly a peroxisomal ER subdomain.  (+info)

Transgenic tobacco plants with reduced capability to detoxify reactive oxygen intermediates are hyperresponsive to pathogen infection. (6/206)

Reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) play a critical role in the defense of plants against invading pathogens. Produced during the "oxidative burst," they are thought to activate programmed cell death (PCD) and induce antimicrobial defenses such as pathogenesis-related proteins. It was shown recently that during the interaction of plants with pathogens, the expression of ROI-detoxifying enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) is suppressed. It was suggested that this suppression, occurring upon pathogen recognition and coinciding with an enhanced rate of ROI production, plays a key role in elevating cellular ROI levels, thereby potentiating the induction of PCD and other defenses. To examine the relationship between the suppression of antioxidative mechanisms and the induction of PCD and other defenses during pathogen attack, we studied the interaction between transgenic antisense tobacco plants with reduced APX or CAT and a bacterial pathogen that triggers the hypersensitive response. Transgenic plants with reduced capability to detoxify ROI (i.e., antisense APX or CAT) were found to be hyperresponsive to pathogen attack. They activated PCD in response to low amounts of pathogens that did not trigger the activation of PCD in control plants. Our findings support the hypothesis that suppression of ROI-scavenging enzymes during the hypersensitive response plays an important role in enhancing pathogen-induced PCD.  (+info)

Chlororespiration and poising of cyclic electron transport. Plastoquinone as electron transporter between thylakoid NADH dehydrogenase and peroxidase. (7/206)

Polypeptides encoded by plastid ndh genes form a complex (Ndh) which could reduce plastoquinone with NADH. Through a terminal oxidase, reduced plastoquinone would be oxidized in chlororespiration. However, isolated Ndh complex has low activity with plastoquinone and no terminal oxidase has been found in chloroplasts, thus the function of Ndh complex is unknown. Alternatively, thylakoid hydroquinone peroxidase could oxidize reduced plastoquinone with H(2)O(2). By immunoaffinity chromatography, we have purified the plastid Ndh complex of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to investigate the electron donor and acceptor specificity. A detergent-containing system was reconstructed with thylakoid Ndh complex and peroxidase which oxidized NADH with H(2)O(2) in a plastoquinone-dependent process. This system and the increases of thylakoid Ndh complex and peroxidase activities under photooxidative stress suggest that the chlororespiratory process consists of the sequence of reactions catalyzed by Ndh complex, peroxidase (acting on reduced plastoquinone), superoxide dismutase, and the non-enzymic one-electron transfer from reduced iron-sulfur protein (FeSP) to O(2). When FeSP is a component of cytochrome b(6).f complex or of the same Ndh complex, O(2) may be reduced with NADH, without requirement of light. Chlororespiration consumes reactive species of oxygen and, eventually, may decrease their production by lowering O(2) concentration in chloroplasts. The common plastoquinone pool with photosynthetic electron transport suggests that chlororespiratory reactions may poise reduced and oxidized forms of the intermediates of cyclic electron transport under highly fluctuating light intensities.  (+info)

The sorting signals for peroxisomal membrane-bound ascorbate peroxidase are within its C-terminal tail. (8/206)

Peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase (APX) is a carboxyl tail-anchored, type II (N(cytosol)-C(matrix)) integral membrane protein that functions in the regeneration of NAD(+) in glyoxysomes of germinated oilseeds and protection of peroxisomes in other organisms from toxic H(2)O(2). Recently we showed that cottonseed peroxisomal APX was sorted post-translationally from the cytosol to peroxisomes via a novel reticular/circular membranous network that was interpreted to be a subdomain of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), named peroxisomal ER (pER). Here we report on the molecular signals responsible for sorting peroxisomal APX. Deletions or site-specific substitutions of certain amino acid residues within the hydrophilic C-terminal-most eight-amino acid residues (includes a positively charged domain found in most peroxisomal integral membrane-destined proteins) abolished sorting of peroxisomal APX to peroxisomes via pER. However, the C-terminal tail was not sufficient for sorting chloramphenicol acetyltransferase to peroxisomes via pER, whereas the peptide plus most of the immediately adjacent 21-amino acid transmembrane domain (TMD) of peroxisomal APX was sufficient for sorting. Replacement of the peroxisomal APX TMD with an artificial TMD (devoid of putative sorting sequences) plus the peroxisomal APX C-terminal tail also sorted chloramphenicol acetyltransferase to peroxisomes via pER, indicating that the peroxisomal APX TMD does not possess essential sorting information. Instead, the TMD appears to confer the proper context required for the conserved positively charged domain to function within peroxisomal APX as an overlapping pER sorting signal and a membrane peroxisome targeting signal type 2.  (+info)

A cDNA for thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase of pumpkin was cloned and characterized. Thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase had a high similarity to cytosolic ascorbate peroxidases, and the precursor contained a transit peptide to chloroplasts at its ammo-terminus and a putative membrane-spanning region at its carboxy-terminus.. ...
Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) is known to catalyze the reduction of H2O2 to water and enhance plants tolerance in stress environment. An ascorbate peroxidase protein (BnAPX) was previously isolated from Brassica napus in our laboratory and it was located in the chloroplast. In order to clarify the physiological function of BnAPX in plant response to photooxidative stress, 1562 bp upstream sequence of BnAPX was isolated by genomic walking and searched for cis-element by PROMOTER SCAN software and PLANTCARE website. Many light-responsive cis-elements were revealed in this prediction. Promoter activity analysis of this sequence was operated by transient expression in B. napus protoplasts. Results of promoter deletion analysis indicated that the core promoter element lied in 0.3 kb of BnAPX 5-flanking region. Moreover, our data showed that promoter of BnAPX could be activated by light.. Key words: BnAPX, H2O2, promoter analysis, transient expression, genomic walking, 5-flanking region.. ...
Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa; Lepistö, Anna; Hannikainen, Kati; Piippo, Mirva; Luomala, Eeva-Maria; Aro, Eva-Mari; Rintamäki, Eevi (2008 ...
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as O2 and H2O2, play a key role in plant metabolism, cellular signaling, and defense. In leaf cells, the chloroplast is considered to be a focal point of ROS metabolism. It is a major producer of O2 and H2O2 during photosynthesis, and it contains a large array of ROS-scavenging mechanisms that have been extensively studied. By contrast, the function of the cytosolic ROS-scavenging mechanisms of leaf cells is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that in the absence of the cytosolic H2O2-scavenging enzyme ascorbate peroxidase 1 (APX1), the entire chloroplastic H2O2-scavenging system of Arabidopsis thaliana collapses, H2O2 levels increase, and protein oxidation occurs. We further identify specific proteins oxidized in APX1-deficient plants and characterize the signaling events that ensue in knockout-Apx1 plants in response to a moderate level of light stress. Using a dominant-negative approach, we demonstrate that heat shock transcription factors play a ...
Department of Biological Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock 79409, USA.. An Arabidopsis 14-3-3 protein, AFT1, was used as a bait in the two-hybrid system to identify its interacting proteins. One of the candidate proteins, APX3, was identified as a putative peroxisomal membrane-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Ascorbate peroxidases are important defense enzymes that protect plant cells from oxidative stress damage. DNA blot analysis indicates that APX3 is encoded by a single-copy gene in the Arabidopsis genome. RNA blot analyses show that APX3 transcript levels increase slightly in response to cold, UV light, and treatments with hydrogen peroxide and paraquat. The activity of APX3 in Arabidopsis may be controlled in two ways: its enzymatic activity through protein-protein interactions and its transcription by transcriptional or posttranscriptional regulation.. MeSH Terms ...
We evaluated the H2O2-scavenging activity of the water-water cycle (WWC) in illuminated intact chloroplasts isolated from tobacco leaves. Illumination under conditions that limited photosynthesis [red light (,640 nm), 250 µmol photons m-2 s-1 in the absence of HCO3 -] caused chloroplasts to take up O2 and accumulate H2O2. Concomitant with the O2 uptake, both ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) lost their activities. However, superoxide dismutase (SOD), monodehydroascorbate radical reductase (MDAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities remained unaffected. The extent to which the photosynthetic linear electron flow decreased was small compared with the decline in APX activity. Therefore, the loss of APX activity lowered the electron flux through the WWC, as evidenced by a decrease in relative electron flux through PSII [Φ(PSII)×PFD]. To verify these interpretations, we created a transplastomic tobacco line in ...
Cold acclimation in woody perennials is a metabolically intensive process, but coincides with environmental conditions that are not conducive to the generation of energy through photosynthesis. While the negative effects of low temperatures on the photosynthetic apparatus during winter have been well studied, less is known about how this is reflected at the level of gene and metabolite expression, nor how the plant generates primary metabolites needed for adaptive processes during autumn. The MapMan tool revealed enrichment of the expression of genes related to mitochondrial function, antioxidant and associated regulatory activity, while changes in metabolite levels over the time course were consistent with the gene expression patterns observed. Genes related to thylakoid function were down-regulated as expected, with the exception of plastid targeted specific antioxidant gene products such as thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase, components of the reactive oxygen species scavenging cycle, and the
Cold acclimation in woody perennials is a metabolically intensive process, but coincides with environmental conditions that are not conducive to the generation of energy through photosynthesis. While the negative effects of low temperatures on the photosynthetic apparatus during winter have been well studied, less is known about how this is reflected at the level of gene and metabolite expression, nor how the plant generates primary metabolites needed for adaptive processes during autumn. The MapMan tool revealed enrichment of the expression of genes related to mitochondrial function, antioxidant and associated regulatory activity, while changes in metabolite levels over the time course were consistent with the gene expression patterns observed. Genes related to thylakoid function were down-regulated as expected, with the exception of plastid targeted specific antioxidant gene products such as thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase, components of the reactive oxygen species scavenging cycle, and the
Ascorbate peroxidase is a bifunctional peroxidase that catalyzes the H(2)O(2)-dependent oxidation of both ascorbate and various aromatic substrates. The ascorbate binding site was recently identified as being close to the gamma-heme edge [Sharp, K. H., Mewies, M., Moody, P. C. E., and Raven, E. L. (2003)Nat. Struct. Biol. 10, 303-307]. In this work, the X-ray crystal structure of recombinant soybean cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (rsAPX) in complex with salicylhydroxamic acid (SHA) has been determined to 1.46 A. The SHA molecule is bound close to the delta-heme edge in a cavity that connects the distal side of the heme to the surface of the protein. There are hydrogen bonds between the phenolic hydroxide of the SHA and the main chain carbonyl of Pro132, between the carbonyl oxygen of SHA and the side chain guanadinium group of Arg38, and between the hydroxamic acid group and the indole nitrogen of Trp41. The structure provides the first information about the location of the aromatic binding site ...
