Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase: An acetyltransferase with specificity towards the amine group of aromatic alkylamines (arylalkylamines) such as SEROTONIN. This enzyme is also referred to as serotonin acetylase despite the fact that serotonin acetylation can also occur through the action of broad specificity acetyltransferases such as ARYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE.Pineal Gland: A light-sensitive neuroendocrine organ attached to the roof of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain. The pineal gland secretes MELATONIN, other BIOGENIC AMINES and NEUROPEPTIDES.Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.Melatonin: A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.Acetylserotonin O-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to N-acetylserotonin to form N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine (MELATONIN).Tryptamines: Decarboxylated monoamine derivatives of TRYPTOPHAN.Acetyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Histone Acetyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.Choline O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)p300-CBP Transcription Factors: A family of histone acetyltransferases that is structurally-related to CREB-BINDING PROTEIN and to E1A-ASSOCIATED P300 PROTEIN. They function as transcriptional coactivators by bridging between DNA-binding TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and the basal transcription machinery. They also modify transcription factors and CHROMATIN through ACETYLATION.Carnitine O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of O-acetylcarnitine from acetyl-CoA plus carnitine. EC 2.3.1.7.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Bombyx: A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Diapause, Insect: Seasonal suspension of insect growth development. It can be either induced by environmental cues (e.g., PHOTOPERIOD) or as a facultative part of the life cycle in order to time development with seasonal changes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.DibenzothiepinsReceptors, Melatonin: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that are specific for and mediate the effects of MELATONIN. Activation of melatonin receptors has been associated with decreased intracellular CYCLIC AMP and increased hydrolysis of PHOSPHOINOSITIDES.DNA-Formamidopyrimidine Glycosylase: A DNA repair enzyme that is an N-glycosyl hydrolase with specificity for DNA-containing ring-opened N(7)-methylguanine residues.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Suprachiasmatic Nucleus: An ovoid densely packed collection of small cells of the anterior hypothalamus lying close to the midline in a shallow impression of the OPTIC CHIASM.Receptor, Melatonin, MT2: A melatonin receptor subtype primarily found expressed in the BRAIN and RETINA.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.5-Methoxytryptamine: Serotonin derivative proposed as potentiator for hypnotics and sedatives.Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm: Dyssomnias associated with disruption of the normal 24 hour sleep wake cycle secondary to travel (e.g., JET LAG SYNDROME), shift work, or other causes.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Sleep Phase Chronotherapy: A progressive advance or delay of bedtime until the desired bedtime is achieved.Phototherapy: Treatment of disease by exposure to light, especially by variously concentrated light rays or specific wavelengths.Biofeedback, Psychology: The therapy technique of providing the status of one's own AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM function (e.g., skin temperature, heartbeats, brain waves) as visual or auditory feedback in order to self-control related conditions (e.g., hypertension, migraine headaches).Prednisone: A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.Nystagmus, Pathologic: Involuntary movements of the eye that are divided into two types, jerk and pendular. Jerk nystagmus has a slow phase in one direction followed by a corrective fast phase in the opposite direction, and is usually caused by central or peripheral vestibular dysfunction. Pendular nystagmus features oscillations that are of equal velocity in both directions and this condition is often associated with visual loss early in life. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p272)Acupuncture Therapy: Treatment of disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians. The placement varies with the disease being treated. It is sometimes used in conjunction with heat, moxibustion, acupressure, or electric stimulation.Acupuncture: The occupational discipline of the traditional Chinese methods of ACUPUNCTURE THERAPY for treating disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians.Rhodobacter: A genus of gram-negative bacteria widely distributed in fresh water as well as marine and hypersaline habitats.Alteromonas: A genus of gram-negative, straight or curved rods which are motile by means of a single, polar flagellum. Members of this genus are found in coastal waters and the open ocean. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Cytophaga: A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Neuroendocrinology: The study of the anatomical and functional relationships between the nervous system and the endocrine system.Neurosecretory Systems: A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.Pituitary Hormones, Posterior: Hormones released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). They include a number of peptides which are formed in the NEURONS in the HYPOTHALAMUS, bound to NEUROPHYSINS, and stored in the nerve terminals in the posterior pituitary. Upon stimulation, these peptides are released into the hypophysial portal vessel blood.National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It was initially established to investigate the broad aspects of human development as a means of understanding developmental disabilities, including mental retardation, and the events that occur during pregnancy. It now conducts and supports research on all stages of human development. It was established in 1962.Granuloma, Pyogenic: A disorder of the skin, the oral mucosa, and the gingiva, that usually presents as a solitary polypoid capillary hemangioma often resulting from trauma. It is manifested as an inflammatory response with similar characteristics to those of a granuloma.Cysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.Central Nervous System Cysts: Congenital or acquired cysts of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges which may remain stable in size or undergo progressive enlargement.Steroidogenic Factor 1: A transcription factor and member of the nuclear receptor family NR5 that is expressed throughout the adrenal and reproductive axes during development. It plays an important role in sexual differentiation, formation of primary steroidogenic tissues, and their functions in post-natal and adult life. It regulates the expression of key steroidogenic enzymes.Pancreatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS that is characterized by recurring or persistent ABDOMINAL PAIN with or without STEATORRHEA or DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the irregular destruction of the pancreatic parenchyma which may be focal, segmental, or diffuse.

