One of a pair of small pyramidal cartilages that articulate with the lamina of the CRICOID CARTILAGE. The corresponding VOCAL LIGAMENT and several muscles are attached to it.
The nine cartilages of the larynx, including the cricoid, thyroid and epiglottic, and two each of arytenoid, corniculate and cuneiform.
The striated muscle groups which move the LARYNX as a whole or its parts, such as altering tension of the VOCAL CORDS, or size of the slit (RIMA GLOTTIDIS).
An unnaturally deep or rough quality of voice.
The small thick cartilage that forms the lower and posterior parts of the laryngeal wall.
A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.
Congenital or acquired paralysis of one or both VOCAL CORDS. This condition is caused by defects in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, the VAGUS NERVE and branches of LARYNGEAL NERVES. Common symptoms are VOICE DISORDERS including HOARSENESS or APHONIA.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LARYNX which coordinates many functions such as voice production, breathing, swallowing, and coughing.
Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.
Pathological processes involving the chondral tissue (CARTILAGE).
Restoration, reconstruction, or improvement of a defective or damaged LARYNX.
A thin leaf-shaped cartilage that is covered with LARYNGEAL MUCOSA and situated posterior to the root of the tongue and HYOID BONE. During swallowing, the epiglottis folds back over the larynx inlet thus prevents foods from entering the airway.
The mucous lining of the LARYNX, consisting of various types of epithelial cells ranging from stratified squamous EPITHELIUM in the upper larynx to ciliated columnar epithelium in the rest of the larynx, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
The process of producing vocal sounds by means of VOCAL CORDS vibrating in an expiratory blast of air.
The observation of successive phases of MOVEMENT by use of a flashing light.
Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.
The largest cartilage of the larynx consisting of two laminae fusing anteriorly at an acute angle in the midline of the neck. The point of fusion forms a subcutaneous projection known as the Adam's apple.
Pathological processes that affect voice production, usually involving VOCAL CORDS and the LARYNGEAL MUCOSA. Voice disorders can be caused by organic (anatomical), or functional (emotional or psychological) factors leading to DYSPHONIA; APHONIA; and defects in VOICE QUALITY, loudness, and pitch.

Composition of the extracellular matrix in human cricoarytenoid joint articular cartilage. (1/34)

The extracellular matrix of the human cricoarytenoid joint articular cartilage is involved in different pathological changes. Interestingly, in contrast to the limb joints, the extracellular matrix composition of the healthy cricoarytenoid joint articular cartilage has not yet been elucidated except by some light microscopical investigations. The present study investigates the extracellular matrix components of the cricoarytenoid joint articular cartilage by means of light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy and compares them with the limb joints for a better understanding of their involvement in joint disease. Chondrocytes near the joint surface of the cricoid and arytenoid cartilage differ from chondrocytes of deeper cartilage layers. The extracellular matrix of the articular cartilage contains chondroitin-4-sulfate, chondroitin-6-sulfate and keratansulfate as well as collagen types II, III, VI, IX and XI. Type-III-collagen shows a special distribution throughout the joint cartilage. In deeper cartilage layers, type-III-collagen occurs only pericellularly; in higher cartilage layers type-III-collagen is also located territorially and interterritorialy in small amounts. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy have revealed the articular surface of the cricoid and arytenoid cartilage to consist of a network of irregularly organized collagen fibrils, which are lined by a layer of electron dense material. The network coats subjacent collagen bundles which descend obliquely downward and intermingle at right angles in the middle part of the articular cartilage with collagen bundles of the deeper cartilage zones. The articular cartilage surface shows structural characteristics which differ from the underlying cartilage. The superficial electron dense layer possibly plays a role in the lubrication of the articular cartilage surface. The alignment of the fibrillar structures in the articular cartilage of the cricoarytenoid joint varies from those of the limb joints based on the different strain occurring during arytenoid movement. Nevertheless, the human cricoarytenoid joint articular cartilage can be compared with the joints of the limbs despite its extracellular matrix composition and its involvement in joint pathology. Evidence of type III collagen in the outermost layer of the articular cartilage of the cricoarytenoid joint presents a peculiarity, which has yet not be demonstrated in the articular cartilage of limb joints.  (+info)

New insights into the pathomechanism of postintubation arytenoid subluxation. (2/34)

BACKGROUND: Impaired movement of the cricoarytenoid joint with hoarseness and immobility of the vocal ligament can occur as a consequence of endotracheal intubation. The biomechanics and pathomechanism of cricoarytenoid subluxation have not been demonstrated to date. METHODS: The present study attempts to simulate the trauma that has been associated with arytenoid cartilage subluxation in intubation trials on 37 unfixed larynges in cadavers from persons aged 25 to 89 years. Larynges were intubated or extubated according to former conceptions of arytenoid subluxation, which assume that the arytenoid tip enters the lumen of the tracheal tube, or that a deflection of the arytenoid occurs during withdrawal of the endotracheal tube with the cuff of the tube only partially deflated. Also, manual attempts were carried out to subluxate the arytenoid cartilage. Subsequently after dissecting the left and right cricoarytenoid joint from each larynx, the morphologic changes induced experimentally were analyzed using gross microscopic and histologic methods. RESULTS: Within the scope of the experiment, it proved impossible to produce any subluxation of a cricoarytenoid joint. Histologic analysis revealed injuries of synovial folds, joint-surface impressions of the articular cartilage, and fractures in the area of the subchondral bone in some joints. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the morphologic results, it was concluded that intubation trauma of the cricoarytenoid joint does not cause subluxation per se, but rather that formation of a hemarthros or fractures of the joint bodies lead to fixation of the joint surfaces in an abnormal position. Subsequent ankylosis may occur.  (+info)

Slow tonic muscle fibers in the thyroarytenoid muscles of human vocal folds; a possible specialization for speech. (3/34)

Most of the sounds of human speech are produced by vibration of the vocal folds, yet the biomechanics and control of these vibrations are poorly understood. In this study the muscle within the vocal fold, the thyroarytenoid muscle (TA), was examined for the presence and distribution of slow tonic muscle fibers (STF), a rare muscle fiber type with unique contraction properties. Nine human TAs were frozen and serially sectioned in the frontal plane. The presence and distribution pattern of STF in each TA were examined by immunofluorescence microscopy using the monoclonal antibodies (mAb) ALD-19 and ALD-58 which react with the slow tonic myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform. In addition, TA muscle samples from adjacent frozen sections were also examined for slow tonic MyHC isoform by electrophoretic immunoblotting. STF were detected in all nine TAs and the presence of slow tonic MyHC isoform was confirmed in the immunoblots. The STF were distributed predominantly in the medial aspect of the TA, a distinct muscle compartment called the vocalis which is the vibrating part of the vocal fold. STF do not contract with a twitch like most muscle fibers, instead, their contractions are prolonged, stable, precisely controlled, and fatigue resistant. The human voice is characterized by a stable sound with a wide frequency spectrum that can be precisely modulated and the STF may contribute to this ability. At present, the evidence suggests that STF are not presented in the vocal folds of other mammals (including other primates), therefore STF may be a unique human specialization for speech.  (+info)

Osteoarthritis in cricoarytenoid joint. (4/34)