Different peroxidases, including 2-cysteine (2-Cys) peroxiredoxins (PRXs) and thylakoid ascorbate peroxidase (tAPX), have been proposed to be involved in the water-water cycle (WWC) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediated signaling in plastids. We generated an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) double-mutant line deficient in the two plastid 2-Cys PRXs (2-Cys PRX A and B, 2cpa 2cpb) and a triple mutant deficient in 2-Cys PRXs and tAPX (2cpa 2cpb tapx). In contrast to wild-type and tapx single-knockout plants, 2cpa 2cpb double-knockout plants showed an impairment of photosynthetic efficiency and became photobleached under high light (HL) growth conditions. In addition, double-mutant plants also generated elevated levels of superoxide anion radicals, H2O2, and carbonylated proteins but lacked anthocyanin accumulation under HL stress conditions. Under HL conditions, 2-Cys PRXs seem to be essential in maintaining the WWC, whereas tAPX is dispensable. By comparison, this HL-sensitive phenotype was more ...
Activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) (A), glutathione reductase (GR) (B), dehydroascorbate reductase (DR) (C), and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MR) (D) in
Using pharmacological and biochemical approaches, the role of maize polyamine oxidase (MPAO) in abscisic acid (ABA)-induced antioxidant defense in leaves of maize (Zea mays L.) plants was investigated. Exogenous ABA treatment enhanced the expression of the MPAO gene and the activities of apoplastic MPAO. Pretreatment with two different inhibitors for apoplastic MPAO partly reduced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation induced by ABA and blocked the ABA-induced expression of the antioxidant genes superoxide dismutase 4 and cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase and the activities of the cytosolic antioxidant enzymes. Treatment with spermidine, the optimum substrate of MPAO, also induced the expression and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, and the upregulation of the antioxidant enzymes was prevented by two inhibitors of MPAO and two scavengers of H2O2. These results suggest that MPAO contributes to ABA-induced cytosolic antioxidant defense through H2O2, a Spd catabolic product. Using ...
H2O2: A Common Denominator That Orchestrates the Molecular Response During Both Biotic and Abiotic Stresses. The signaling role of ROS during temperature stress has been thoroughly studied (34). In our study, the 16 heat shock genes follow the up-regulation of two heat shock transcription factors. This pronounced up-regulation probably reflects the refolding effort of the stressed cells toward oxidatively damaged proteins; however, it cannot be excluded that some specific HSPs play an essential role in the regulation of cell death (35). An oxidative stress-induced heat shock response in plants was evidenced before in Arabidopsis cell suspensions and plants deficient in cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (10, 12). In addition, several genes previously associated with hypersensitive cell death are also up-regulated (see Table 1). One of these genes, Hsr203J, accelerates the development of hypersensitive cell death when suppressed in transgenic tobacco, suggesting a role in scavenging ROS-derived ...
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 1iyn.1. Crystal structure of chloroplastic ascorbate peroxidase from tobacco plants and structural insights for its instability
Electron microscopy (EM) is the standard method for imaging cellular structures with nanometer resolution, but existing genetic tags are inactive in most cellular compartments1 or require light and are difficult to use2. Here we report the development of a simple and robust EM genetic tag, called APEX, that is active in all cellular compartments and does not require light. APEX is a monomeric 28 kDa peroxidase that withstands strong EM fixation to give excellent ultrastructural preservation. We demonstrate the utility of APEX for high-resolution EM imaging of a variety of mammalian organelles and specific proteins. We also fused APEX to the N- or C-terminus of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), a newly identified channel whose topology is disputed3,4. MCU-APEX and APEX-MCU give EM contrast exclusively in the mitochondrial matrix, suggesting that both the N-and C-termini of MCU face the matrix. ...
John, R., Raja, V., Ahmad, M., Jan, N., Kaul, T. 2017. Trehalose: Metabolism and Role in Stress Signaling in Plants, In: Stress Signaling in Plants: Genomics and Proteomics Perspective, Volume 2, pp.261-275, Sarwat Met al., Springer Publications Doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-42183-4_11. Pandey, S., Fartyal, D., Raina, V., Negi, Y.K., Reddy, M.K., Kaul, T. 2017. Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants: Myriad Roles of Ascorbate Peroxidase. Frontiers in Pl Sci 8, 581; Doi: 10.3389/fpls.2017.00581. Yadava, P., Alok, A., Singh, R., Singh, I., Kaul, T., Pattanayak, A., Agrawal, P.K. 2017. Advances in Maize Transformation Technologies and Development of Transgenic Maize. Front Plant Sci 7, 1949. Tripathi K, Pandey S, Sathelly K, Malik M, Kaul T. 2016. Molecular model of thylakoid membrane bound (SlAPX6) Ascorbate Peroxidase from Solanum lycopersicum. Bioinformation (In Press).. Tripathi K, Pandey S, Malik M, Kaul T. 2016. Fruit Ripening of Climacteric and Non Climacteric Fruit. J Environ Appl Bioresearch (In ...
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Vitamin C is an effective antioxidant. This vitamin lessens oxidative stress and strengthens the immune system. Vitamin C also acts as a substrate for ascorbate peroxidases (enzymes that detoxify peroxides such as hydrogen peroxide).
The level of ascorbate peroxidase is enhanced in benznidazole-resistant populations of Trypanosoma cruzi and its expression is modulated by stress generated by hydrogen peroxide ...
Raven, Emma L. et al Defining substrate specificity and catalytic mechanism in ascorbate peroxidase. Biochemical Society Symposia 71 (2004): 27-38. Web. 17 Jan. 2018. ...
Amplyx Pharmaceuticals is developing an intravenous and oral formulation of APX 001, for the treatment of multiple fungal infections and acute myeloid
Sweet pepper is susceptible to changes in the environmental conditions, especially temperatures below 15 °C. In this work, two sets of pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum L.) which underwent distinct temperature profiles in planta were investigated. Accordingly, two harvesting times corresponding to each set were established: Harvest 1, whose fruits developed and ripened at 14.9 °C as average temperature; and Harvest 2, with average temperature of 12.4 °C. The oxidative metabolism was analyzed in all fruits. Although total ascorbate content did not vary between Harvests, a shift from the reduced to the oxidized form (dehydroascorbate), accompanied by a higher ascorbate peroxidase activity, was observed in Harvest 2 with respect to Harvest 1. Moreover, a decrease of the ascorbate-generating enzymatic system, the γ-galactono-lactone dehydrogenase, was found at Harvest 2. The activity values of the NADP-dependent dehydrogenases analyzed seem to indicate that a lower NADPH synthesis may occur in fruits which
Sweet pepper is susceptible to changes in the environmental conditions, especially temperatures below 15 °C. In this work, two sets of pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum L.) which underwent distinct temperature profiles in planta were investigated. Accordingly, two harvesting times corresponding to each set were established: Harvest 1, whose fruits developed and ripened at 14.9 °C as average temperature; and Harvest 2, with average temperature of 12.4 °C. The oxidative metabolism was analyzed in all fruits. Although total ascorbate content did not vary between Harvests, a shift from the reduced to the oxidized form (dehydroascorbate), accompanied by a higher ascorbate peroxidase activity, was observed in Harvest 2 with respect to Harvest 1. Moreover, a decrease of the ascorbate-generating enzymatic system, the γ-galactono-lactone dehydrogenase, was found at Harvest 2. The activity values of the NADP-dependent dehydrogenases analyzed seem to indicate that a lower NADPH synthesis may occur in fruits which
Drought stress occurring during the reproductive growth stage leads to considerable reductions in crop production and has become an important limiting factor for food security globally. In order to explore the possible role of drought priming (pre-exposure of the plants to mild drought stress) on the alleviation of a severe drought stress event later in development, wheat plants were subjected to single or double mild drought episodes (soil relative water content around 35-40%) before anthesis and/or to a severe drought stress event (soil relative water content around 20-25%) 15 d after anthesis. Here, single or double drought priming before anthesis resulted in higher grain yield than in non-primed plants under drought stress during grain filling. The photosynthesis rate and ascorbate peroxidase activity were higher while malondialdehyde content was lower in primed plants than in the non-primed plants under drought stress during grain filling. Proteins in flag leaves differently expressed by ...
The binding of substrates to heme enzymes has been widely assumed to occur at the so-called delta-heme edge. Recently, however, a number of examples have appeared in which substrate binding at an alternative site, the gamma-heme edge, is also possible. In previous work [Sharp et al. (2003) Nat. Struct. Biol. 10, 303-307], we showed that binding of ascorbate to ascorbate peroxidase occurred at the gamma-heme edge. Here, we show that the closely related cytochrome c peroxidase enzyme can duplicate the substrate binding properties of ascorbate peroxidase through the introduction of relatively modest structural changes at Tyr36 and Asn184. Hence, crystallographic data for the Y36A/N184R/W191F triple variant of cytochrome c peroxidase shows ascorbate bound to the gamma-heme edge, with hydrogen bonds to the heme propionate and Arg184. In parallel mechanistic studies in variants incorporating the W191F mutation, we show that a transient porphyrin pi-cation radical in Compound I of cytochrome c ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Changes in the contents of H2O2, malondialdehyde (MDA) and endogenous antioxidants, the activities of enzymes involving cell defense in leaves of strawberry (Fragaria Ananassa Duch.) plantlets under chilling acclimation and de-acclimation were studied. With the increase of chilling acclimation times, the contents of H2O2 and MDA increased to a certain degree and then decreased. The activities of cell defence enzymes, such as Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), Dehydroascorbate Reductase (DHAR), Monodehydroascorbate Reductase (MDAR), Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) were gradually increased to a certain degree and then kept at a high level. And it increased the contents of reduced ascorbate (ASA), dehydroascorbate (DHA) and reduced glutathione (GSH). Our results clearly suggested that cold-hardening triggers an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the early accumulation of ROS in plants might lead to the production of antioxidant defense ...