Substrate specificity and inhibition studies of human serotonin N-acetyltransferase. (1/63)

Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) catalyzes the reaction of serotonin with acetyl-CoA to form N-acetylserotonin and plays a major role in the regulation of the melatonin circadian rhythm in vertebrates. In the present study, the human cloned enzyme has been expressed in bacteria, purified, cleaved, and characterized. The specificity of the human enzyme toward substrates (natural as well as synthetic arylethylamines) and cosubstrates (essentially acyl homologs of acetyl-CoA) has been investigated. Peptide combinatorial libraries of tri-, tetra-, and pentapeptides with various amino acid compositions were also screened as potential sources of inhibitors. We report the findings of several peptides with low micromolar inhibitory potency. For activity measurement as well as for specificity studies, an original and rapid method of analysis was developed. The assay was based on the separation and detection of N-[(3)H]acetylarylethylamine formed from various arylethylamines and tritiated acetyl-CoA, by means of high performance liquid chromatography with radiochemical detection. The assay proved to be robust and flexible, could accommodate the use of numerous synthetic substrates, and was successfully used throughout this study. We also screened a large number of pharmacological bioamines among which only one, tranylcypromine, behaved as a substrate. The synthesis and survey of simple arylethylamines also showed that AANAT has a large recognition pattern, including compounds as different as phenyl-, naphthyl-, benzothienyl-, or benzofuranyl-ethylamine derivatives. An extensive enzymatic study allowed us to pinpoint the amino acid residue of the pentapeptide inhibitor, S 34461, which interacts with the cosubstrate-binding site area, in agreement with an in silico study based on the available coordinates of the hAANAT crystal.  (+info)

cAmp regulation of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT, EC 2.3.1.87): a new cell line (1E7) provides evidence of intracellular AANAT activation. (2/63)

Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (serotonin N-acetyltransferase, AANAT, EC ) is the penultimate enzyme in melatonin synthesis. As described here, a cell line (1E7) expressing human AANAT (hAANAT) has been developed to study the human enzyme. 1E7 hAANAT is detectable in immunoblots as a 23-kDa band and is immunocytochemically visualized in the cytoplasm. The specific concentration of hAANAT in homogenates is comparable to that of the night rat pineal gland. Kinetics of AANAT extracted from 1E7 cells are the same as those of bacterially expressed hAANAT; both preparations of hAANAT are equally sensitive to the inhibitor CoA-S-N-acetyltryptamine. Studies of cAMP regulation indicate that treatment with forskolin, dibutyryl cAMP, isobutylmethylxanthine, or isoproterenol activate cellular hAANAT within intact 1E7 cells approximately 8-fold without markedly increasing the abundance of AANAT protein or the activity of AANAT in broken cell preparations; and, that forskolin, isobutylmethylxanthine and isoproterenol elevate cyclic AMP production. These observations extend our understanding of cAMP regulation of AANAT activity, because it is currently thought that this only involves changes in the steady-state levels of AANAT protein. This previously unrecognized switching mechanism could function physiologically to control melatonin production without changing AANAT protein levels.  (+info)

Role of a pineal cAMP-operated arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase/14-3-3-binding switch in melatonin synthesis. (3/63)

The daily rhythm in melatonin levels is controlled by cAMP through actions on the penultimate enzyme in melatonin synthesis, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT; serotonin N-acetyltransferase, EC ). Results presented here describe a regulatory/binding sequence in AANAT that encodes a cAMP-operated binding switch through which cAMP-regulated protein kinase-catalyzed phosphorylation [RRHTLPAN --> RRHpTLPAN] promotes formation of a complex with 14-3-3 proteins. Formation of this AANAT/14-3-3 complex enhances melatonin production by shielding AANAT from dephosphorylation and/or proteolysis and by decreasing the K(m) for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Similar switches could play a role in cAMP signal transduction in other biological systems.  (+info)