OBJECTIVE: Occurrence of osteoarthritis is a frequent event of limb joints in people over 40 years of age. The human cricoarytenoid joint is comparable with the joints of the limbs despite its structure and extracellular matrix composition. To date, little is known about the occurrence of osteoarthritis in the human cricoarytenoid joint. METHODS: Sixty-eight cricoarytenoid joints (42 male and 26 female, age 25-98 years) were analysed by means of histology, lectin histochemistry, immunohistochemistry as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: About 50% of the investigated cricoarytenoid joints aged over 40 years show degenerative changes in their joint surface structure at varying levels of intensity. The articular cartilage surface is fibrillated in some places and sometimes shows fissures. A demascing of collagen fibrils next to the joint surface and a loss of proteoglycans in the upper cartilage layers can be observed. Chondrocytes near the joint surface appear as voluminous chondrocyte clusters. The clusters and the superficial cartilage layer show a positive reaction to type VI collagen antibodies. The distribution patterns of lectins are completely changed in fibrillated cartilage areas. CONCLUSION: Degenerative alterations in diarthrodial joints resembling osteoarthritis can occur in the joints of the larynx. These structural changes of the articular cartilage are comparable to osteoarthritis of the limb joints. Osteoarthritis in the cricoarytenoid joint may lead to impaired movements of the arytenoid cartilages. Functionally the structural changes may lead to negative consequences during vocal production, such as impaired vocal quality and reduced vocal intensity.  (+info)

Active upper airway closure during induced central apneas in lambs is complete at the laryngeal level only. (5/34)

We tested the hypotheses that active upper airway closure during induced central apneas in nonsedated lambs 1). is complete and occurs at the laryngeal level and 2). is not due to stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerves (SLN). Five newborn lambs were surgically instrumented to record thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle (glottal constrictor) electromyographic (EMG) activity with supra- and subglottal pressures. Hypocapnic and nonhypocapnic central apneas were induced before and after SLN sectioning in the five lambs. A total of 174 apneas were induced, 116 before and 58 after sectioning of the internal branch of the SLN (iSLN). Continuous TA EMG activity was observed in 88% of apneas before iSLN section and in 87% of apneas after iSLN section. A transglottal pressure different from zero was observed in all apneas with TA EMG activity, with a mean subglottal pressure of 4.3 +/- 0.8 cmH2O before and 4.7 +/- 0.7 cmH2O after iSLN section. Supraglottal pressure was consistently atmospheric. Sectioning of both iSLNs had no effects on the results. We conclude that upper airway closure during induced central apneas in lambs is active, complete, and occurs at the glottal level only. Consequently, a positive subglottal pressure is maintained throughout the apnea. Finally, this complete active glottal closure is independent from laryngeal afferent innervation.  (+info)

Muscle fiber type composition and effects of vocal fold immobilization on the two compartments of the human posterior cricoarytenoid: a case study of four patients. (6/34)

The human posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscle is divided into two compartments, the vertical and horizontal bellies, which contain differences in their myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition. Using immunohistochemical techniques on whole PCA samples, this study provides a more thorough description of the fiber type composition of entire bellies of the PCA. Four patients provided complete PCA samples containing both compartments of their right and left sides; two with unilaterally immobilized vocal folds. The horizontal belly had 80% slow (type I) fibers and 20% fast (type II) fibers. The vertical belly contained equal amounts of slow and fast fibers (approximately 55%:45%); clearly distinguishing between two compartments. Atrophy of muscle fibers and fiber type grouping were also present in both normal and affected subjects; providing no clear confirmation of the clinical findings of vocal fold immobilization. Further study of the PCA muscle from patients with unilaterally immobilized vocal folds is needed.  (+info)

Staining of human thyroarytenoid muscle with myosin antibodies reveals some unique extrafusal fibers, but no muscle spindles. (7/34)

This study describes the myosin composition of extrafusal and intrafusal muscle fibers found in the human thyroarytenoid (TA) and sternohyoid (control) muscles. We sought to determine the presence of muscle spindles in the TA muscle, and to identify unusual extrafusal fiber types, using the commonly accepted approach of tissue staining with myosin isoform specific antibodies. Extrafusal fibers are organized into motor units, which subsequently produce muscle movement, whereas intrafusal fibers compose muscle spindles, the primary stretch receptor that provides afferent (feed back) information to the nervous system for regulation of motor unit length and tonicity. Immunohistochemical identification of muscle spindles was confirmed in sternohyoid, but not in TA samples; however, some extrafusal fibers contained tonic myosin. These results indicate that human TA muscle functions similar to some mammalian extraocular muscle, performing unloaded (non-weight bearing) contractions without afferent information from native muscle spindles.  (+info)

Abnormal movement of the arytenoid region as a cause of upper airway obstruction. (8/34)

A 75 year old woman presented with a three week history of severe dyspnoea and cough. Auscultation and spirometry suggested extrathoracic inspiratory airway obstruction, and bronchoscopy showed abnormal motion of the arytenoid region (supraglottic area), causing upper airway obstruction only during forced inspiratory efforts. Sedatives improved the symptoms within a week. It is suggested that reversible malfunction of the arytenoid region can be responsible for upper airway obstruction.  (+info)

The arytenoid cartilages are paired, irregularly shaped pieces of elastic cartilage located in the larynx (voice box) of mammals. They play a crucial role in the process of vocalization and breathing.

Each arytenoid cartilage has a body and two projections: the vocal process, which provides attachment for the vocal cord, and the muscular process, which serves as an attachment site for various intrinsic laryngeal muscles. The arytenoid cartilages are connected to the cricoid cartilage below by the synovial cricoarytenoid joints, allowing for their movement during respiration and phonation.

These cartilages help in adjusting the tension of the vocal cords and controlling the opening and closing of the rima glottidis (the space between the vocal cords), which is essential for breathing, swallowing, and producing sounds. Any abnormalities or injuries to the arytenoid cartilages may result in voice disturbances or respiratory difficulties.

Laryngeal cartilages refer to the various pieces of cartilage that make up the structure of the larynx, also known as the voice box. The larynx is a crucial part of the respiratory system, located in the neck between the pharynx and the trachea. It plays a vital role in protecting the lower airways from food or drink entering the windpipe, as well as producing sound during speech.

There are several laryngeal cartilages, including:

1. Thyroid cartilage: This is the largest and most superior of the laryngeal cartilages. It forms the Adam's apple in men and has a prominent notch in the front called the thyroid notch. The thyroid cartilage protects the larynx and provides attachment for various muscles and ligaments.
2. Cricoid cartilage: This is the only complete ring of cartilage in the airway and lies inferior to the thyroid cartilage. It has a broad, flat superior portion called the cricoid lamina and a narrower, more curved inferior portion called the cricoid arch. The cricoid cartilage serves as an attachment site for several muscles and ligaments involved in breathing and swallowing.
3. Arytenoid cartilages: These are paired, pyramid-shaped structures that sit on top of the cricoid cartilage. They help form the posterior portion of the laryngeal inlet and provide attachment for the vocal cords (vocal folds). The arytenoid cartilages play a crucial role in voice production and respiration.
4. Corniculate cartilages: These are small, conical-shaped structures that project from the superior aspect of each arytenoid cartilage. They help form the most posterior portion of the laryngeal inlet.
5. Cuneiform cartilages: These are tiny, flat, crescent-shaped structures located near the corniculate cartilages. They also contribute to forming the posterior aspect of the laryngeal inlet.

These laryngeal cartilages work together to protect the airway, facilitate breathing, and enable voice production.