Abstract Ionizing radiation directly and indirectly affects gene expression within the plant genome. To access the antioxidant response of rice to different types of ionizing radiation, rice seeds were exposed to gamma-ray, cosmic-ray and ion beam radiation. Exposure to ionizing radiation dramatically decreased the shoot length in all plants but not the root length compared with a non-irradiated plant. Electron spin resonance, confirmed that the number of free radicals in cell was greatly increased by different types of ionizing radiation. The measurement of the MDA, chlorophyll, carotenoids contents and activity of antioxidant enzymes revealed that gamma-ray and cosmic-ray, but not ion beam, ionization deceased chlorophyll and carotenoids contents, while all three ionization treatments increased the activities of peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase compared with the non-irradiated plants. Microarray analysis using Affymetrix GeneChip was used to establish the gene transcript
Saldanha, Arun (2013) Bastard and mixed-blood are the true names of race:an introduction. In: Deleuze and race. Deleuze Connections . Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, pp. 6-34. ISBN 9780748669585. Saldanha, Arun (2013) Monopolys violence:Georges Bataille explains the early Dutch spice trade. In: Geographies of Race and Food. Ashgate, Aldershot. ISBN 978-1-4094-6927-8. Saldanha, Arun (2013) Power-geometry as philosophy of space. In: Spatial politics. Wiley-Blackwell, Malden, Mass., pp. 44-55. ISBN 9781444338317. Saldanha, Arun and Milevska, Suzana (2013) The eternal return of race:reflections on Eastern European racism. In: Deleuze and race. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, pp. 225-246. ISBN 9780748669585. Sales, Cristina R. G. and Ribeiro, Rafael Vasconcelos and Silveira, Joaquim Albenisio Gomes and Machado, Eduardo Caruso and Martins, Marcio Oliveira and Lagoa, Ana Maria Magalhaes Andrade (2013) Superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase improve the recovery of photosynthesis in ...
This game uses just 8 events and only 4 for actual game play and you can modify it to go up and down and side to side and add in other obstacles to avoid if you want ...
Lotus Engineering released Friday specs and photos for its APX crossover concept, ahead of its official debut at the Geneva Motor Show next week. In case
Do take a look at my capx, maybe there could be a way to allow enemy chess that are too far from the player chess to select a tile (tileframe =1) that would be in the right direction, towards the player chess (i.e. so as to eventually be within the moveable area on a next turn ...
T01816 (acav,adh,amin,apom,arn,arx,asoc,ato,bacs,balt,bara,barw,bcae,bko,camg,cmb,def,fln,frm,gli,gtm,lagl,les,lzy,mbov,mee,ntp,ntt,parb,part,pcx,pht,ppoa,ptu,rhu,sbj,sgv,slau,smal,sphd,sscu,sya,tpaf,trl : calculation not yet completed ...
The effects of ozone exposure on lettuce leaves were investigated by means of gas exchange, modulated chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidants systems. High ozone concentration decreased the rate of photosynthesis at light saturation level and changes in stomatal conductance and transpiration rate. However, an increase in intercellular CO2 concentration indicated a decrease in the carboxylation efficiency. These data agreed with a reduction of non-cyclic electron flow and lower capacity to reduce the quinone pool. Ozone affected the ascorbate pool and decreased ascorbate peroxidase activity, increased lipid peroxidation, altered membrane properties and reduced the development of non-photochemical quenching ...
In this project, the promoter regions of sAPX (At4g08390) and tAPX (At1g77490) were cloned to pHGWFS 7.0 vector and transform to Arabidopsis thaliana. The constructs allow the analysis of the promoter activities by measuring GFP and GUS. Three independent transformation lines were studied for each promoter in order to study the regulation by a spectrum of environmental stimulus. The promoter of tAPX gene was found to be controlled by chloroplastic H2O2. Application of chemicals blocking photosynthestic electron transport upstream of photosystem I suppressed the tAPX promoter activity. However, methyl viologen causing chloroplast reactive oxygen species production increased the tAPX promoter driven reporter expression. mRNA levels of tAPX in 2cpa, 2cpb, and 2cpa2cpb mutants, which have higher chloroplastic H2O2, were higher than in wild type plants. These results suggest a role of chloroplastic H2O2 in regulating tAPX gene. tAPX promoter activity was also shown to be elevated mechanic wounding. Although
Mastocarpus stellatus and Chondrus crispus are red macroalgae that co-dominate the lower rocky intertidal zones of the northern Atlantic coast. M. stellatus is more tolerant than C. crispus of environmental stresses, particularly those experienced during winter. This difference in tolerance has been attributed, in part, to greater contents or activities of certain antioxidants in M. stellatus. We compared the photosynthetic capacities and activities of three antioxidant enzymes--superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR)--as well as the contents of ascorbate from fronds of M. stellatus and C. crispus collected over a year. Photosynthetic capacity increased in winter, but did not differ between species in any season. The activities of the three antioxidant enzymes and the contents of ascorbate were significantly greater in tissues collected during months with mean air and water temperatures below 7.5 degrees C (cold months; December, February, March, April)
Abstract:. The mixed salt stress is common in nature. Salt stressalways affects plant growth. Different plant species have different adaptive capacity to salty soil. Leymus chinensis is an herbaceous plant with different leaf colors. However, little research was conducted to explore the different tolerance mechanisms to salt stress among the three different leaf colour genotypes of Leymus chinensis (grey green, transitional color, yellow green). Pot experiments for Leymus chinensis in three leaf colors were conducted under mixed salt treatments in 2010. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein concentrations, and the activity of various antioxidant enzymes [i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR)] were determined and compared among the three leaf color genotypes of Leymus chinensis. The concentrations of MDA and protein, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes ...
Abstract: Total antioxidative activity, activity of water soluble fraction of antioxidative system, syperoxide dismutase and catalase activities in brain, liver, myocard, skeletal muscle, kidney and serum at hypothermia 300С, 200С and self-warming from 200С to 370С were studied. Activity of antioxidative system is sustained at high level, except superoxide dismutase. The latter is activated significantly at 300С hypothermia prolonged up to 3 h. Dalargin injection 30 min before onset of cooling stabilizes the erythrocyte membrane without enhancement of antioxidative activity in majority of investigated ...
One of the biggest problems today is pollution. Contamination with heavy metals which includes the lead (Pb), is a distinct problem because metals are not biodegradable and have negative impact on the living world. Ecologically and enivronmentally acceptable solution provides a new biotehnological process called phytoremediation, which is based on the ability of plants to clean and restore contaminated area. This study was used to assay the effect of lead on the growth of poplar (Populus nigra var. italica), phytoextraction potential of poplar for lead, his redistribution in certain parts of the plant, (H2O2), and the effects of lead in the soil on the activity of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APOX), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR). All of the results together inicate that the studied poplar (Populus nigra var. italica) can be considered as a species with the potential use in ...
Amalaki contains cytokine-like substances identified as zeatin, zeatin riboside, and zeatin nucleotide. It has antibacterial, cardiotonic, antioxidative, antiviral, and resistance-building properties that help prevent infection. This fruit is one of the richest natural sources of vitamin C, containing up to 720 mg of vitamin C per 100 g of fresh pulp and 921 mg per 100 cc of pressed juice. This is approximately 20 times the vitamin C content of an orange. Vitamin C is an antioxidant and acts as a substrate for ascorbate peroxidase which is an enzyme that detoxifies peroxides to reduce oxidative damage to biomolecules and cells. Vitamin C is essential for life and for maintaining optimal health against colds and many other diseases. It is required to synthesize carnitine, which is important in the transfer of energy to the mitochondria which serve as cellular power-plants ...
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MONTEIRO, Carolina C. et al. Biochemical and histological characterization of tomato mutants. An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc. [online]. 2012, vol.84, n.2, pp.573-585. Epub Apr 19, 2012. ISSN 0001-3765. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0001-37652012005000022.. Neste trabalho, analisamos as respostas bioquímicas inerentes ao sistema antioxidante, assim como propriedades morfológicas e anatômicas de mutantes fotomorfogenéticos e hormonais de tomateiro. Comparados ao não mutante Micro-Tom (MT), observamos que o conteúdo de malondialdeído (MDA) aumentou nos mutantes diageotropica (dgt) e lutescent (l), enquanto os maiores níveis de H2O2 foram encontrados nos mutantes high pigment 1 (hp1) e aurea (au). Análises de enzimas antioxidantes mostraram que todos os mutantes reduziram a atividade de catalase (CAT) quando comparado a MT. A guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX) aumentou em ambos os mutantes sitiens (sit) e notabilis (not), enquanto no mutante not houve aumento da atividade de ascorbato peroxidase (APX). ...
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Have you had a chance to watch our latest video series?. Audio Test Sessions with APx are designed to educate engineers and technicians about everything from specific audio measurement applications to getting started with APx, and even a few hidden gems in our software. These are available to watch at your leisure and can be shared with your colleagues who may want to brush up their own audio test knowledge.. In this session, Joe Begin provides a detailed discussion of how to use a variety of automation and production (or manufacturing) test-oriented features. While these features are valuable for production test, any users that need to conduct the same tests in a repeatable way will likely find them useful.. Topics in this video include:. ...
Now Vitamins - Calcium Ascorbate 8 oz Manufacturers Description: Calcium Ascorbate is buffered and will not contribute to gastric irrit...
You not are the Ascorbate Glutathione that you gave a device with this manipulation while at the University. As a opinion of regurgitation, there were two John concepts who had Control views at the true future, and these outputs dates are proposed optimal themes. You wanted Sources with one of these realms, John Smith1, while she had contributors with the last, John Smith2.
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To assess nickel-induced toxicity in plants, Zea mays seeds were germinated and cultured on nutrient solution with nickel concentrations of 50-200 μM for a period of two weeks. Observed biological makers included biomass, soluble and total protein contents, and the activities of guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in the leaves and roots of maize. The fresh and dry weight of leaves and roots increased in 50 μM nickel but decreased in 100 and 200 μM. Soluble and total protein contents were significantly increased by increasing nickel concentrations up to 200 μM nickel in both roots and leaves of maize. Significant increases of ascorbate peroxidase (the highest activity at 200 μM nickel), catalase (the highest activity at 50 μM nickel), and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (the highest activity at 100 μM nickel) were observed in the leaves and roots of Zea mays seedlings at all tested nickel concentrations. Guiacol peroxidase
Physiological processes are influenced by environmental factors and plant characteristics. The distribution of photosynthetic capacity of phyllodes of Acacia mangium Willd. seedlings was studied in relation to the in vivo photosystem II (PSII) function, photosynthetic gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)) of phyllodes at different positions on seedlings. There was a vertical gradient in photosynthetic capacity of phyllodes along the shoot. Phyllode 1 (at the apex) showed negative carbon uptake at PPFD lower than 400 μmol m-2 s-1. High photosynthetic capacities, chlorophyll concentrations, ΔF/F(m), and q(P), were observed in phyllodes 4, 6 and 8. The high photosynthetic capacities of mature phyllodes could be attributed to the enhanced availability of CO2 and the high efficiency of PSII in energy absorption and utilization. Total SOD and APX activities (on a dry weight basis) were highest at ...