Retinal ganglion cells are autonomous circadian oscillators synthesizing N-acetylserotonin during the day. (4/63)

Retinal ganglion cells send visual and circadian information to the brain regarding the environmental light-dark cycles. We investigated the capability of retinal ganglion cells of synthesizing melatonin, a highly reliable circadian marker that regulates retinal physiology, as well as the capacity of these cells to function as autonomous circadian oscillators. Chick retinal ganglion cells presented higher levels of melatonin assessed by radioimmunoassay during both the subjective day in constant darkness and the light phase of a light-dark cycle. Similar changes were observed in mRNA levels and activity of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase, a key enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis, with the highest levels of both parameters during the subjective day. These daily variations were preceded by the elevation of cyclic-AMP content, the second messenger involved in the regulation of melatonin biosynthesis. Moreover, cultures of immunopurified retinal ganglion cells at embryonic day 8 synchronized by medium exchange synthesized a [3H]melatonin-like indole from [3H]tryptophan. This [3H]indole was rapidly released to the culture medium and exhibited a daily variation, with levels peaking 8 h after synchronization, which declined a few hours later. Cultures of embryonic retinal ganglion cells also showed self-sustained daily rhythms in arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase mRNA expression during at least three cycles with a period near 24 h. These rhythms were also observed after the application of glutamate. The results demonstrate that chick retinal ganglion cells may function as autonomous circadian oscillators synthesizing a melatonin-like indole during the day.  (+info)

Cellular stability of serotonin N-acetyltransferase conferred by phosphonodifluoromethylene alanine (Pfa) substitution for Ser-205. (5/63)

Large changes in the activity of serotonin N-acetyltransferase (arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase, AANAT) in the pineal gland control the rhythmic production of the time-keeping hormone melatonin. The activity of AANAT reflects changes in the amount and activation state of the AANAT protein, both of which increase at night. The molecular basis of this regulation is now becoming known, and recent data indicate that this involves phosphorylation-dependent binding to the 14-3-3 protein at two sites, one of which, Ser-205, is located several residues from the C terminus. In this study, we determined whether substitution of this residue with a non-hydrolyzable the phosphoserine/phosphothreonine mimetic would promote binding to the 14-3-3 protein and enhance cellular stability. To accomplish this, a C-terminal AANAT peptide containing the phosphonodifluoromethylene alanine at Ser-205 was synthesized and fused to bacterially expressed AANAT(30-199) using expressed protein ligation. The resulting semisynthetic protein has enhanced affinity for the expressed 14-3-3 protein and exhibits greater cellular stability in microinjection experiments, as compared with the unmodified AANAT. Enhanced 14-3-3 binding was also observed using humanized ovine AANAT, which has a different C-terminal sequence (Gly-Cys) than the ovine enzyme (Asp-Arg), indicating that that characteristic is not unique to the ovine enzyme. These studies provide the first evidence that substitution of Ser-205 with the stable phosphomimetic amino acid phosphonodifluoromethylene alanine enhances binding to 14-3-3 and the cellular stability of AANAT and are consistent with the view that Ser-205 phosphorylation plays a critical role in the regulation of AANAT activity and melatonin production.  (+info)

Melatonin synthesis: 14-3-3-dependent activation and inhibition of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase mediated by phosphoserine-205. (6/63)

The nocturnal increase in circulating melatonin in vertebrates is regulated by the activity of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT), the penultimate enzyme in the melatonin pathway (serotonin --> N-acetylserotonin --> melatonin). Large changes in activity are linked to cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase-mediated phosphorylation of AANAT T31. Phosphorylation of T31 promotes binding of AANAT to the dimeric 14-3-3 protein, which activates AANAT by increasing arylalkylamine affinity. In the current study, a putative second AANAT cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site, S205, was found to be approximately 55% phosphorylated at night, when T31 is approximately 40% phosphorylated. These findings indicate that ovine AANAT is dual-phosphorylated. Moreover, light exposure at night decreases T31 and S205 phosphorylation, consistent with a regulatory role of both sites. AANAT peptides containing either T31 or S205 associate with 14-3-3zeta in a phosphorylation-dependent manner; binding through phosphorylated (p)T31 is stronger than that through pS205, consistent with the location of only pT31 in a mode I binding motif, one of two recognized high-affinity 14-3-3-binding motifs AANAT protein binds to 14-3-3zeta through pT31 or pS205. Two-site binding lowers the Km for arylalkylamine substrate to approximately 30 microM. In contrast, single-site pS205 binding increases the Km to approximately 1,200 microM. Accordingly, the switch from dual to single pS205 binding of AANAT to 14-3-3 changes the Km for substrates by approximately 40-fold. pS205 seems to be part of a previously unrecognized 14-3-3-binding motif-pS/pT (X1-2)-COOH, referred to here as mode III.  (+info)