The laryngeal muscles are a group of skeletal muscles located in the larynx, also known as the voice box. These muscles play a crucial role in breathing, swallowing, and producing sounds for speech. They include:

1. Cricothyroid muscle: This muscle helps to tense the vocal cords and adjust their pitch during phonation (voice production). It is the only laryngeal muscle that is not innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Instead, it is supplied by the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve.
2. Posterior cricoarytenoid muscle: This muscle is primarily responsible for abducting (opening) the vocal cords during breathing and speaking. It is the only muscle that can abduct the vocal cords.
3. Lateral cricoarytenoid muscle: This muscle adducts (closes) the vocal cords during phonation, swallowing, and coughing.
4. Transverse arytenoid muscle: This muscle also contributes to adduction of the vocal cords, working together with the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle. It also helps to relax and lengthen the vocal cords during quiet breathing.
5. Oblique arytenoid muscle: This muscle is involved in adducting, rotating, and shortening the vocal cords. It works together with the transverse arytenoid muscle to provide fine adjustments for voice production.
6. Thyroarytenoid muscle (Vocalis): This muscle forms the main body of the vocal cord and is responsible for its vibration during phonation. The vocalis portion of the muscle helps control pitch and tension in the vocal cords.

These muscles work together to enable various functions of the larynx, such as breathing, swallowing, and speaking.

Hoarseness is a condition characterized by an abnormal change in the quality of voice, making it sound rough, breathy, strained, or weak. Medically, it's described as a disorder of phonation, which is the process of producing sound by vibrating the vocal cords in the larynx (voice box). Hoarseness can be caused by various factors, such as inflammation, irritation, or injury to the vocal cords, and may result in symptoms like altered voice pitch, volume, and clarity. It's essential to consult a healthcare professional if hoarseness persists for more than two weeks, especially if it's accompanied by other concerning symptoms like difficulty swallowing or breathing.

The cricoid cartilage is a ring-like piece of cartilage that forms the lower part of the larynx, or voice box. It is located in the front portion of the neck, and lies just below the thyroid cartilage, which is the largest cartilage in the larynx and forms the Adam's apple.

The cricoid cartilage serves as a attachment site for several important structures in the neck, including the vocal cords and the trachea (windpipe). It plays an important role in protecting the airway during swallowing by providing a stable platform against which the food pipe (esophagus) can open and close.

In medical procedures such as rapid sequence intubation, the cricoid cartilage may be pressed downward to compress the esophagus and help prevent stomach contents from entering the airway during intubation. This maneuver is known as the "cricoid pressure" or "Sellick's maneuver."

The larynx, also known as the voice box, is a complex structure in the neck that plays a crucial role in protection of the lower respiratory tract and in phonation. It is composed of cartilaginous, muscular, and soft tissue structures. The primary functions of the larynx include:

1. Airway protection: During swallowing, the larynx moves upward and forward to close the opening of the trachea (the glottis) and prevent food or liquids from entering the lungs. This action is known as the swallowing reflex.
2. Phonation: The vocal cords within the larynx vibrate when air passes through them, producing sound that forms the basis of human speech and voice production.
3. Respiration: The larynx serves as a conduit for airflow between the upper and lower respiratory tracts during breathing.

The larynx is located at the level of the C3-C6 vertebrae in the neck, just above the trachea. It consists of several important structures:

1. Cartilages: The laryngeal cartilages include the thyroid, cricoid, and arytenoid cartilages, as well as the corniculate and cuneiform cartilages. These form a framework for the larynx and provide attachment points for various muscles.
2. Vocal cords: The vocal cords are thin bands of mucous membrane that stretch across the glottis (the opening between the arytenoid cartilages). They vibrate when air passes through them, producing sound.
3. Muscles: There are several intrinsic and extrinsic muscles associated with the larynx. The intrinsic muscles control the tension and position of the vocal cords, while the extrinsic muscles adjust the position and movement of the larynx within the neck.
4. Nerves: The larynx is innervated by both sensory and motor nerves. The recurrent laryngeal nerve provides motor innervation to all intrinsic laryngeal muscles, except for one muscle called the cricothyroid, which is innervated by the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. Sensory innervation is provided by the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve and the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

The larynx plays a crucial role in several essential functions, including breathing, speaking, and protecting the airway during swallowing. Dysfunction or damage to the larynx can result in various symptoms, such as hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, shortness of breath, or stridor (a high-pitched sound heard during inspiration).

Vocal cord paralysis is a medical condition characterized by the inability of one or both vocal cords to move or function properly due to nerve damage or disruption. The vocal cords are two bands of muscle located in the larynx (voice box) that vibrate to produce sound during speech, singing, and breathing. When the nerves that control the vocal cord movements are damaged or not functioning correctly, the vocal cords may become paralyzed or weakened, leading to voice changes, breathing difficulties, and other symptoms.

The causes of vocal cord paralysis can vary, including neurological disorders, trauma, tumors, surgery, or infections. The diagnosis typically involves a physical examination, including a laryngoscopy, to assess the movement and function of the vocal cords. Treatment options may include voice therapy, surgical procedures, or other interventions to improve voice quality and breathing functions.

Cartilage is a type of connective tissue that is found throughout the body in various forms. It is made up of specialized cells called chondrocytes, which are embedded in a firm, flexible matrix composed of collagen fibers and proteoglycans. This unique structure gives cartilage its characteristic properties of being both strong and flexible.

There are three main types of cartilage in the human body: hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage.

1. Hyaline cartilage is the most common type and is found in areas such as the articular surfaces of bones (where they meet to form joints), the nose, trachea, and larynx. It has a smooth, glassy appearance and provides a smooth, lubricated surface for joint movement.
2. Elastic cartilage contains more elastin fibers than hyaline cartilage, which gives it greater flexibility and resilience. It is found in structures such as the external ear and parts of the larynx and epiglottis.
3. Fibrocartilage has a higher proportion of collagen fibers and fewer chondrocytes than hyaline or elastic cartilage. It is found in areas that require high tensile strength, such as the intervertebral discs, menisci (found in joints like the knee), and the pubic symphysis.

Cartilage plays a crucial role in supporting and protecting various structures within the body, allowing for smooth movement and providing a cushion between bones to absorb shock and prevent wear and tear. However, cartilage has limited capacity for self-repair and regeneration, making damage or degeneration of cartilage tissue a significant concern in conditions such as osteoarthritis.

Articular cartilage is the smooth, white tissue that covers the ends of bones where they come together to form joints. It provides a cushion between bones and allows for smooth movement by reducing friction. Articular cartilage also absorbs shock and distributes loads evenly across the joint, protecting the bones from damage. It is avascular, meaning it does not have its own blood supply, and relies on the surrounding synovial fluid for nutrients. Over time, articular cartilage can wear down or become damaged due to injury or disease, leading to conditions such as osteoarthritis.

Laryngeal diseases refer to conditions that affect the structure and function of the larynx, also known as the voice box. The larynx is a complex structure composed of cartilages, muscles, membranes, and mucous glands that play essential roles in breathing, swallowing, and vocalization.