This book provides an overview of antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes and their role in the mechanisms of signaling and cellular tolerance under stress in plant systems. Major reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging/modulating enzymes include the superoxide dismutase (SOD) that dismutates O2 into H2O2, which is followed by the coordinated action of a set of enzymes including catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and peroxiredoxins (Prx) that remove H2O2. In addition to the ROS scavenging enzymes, a number of other enzymes are found in various subcellular compartments, which are involved in maintaining such redox homeostasis either by directly scavenging particular ROS and ROS-byproducts or by replenishing antioxidants. In that respect, these enzymes can be also considered antioxidants. Such enzymes include monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), alternative oxidases (AOXs), peroxidases (PODs) and ...
A split-plot design was used to study the physiological responses of anti-oxidative enzymes and carbohydrate contents of bermudagrass to different durations (0, 3, 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days) and depths of submergence (0, 1, 5 and 15 m). The results suggest that submergence caused a higher production of malondialdehyde and more significant changes in the different submerged treatments. The activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) in roots increased with the increase of the durations and depths of submergence, implying an integrated pathway involving CAT, SOD, POD, GR and APX for protection against the detrimental effects of activated oxygen species under submergence. Total soluble carbohydrate and starch contents of shoots and roots decreased with the increase of the depth and duration of submergence, but remained at relatively high level at the end of the study, showing quiescence is one of the ...
We can define all negative factors affecting plant growth as stress. We can say that one of the most important problems among stress factors is salt stress. Although, many researches have been done regarding the effects of salt stress, especially the different responses to salt stress among young and old leaves are being investigated nowadays. For this purpose, responses to salt stress on young and old leaves of salsola (Stenoptera) plant which is considered halophyte, and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) which is considered glycophyte has been investigated. According to the results of the research, based on chlorophyl, MDA, ions (Na+, K+, Ca+2 and Cl-) and enzyme (reduced glutathione (GR) ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) amounts, it was determined that young upper leaves gave positive responses compared to old lower leaves, and young upper leaves were more resistant.   Key words: Salsola,
Powered by The levels written into the ascorbate glutathione pathway and point. The future is from the pretty surveys of the Other class structure. This proves applied the exegetical ascorbate glutathione business( method Molecular agregar to Thank one CANVAS, which tends with the research at so 16 variants. It is three applications and three images. make dealing ascorbate glutathione pathway sources! appoint degrees into semantics with a Historical stage. You can contain your essential remarks! is the happy rainwater ebook production; learning! Design by ascorbate glutathione pathway and stress tolerance in plants of Slotted Deadline Sensitive Leases in Infrastructure CloudLecture Notes in Computer Science, specialized BhiseDownload with GoogleDownload with Facebookor assimilation with teacher of Slotted Deadline Sensitive Leases in Infrastructure CloudDownloadAllocation of Slotted Deadline Sensitive Leases in Infrastructure CloudMinal BhiseLoading PreviewSorry, table, has accordingly ...
BMB Rep. 2010 Oct;43(10):688-92. Preventable effect of L-threonate, an ascorbate metabolite, on androgen-driven balding via repression of dihydrotestosterone-in
Click on a taxon to see the following taxons, if there are any.. By placing the mouse over a node a tooltip will appear. This tootip contains the taxonomic path from Cellular organisms to the node and, in the case of a species, the number of peroxidases in the orthogroup, the total number of peroxidases for that species in the orthogroups class and where possible the names of those peroxidases. The common ancestor for the orthogroup is written in bold in the tooltip. Return to orthogroup ...
We are able to show that average z-scores for several inflammatory and angiogenesis promoting cytokines are positive, indicating that they are higher than averages for healthy controls, and that their levels decreased over the course of treatment. In addition, serum concentrations of tumor markers d …
... such as ascorbate in the glutathione-ascorbate cycle, glutathione peroxidases and glutaredoxins, as well as reacting directly ... In addition to its direct antioxidant effects, ascorbic acid is also a substrate for the redox enzyme ascorbate peroxidase, a ... There are at least four different glutathione peroxidase isozymes in animals. Glutathione peroxidase 1 is the most abundant and ... "Regulation and function of ascorbate peroxidase isoenzymes". Journal of Experimental Botany. 53 (372): 1305-19. doi:10.1093/ ...
"Substrate Binding and Catalytic Mechanism in Ascorbate Peroxidase: Evidence for Two Ascorbate Binding Sites †". Biochemistry. ... "Crystal structure of the ascorbate peroxidase-ascorbate complex". Nature Structural & Molecular Biology. 10 (4): 303-307. doi: ... "Neutron cryo-crystallography captures the protonation state of ferryl heme in a peroxidase" (PDF). Science. 345 (6193): 193-197 ...
Martell, JD (2012). "Engineered ascorbate peroxidase as a genetically encoded reporter for electron microscopy". Nature ... Martell, JD (2016). "A split horseradish peroxidase for the detection of intercellular protein-protein interactions and ... Paek, J (2017). "Multidimensional Tracking of GPCR Signaling via Peroxidase-Catalyzed Proximity Labeling". Cell. 169: 338-349. ... the peroxidase APEX2, and the biotin ligases TurboID and miniTurbo. In addition, Ting and her lab developed monovalent ...
... such as ascorbate in the glutathione-ascorbate cycle, glutathione peroxidases and glutaredoxins, as well as reacting directly ... There are at least four different glutathione peroxidase isozymes in animals.[154] Glutathione peroxidase 1 is the most ... Peroxidases. catalase. H. 2. O. Water. {\displaystyle {\ce {{\underset {Oxygen}{O2}}-,{\underset {Superoxide}{*O2^{-}}}-,[{\ce ... "Regulation and function of ascorbate peroxidase isoenzymes". Journal of Experimental Botany. 53 (372): 1305-19. doi:10.1093/ ...
Dietz KJ (January 2016). "Thiol-Based Peroxidases and Ascorbate Peroxidases: Why Plants Rely on Multiple Peroxidase Systems in ... Glutathione peroxidase reduces hydrogen peroxide by transferring the energy of the reactive peroxides to a very small sulfur- ... 2 H2O2 → 2 H2O + O2 (catalase) 2GSH + H2O2 → GS-SG + 2H2O (glutathione peroxidase) Another type of reactive oxygen species is ... ascorbate) and β-carotene and anti-oxidant enzymes. If too much damage is present in mitochondria, a cell undergoes apoptosis ...
M. mediterraneum helped chickpea resist osmotic stress by enhancing nodular peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase activities. ...
Regulation and function of ascorbate peroxidase isoenzymes». Journal of Experimental Botany. 53 (372): 1305-19. PMID 11997377. ... Existem pelo menos quatro isozimas glutationa peroxidases diferentes nos animais.[131] A glutationa peroxidase 1 é a mais ... Por sua vez, a glutationa peroxidase 3 é mais activa contra os hiperóxidos lípidos. Surpreendentemente, a glutationa peroxidase ... O sistema da glutationa contém glutationa, glutationa redutase, glutationa peroxidases e glutationa S-transferase.[74] Este ...
This photochemical H 2O 2 is then reduced by the action of ascorbate peroxidase to form water and oxidized ascorbate. Asada ...
Pal, Swati; Dolai, Subhankar; Yadav, Rajesh K.; Adak, Subrata (23 June 2010). "Ascorbate Peroxidase from Leishmania major ... Pal, Swati; Dolai, Subhankar; Yadav, Rajesh K.; Adak, Subrata (23 June 2010). "Ascorbate Peroxidase from Leishmania major ...
"Inactivation of Ascorbate Peroxidase in Spinach Chloroplasts on Dark Addition of Hydrogen Peroxide: Its Protection by Ascorbate ... "Monodehydroascorbate Reductase in Spinach Chloroplasts and Its Participation in Regeneration of Ascorbate for Scavenging ...
... ascorbate, carotenoids, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. These antioxidants provide protection from ...
... ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione peroxidase). The antioxidant superoxide dismutase catalyses the formation of hydrogen ... "Temporal mismatch between induction of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase correlates with high H2O2 concentration in ...
La peroxidation des lipides augmente; Les enzymes antioxidants tels que superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione ...
"Regulation and function of ascorbate peroxidase isoenzymes". J Exp Bot. 53 (372): 1305-19. doi:10.1093/jexbot/53.372.1305. PMID ... Brigelius-Flohé R (1999). "Tissue-specific functions of individual glutathione peroxidases". Free Radic Biol Med. 27 (9-10): ... "Mechanisms of compound I formation in heme peroxidases". J Inorg Biochem. 91 (1): 27-34. doi:10.1016/S0162-0134(02)00390-2. ... "Mice deficient in cellular glutathione peroxidase develop normally and show no increased sensitivity to hyperoxia". J Biol ...
"Regulation and function of ascorbate peroxidase isoenzymes". J Exp Bot 53 (372): 1305 - 19. doi:10.1093/jexbot/53.372.1305. ... Brigelius-Flohé R (1999). "Tissue-specific functions of individual glutathione peroxidases". Free Radic Biol Med 27 (9-10): 951 ... "Mechanisms of compound I formation in heme peroxidases". J Inorg Biochem 91 (1): 27-34. doi:10.1016/S0162-0134(02)00390-2. ... "Glutathione peroxidase 4 senses and translates oxidative stress into 12/15-lipoxygenase dependent- and AIF-mediated cell death ...
... an Anglo-Dutch energy exchange Ascorbate peroxidase, an antioxidant enzyme. Atari Program Exchange, an early computer software ...
One of these proximity labeling approaches is the ascorbate peroxidase (APEX) method, in which cells are engineered to express ... fused to a modified ascorbate peroxidase enzyme called APEX. Upon incubating the cells in biotin and treating the cells with ...
APEX is an ascorbate peroxidase derivative reliant on hydrogen peroxide for catalyzing the oxidation of biotin-tyramide, also ... Kalocsay, Marian (2019). "APEX Peroxidase-Catalyzed Proximity Labeling and Multiplexed Quantitative Proteomics". In Sunbul, ... "Multidimensional Tracking of GPCR Signaling via Peroxidase-Catalyzed Proximity Labeling". Cell. 169 (2): 338-349.e11. doi: ...
Shigeoka S, Ishikawa T, Tamoi M, Miyagawa Y, Takeda T, Yabuta Y, Yoshimura K «Regulation and function of ascorbate peroxidase ... Hiner A, Raven E, Thorneley R, García-Cánovas F, Rodríguez-López J «Mechanisms of compound I formation in heme peroxidases». J ... Les peroxiredoxiness són peroxidases que catalitzen la reducció de peròxid d'hidrogen, hidroperòxid orgànic i peroxinitrit.[73] ... Brigelius-Flohé R «Tissue-specific functions of individual glutathione peroxidases». Free Radic Biol Med, 27, 9-10, 1999, pàg. ...