Homeobox-clock protein interaction in zebrafish. A shared mechanism for pineal-specific and circadian gene expression. (7/63)

In non-mammalian vertebrates, the pineal gland is photoreceptive and contains an intrinsic circadian oscillator that drives rhythmic production and secretion of melatonin. These features require an accurate spatiotemporal expression of an array of specific genes in the pineal gland. Among these is the arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase, a key enzyme in the melatonin production pathway. In zebrafish, pineal specificity of zfaanat2 is determined by a region designated the pineal-restrictive downstream module (PRDM), which contains three photoreceptor conserved elements (PCEs) and an E-box, elements that are generally associated with photoreceptor-specific and rhythmic expression, respectively. Here, by using in vivo and in vitro approaches, it was found that the PCEs and E-box of the PRDM mediate a synergistic effect of the photoreceptor-specific homeobox OTX5 and rhythmically expressed clock protein heterodimer, BMAL/CLOCK, on zfaanat2 expression. Furthermore, the distance between the PCEs and the E-box was found to be critical for PRDM function, suggesting a possible physical feature of this synergistic interaction. OTX5-BMAL/CLOCK may act through this mechanism to simultaneously control pineal-specific and rhythmic expression of zfaanat2 and possibly also other pineal and retinal genes.  (+info)

Rhythmic serotonin N-acetyltransferase mRNA degradation is essential for the maintenance of its circadian oscillation. (8/63)

Serotonin N-acetyltransferase (arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase [AANAT]) is the key enzyme in melatonin synthesis regulated by circadian rhythm. To date, our understanding of the oscillatory mechanism of melatonin has been limited to autoregulatory transcriptional and posttranslational regulations of AANAT mRNA. In this study, we identify three proteins from pineal glands that associate with cis-acting elements within species-specific AANAT 3' untranslated regions to mediate mRNA degradation. These proteins include heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein R (hnRNP R), hnRNP Q, and hnRNP L. Their RNA-destabilizing function was determined by RNA interference and overexpression approaches. Expression patterns of these factors in pineal glands display robust circadian rhythm. The enhanced levels detected after midnight correlate with an abrupt decline in AANAT mRNA level. A mathematical model for the AANAT mRNA profile and its experimental evidence with rat pinealocytes indicates that rhythmic AANAT mRNA degradation mediated by hnRNP R, hnRNP Q, and hnRNP L is a key process in the regulation of its circadian oscillation.  (+info)

*Melatonin

... the arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT). On exposure to (day)light, noradrenergic stimulation stops and the protein is ... It has been proposed that histidine residue His122 of serotonin N-acetyl transferase is the catalytic residue that deprotonates ... the structure of serotonin N-acetyltransferase at 2.5 A resolution suggests a catalytic mechanism". Mol. Cell. 3 (1): 23-32. ... but is also converted into N-acetylserotonin by serotonin N-acetyltransferase and acetyl-CoA. Hydroxyindole O-methyltransferase ...

*Aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase

... (AANAT) (EC 2.3.1.87), also known as arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase or serotonin N- ... Voisin P, Namboodiri MA, Klein DC (1984). "Arylamine N-acetyltransferase and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase in the ... AANAT Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase Melatonin rhythm enzyme Serotonin acetylase Serotonin acetyltransferase Serotonin N- ... "Entrez Gene: arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase". Coon SL, Mazuruk K, Bernard M, Roseboom PH, Klein DC, Rodriguez IR (May 1996 ...

*Pinealocyte

... arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase). The expression of the AANAT gene is controlled by the transcription factor pCREB, and this ...

*Ignacio Provencio

... photic suppression of arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase transcript, and acute suppression of locomotor activity by light." ...