Laryngeal diseases can be categorized into several types based on their causes and manifestations. Some common laryngeal diseases include:

1. Laryngitis: Inflammation of the larynx that can cause hoarseness, throat pain, coughing, and difficulty swallowing. Acute laryngitis is often caused by viral infections or irritants, while chronic laryngitis may result from prolonged exposure to smoke, chemicals, or acid reflux.
2. Vocal cord lesions: Abnormal growths on the vocal cords, such as polyps, nodules, or cysts, that can affect voice quality and cause hoarseness, breathiness, or pain. These lesions are often caused by overuse, misuse, or trauma to the vocal cords.
3. Laryngeal cancer: Malignant tumors that develop in the larynx and can invade surrounding structures, such as the throat, neck, and chest. Laryngeal cancer is often associated with smoking, alcohol consumption, and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.
4. Laryngeal stenosis: Narrowing of the airway due to scarring or thickening of the tissues in the larynx. This condition can cause difficulty breathing, wheezing, and coughing, especially during physical activity or sleep.
5. Reinke's edema: Swelling of the vocal cords caused by fluid accumulation in the mucous membrane that covers them. Reinke's edema is often associated with smoking and can cause hoarseness, low voice, and difficulty projecting the voice.
6. Laryngeal papillomatosis: A rare condition characterized by the growth of benign tumors (papillomas) in the larynx, usually caused by HPV infection. These tumors can recur and may require repeated surgeries to remove them.
7. Vocal cord paralysis: Inability of one or both vocal cords to move due to nerve damage or other medical conditions. This condition can cause hoarseness, breathiness, and difficulty speaking or swallowing.

These are some of the common laryngeal disorders that can affect a person's voice, breathing, and swallowing functions. Proper diagnosis and treatment by an otolaryngologist (ear, nose, and throat specialist) are essential to manage these conditions effectively and prevent complications.

Laryngeal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the larynx, also known as the voice box. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Laryngeal neoplasms can affect any part of the larynx, including the vocal cords, epiglottis, and the area around the vocal cords called the ventricle.

Benign laryngeal neoplasms may include papillomas, hemangiomas, or polyps. Malignant laryngeal neoplasms are typically squamous cell carcinomas, which account for more than 95% of all malignant laryngeal tumors. Other types of malignant laryngeal neoplasms include adenocarcinoma, sarcoma, and lymphoma.

Risk factors for developing laryngeal neoplasms include smoking, alcohol consumption, exposure to industrial chemicals, and a history of acid reflux. Symptoms may include hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, sore throat, ear pain, or a lump in the neck. Treatment options depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the neoplasm but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

Cartilage diseases refer to conditions that affect the cartilaginous tissues in the body. Cartilage is a firm, flexible connective tissue found in many areas of the body, including the joints, ribcage, ears, and nose. It provides structure and support, allows for smooth movement between bones, and protects the ends of bones from friction.

There are several types of cartilage diseases, including:

1. Osteoarthritis (OA): This is a degenerative joint disease that occurs when the protective cartilage that cushions the ends of your bones wears down over time. It can cause pain, stiffness, and loss of mobility in the affected joints.
2. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): This is an autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation in the lining of the joints, leading to cartilage damage and bone erosion.
3. Traumatic arthritis: This occurs when a joint is injured, causing damage to the cartilage and resulting in pain, stiffness, and loss of mobility.
4. Infectious arthritis: This occurs when a joint becomes infected, leading to inflammation and potential damage to the cartilage.
5. Chondromalacia patellae: This is a condition that affects the cartilage on the back of the kneecap, causing pain and stiffness in the knee.
6. Costochondritis: This is an inflammation of the cartilage in the ribcage, causing chest pain and discomfort.
7. Nasal septal deviation: This is a condition where the cartilage that separates the nostrils is crooked or off-center, causing difficulty breathing through the nose.
8. Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD): This is a joint condition that occurs when a piece of cartilage and bone in a joint becomes detached, causing pain and stiffness.
9. Synovial chondromatosis: This is a rare condition where nodules made up of cartilage form in the lining of a joint, causing pain, swelling, and limited mobility.

Treatment for cartilage diseases varies depending on the specific condition and severity, but may include medication, physical therapy, surgery, or a combination of these.

Laryngoplasty is a surgical procedure that involves reconstructing or reinforcing the larynx, specifically the vocal cords. The goal of this procedure can be to improve voice quality, restore breathing function, or manage airway obstructions caused by various conditions such as vocal cord paralysis, vocal fold bowing, or scarring.

There are different types of laryngoplasties, including:

1. Type I Thyroplasty (Medialization Laryngoplasty): This procedure involves placing an implant made of silicone, Gore-Tex, or other materials in the thyroid cartilage to medialize (move towards the midline) and support the paralyzed vocal cord. This helps improve voice quality and airway closure during speech and swallowing.
2. Arytenoid Adduction: In this procedure, the arytenoid cartilage is repositioned or fixed in place to help approximate (bring together) the vocal cords. It is often performed along with a Type I Thyroplasty for better voice and airway outcomes.
3. Laryngeal Framework Surgery: This is a more extensive procedure that involves reshaping the laryngeal framework, including the thyroid and cricoid cartilages, to improve voice, swallowing, or breathing function.

The choice of surgical technique depends on the underlying condition, its severity, and the patient's individual needs and goals.

The epiglottis is a flap-like structure located at the base of the tongue, near the back of the throat (pharynx). It is made of elastic cartilage and covered with mucous membrane. The primary function of the epiglottis is to protect the trachea (windpipe) from food or liquids entering it during swallowing.

During normal swallowing, the epiglottis closes over the opening of the larynx (voice box), redirecting the food or liquid bolus into the esophagus. In this way, the epiglottis prevents aspiration, which is the entry of foreign materials into the trachea and lungs.

Inflammation or infection of the epiglottis can lead to a serious medical condition called epiglottitis, characterized by swelling, redness, and pain in the epiglottis and surrounding tissues. Epiglottitis can cause difficulty breathing, speaking, and swallowing, and requires immediate medical attention.

The laryngeal mucosa is the mucous membrane that lines the interior surface of the larynx, also known as the voice box. This mucous membrane is composed of epithelial cells and underlying connective tissue, and it plays a crucial role in protecting the underlying tissues of the larynx from damage, infection, and other environmental insults.

The laryngeal mucosa is continuous with the respiratory mucosa that lines the trachea and bronchi, and it contains numerous mucus-secreting glands and cilia that help to trap and remove inhaled particles and microorganisms. Additionally, the laryngeal mucosa is richly innervated with sensory nerve endings that detect changes in temperature, pressure, and other stimuli, allowing for the regulation of breathing, swallowing, and voice production.

Damage to the laryngeal mucosa can occur as a result of various factors, including irritants, infection, inflammation, and trauma, and may lead to symptoms such as pain, swelling, difficulty swallowing, and changes in voice quality.

Phonation is the process of sound production in speech, singing, or crying. It involves the vibration of the vocal folds (also known as the vocal cords) in the larynx, which is located in the neck. When air from the lungs passes through the vibrating vocal folds, it causes them to vibrate and produce sound waves. These sound waves are then shaped into speech sounds by the articulatory structures of the mouth, nose, and throat.

Phonation is a critical component of human communication and is used in various forms of verbal expression, such as speaking, singing, and shouting. It requires precise control of the muscles that regulate the tension, mass, and length of the vocal folds, as well as the air pressure and flow from the lungs. Dysfunction in phonation can result in voice disorders, such as hoarseness, breathiness, or loss of voice.

Stroboscopy is a medical examination technique used primarily for the evaluation of voice and swallowing disorders. It involves the use of a strobe light that flickers at a rate equal to or close to the vibration rate of the vocal folds (vocal cords). This allows the examiner to visualize the movement of the vocal folds in slow motion, which can help identify any abnormalities in their movement or structure.