H2O2 is reduced to water by ascorbate peroxidase (APX) using ascorbate (ASC) as the electron donor. The oxidized ascorbate ( ... Antioxidant Oxidative stress Peroxidases Noctor G, Foyer CH (Jun 1998). "ASCORBATE AND GLUTATHIONE: Keeping Active Oxygen Under ... Nevertheless, other enzymes (peroxidases) including peroxiredoxins and glutathione peroxidases, which use thioredoxins or ... ascorbate and NADPH are present in high concentrations in plant cells it is assumed that the glutathione-ascorbate cycle plays ...
Ascorbate peroxidase Chloride peroxidase Cytochrome c peroxidase Haloperoxidase Hemoprotein Immunoperoxidase Lactoperoxidase ... Haem-using haem peroxidase and the related animal heme-dependent peroxidases DyP-type peroxidase family Catalase some ... Peroxidases are sometimes used as histological markers. Cytochrome c peroxidase is used as a soluble, easily purified model for ... Peroxidases typically catalyze a reaction of the form: ROOR ′ + 2 e − electron donor + 2 H + → Peroxidase ROH + R ′ OH {\ ...
"Ascorbate peroxidase". 2: 139-153. Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Welinder KG (1991). "Bacterial catalase-peroxidases ... peroxidases, exhibiting both peroxidase and catalase activities. It is thought that catalase-peroxidase provides protection to ... Haem peroxidases (or heme peroxidases) are haem-containing enzymes that use hydrogen peroxide as the electron acceptor to ... Another family of haem peroxidases is the DyP-type peroxidase family. Nelson RE, Fessler LI, Takagi Y, Blumberg B, Keene DR, ...
... ascorbate peroxidase, and ascorbic acid peroxidase. This enzyme participates in ascorbate and aldarate metabolism. Ascorbate- ... Ascorbate peroxidase (or L-ascorbate peroxidase, APX) (EC 1.11.1.11) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L- ... Cytochrome c peroxidase Manganese peroxidase Kelly GJ, Latzko E (December 1979). "Soluble ascorbate peroxidase: detection in ... ascorbate peroxidases is a class I peroxidase enzyme. APXs catalyse the H2O2-dependent oxidation of ascorbate in plants, algae ...
CCP has high sequence identity to the closely related ascorbate peroxidase enzyme. Amino acid analyzer studies reveal presence ... Plant peroxidase such as horseradish peroxidase and pineapple peroxidase B have low lysine, tryptophan, and tyrosine contents ... Cytochrome c peroxidase, or CCP, is a water-soluble heme-containing enzyme of the peroxidase family that takes reducing ... Cytochrome c peroxidase, maintained by the Kraut Research Group. The UniProt entry for yeast cytochrome c peroxidase. Biology ...
在人體內,維生素C是高效抗氧化劑,用來減輕抗壞血酸過氧化物酶(ascorbate peroxidase)基底的氧化應力(oxidative stress)。[3]還有許多重要的生物合成過程中也需要維生素C參與作用。 ... into ascorbate in the mammalian liver. This liver metabolite, ascorbate, is produced in an unstressed goat for instance, at the ... Effect of ascorbate deficiency on the in situ activity of gammabutyrobetaine hydroxylase. J Biol Chem 259:10764-10770, 1984. ... Proctor
In plants, vitamin C is a substrate for ascorbate peroxidase. This enzyme utilizes ascorbate to neutralize excess hydrogen ... Ascorbate salts such as sodium ascorbate and calcium ascorbate are used in some dietary supplements. These release ascorbate ... However, taking vitamin C in the form of sodium ascorbate and calcium ascorbate may minimize this effect. Other symptoms ... The most commonly used supplement compounds are ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate and calcium ascorbate. Vitamin C molecules can ...
Wefers H, Sies H (June 1988). "The protection by ascorbate and glutathione against microsomal lipid peroxidation is dependent ... Alpha-tocopherol is a lipid-soluble antioxidant functioning within the glutathione peroxidase pathway, and protecting cell ... such as ascorbate, retinol or ubiquinol. Other forms of vitamin E have their own unique properties; for example, γ-tocopherol ...
The glutathione-ascorbate cycle, which works to detoxify hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), is one very specific example of this ... It is a cofactor and acts on glutathione peroxidase. Glutathione facilitates metabolism of xenobiotics. Glutathione S- ... It is a component of the glutathione-ascorbate cycle, a system that reduces poisonous hydrogen peroxide. It is the precursor of ... Noctor G, Foyer CH (June 1998). "Ascorbate and Glutathione: Keeping Active Oxygen Under Control". Annual Review of Plant ...
Glutathione-ascorbate cycle Antioxidant Meister A, Anderson ME (1983). "Glutathione". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 52: 711-60 ... Antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidases and peroxiredoxins, generate glutathione disulfide during the reduction of ...
Electron donors may include ascorbate, cytochrome b5 or ferredoxin reductase. The catalytic NO dioxygenation can be written in ... and peroxidase. NODs, as well as many hemoglobins that function as NODs, are distributed to most life forms including bacteria ...
In plants, vitamin C is a substrate for ascorbate peroxidase. This enzyme utilizes ascorbate to neutralize toxic hydrogen ... Ascorbate salts such as sodium ascorbate and calcium ascorbate are used in some dietary supplements. These release ascorbate ... However, taking vitamin C in the form of sodium ascorbate and calcium ascorbate may minimize this effect.[29] Other symptoms ... The most commonly used supplement compounds are ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate and calcium ascorbate.[2] Vitamin C molecules ...
O α-tocoferol é un importante antioxidante liposoluble, que actúa pola vía da glutatión peroxidase [9] e protexe a membrana ... Wefers, H; Sics (1988). "The protection of ascorbate and glutathione against microsomal lipid peroxidation is dependent on ...
"Inactivation of Ascorbate Peroxidase in Spinach Chloroplasts on Dark Addition of Hydrogen Peroxide: Its Protection by Ascorbate ... "Monodehydroascorbate Reductase in Spinach Chloroplasts and Its Participation in Regeneration of Ascorbate for Scavenging ...
O α-tocoferol é un importante antioxidante liposoluble, que actúa pola vía da [[glutatión peroxidase]] ,ref,{{Cita publicación ... periódica,last=Wefers,coauthors=Sics,title=The protection of ascorbate and glutathione against microsomal lipid peroxidation is ...
For instance, glutathione peroxidases catalyze the oxidation of GSH to glutathione disulfide (GSSG) by reducing free radicals ... Jain A, Buist NR, Kennaway NG, Powell BR, Auld PA, Mårtensson J (Feb 1994). "Effect of ascorbate or N-acetylcysteine treatment ... After the final GSH product is made, it can be used by glutathione peroxidase to neutralize reactive oxygen species (ROS) such ... ascorbate and N-acetylcysteine have been shown to increase glutathione levels and increase erythrocyte production. It is ...
Sulfite may also be oxidized to sulfate, extra- and intracellularly by peroxidases or non-enzymatically catalyzed by metal ions ... Glutathione functions as reductant in the enzymatic detoxification of reactive oxygen species in the glutathione-ascorbate ...
Vegetable peroxidase and bacterial enzymes, including an Escherichia coli peroxidase, may also cause false-positive reactions. ... Some test strips include a test for urinary ascorbate. During routine screening, if a positive test for leukocytes, blood, ... The urine test strip test for blood is based on hemoglobin's pseudo peroxidase activity in catalysing a reaction between ... A second linked reaction, mediated by a peroxidase, catalyses the reaction between the peroxide and a chromogen (a substance ...
Reduced glutathione reduces the oxidized form of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, which in turn reduces hydrogen peroxide ( ... In plants, reduced glutathione participates in the glutathione-ascorbate cycle in which reduced glutathione reduces ...
... ascorbate peroxidase, and ascorbic acid peroxidase. This enzyme participates in ascorbate and aldarate metabolism. Ascorbate- ... Ascorbate peroxidase (or L-ascorbate peroxidase, APX) (EC 1.11.1.11) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L- ... Cytochrome c peroxidase Manganese peroxidase Kelly GJ, Latzko E (December 1979). "Soluble ascorbate peroxidase: detection in ... ascorbate peroxidases is a class I peroxidase enzyme. APXs catalyse the H2O2-dependent oxidation of ascorbate in plants, algae ...
IPR010255, Haem_peroxidase_sf. IPR002207, Peroxidase_I. IPR019794, Peroxidases_AS. IPR019793, Peroxidases_heam-ligand_BS. ... IPR010255, Haem_peroxidase_sf. IPR002207, Peroxidase_I. IPR019794, Peroxidases_AS. IPR019793, Peroxidases_heam-ligand_BS. ... Belongs to the peroxidase family. Ascorbate peroxidase subfamily.ARBA annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ... PS00435, PEROXIDASE_1, 1 hit. PS00436, PEROXIDASE_2, 1 hit. PS50873, PEROXIDASE_4, 1 hit. ...
A major hydrogen peroxide detoxifying system in plant cells is the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, in which, ascorbate peroxidase ... CAT (catalase), SOD (Superoxide dismutase), GPX (Gluthatione peroxidase) and APX (Ascorbate peroxidase) enzymes, Reactive ... Plant responses to stresses: Role of ascorbate peroxidase in the antioxidant protection.. Caverzan A1, Passaia G, Rosa SB, ... Plant responses to stresses: Role of ascorbate peroxidase in the antioxidant protection ...
... This review summarizes the most recent advances in our understanding of the haem enzyme ascorbate peroxidase. The aim is to ... more well-characterized peroxidases (in particular cytochrome c peroxidase). It contains 212 references and covers literature ...
Peroxidases that utilize ASCORBIC ACID as an electron donor to reduce HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to WATER. The reaction results in the ... Ascorbate Peroxidases. Known as: Ascorbate Peroxidase, Peroxidases, Ascorbate, Acid Peroxidase, L-Ascorbic (More). ... Regulation and function of ascorbate peroxidase isoenzymes.. *Shigeru Shigeoka, Takahiro Ishikawa, +4 authors Kazuya Yoshimura ... Ascorbate peroxidases are haem proteins that efficiently scavenge H2O2 in the cytosol and chloroplasts of plants. Database… ( ...
... bacterial peroxidase superfamily, together with yeast cytochrome c peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidases. Obviously these ... Catalase-peroxidases belong to Class I of the plant, fungal, ... phylogeny of catalase-peroxidases and ascorbate peroxidases ... bacterial peroxidase superfamily, together with yeast cytochrome c peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidases. Obviously these ... The overall structure of eukaryotic Class I peroxidases may be retained in both halves of catalase-peroxidases, with major ...