*List of MeSH codes (D08)

... arylalkylamine n-acetyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.313 --- arylamine N-acetyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.331 --- atp ... acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.134.105 --- amino-acid n-acetyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.134.150 ... acetyltransferases MeSH D08.811.913.050.134.029 --- acyl-carrier protein s-acetyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.134.060 --- ... carnitine O-acetyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.134.170 --- chloramphenicol o-acetyltransferase MeSH D08.811.913.050.134.180 ...
Aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) (EC 2.3.1.87), also known as arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase or serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT), is an enzyme that is involved in the day/night rhythmic production of melatonin, by modification of serotonin. It is in humans encoded by the ~2.5 kb AANAT gene containing four exons, located on chromosome 17q25. The gene is translated into a 23 kDa large enzyme. It is well conserved through evolution and the human form of the protein is 80% identical to sheep and rat AANAT. It is an acetyl-CoA-dependent enzyme of the GCN5-related family of N-acetyltransferases (GNATs). It may contribute to multifactorial genetic diseases such as altered behavior in sleep/wake cycle and research is on-going with the aim of developing drugs that regulate AANAT function. The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:2-arylethylamine N-acetyltransferase. Other names in common use include: AANAT Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase Melatonin rhythm enzyme Serotonin ...
Serotonin N-acetyltransferase complex. Molecular model of a complex formed between the serotonin N-acetyltransferase enzyme (AANAT, light blue, light red) and the zeta isoform structure of a 14-3-3 protein (yellow, green). AANAT is the penultimate enzyme involved in the conversion of serotonin to melatonin in the cells of the pineal gland in the brain. Melatonin modulates the function of the circadian clock, influencing activity and sleep. AANAT is rapidly inactivated when animals are exposed to light at night and therefore controls the rhythm of melatonin production. - Stock Image C035/8649
Monoklonale und polyklonale AANAT Antikörper für viele Methoden. Ausgesuchte Qualitäts-Hersteller für AANAT Antikörper. Hier bestellen.
N-acetyltransferase 1 (arylamine N-acetyltransferase) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NAT1 gene. This gene is one of two arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) genes in the human genome, and is orthologous to the mouse and rat NAT2 genes. The enzyme encoded by this gene catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to various arylamine and hydrazine substrates. This enzyme helps metabolize drugs and other xenobiotics, and functions in folate catabolism. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000171428 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000051147 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: N-acetyltransferase 1 (arylamine N-acetyltransferase)". Retrieved 2012-01-27. Gubin AN, Njoroge JM, Bouffard GG, Miller JL (July 1999). "Gene expression in proliferating human erythroid cells". Genomics. 59 ...
A recent Japanese study, published by the British Journal of Cancer in September this year, has found that women who get six or less hours sleep a night are much more likely to develop breast cancer than the rest of the population. The study involved 23,995 Japanese women aged between 40 and 79 who were [...]
Purpose Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) dysfunction underlies the retinal degenerative process in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and thus RPE cell replacement provides an ideal treatment target. RPE monolayer in pets of all age group organizations, and frequently included internalized photoreceptor external sections. No pathology was noticed. Findings OpRegen RPE cells made it, rescued visible function, maintained pole and cone photoreceptors long lasting in the RCS rat. Therefore, these data support the make use of of OpRegen RPE cells for the treatment of human being RPE cell disorders including AMD. Translational Relevance Our book xeno-free RPE cells reduce issues of pet produced pollutants while offering a encouraging potential therapy to the unhealthy retina. = 242) had been utilized for this research. All pets had been given a regular lab chow and managed on a 12-hour dark/light routine. All pets had been supervised daily for general wellness and ophthalmic condition. Pets had ...
Background Ovarian carcinoma may be the leading reason behind cancer death world-wide among gynecological malignancies, and nearly all cases are related to chemoresistance and recurrence. examples (p?=?0.024). We determined six miRNAs, including miR-23b, miR-27a, miR-27b, miR-346, miR-424, and miR-503, overexpressed in ALDH1 (+) cells, plus CKAP2 they had been considerably upregulated in chemoresistant ovarian tumor cells (1.4?~?3.5-fold) and tumor samples (2.8?~?5.5-fold) weighed against chemosensitive group. Upregulation of ALDH1 (p?=?0.019) and miR-503 (p?=?0.033) correlated with high clinical stage, and upregulation of miR-27a was related to distant metastasis (p?=?0.046) in individuals with ovarian tumor. Conclusion Our results indicate that ALDH1 can be a good marker for enriching ovarian CSCs, and high manifestation of ALDH1 and its own related miRNAs, miR-23b particularly, miR-27b, miR-424, and miR-503, are implicated in chemoresistance and tumor development in ovarian tumor ...