During the procedure, a thin, flexible tube called a stroboscope is inserted through the nose and into the throat. The strobe light is then activated, and the examiner observes the vibration of the vocal folds using an attached camera and video monitor. This technique can help diagnose conditions such as vocal fold nodules, polyps, paralysis, and other disorders that affect voice production.

It's important to note that stroboscopy should be performed by a trained healthcare professional, such as an otolaryngologist (ear, nose, and throat specialist) or speech-language pathologist, who has experience in evaluating voice and swallowing disorders.

Laryngoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the examination of the larynx, which is the upper part of the windpipe (trachea), and the vocal cords using a specialized instrument called a laryngoscope. The laryngoscope is inserted through the mouth or nose to provide a clear view of the larynx and surrounding structures. This procedure can be performed for diagnostic purposes, such as identifying abnormalities like growths, inflammation, or injuries, or for therapeutic reasons, such as removing foreign objects or taking tissue samples for biopsy. There are different types of laryngoscopes and techniques used depending on the reason for the examination and the patient's specific needs.

Thyroid cartilage is the largest and most superior of the laryngeal cartilages, forming the front and greater part of the larynx, also known as the "Adam's apple" in humans. It serves to protect the vocal cords and provides attachment for various muscles involved in voice production. The thyroid cartilage consists of two laminae that join in front at an angle, creating a noticeable prominence in the anterior neck. This structure is crucial in speech formation and swallowing functions.

Voice disorders are conditions that affect the quality, pitch, or volume of a person's voice. These disorders can result from damage to or abnormalities in the vocal cords, which are the small bands of muscle located in the larynx (voice box) that vibrate to produce sound.

There are several types of voice disorders, including:

1. Vocal cord dysfunction: This occurs when the vocal cords do not open and close properly, resulting in a weak or breathy voice.
2. Vocal cord nodules: These are small growths that form on the vocal cords as a result of excessive use or misuse of the voice, such as from shouting or singing too loudly.
3. Vocal cord polyps: These are similar to nodules but are usually larger and can cause more significant changes in the voice.
4. Laryngitis: This is an inflammation of the vocal cords that can result from a viral infection, overuse, or exposure to irritants such as smoke.
5. Muscle tension dysphonia: This occurs when the muscles around the larynx become tense and constricted, leading to voice changes.
6. Paradoxical vocal fold movement: This is a condition in which the vocal cords close when they should be open, causing breathing difficulties and a weak or breathy voice.
7. Spasmodic dysphonia: This is a neurological disorder that causes involuntary spasms of the vocal cords, resulting in voice breaks and difficulty speaking.

Voice disorders can cause significant impairment in communication, social interactions, and quality of life. Treatment may include voice therapy, medication, or surgery, depending on the underlying cause of the disorder.