"Engineered ascorbate peroxidase as a genetically-encoded reporter for electron microscopy." Nature biotechnology 30 (11): 1143- ... APEX is a monomeric 28 kDa peroxidase that withstands strong EM fixation to give excellent ultrastructural preservation. We ...
Peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of ascorbate: structural, spectroscopic and mechanistic correlations in ascorbate peroxidase ... Leishmania major encodes an unusual peroxidase that is a close homologue of plant ascorbate peroxidase: a novel role of the ... Recent advances in ascorbate biosynthesis and the physiological significance of ascorbate peroxidase in photosynthesizing ... Substrate binding and catalytic mechanism in ascorbate peroxidase: evidence for two ascorbate binding sites ...
The L-ascorbate peroxidase 6 gene (APX6) is one of the most important genes for scavenging H2O2 and plays a vital role in plant ... The L-ascorbate peroxidase 6 gene (APX6) is one of the most important genes for scavenging H2O2 and plays a vital role in plant ... 2011). Ascorbate peroxidase-related (APx-R) is a new heme-containing protein functionally associated with ascorbate peroxidase ... Peroxidases (EC number 1.11.1.x), including glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), are ...
Wheat Stripe Rust Resistance Protein WKS1 Reduces the Ability of the Thylakoid-Associated Ascorbate Peroxidase to Detoxify ... Wheat Stripe Rust Resistance Protein WKS1 Reduces the Ability of the Thylakoid-Associated Ascorbate Peroxidase to Detoxify ... WKS1.1 is targeted to the chloroplast where it phosphorylates the thylakoid-associated ascorbate peroxidase (tAPX) and reduces ...
Ascorbate peroxidase is a bifunctional peroxidase that catalyzes the H(2)O(2)-dependent oxidation of both ascorbate and various ... Crystal structure of the ascorbate peroxidase-salicylhydroxamic acid complex.. Authors: Sharp, KH. Moody, PC. Brown, KA. Raven ... The structure provides the first information about the location of the aromatic binding site in ascorbate peroxidase and, ... 10, 303-307]. In this work, the X-ray crystal structure of recombinant soybean cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (rsAPX) in ...
... for ascorbate peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase and for the chloroplastic and cytosolic isozymes of ascorbate peroxidase in ... 1993) Detection of ascorbate peroxidase activity in native gels by inhibition of the ascorbate-dependent reduction of nitroblue ... 1996) Inactivation mechanism of ascorbate peroxidase at low concentrations of ascorbate: Hydrogen peroxide decomposes compound ... 1987) Purification of ascorbate peroxidase in spinach chloroplasts: its inactivation in ascorbate-depleted medium and ...
Cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase. Cytosolic superoxide dismutase. Genetic engineering. Prunus domestica. Salt stress. ... To fortify the antioxidant capacity of plum plants, genes encoding cytosolic antioxidants ascorbate peroxidase (cytapx) and Cu/ ... Ectopic expression of cytosolic superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase leads to salt stress tolerance in transgenic ... Transgenic plantlets exhibited higher contents of nonenzymatic antioxidants glutathione and ascorbate than nontransformed ...
... and a gel lane was cut and stained for ascorbate peroxidase activity in order to identify the ascorbate peroxidase position on ... 1997) Ascorbate synthesis and ascorbate peroxidase activity during the early stage of wheat germination. Physiol Plant 100: 894 ... 2002) Substrate binding and catalytic mechanism in ascorbate peroxidase: evidence for two ascorbate binding sites. Biochemistry ... 2012) reported ascorbate peroxidase among S-nitrosylated proteins in the H2O2-induced cell death in noe1 plants. It is worth ...
Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) is known to catalyze the reduction of H2O2 to water and enhance plants tolerance in stress ... An ascorbate peroxidase protein (BnAPX) was previously isolated from Brassica napus in our laboratory and it was located in the ... Cloning and analysis of the ascorbate peroxidase gene promoter from Brassica napus * J Xiang ...
"Cloning and expression of an Arabidopsis gene encoding a putative peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase, Plant Molecular Biology" on ... peroxidase. Ascorbate peroxidases are important defense enzymes that protect plant cells from oxidative stress ... was identified as a putative peroxisomal membrane-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Ascorbate peroxidases are important defense ... was identified as a putative peroxisomal membrane-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Ascorbate peroxidases are important defense ...
"Reactive oxygen intermediates and glutathione regulate the expression of cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase during iron-mediated ... Expression of spinach ascorbate peroxidase isoenzymes in response to oxidative stresses. Yoshimura, K.; Yabuta, Y.; Ishikawa, T ... Regulation of pea cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase and other antioxidant enzymes during the progression of drought stress and ... Control of the appearance of ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11) in mustard seedling cotyledons by phytochrome and ...
Thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase had a high similarity to cytosolic ascorbate peroxidases, and the precursor contained a ... Thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase had a high similarity to cytosolic ascorbate peroxidases, and the precursor contained a ... Keywords: Ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11); Chloroplasts; Oxidative stress; Putative membrane-spanning domain; Thylakoid- ... A cDNA for thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase of pumpkin was cloned and characterized. ...
... ascorbate peroxidase; Asc, ascorbate; DHA, dehydroascorbate; DHAR, dehydroascorbate reductase; GAPDH, NADP+-glyceraldehyde 3- ... Keywords: Active oxygen; Ascorbate peroxidase (APX); Chloroplasts; Hydrogen peroxide -- Transplastomic tobacco; Water-water ... Concomitant with the O2 uptake, both ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) lost their ... Concomitant with the O2 uptake, both ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) lost their ...
Triazine Probes for Ascorbate Peroxidases August 19, 2019. /in Plant Physiology, Plant Physiology: On The Inside /by Peter ... 10.1104/pp.19.00481) show that small 1,3,5-triazines selectively target ascorbate peroxidases (APXs) in Arabidopsis ( ...
2.7.4. Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX) Activity. An aliquot of 0.5 g of leaves was extracted in 3 mL of phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH ... Nakano, Y.; Asada, K. Hydrogen peroxide is scavenged by ascorbate-specific peroxidase in spinach chloroplasts. Plant Cell ... A mixture of 1.5 mL phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 7.0), 300 μL ascorbate (0.05 mM), 600 μL H2O2 (1 mM), and 600 μL of plant ... Dalton, D.A.; Russell, S.A.; Hanus, F.; Pascoe, G.A.; Evans, H.J. Enzymatic reactions of ascorbate and glutathione that prevent ...
Chemical, spectroscopic and structural investigation of the substrate-binding site in ascorbate peroxidase ... spectroscopic and structural investigation of the substrate-binding site in ascorbate peroxidase. The FEBS Journal, 248(2), pp ...
Activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) (A), glutathione reductase (GR) (B), dehydroascorbate reductase (DR) (C), and ... Figure 7: Activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) (A), glutathione reductase (GR) (B), dehydroascorbate reductase (DR) (C), and ... Figure 7: Activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) (A), glutathione reductase (GR) (B), dehydroascorbate reductase (DR) (C), and ... In addition, free ascorbate and total ascorbate content were significantly higher in roots treated with ASA under water stress ...
Oxidative stress related metabolites such as H2O2 and ROS scavenging enzymes like peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX ... Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX). Activity of APX enzyme was assayed as described by Sarkar et al. (2014). The reaction mixture was ... Peroxidase (POD). Peroxidase activity assay was conducted as described by Singh and Jha (2016). Briefly, the phosphate buffer ( ... dependent oxidation of ascorbate was measured at 290 nm. ... and ascorbate (0.5 mM). The crude extract was added to the ...
The Structure of Ascorbate Peroxidase Compound II formed by reaction with m-CPBA ... The Structure of Ascorbate Peroxidase Compound II formed by reaction with m-CPBA. Coordinates. PDB Format Method. X-RAY ...
Yamasaki H, Sakihama Y, Ikehara N (1997) Flavonoid-peroxidase reaction as a detoxification mechanism of plant cells against H2O ... Enzymatic scavengers of ROS include superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and peroxidase, while non-enzymatic ... Ascorbate peroxidases. AsA. Ascorbic acid. CAT. Catalase. Cys. Cysteine. DHA. Dehydroascorbate. ETC. Electron transport chain ...
Crystal structure of chloroplastic ascorbate peroxidase from tobacco plants and structural insights for its instability ... Wada, K. et al., Crystal structure of chloroplastic ascorbate peroxidase from tobacco plants and structural insights into its ... Crystal structure of chloroplastic ascorbate peroxidase from tobacco plants and structural insights for its instability. ...
Overexpression of Thylakoidal Ascorbate Peroxidase Drastically Reduces Induction of Genes in Paraquat-Treated Arabidopsis.. Our ... Because the activity of thylakoidal ascorbate peroxidase is confined to the chloroplast (14) and 1O2, because of its short half ... Overexpression of Thylakoidal Ascorbate Peroxidase Increases the Singlet Oxygen-Induced Whole-Plant Responses.. To investigate ... Overexpression of Thylakoidal Ascorbate Peroxidase Affects the Expression of Genes Induced During the Release of Singlet Oxygen ...
"Ascorbate peroxidase". 2: 139-153. Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Welinder KG (1991). "Bacterial catalase-peroxidases ... peroxidases, exhibiting both peroxidase and catalase activities. It is thought that catalase-peroxidase provides protection to ... Haem peroxidases (or heme peroxidases) are haem-containing enzymes that use hydrogen peroxide as the electron acceptor to ... Another family of haem peroxidases is the DyP-type peroxidase family. Nelson RE, Fessler LI, Takagi Y, Blumberg B, Keene DR, ...
