Raccoon roundworm encephalitis. (1/6)The raccoon roundworm, Baylisascaris procyonis, is increasingly recognized as a cause of zoonotic visceral, ocular, and neural larva migrans and, in particular, of devastating encephalitis in young children. Exposure occurs mainly at raccoon latrines, where large numbers of infective eggs may be accidentally ingested. Risk factors for infection include contact with raccoon latrines, pica/geophagia, age of <4 years, and male sex. The severity of central nervous system (CNS) disease depends on the number of eggs ingested, the extent and location of larval migration, and the severity of ensuing inflammation and necrosis. Diagnosis of Baylisascaris encephalitis is based on clinical CNS disease, peripheral and cerebrospinal fluid eosinophilia, deep white matter lesions visible by magnetic resonance imaging, and positive results of serologic tests. Treatment efficacy in clinical cases is poor, but albendazole prevents disease if given promptly after infection. Considering the seriousness of this disease and limitations of diagnosis and treatment, prevention of infection with eggs is of utmost importance. (+info)
Spatial analysis of the distribution of intestinal nematode infections in Uganda. (2/6)The spatial epidemiology of intestinal nematodes in Uganda was investigated using generalized additive models and geostatistical methods. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura was unevenly distributed in the country with prevalence greatest in southwest Uganda whereas hookworm was more homogeneously distributed. A. lumbricoides and T. Trichiura prevalence were nonlinearly related to satellite sensor-based estimates of land surface temperature; hookworm was nonlinearly associated with rainfall. Semivariogram analysis indicated that T. trichiura prevalence exhibited no spatial structure and that A. lumbricoides exhibited some spatial dependency at small spatial distances, once large-scale, mainly environmental, trends had been removed. In contrast, there was much more spatial structure in hookworm prevalence although the underlying factors are at present unclear. The implications of the results are discussed in relation to parasite spatial epidemiology and the prediction of infection distributions. (+info)
Consequences of concurrent Ascaridia galli and Escherichia coli infections in chickens. (3/6)Three experiments were carried out to examine the consequences of concurrent infections with Ascaridia galli and Escherichia coli in chickens raised for table egg production. Characteristic pathological lesions including airsacculitis, peritonitis and/or polyserositis were seen in all groups infected with E. coli. Furthermore, a trend for increased mortality rates was observed in groups infected with both organisms which, however, could not be confirmed statistically. The mean worm burden was significantly lower in combined infection groups compared to groups infected only with A. galli. It was also shown that combined infections of E. coli and A. galli had an added significant negative impact on weight gain. (+info)
Population genetic structure of Ascaridia galli re-emerging in non-caged laying hens. (4/6)(+info)
The prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs and cats in Calgary, Alberta. (5/6)The prevalence of endoparasites was evaluated in 619 dogs and 153 cats in the Calgary, Alberta region. Both homed and shelter-sourced pets were evaluated, and prevalence was assessed in various age groups. The overall endoparasite prevalence was 16.5% in canine samples and 7.2% in feline samples. The most common intestinal parasites in dogs were Giardia (8.1%) and ascarids (4.2%). The most common feline endoparasite was ascarids (6.5%). This study will help veterinarians to better plan diagnostic and preventative strategies with regard to companion animal intestinal parasites. (+info)
Sequencing of the beta-tubulin genes in the ascarid nematodes Parascaris equorum and Ascaridia galli. (6/6)(+info)
Once inside the body, the parasites can cause a range of symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, and weight loss. If left untreated, ascariasis can lead to complications such as bowel obstruction, rectal prolapse, and anemia.
Ascaridiasis is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as stool samples or X-rays. Treatment usually involves the use of antiparasitic drugs, such as albendazole or mebendazole, which can kill the parasites and alleviate symptoms within a few days to weeks.
Prevention measures for ascariasis include improving sanitation and hygiene practices, such as washing hands before eating or preparing food, and avoiding consumption of contaminated water or food. In areas where the infection is common, deworming programs can also be implemented to reduce the prevalence of the parasite.
Overall, ascariasis is a common and preventable infection that can have serious consequences if left untreated. It is important to be aware of the risks and take appropriate measures to avoid infection, especially in areas where the parasite is prevalent.