Arytenoid cartilage Arytenoid cartilage This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 1075 of the 20th edition ... The arytenoid cartilages allow for movement of the vocal cords by articulating with the cricoid cartilage. They may be affected ... The word "arytenoid" is pronounced /ærɪˈtiːnɔɪd/. The arytenoid cartilages are in the larynxes of many animals, including ... the corniculate cartilage. It articulates with the cricoid lamina with a ball-and-socket joint. The arytenoid cartilages allow ...
Para-arytenoid cartilage pseudodiverticulum formation as a sequela of endotracheal intubation. / Gwin, Che; Robinson, Morton J ... Para-arytenoid cartilage pseudodiverticulum formation as a sequela of endotracheal intubation. Archives of Pathology and ... Gwin, C & Robinson, MJ 2007, Para-arytenoid cartilage pseudodiverticulum formation as a sequela of endotracheal intubation, ... Gwin, Che ; Robinson, Morton J. / Para-arytenoid cartilage pseudodiverticulum formation as a sequela of endotracheal intubation ...
Arytenoid Cartilage / injuries* * Arytenoid Cartilage / pathology * Arytenoid Cartilage / surgery * Humans * Laryngoscopy* * ... Complex posterior arytenoid dislocation Ear Nose Throat J. 2014 Apr-May;93(4-5):142, 144. ...
The corniculate cartilages (of Santorini) are located superior to the arytenoid cartilages. The cuneiform cartilages (of ... The paired arytenoid cartilages are located on the superior-posterior border of the cricoid cartilage lamina. The triangular ... The thyroarytenoid muscles connect the arytenoid cartilage to the inner aspect of the thyroid cartilage. The medial and lateral ... The thyroid cartilage is the largest cartilage of the larynx. The shieldlike shape of this cartilage provides protection to the ...
... which corresponds to the vocal process of the arytenoid cartilage. Contact granulomas may occur unilaterally or bilaterally. ... Apices of the arytenoid cartilages are composed of elastic cartilage, and the rest of the arytenoid cartilage is hyaline ... The arytenoid cartilages begin to ossify at approximately age 30 years. Ulcer or granuloma occurs on the vocal process of the ... Li J, Tian S, Zou S, Wang Q, Tai X, Chen X. CT Study of the Arytenoid Cartilage in Patients with Laryngeal Contact Granuloma. ...
... regular for tumoral involvement of the anterior commissure and arytenoid cartilage. The combination of clinical and computed ... Concordance was classified as follows: excellent for evaluating tumoral involvement of the thyroid and cricoid cartilages, ...
The dorsal cricoarytenoide muscle abducts the arytenoid cartilages at each inspiration. The laryngeal recurrent nerve ...
... and arytenoid cartilage. Model also displays hyoid bone, cricoid cartilage, thyroid cartilage, thyroid, and parathyroid glands. ...
The arytenoids are structures made of cartilage that form part of the larynx. Along with the epiglottis, the arytenoids help ... In these cases the cartilage becomes infected and swells, so the arytenoids cannot open, which results in a narrowed airway and ... The epiglottis then covers the arytenoids.. "In exercising horses, the arytenoids open to allow maximal airflow through the ... In addition, the vocal cord that sits below the affected arytenoid vibrates and produces the roaring noise often associated ...
Normally when a horse is breathing during exercise, his right and left arytenoid cartilages open outwards at the same time. ... Horses that suffer from this condition have a lack of nerve stimulation (innervation) to their left arytenoid cartilage which ... A diagnosis of roaring is confirmed through endoscopy (or "scoping"). Since the arytenoid cartilages dont abduct much when the ... Often the ventricle and vocal cord (ventriculectomy/cordectomy) which are located under the arytenoid cartilage are removed to ...
Learn about the veterinary topic of Arytenoid Chondropathy in Horses. Find specific details on this topic and related topics ... Arytenoid chondropathy refers to pathologic enlargement of one or both bilateral arytenoid cartilages resulting in poor ... Severe inflammation and infection of the arytenoid cartilage cause enlargement and immobility of the cartilage. ... in horses that have maintained some mobility of the arytenoid cartilage and have minimal enlargement of the arytenoid cartilage ...
The arytenoid cartilage does not need to be displaced caudally. It is the authors impression that the arytenoid cartilage ... The arytenoid cartilage is sutured to the caudo-dorsal part of the cricoid cartilage. This provides an adequate laryngeal ... The sesamoid band connecting the arytenoid cartilages dorsally is left intact. However, dorsal displacement of the arytenoid ... process of the arytenoid cartilage to the caudo-dorsal edge of the cricoid cartilage and tightened to maintain the arytenoid in ...
The tumor was centered on the right cricoid cartilage with erosion of the right cricoid cartilage and both arytenoid cartilages ... The cricoarytenoid joint is a true diarthrodial articulation formed by the cricoid and arytenoid cartilages on the upper ... esophagoscopy and direct laryngoscopy revealed a postcricoid submucosal mass near the right arytenoid cartilage. The pathology ... Cartilage erosion evident on CT scans strongly suggests the presence of cancer (14). Unfortunately, these CT findings are not ...
There was no difference between ABD and ARTH groups for arytenoid cartilage translation, contact area, and implant length. The ... Equine larynges underwent sequential CT scans in a neutral position and with 2 arytenoid treatments: bilateral arytenoid ... Arytenoid translation, articular contact area, and length of modeled implants placed across the CAJ were measured on models. ... Three-dimensional models of the equine larynx can be used to perform traditional measures of arytenoid abduction and permit the ...
The anterior angle of the base of the arytenoid cartilage projects horizontally forward; it gives attachment to the vocal ...
The epiglottis, vocal cords and arytenoid cartilage are movable in the functional larynx... ...
The epiglottis, vocal cords and arytenoid cartilage are movable in the functional larynx... ...
Sometimes, the orotracheal tube may hit against the right arytenoid cartilage and a large epiglottis, leading to problems. ... The larynx is composed of 3 large, unpaired cartilages (cricoid, thyroid, epiglottis); 3 pairs of smaller cartilages ( ... In some cases, the tip of the tracheal tube will impact on the right arytenoid. If this occurs, reposition the laryngoscope and ... If the tube passes through the vocal cords but cannot be advanced past the level of the cricoid cartilage, angle the ...
These are small- to medium-sized growths that occur on the vocal cords or arytenoid cartilage (translation: flaps just above ...
Diagnosis is based on finding one or both arytenoid cartilages immobile and drawn toward midline during inspiration. There is ... This dysfunction causes insufficient opening of the arytenoid cartilages of the larynx during inspiration, leading to varying ... procedure to remove part of the arytenoid cartilage) or a permanent tracheostomy. ... likely be necessary with the most common procedure being a laryngeal tie-back which permanently ties the immobile cartilage(s) ...
At the larynx there is a pair of cartilages, the arytenoids, which normally open during breathing. While eating or drinking ... These fractures can be at the level of the bone itself or at the level of the cartilage growth centers. These growth centers ... In laryngeal paralysis the nerve that controls the muscles associated with one or both of these cartilages is no longer ... In patients with elbow dysplasia often a CT Scan of the elbow is necessary to identify cartilage disorders and medical ...
They have absence of abduction of one or both sides (vocal folds plus arytenoid cartilages) during inspiration. They often have ... Regardless of cause, complete laryngeal paralysis results in failure of the arytenoid cartilages and vocal folds to abduct ... Arytenoid lateralisation (tie-back) permanently fixes the arytenoid and vocal fold on one or both sides in abduction, ... Avoid touching the arytenoids or vocal folds during laryngoscopy as this may induce laryngospasm or cause asymmetrical ...
... paired arytenoid, cuneiform, and corniculate cartilages.[16] One very significant factor for the voice is that the cartilages ... around age 25 for the thyroid cartilage and slightly later for the cricoid and arytenoids), these cartilages do not become ... By contrast, the corniculate cartilages (cornicula laryngis), which consist of fibro-cartilage, do not finally ossify until the ... that consist of hyaline cartilage converted to fibro-cartilage (e.g., the epiglottis) do not. Also, the process of ossification ...
The arytenoid cartilage appears in the arytenoid swelling dorsal to the orifice. The laryngeal cartilages (thyroid, arytenoid, ... The thyroid, arytenoid, corniculate and cuneiform are thought to be derived from the fourth and fifth cartilages. The cricoid ... The arytenoid and thyroid cartilages of the larynx and the greater horn and body of the hyoid apparatus. ... The thyroid cartilage forms as a plate of cartilage joined in the midline with its counterpart on the opposite side. It lies in ...
Grade - IIIa, Only the arytenoid cartilages and the epiglottis are visible, Grade - IIIb, only the epiglottis are visible, ... Grade - IIb, Less than 50% of glottis is visible; the posterior commissure of glottis and arytenoid are visible. ...
The theory states that breath is flowing through the glottis while the arytenoid cartilages are being pulled together by the ... However, the aperture of the arytenoid cartilages, and therefore the tension in the vocal cords, is one of degree between the ... The black triangles represent the arytenoid cartilages, the sail shapes the vocal cords, and the dotted circle the windpipe.. ... If the vocal cords are completely relaxed, with the arytenoid cartilages apart for maximum airflow, the cords do not vibrate. ...