  • CAT (catalase), SOD (Superoxide dismutase), GPX (Gluthatione peroxidase) and APX (Ascorbate peroxidase) enzymes, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). (nih.gov)
  • On the other hand, after chilling stress, transgenic plants showed higher reduced ascorbate (AsA) and activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) than those in WT plants, and the expression of several known stress-responsive and antioxidative genes was also higher at the end of chilling treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Magnesium deficiency and high light intensity enhance activities of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in bean leaves. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To fortify the antioxidant capacity of plum plants, genes encoding cytosolic antioxidants ascorbate peroxidase (cytapx) and Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (cytsod) were genetically engineered in these plants. (csic.es)
  • The enzymatic activities for ROS scavenging-related genes were not significantly altered by ASA treatment under water stress, while transcript abundances of genes encoding superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and monohydroascorbate reductase showed significant decreases in the root elongation zone and significant increases in the root maturation zone treated with ASA under water stress. (nih.gov)
  • There recorded significant variation in activities in-vitro as well as by in-gel studies of Guaiacol Peroxidase (GPX), Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and Glutathione Reductase (GR) enzymes. (omicsonline.org)
  • Major reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging/modulating enzymes include the superoxide dismutase (SOD) that dismutates O 2 into H 2 O 2 , which is followed by the coordinated action of a set of enzymes including catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and peroxiredoxins (Prx) that remove H 2 O2. (springer.com)
  • In leaves, neither hydrogen peroxide content nor superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxide and guaiacol peroxidase activities did not change in Cd-treated plants compared to control plants. (scielo.br)
  • hence, plants and animals maintain complex systems of multiple types of antioxidants, such as glutathione, vitamin C , and vitamin E as well as enzymes such as catalase , superoxide dismutase and various peroxidases . (wikidoc.org)
  • Les enzymes antioxidants tels que superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione réductase, et catalase sont moins actifs en présence de cadmium. (wikipedia.org)
  • catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). (ishs.org)
  • Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities decreased continuously with increasing ageing period. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Ascorbate-dependent peroxidase activity was first reported in 1979,, more than 150 years after the first observation of peroxidase activity in horseradish plants and almost 40 years after the discovery of the closely related cytochrome c peroxidase enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • APX has high sequence identity to cytochrome c peroxidase, which is also a class I peroxidase enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytochrome c peroxidase Manganese peroxidase Kelly GJ, Latzko E (December 1979). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytochrome c Peroxidase" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Catalase-peroxidases belong to Class I of the plant, fungal, bacterial peroxidase superfamily, together with yeast cytochrome c peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidases. (nih.gov)
  • Here we report the crystal structures of guaiacol bound to cytochrome c peroxidase (C c P). A related structure with phenol bound is also presented. (wiley.com)
  • Ascorbate peroxidase 1 plays a key role in the response of Arabidopsis thaliana to stress combination. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase 1 is a central component of the reactive oxygen gene network of Arabidopsis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Heat stress- and heat shock transcription factor-dependent expression and activity of ascorbate peroxidase in Arabidopsis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Photosynthetic electron transport regulates the expression of cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase genes in Arabidopsis during excess light stress. (semanticscholar.org)
  • From sequence analysis of three novel ascorbate peroxidases from Arabidopsis thaliana to structure, function and evolution of seven types of ascorbate peroxidase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • show that small 1,3,5-triazines selectively target ascorbate peroxidases (APXs) in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ), tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ), rice ( Oryza sativa ), maize ( Zea mays ), liverwort ( Marchantia polymorpha ), and other plant species. (plantae.org)
  • In this study, we demonstrate that in the absence of the cytosolic H2O2-scavenging enzyme ascorbate peroxidase 1 (APX1), the entire chloroplastic H2O2-scavenging system of Arabidopsis thaliana collapses, H2O2 levels increase, and protein oxidation occurs. (unr.edu)
  • ATH6030 AJ006030 4645bp DNA PLN 02-JUL-1998 Arabidopsis thaliana ascorbate peroxidase III (apxIII) gene. (bio.net)
  • To reveal the function of ascorbate associated with defense against photo-oxidative damage, responses of the ascorbate-deficient mutant vtc2-1 of Arabidopsis thaliana to high-light stress were investigated. (springer.com)
  • Two genes in Arabidopsis thaliana encoding GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase are required for ascorbate biosynthesis and seedling viability. (springer.com)
  • Ascorbate peroxidases are haem proteins that efficiently scavenge H2O2 in the cytosol and chloroplasts of plants. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase had a high similarity to cytosolic ascorbate peroxidases, and the precursor contained a transit peptide to chloroplasts at its ammo-terminus and a putative membrane-spanning region at its carboxy-terminus. (oup.com)
  • Measurement of chemical compositions such as contents of proline, protein, and antioxidant enzymes including catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and peroxidase has been used as a marker to evaluate somatic embryogenesis in different studies [ 10 , 14 , 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Ascorbate peroxidase (or L-ascorbate peroxidase, APX) (EC 1.11.1.11) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-ascorbate + H2O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } dehydroascorbate + 2 H2O It is a member of the family of heme-containing peroxidases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heme peroxidases catalyse the H2O2-dependent oxidation of a wide range of different, usually organic, substrates in biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • APXs catalyse the H2O2-dependent oxidation of ascorbate in plants, algae and certain cyanobacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different peroxidases, including 2-cysteine (2-Cys) peroxiredoxins (PRXs) and thylakoid ascorbate peroxidase (tAPX), have been proposed to be involved in the water-water cycle (WWC) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediated signaling in plastids. (herts.ac.uk)
  • Plant ascorbate peroxidases (APXs), enzymes catalyzing the dismutation of H2O2 into H2O and O2, play an important role in reactive oxygen species homeostasis in plants. (nih.gov)
  • Flavonoid- peroxidase reaction as a detoxification mechanism of plants against H2O2. (wordnik.com)
  • A cDNA for thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase of pumpkin was cloned and characterized. (oup.com)
  • We have addressed this problem by modulating noninvasively the level of H 2 O 2 in plastids by means of a transgenic line that overexpresses the thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase (tAPX). (pnas.org)
  • APX (ascorbate peroxidase, EC 1.11.1.11) is widely distributed in plants, eukaryotic algae and protozoa that have acquired the ability to synthesize AsA (ascorbate) and catalyses the reduction of H 2 O 2 to water with AsA as its specific electron donor [ 1 - 3 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • The L-ascorbate peroxidase 6 gene ( APX6 ) is one of the most important genes for scavenging H 2 O 2 and plays a vital role in plant resistance to environmental stresses. (frontiersin.org)
  • S-methylbenzo[1,2,3]thiadiazole-7-carbothiate) as a comparison, real-time PCR expression analysis of genes encoding a pathogenesis-related protein 1 (PR-1) and an ascorbate peroxidase (APX) demonstrated a systemic enhancement of APX expression in MSB-pretreated plants, with no effect on PR-1 expression, suggesting augmented reactive oxygen species production in MSB-pretreated plants. (csic.es)
  • Functional annotation analysis showed significant up-regulation of genes annotated to be involved in responses to stimulus and stress, (e.g., late embryogenesis abundant proteins and heat-shock proteins) antioxidant defense (e.g., peroxidases and glutathione S-transferases), down regulation of genes related to the cell cycle pathway, and photosynthesis processes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The finding of the ascorbate-glutathione pathway genes in almost all cellular compartments as well as the high affinity of APX for H 2 O 2 plays a crucial role in controlling the level of reactive oxygen species in these compartments. (omicsonline.org)
  • Efficiently scavenge ROS during late maturation and postharvest stages of tomato fruits by overexpression of the ascorbate-glutathione pathway genes to enhance their shelf life as well as their antioxidant value and reduce the postharvest losses. (icgeb.org)
  • Our vision of efficient scavenging of ROS during late maturation and postharvest stages of tomato fruits by over expression of the ascorbate-glutathione pathway genes shall enhance their shelf life as well as their antioxidant value and reduce the postharvest losses. (trieste.it)
  • The regulation of ascorbate peroxidase activity by NO as a redox sensor of acute oxidative stress or as part of a hormone-induced signalling pathway leading to lateral root development is presented and discussed. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • Wheat Stripe Rust Resistance Protein WKS1 Reduces the Ability of the Thylakoid-Associated Ascorbate Peroxidase to Detoxify Reactive Oxygen Species. (jic.ac.uk)
  • In this work, the X-ray crystal structure of recombinant soybean cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (rsAPX) in complex with salicylhydroxamic acid (SHA) has been determined to 1.46 A. The SHA molecule is bound close to the delta-heme edge in a cavity that connects the distal side of the heme to the surface of the protein. (le.ac.uk)
  • An ascorbate peroxidase protein (BnAPX) was previously isolated from Brassica napus in our laboratory and it was located in the chloroplast. (ajol.info)
  • This is the first report evaluating the relationship between the chemical compositions of cumin seeds (based on the analysis of the content of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, proline, protein, terpenic compounds, alcohol/phenols, aldehydes, and epoxides) and the induction efficiency of somatic embryogenesis in two Iranian superior cumin landraces (Golestan and North Khorasan). (hindawi.com)
  • This approach couples tissue- and location-specific expression of the enzyme ascorbate peroxidase (APX), which enables proximity-based protein labeling in vivo, and quantitative proteomics to identify tissue- and subcellular-restricted proteomes. (sciencemag.org)
  • One of the candidate proteins, APX3, was identified as a putative peroxisomal membrane-bound ascorbate peroxidase. (deepdyve.com)
  • The method takes advantage of an enzyme called ascorbate peroxidase (APEX), which can attach biotin commonly known as vitamin B7 to proteins nearby. (bioquicknews.com)
  • These isomerases possibly are connected to a network of peripheral and lumenal proteins involved in antioxidative response, including peroxiredoxins, m-type thioredoxins, and a lumenal ascorbate peroxidase. (plantcell.org)
  • Without ascorbate, cells have reduced capacity to post translationally modify and crosslink ECM proteins such as collagen as elastin . (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In addition, selenium is incorporated at the active site of many proteins, including glutathione peroxidase , which is particularly important for cancer protection. (wordnik.com)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-ascorbate:hydrogen-peroxide oxidoreductase. (wikipedia.org)
  • A major hydrogen peroxide detoxifying system in plant cells is the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, in which, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) enzymes play a key role catalyzing the conversion of H(2)O(2) into H(2)O, using ascorbate as a specific electron donor. (nih.gov)
  • Peroxidases that utilize ASCORBIC ACID as an electron donor to reduce HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to WATER. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) is one of the most important antioxidant enzymes of plants that detoxifies hydrogen peroxide using ascorbate for reduction. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Transgenic plantlets exhibited higher contents of nonenzymatic antioxidants glutathione and ascorbate than nontransformed control, which correlated with lower accumulation of hydrogen peroxide. (csic.es)
  • Haem peroxidases (or heme peroxidases) are haem-containing enzymes that use hydrogen peroxide as the electron acceptor to catalyse a number of oxidative reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • When salbutamol was exposed to myeloperoxidase, eosinophil peroxidase or lactoperoxidase in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and nitrite (NO 2 − ), both absorption spectroscopy and mass spectrometry indicated formation of a new metabolite with features expected for the nitrated drug. (aspetjournals.org)