Shop Histidine N-acetyltransferase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Histidine N-acetyltransferase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
A new spray-based supplement to help rebalance the melatonin production and induce healthy sleep, an instant solution to get a better nights rest. Mint smell
Increase the level of melatonin production in your organism and stop your hair loss, slow down the aging processes and improve your immune system with this affirmations mp3
In recent times, an increasing number of different haplotypes of the arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 gene are reported. Since most of the various alleles are defined by linkages of commonly known hereditary point mutations, some confusion may occur when the mutation pattern revealed by genotyping sh
Rabbit polyclonal Serotonin N-acetyltransferase (phospho T29) antibody validated for WB and tested in Rat. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide
Rabbit polyclonal Serotonin N-acetyltransferase antibody (ab3506) validated for WB and tested in Rat. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic
Nicholls, J, Skene, DJ and Hourani, SMO (1997) Use of a newly developed technique to isolate rat pinealocytes and study the effects of adenosine agonists on melatonin production ...
In January of 2013, all dairy heifers were artificially inseminated with sex-sorted semen at the Joe Bearden Dairy Research Center. Prior to day 170 of gestation, heifers (n=20) were trained to acquire their feed using the Calan feeding system (American Calan, Northwood, NH). On day 190 of gestation, heifers were blocked by their body weight and randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments consisting of 1) 20 mg of dietary melatonin per day (MEL) or 2) no dietary melatonin supplementation (control; CON). At 0800 hours, the MEL heifers received 0.7 kg of grain top dressed with 2 mL of 10 mg per mL melatonin in ethanol. The CON heifers received 0.7 kg of grain top dressed with 2 mL of ethanol alone. The melatonin was supplemented in the morning hours in order to compensate for the bodies natural spike in melatonin production following the dark hours. After all heifers consumed their grain, they were provided 17.5 kg of a total mixed ration. Blood samples were collected via venipuncture of ...
We know the part of your brain where Circadian Rhythms live. Its in your supraschiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Thats in the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus seems to be fairly important to your health in that it regulates stuff like, body temperature, fluids/electrolytes, hunger, and hormone production. Im not saying you couldnt get healthy without help from the hypothalamus, but if you were to fry the damn thing by screwing up your Circadian Rhythms hard and often - you might struggle a bit. The other thing we know is your SCN is connected to the retina of your eye. If it is dark, the SCN tells your body to secrete melatonin and make you peacefully sleepy. If its light, the SCN inhibits melatonin production. Hint: if you are having trouble sleeping please ponder on the "darkness" thing you just learned. In the winter (assuming you live far from the equator), your SCN has developed a strange way of adapting to the longer periods of darkness. It produces melatonin in 2 stages. The first stage ...
In summary:. It begins in the gut. Alterations within the gut flora are occurring in large part through the consumption of RoundUp residue in genetically modified food, not to mention sugar/HFCS processed food and overly prescribed antibiotics. This gut flora alteration is commonly characterized by an overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria which break down the lining of the gut. Furthermore, the gut flora alterations then compromise the ability for the body to make the raw ingredients for melatonin production, namely tryptophan and serotonin. The lining of the gut is maintained, in part, by melatonin(R). As the microbes and their waste products seep into the blood stream the immune system within the periphery of the body releases inflammatory molecules which begin to promote proinflammatory activity in the nervous system. This proinflammatory activity state is called, microglial activation. The microglial cells being the primary immune cells of the nervous system are prone to shifting from a ...