The trainer contains teeth, uvula, vocal cords, glottis, epiglottis, larynx, arytenoid cartilage, trachea, oesophagus and ...
3. Larynx Epiglottal/arytenoid cartilages elongate to form a tube (beak) that projects anteriorly and superiorly from floor of ... cartilage extends to terminal airways Phocids- cartilage extends to small bronchi General- numerous and large mucous glands. ... Propulsive force in swimming by tail flukes which contains neither bone or cartilage for support, dorsal fine is of the same ...
The paired arytenoid cartilages in the rear are horizontally attached to the thyroid cartilage in the front by folds of mucous ... The cricoid cartilage, the paired cuneiform cartilages, and the paired corniculate cartilages are the remaining cartilages ... The thyroid cartilage protects the front of the larynx. A forward projection of this cartilage appears as the Adams apple ( ... Hyaline cartilage forms 16 to 20 C‐shaped rings that wrap around the submucosa. The rigid rings prevent the trachea from ...
  • The arytenoid cartilages (/ærɪˈtiːnɔɪd/) are a pair of small three-sided pyramids which form part of the larynx. (wikipedia.org)
  • The arytenoid cartilages are part of the posterior part of the larynx. (wikipedia.org)
  • Injury to the larynx may range from simple mucosal tears to fractured and comminuted cartilage. (medscape.com)
  • The larynx is rotated to expose the thyropharyngeal muscle, which is transected at the dorsocaudal edge of the thyroid cartilage. (vin.com)
  • CT of the neck revealed a 3-cm mass in the posterior aspect of the larynx with central hypoattenuation and thick, irregular, enhancing walls ( Fig ). The tumor was centered on the right cricoid cartilage with erosion of the right cricoid cartilage and both arytenoid cartilages. (ajnr.org)
  • The epiglottis, vocal cords and arytenoid cartilage are movable in the functional larynx. (anatomywarehouse.com)
  • This dysfunction causes insufficient opening of the arytenoid cartilages of the larynx during inspiration, leading to varying degrees of airway obstruction and respiratory distress. (wisdompanel.com)
  • In severe cases, surgical intervention will likely be necessary with the most common procedure being a laryngeal tie-back which permanently ties the immobile cartilage(s) to the side of the larynx to open the airway. (wisdompanel.com)
  • Avoid touching the arytenoids or vocal folds during laryngoscopy as this may induce laryngospasm or cause asymmetrical movements of the larynx. (vin.com)
  • Smaller changes in tension can be effected by contraction of the thyroarytenoid muscle or changes in the relative position of the thyroid and cricoid cartilages, as may occur when the larynx is lowered or raised, either volitionally or through movement of the tongue to which the larynx is attached via the hyoid bone [5] . (translationdirectory.com)
  • The epiglottis, the first piece of cartilage of the larynx, is a flexible flap that covers the glottis, the upper region of the larynx, during swallowing to prevent the entrance of food. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • The thyroid cartilage protects the front of the larynx. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • The cricoid cartilage, the paired cuneiform cartilages, and the paired corniculate cartilages are the remaining cartilages supporting the larynx. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • The larynx is supported by a semi-rigid framework of cartilages (see laryngeal anatomy ). (vesalius.com)
  • 4. The arytenoid and thyroid cartilages of the larynx and the greater horn and body of the hyoid apparatus. (ehd.org)
  • The larynx structure is composed of nine cartilages. (vedantu.com)
  • In the larynx structure, the total number of paired cartilage is 6, as they are present in pair (3 * 2 = 6). (vedantu.com)
  • In the larynx structure, the total number of unpaired cartilage are three. (vedantu.com)
  • The cricoid cartilage is a ring of hyaline cartilage located at the inferior aspect of the larynx and is the only complete ring of cartilage around the trachea. (medscape.com)
  • The epiglottis is a leaf-shaped cartilage that moves down to form a lid over the glottis and protect the larynx from aspiration of foods or liquids being swallowed. (medscape.com)
  • The arytenoid cartilages form the part of the larynx to which the vocal ligaments and vocal folds attach. (medscape.com)
  • The larynx consists of an outer casing of nine cartilages connected to one another by muscles and ligaments (figure 15.3). (brainkart.com)
  • ring-shaped) cartilage, which forms the base ofthe larynx on which the other cartilages rest. (brainkart.com)
  • The six paired cartilages consist of three cartilages on each side of the posterior part of the larynx (figure 15.3 b ). (brainkart.com)
  • The axial (medial) surface of the arytenoid cartilage may be distorted with granulation tissue protruding through the mucosa, and a contact (kissing) lesion may be present on the contralateral arytenoid cartilage. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Upon this surface of the arytenoid cartilage the vocalis and thyreoarytenoid muscles are inserted, whilst a small tubercle a short distance above the base gives attachment to the ventricular ligament-the feeble supporting ligament of the ventricular fold (O.T. false vocal cord). (co.ma)
  • Horses that suffer from this condition have a lack of nerve stimulation (innervation) to their left arytenoid cartilage which does not allow it to fully open. (smartpakequine.com)
  • Roaring is caused when the left Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve, the nerve that stimulates the cricoarytenoid dorsalis muscle (which controls the movement of the left arytenoid cartilage) is damaged or inflamed. (smartpakequine.com)
  • Approximately 40% of Thoroughbreds and other large breeds of horses (notably Standardbreds) have varying degrees of abnormal abduction of the left arytenoid cartilage. (smartpakequine.com)
  • The apex of each cartilage is pointed, curved backward and medialward, and surmounted by a small conical, cartilaginous nodule, the corniculate cartilage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each presents a somewhat pyramidal form, the pointed apex of which is directed upwards, and at the same time curves dorsally and medially It supports the corniculate cartilage (Santorini). (co.ma)
  • Corniculate Cartilage- These are horn-shaped cartilages. (vedantu.com)
  • Thickening or distortion of the border of the arytenoid cartilage along with abnormal echogenicity are associated with arytenoid chondropathy. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • A small nodule of yellow elastic cartilage, called the sesamoid cartilage, is frequently found on the lateral border of the arytenoid cartilage, where it is held in position by the investing perichondrium. (co.ma)
  • The ventral border of the arytenoid is vertical, and at the base of the cartilage is prolonged ventrally into a small sharp-pointed process called the processus vocalis, which receives this name because it gives attachment to the vocal ligament or supporting band of the vocal fold (O.T. true vocal cord). (co.ma)
  • The inferior border of the thyroid cartilage is connected to the cricoid cartilage in the median plane with the help of conus elasticus. (vedantu.com)
  • Dr. Sarah Gray shares an endoscopy image of a horse's arytenoids and epiglottis. (thehorse.com)
  • The narrow inferior ligamentous stalk of the epiglottis attaches to the posterior surface of the thyroid cartilage. (vesalius.com)
  • Epiglottis Cartilage- This cartilage has a leaf-like structure. (vedantu.com)
  • Its inferior margin is attached to the thyroid cartilage anteriorly, and the superior part of the epiglottis projects superiorly as a free flap toward the tongue. (brainkart.com)
  • The inferior horn of the thyroid cartilage articulates with the cricoid cartilage inferiorly to form a joint. (vedantu.com)
  • The arytenoid cartilages articulate with the cricoid cartilage inferiorly. (brainkart.com)
  • The paired arytenoid cartilages in the rear are horizontally attached to the thyroid cartilage in the front by folds of mucous membranes. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • Arytenoid chondritis should always be considered if the right arytenoid is abnormal, as laryngeal hemiplegia is extremely rare on the right side. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • In the operating room, esophagoscopy and direct laryngoscopy revealed a postcricoid submucosal mass near the right arytenoid cartilage. (ajnr.org)
  • Depending on the case, other surgical interventions may be considered including a partial laryngectomy (procedure to remove part of the arytenoid cartilage) or a permanent tracheostomy. (wisdompanel.com)
  • however, injury to the overlying mucosa is thought to a possible point of entry for bacterial inoculation of the arytenoid cartilage. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • The disarticulated arytenoid cartilage is only attached to the vocal cord, aryepiglottic fold and laryngeal mucosa. (vin.com)
  • Animals with laryngeal paralysis usually have a narrowed resting rima glottidis with erythema and edema of the mucosa overlying the arytenoid cartilages. (vin.com)
  • The dorsal cricoarytenoide muscle abducts the arytenoid cartilages at each inspiration. (ivis.org)
  • However, dorsal displacement of the arytenoid results and creates distortion of the rima glottidis. (vin.com)
  • The arytenoid cartilage is sutured to the caudo-dorsal part of the cricoid cartilage. (vin.com)
  • One 2-0 non-absorbable suture is placed in a simple interrupted suture pattern from the muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage to the caudo-dorsal edge of the cricoid cartilage and tightened to maintain the arytenoid in position. (vin.com)