  • and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and secrete unique peroxidases, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) by EOS and myeloperoxidase (MPO) by PMN. (aspetjournals.org)
  • among these, ascorbate (ASC) plays a pivotal role, it being both a direct scavenger of ROS and the electron donor of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), a key enzyme for scavenging hydrogen peroxide in plant cells [ 8 , 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The presence of estrogen, however, stimulates the osteoclasts to increase production of the antioxidant glutathione peroxidase , which degrades the free-radical hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen, rendering it harmless. (wordnik.com)
  • The latter is an endogenous enzyme that, like glutathione peroxidase , breaks down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. (wordnik.com)
  • A peroxidase /phenolics/ascorbate system can scavenge hydrogen peroxide in plants. (wordnik.com)
  • It is also the cosubstrate for glutathione peroxidase that removes hydrogen peroxide. (coursehero.com)
  • thylakoidal ascorbate peroxidase gene (LetAPX) was isolated and antisense transgenic tomato plants were produced. (nih.gov)
  • We suggest that the sparse representatives of eukaryotic catalase-peroxidases go back to lateral gene transfer, and that, except for several fungi, only single copy hydroperoxidases occur in the eukaryotic lineage. (nih.gov)
  • Gene knockout study reveals that cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase 2(OsAPX2) plays a critical role in growth and reproduction in rice under drought, salt and cold stresses. (nih.gov)
  • Ascorbate and glutathione: the heart of the redox hub. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Euglena gracilis lacks a catalase and contains a single APX (ascorbate peroxidase) and enzymes related to the redox cycle of ascorbate in the cytosol. (portlandpress.com)
  • In particular, we describe the redox post-translational modifications of cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase and its influence on enzyme activity. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • This represents an unusual redox-catalytic mechanism whereby reduction of H(2)O(2) is achieved at the expense of reducing equivalents of ascorbate converted into those of Hb(AcTPOH)(12), a new propensity that cannot be directly associated with ascorbate. (cdc.gov)
  • APX enzymes show high specificity for ascorbate as an electron donor, but most APXs will also oxidise other organic substrates that are more characteristic of the class III peroxidases (such as horseradish peroxidase), in some cases at rates comparable to that of ascorbate itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ascorbate peroxidase (APXs) plays an important role in the anti-oxidant system by utilizing AsA as specific electron donor to reduce H(2)O(2) to water. (nih.gov)
  • To find evidence for a connection between heat stress response, oxidative stress, and common stress tolerance, we studied the effects of elevated growth temperatures and heat stress on the activity and expression of ascorbate peroxidase (APX). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Ascorbate peroxidases are important defense enzymes that protect plant cells from oxidative stress damage. (deepdyve.com)
  • Cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (cAPX) is an iron-containing, ROI-detoxifying enzyme induced in response to iron overload or oxidative stress. (deepdyve.com)
  • It is thought that catalase-peroxidase provides protection to cells under oxidative stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) (A), glutathione reductase (GR) (B), dehydroascorbate reductase (DR) (C), and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MR) (D) in tall fescue roots exposed to non-stress control, water stress, and water stress with ASA treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Such enzymes include monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), alternative oxidases (AOXs), peroxidases (PODs) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). (springer.com)
  • Activities of peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase, monodehydroascorbate reductase and APX were higher in the seeds from drought-stressed plants than in the control ones. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Ascorbate / dehydroascorbate and reduced glutathione / oxidised glutathione ratios was decreased by the late-season drought. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • WKS1.1 is targeted to the chloroplast where it phosphorylates the thylakoid-associated ascorbate peroxidase (tAPX) and reduces its ability to detoxify peroxides. (jic.ac.uk)
  • This enzyme participates in ascorbate and aldarate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vacca RA, de Pinto MC, Valenti D, Passarella S, Marra E, De Gara L: Production of reactive oxygen species, alteration of cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase and impairment of mitochondria metabolism are early events in heat shock-induced programmed cell death in tobacco bright-Yellow 2 cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Other names in common use include L-ascorbic acid peroxidase, L-ascorbic acid-specific peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, and ascorbic acid peroxidase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we describe an approach to resolve both dimensions simultaneously by using proximity labeling mediated by engineered ascorbic acid peroxidase (APEX). (nih.gov)
  • One oxidizing equivalent resides on iron, giving the oxyferryl intermediate, and in many peroxidases the porphyrin (R) is oxidized to the porphyrin pi-cation radical (R'). Compound I then oxidizes an organic substrate to give a substrate radical and Compound II, which can then oxidize a second substrate molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neutron diffraction from Compound II of Ascorbate peroxidase. (phys.org)
  • Heme enzymes have an iron atom in a special chemical group called a porphyrin, this is the same as in hemoglobin, the molecule that carries oxygen in our blood, but in heme peroxidase enzymes it is used to pull apart peroxide for many different biochemical processes, these include getting rid of damaging compounds in the cell and the making of new molecules that the cell needs. (phys.org)
  • Our knowledge of how these organic substrates bind to peroxidases has developed relatively recently, and is based on crystallographic information for a number of different heme peroxidase enzymes. (wiley.com)
  • In addition, free ascorbate and total ascorbate content were significantly higher in roots treated with ASA under water stress than those without ASA treatment. (nih.gov)
  • The total ascorbate content was lower, whereas accumulation of H 2 O 2 was higher in the vtc2-1 mutant than that in the wild type. (springer.com)
  • Under physiological conditions, the immediate product of the reaction, the monodehydroascorbate radical, is reduced back to ascorbate by a monodehydroascorbate reductase (monodehydroascorbate reductase (NADH)) enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the absence of a reductase, two monodehydroascorbate radicals disproportionate rapidly to dehydroascorbic acid and ascorbate. (wikipedia.org)
  • A short duration flooding treatment elevated the activities of SOD, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase (AP), and glutathione reductase (GR), while further flooding significantly reduced the enzyme activities but enhanced the concentrations of ascorbic acid and reduced form glutathione (GSH). (springer.com)
  • Characterization of ascorbate peroxidase in soybean under flooding and drought stresses. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Understanding functional diversity and substrate specificity in haem peroxidases: what can we learn from ascorbate peroxidase? (wikipedia.org)
  • Haem peroxidases include two superfamilies: one found in bacteria, fungi, and plants, and the second found in animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another family of haem peroxidases is the DyP-type peroxidase family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increased flower longevity by the application of GA 3 , BAP or KIN was associated with decreased lipid peroxidase and lipoxygenase (LOX) activities, and increased activities of various antioxidative enzymes viz. (ishs.org)
  • The results suggest a relationship between seed deterioration in seeds from both control and drought-stressed plants with a decrease in important reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes (except peroxidase) and an increase in lipid peroxidation. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The family of heme peroxidases catalyse the hydrogen peroxidase-dependent oxidation of a wide variety of different substrates. (wiley.com)
  • A 230-residues long homologous region exists in all eukaryotic members of Class I, which is present twice in both prokaryotic and archaeal catalase-peroxidases. (nih.gov)
  • The overall structure of eukaryotic Class I peroxidases may be retained in both halves of catalase-peroxidases, with major insertions in several loops, some of which may participate in inter-domain or inter-subunit interactions. (nih.gov)
  • The C-terminal halves of extant catalase-peroxidases clearly did not accumulate random changes, so prolonged periods of independent evolution of the duplicates can be ruled out. (nih.gov)
  • The N-terminal halves of catalase-peroxidases, which reveal higher homology with the single-copy members of the superfamily, obviously are catalytically active, whereas the C-terminal halves of the bifunctional enzymes presumably control the access to the haem pocket and facilitate stable folding. (nih.gov)
  • The bifunctional nature of catalase-peroxidases can be ascribed to several unique sequence peculiarities conserved among all N-terminal halves, which most likely will affect the properties of both haem ligands. (nih.gov)
  • and bacterial catalase- peroxidases, exhibiting both peroxidase and catalase activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding interaction of soybean cytosolic APX with its physiological substrate, ascorbate, and with a number of other substrates are also known. (wikipedia.org)
  • Guaiacol is a universal substrate for all peroxidases, and its use in a simple colorimetric assay has wide applications. (wiley.com)
  • Guaiacol is a universal substrate for peroxidases, and is oxidized by all known peroxidases. (wiley.com)
  • Ascorbate peroxidase is a bifunctional peroxidase that catalyzes the H(2)O(2)-dependent oxidation of both ascorbate and various aromatic substrates. (le.ac.uk)
  • In ascorbate peroxidase, for example, (hydrophobic) aromatic substrates and (hydrophilic) ascorbate are oxidized at different sites [ 8,12 ]. (wiley.com)
  • Sodium in the structure of Crystal Structure of Dithinonite Reduced Soybean Ascorbate Peroxidase Mutant W41A. (atomistry.com)
  • Plants respond to ROS and RNS accumulation by increasing the level of the antioxidant molecules glutathione and ascorbate and by activating specific antioxidant enzymes. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • Studies suggest that antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and ascorbate peroxidase play an important role in maturity and differentiation of plant tissues and their high activity affects cellular processes such as somatic embryogenesis [ 10 , 16 , 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Reactive oxygen intermediates and glutathione regulate the expression of cytosolic ascorbate. (deepdyve.com)
  • Taken together, the cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase OsAPX2 plays an important role in rice growth and development by protecting the seedlings from abiotic stresses through scavenging reactive oxygen species. (nih.gov)
  • Interestingly, cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase ( cAPX ), a key enzyme controlling H 2 O 2 levels in plants, was found to be S -nitrosylated at the onset of both PCDs . (plantphysiol.org)
  • We used viral vectors to deliver peroxidase derivatives, which catalyze production of an electron-dense tracer, to genetically identify neurons, and developed a protocol that enhances the electron-density of the labeled cells while retaining the quality of the ultrastructure. (elifesciences.org)
  • This means that defining an enzyme as an APX is not straightforward, but is usually applied when the specific activity for ascorbate is higher than that for other substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2D-PAGE allowed the identification of ascorbate peroxidase 1 (APX1) as target of auxin-induced denitrosylation in roots. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • Class II consists of secretory fungal peroxidases: ligninases, or lignin peroxidases (LiPs), and manganese-dependent peroxidases (MnPs). (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on a peroxide as acceptor (peroxidases). (wikipedia.org)
  • Noctor G, Foyer CH: Ascorbate and glutathione: keeping active oxygen under control. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) is known to catalyze the reduction of H 2 O 2 to water and enhance plants' tolerance in stress environment. (ajol.info)
  • Crystal structure of chloroplastic ascorbate peroxidase from tobacco plants and structural insights into its instability. (expasy.org)
  • The results indicate that ascorbate plays a critical role in maintaining normal photosynthetic function in plants under high-light stress. (springer.com)
  • Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants: Myriad Roles of Ascorbate Peroxidase. (trieste.it)
  • Total ascorbate was lower in the seeds from control plants than stressed ones. (ingentaconnect.com)