An A-star for Joanna Bales excellent impartial report on Wireless netwoks in schools (times 20th November). Sadly, though, E-minus for your so-called Health Editors facile and heavily-loaded comment. Informed parents have every reason to be concerned about WiFi in schools. Ms Davies was right to liken it to having a mobile phone mast in the classroom, the technologies are remarkably similar. Peer-reviewed replicated research shows reduction in melatonin production by those exposed to periodic amplitude modulated (pulsed) radiation of this sort. Melatonin is a sleep regulator and anti-cancer scavenger. Guess what? - Statistically significant increases in cancers around mast installations according to several independent studies, and sleep problems experienced by many living close to masts. Other research shows this type of radiation allows transfer of toxins from the bloodstream into brain cells. This would lead to significant increases in headaches, nausea, dizziness and disorientation around ...
Accepted name: phenylalanine N-acetyltransferase. Reaction: acetyl-CoA + L-phenylalanine = CoA + N-acetyl-L-phenylalanine. Other name(s): acetyl-CoA-L-phenylalanine α-N-acetyltransferase. Systematic name: acetyl-CoA:L-phenylalanine N-acetyltransferase. Comments: Also acts, more slowly, on L-histidine and L-alanine.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, CAS registry number: 9075-16-5. References: 1. Leuzinger, W., Baker, A.L. and Cauvin, E. Acetylcholinesterase. II. Crystallization, absorption spectra, isoionic point. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 59 (1968) 620-623. [PMID: 5238989]. ...
Science & Technology, Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Neurosciences, Neurosciences & Neurology, NEUROSCIENCES, chicken, pineal gland, retina, circadian rhythm, light, melatonin, serotonin N-acetyltransferase, MELATONIN SYNTHESIS, PERCEIVED LIGHT, JAPANESE-QUAIL, CLOCK, SYSTEM, SUPPRESSION, RECEPTORS, CELLS ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The in vitro activation of cyclic AMP production by either forskolin or isoproterenol in the syrian hamster pineal during the day is not accompanied by an increase in melatonin production. AU - Santana, Celsa. AU - Guerrero, Juan M.. AU - Reiter, Russel J. AU - Troiani, Maureen E.. PY - 1988/12/30. Y1 - 1988/12/30. N2 - The role of cyclic AMP in the regulation of melatonin production was investigated in cultured Syrian hamster pineal glands. Forskolin markedly increased cyclic AMP production in pineal glands collected either late in the light period or in the dark period. The effect of forskolin was synergistically enhanced by 3-isobutylmethylxanthine, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor; however, increase in cyclic AMP after isoproterenol was only apparent in the presence of 3-isobutylmethylxanthine. Since β-adrenergic agonists are able to stimulate melatonin production late in the dark period only, these data suggest that, in the hamster pineal gland, there may be intracellular ...
Increased pineal calcifications and decreased pineal melatonin biosynthesis, both age related, support the notion of a pineal bio-organic timing mechanism. Decreased calcium ion availability is the si
Inherent in all living organisms, natures circadian rhythm springs us into activity in the daytime and then into rest and restoration at night. And this circadian rhythm is attuned to the presence and absence of the sun, principally blue light.. Melatonin is critical to regulating the bodys circadian rhythm. When the sun goes down and it becomes dark, our eyes sense the absence of light and send a signal to the brain, which instructs the pineal gland to produce melatonin and put us to sleep.. Now in modern times, the incandescent light began humankinds earliest assault on natures circadian rhythm. This has only worsened with the advent of television, computers, tablets, cell phones, gaming stations and whatever else produces light to interfere with our circadian rhythm. When the lights stay on, melatonin production is slowed or stopped.. Exposure to sunlight - at least 10 to 15 minutes a day is recommended - is also crucial to the production of vitamin D, which is found in very few foods but ...
The body s natural melatonin is responsible for setting its internal clock that governs the timing of neuroendocrine functions and other physiological processes.Melatonin production is known to decline with the aging process .Melatonin is effective for helping to promote natural, restful sleep in both younger.Melatonin supplementation has helped reduce the discomfort associated with changing time zone in controlled trials .
Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland that aids biorhythm regulation.* Biorhythm is disrupted by stress, crossing time zones and changing work shifts.* Melatonin production also declines with age.* Vitamin B6 aids melatonin metabolism.* Keep out of the reach of children.
Some cancer risk factors are well established and well known, like smoking. Others arent well known at all. Here are 10 things that are linked to cancer, some of which may surprise you:. 1. Shift work. For all those employees working vampire hours, its discouraging to hear that shift work has joined the list of items considered "probably carcinogenic to humans," according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Studies show that women working the graveyard shift, like flight attendants and nurses, have a greater risk of developing breast cancer. Researchers are investigating how disruption of the circadian system, the bodys natural sleep-wake cycle, can affect melatonin production and possibly cause tumors to develop.. 2. High-temperature cooking. If you like your steak grilled to a crisp, you might be putting yourself at risk for something more than just burnt taste buds. Studies cite a connection between high-temperature cooking (like grilling or frying) and colorectal ...