  • 45 kg Fur consists of guard hairs and dense underfur layer for trapping air for insulation ANATOMY I. Cetacea A. External Characteristics Propulsive force in swimming by tail flukes which contains neither bone or cartilage for support, dorsal fine is of the same structure Both useful in thermo-regulatory function because of extensive vascularization. (wustl.edu)
  • Muscular process of is received into the interval between the dorsal portions of the lamina of the thyreoid cartilage. (co.ma)
  • Cartilagines Arytenoideæ.The arytenoid cartilages are placed one on each side of the median plane, and rest upon the upper border of the lamina of the cricoid cartilage , in the interval between the dorsal portions of the lamina of the thyreoid cartilage. (co.ma)
  • The three surfaces of the arytenoid cartilages are separated from each other by a ventral, a dorsal , and a lateral border. (co.ma)
  • The severity of roaring can range from a slower abduction (opening) of the cartilage to complete paralysis of the cartilage. (smartpakequine.com)
  • Its transection might reduce the diameter of the rima glottidis after arytenoid abduction. (vin.com)
  • An assistant should be available to observe per os the size of the laryngeal opening achieved to ensure that adequate abduction of the laryngeal cartilages has been obtained. (vin.com)
  • To develop 3D models of larynges to compare arytenoid abduction measurements between specimens and models, and to investigate the anatomic feasibility of placing an implant across the cricoarytenoid joint (CAJ) with or without arthrotomy. (avma.org)
  • Equine larynges underwent sequential CT scans in a neutral position and with 2 arytenoid treatments: bilateral arytenoid abduction (ABD) and bilateral arytenoid abduction after left cricoarytenoid joint arthrotomy (ARTH). (avma.org)
  • They have absence of abduction of one or both sides (vocal folds plus arytenoid cartilages) during inspiration. (vin.com)
  • The superior thyroid notch is a V-shaped notch immediately above the laryngeal prominence, while the inferior thyroid notch is less distinct and located in the midline along the base of the cartilage (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • Arytenoid chondropathy refers to pathologic enlargement of one or both bilateral arytenoid cartilages resulting in poor performance, respiratory noise, and respiratory obstruction. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Laryngeal contact ulcers are unilateral or bilateral erosions of the mucous membrane over the vocal process of the arytenoid cartilage. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The sternohyoid muscle is retracted ventrally to expose the lateral aspect of the thyroid and cricoid cartilages. (vin.com)
  • The thyroid and cricoid cartilages maintain an open passageway for air movement. (brainkart.com)
  • The 2 laminae are quadrilateral in shape and form the lateral surfaces of the thyroid cartilage that extend obliquely to cover each side of the trachea. (medscape.com)
  • it articulates with the base of the arytenoid cartilage. (co.ma)
  • Hyaline cartilage forms 16 to 20 C‐shaped rings that wrap around the submucosa. (cliffsnotes.com)
  • It differs from the other cartilages in that it consists of elastic cartilage rather than hyaline cartilage. (brainkart.com)
  • They articulate with the supero-lateral parts of the cricoid cartilage lamina, forming the cricoarytenoid joints at which they can come together, move apart, tilt anteriorly or posteriorly, and rotate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cricoarytenoid joint is a true diarthrodial articulation formed by the cricoid and arytenoid cartilages on the upper lateral aspect of the cricoid cartilage. (ajnr.org)
  • The upper border of the cricoid cartilage gives attachment to the cricothyroid ligament on the anterior midline, the cricothyroid muscles on the lateral aspects, and the bases of a pair of arytenoid cartilages on both sides of the posterior aspect. (medscape.com)
  • The thyroid cartilage is attached superiorly to the hyoid bone. (brainkart.com)
  • The base of the arytenoid cartilage presents on its inferior surface, particularly in the region of the processus muscularis, an elongated concave facet for articulation with the facet on the superior border of the lamina of the cricoid cartilage. (co.ma)
  • It has the shape of a "signet ring," with a broad portion posterior to the airway (lamina of cricoid cartilage) and a narrower portion circling anteriorly (arch of cricoid cartilage). (medscape.com)
  • At the junction of the lamina with the arch, small, round articular facets exist on the outer posterolateral surface of each side of the ring that articulate with the inferior horn of the thyroid cartilage. (medscape.com)
  • In the inner position of the thyroid cartilage, three muscles and three ligaments are attached. (vedantu.com)
  • Laryngeal surgery is directed at removing or repositioning laryngeal cartilages that obstruct the rima glottidis. (vin.com)
  • Cuneiform Cartilage- These are wedge-shaped cartilages. (vedantu.com)
  • The posterior surface is triangular, smooth, concave, and gives attachment to the arytenoid muscle and transversus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gwin, C & Robinson, MJ 2007, ' Para-arytenoid cartilage pseudodiverticulum formation as a sequela of endotracheal intubation ', Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine , vol. 131, no. 9, pp. 1378-1381. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The arytenoid cartilages allow the vocal folds to be tensed, relaxed, or approximated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regardless of cause, complete laryngeal paralysis results in failure of the arytenoid cartilages and vocal folds to abduct during inspiration. (vin.com)
  • Two pairs of ligaments extend from the posterior surface of the thyroid cartilage to the paired cartilages. (brainkart.com)
  • The earliest manifestations of laryngeal injury occurred within hours and included hyperemia, edema, and ovoid mucosal lesions over the arytenoid and inner posterolateral cricoid cartilages. (elsevierpure.com)
  • The inferior cornua of the thyroid cartilage articulate with the posterolateral surfaces of the cricoid cartilages. (vesalius.com)
  • Posterolateral deep ulceration in the v-shaped upper portion of the cricoid with exposure of the cartilage. (entokey.com)
  • The medial surfaces of the inferior horns articulate with the outer posterolateral surface of the cricoid cartilage. (medscape.com)
  • The wing of the thyroid cartilage is retracted laterally, and the cricothyroid junction may be incised. (vin.com)
  • The inferior border of the thyroid cartilage is attached to the cricoid cartilage by the cricothyroid membrane in the midline and the cricothyroid muscles on either side. (medscape.com)
  • The final stage of a laryngeal "bedsore" is reached when there is necrosis of the cricoarytenoid joint and the cricoid cartilage. (entokey.com)
  • Breaking of the suture or fragmentation of the cartilage induce recurrence of the clinical signs of laryngeal paralysis. (vin.com)
  • The sesamoid band connecting the arytenoid cartilages dorsally is left intact. (vin.com)
  • Arytenoid lateralization has been performed bilaterally or unilaterally. (vin.com)
  • We add para-arytenoid pseudodiverticulum formation to the list of possible complications of endotracheal intubation. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Robinson, Morton J. / Para-arytenoid cartilage pseudodiverticulum formation as a sequela of endotracheal intubation . (elsevierpure.com)
  • The lower border of the cricoid cartilage is connected to the first tracheal ring by the cricotracheal ligament. (medscape.com)
  • Given the limited improvement achievable with this method ( please see arytenoid adduction part to know the reasons ) , it may not be the first choice, but it may be a good option for patients who are unwilling to be hospitalized. (svceng.net)
  • The natural adduction of the affected vocal fold is fixed only through arytenoid adduction surgery. (svceng.net)
  • In cats, small suture material (3-0 or 4-0 mounted on a pledget) is recommended to prevent tearing through the cartilage. (vin.com)
  • These are small- to medium-sized growths that occur on the vocal cords or arytenoid cartilage (translation: flaps just above the vocal cords). (livestrong.com)
  • Cricoid Cartilage- These cartilages occur in a ring form. (vedantu.com)
  • A forward projection of this cartilage appears as the Adam's apple (anatomically known as the laryngeal prominence). (cliffsnotes.com)
  • The medial surface of the cricoid cartilage is smooth, and is covered with mucous membrane. (co.ma)
  • The base of each cartilage is broad, and on it is a concave smooth surface, for articulation with the cricoid cartilage. (wikipedia.org)
  • On this, a short distance from the inferior border of the cartilage, a prominent circular articular facet is visible, for articulation with the inferior cornu of the thyreoid cartilage (Fig. 848, p. 1067). (co.ma)
  • Joints are the place of articulation between two or more bones or between a bone and a cartilage. (studymaterialkota.com)
  • Two expert head and neck radiologists assessed cartilage invasion (infiltrated or non-infiltrated) in submucosal recurrences of laryngeal carcinoma after CO2 TOLMS: results were compared with histopathological report after salvage laryngectomy. (actaitalica.it)
  • Unilateral arytenoid lateralization is sufficient to reduce clinical signs of laryngeal paralysis. (vin.com)
  • Arytenoid translation, articular contact area, and length of modeled implants placed across the CAJ were measured on models. (avma.org)
  • downwards from the arytenoid articular facet. (co.ma)
  • It is the author's impression that the arytenoid cartilage needs only to be maintained in position and stabilized at inspiration. (vin.com)
  • Diagnosis is based on finding one or both arytenoid cartilages immobile and drawn toward midline during inspiration. (wisdompanel.com)

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