The primary function of the pineal gland is to secrete melatonin, which plays a role in regulating sleep cycles and in sexual development. The pineal gland also helps to regulate endocrine functions...
Im searching for places that carry one or two special enzymes of the melatonin biosynthetic pathway, (NAT) N-acetyltransferase or (HIOMT) hydroxylindole-O-methyltransferase. Please anyone with any information on where I can buy, borrow from someone in-house stock please contact me. Dr. Klosen any ideas on where I can get the above enzyme(s). Any help or info is greatly appreciated. regards Maria Mejia Smith-Kettlewell Eye Res. Inst. S.F.CA ...
This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those acyltransferases transferring groups other than aminoacyl groups. This enzyme participates in lysine
The pineal gland is an important gland for connecting us to other dimensions, such as the dream and spiritual plane, because it produces melatonin and DMT.
J Physiol. 2001 Aug 15;535(Pt 1):261-7. An action spectrum for melatonin suppression: evidence for a novel non-rod, non-cone photoreceptor system in humans.. Thapan K, Arendt J, Skene DJ.. Centre for Chronobiology, School of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH, UK.. 1. Non-image forming, irradiance-dependent responses mediated by the human eye include synchronisation of the circadian axis and suppression of pineal melatonin production. The retinal photopigment(s) transducing these light responses in humans have not been characterised. 2. Using the ability of light to suppress nocturnal melatonin production, we aimed to investigate its spectral sensitivity and produce an action spectrum. Melatonin suppression was quantified in 22 volunteers in 215 light exposure trials using monochromatic light (30 min pulse administered at circadian time (CT) 16-18) of different wavelengths (lambda(max) 424, 456, 472, 496, 520 and 548 nm) and irradiances (0.7-65.0 microW ...
There is increasing evidence that human arylamine N-acetyltransferase type 1 (NAT1, EC 2.3.1.5), although first identified as a homologue of a drug-metabolising enzyme, appears to be a marker in human oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer. Mouse Nat2 is the mouse equivalent of human NAT1. The development of mouse models of breast cancer is important, and it is essential to explore the biological role of mouse Nat2. We have therefore produced mouse Nat2 as a recombinant protein and have investigated its substrate specificity profile in comparison with human NAT1. In addition, we have tested the effects of inhibitors on mouse Nat2, including compounds which are endogenous and exogenous steroids. We show that tamoxifen, genistein and diethylstilbestrol inhibit mouse Nat2. The steroid analogue, bisphenol A, also inhibits mouse Nat2 enzymic activity and is shown by NMR spectroscopy, through shifts in proton peaks, to bind close to the active site. A three-dimensional structure for human NAT1 has recently
Melatonin, B6 Vegan Sustained Release Dietary Supplement Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland that aids biorhythm regulation. Biorhythm is disturbed by stress, crossing time zones and changing work shifts. Melatonin production also declines
Melatonin is the hormone we need for sleep. We need Melatonin to repair, restore and rebuild. If we understand how our bodys biochemistry works, there are nutritional strategies to support production of melatonin and were going to break it down in 5 easy steps.. 1. Melatonin production is supported by the "happy hormone", Serotonin.. 2. 90% of serotonin is produced in the digestive system, aka your gut.. 3. Production of Serotonin is preceeded by production of Tryptophan.. 4. One of the easiest ways to increase your Tryptophan production is eating foods like turkey.. 5. To help convert Tryptophan into Serotonin, eat foods rich in Vitamin B6, found in fish or organ meats like liver, and fruits like watermelon.. http://www.drbenlynch.com/melatonin-for-sleep/ ...
As men and women age, hormonal profiles begin to change dramatically, causing several symptoms that disturb quality of life and make one feel rather depleted and off kilter. One of those symptoms, which middle-agers tend to prioritize resolving, is insomnia or delayed sleep onset.. The body produces a hormone expressly to regulate circadian rhythm; as diurnal mammals (sleep at night, awake during the day), our sleep/wake cycles naturally align with sunlight. Melatonin is released in pulses by the pineal gland in the base of the skull, which makes us sleepy after the sun sets. It stops around or before sunrise so we can awaken fully.. Further, aging slows down production of growth hormone (GH); low levels of GH shorten deep sleep (also known as slow-wave sleep). And, as is typical with hormones interrelating - GH affects melatonin production, so low GH equals low melatonin, which then equals - sleeplessness.. In individuals experiencing high or chronic stress, elevated levels of the hormone ...
The effects of poor lighting and glare on public safety are well-known, as are the harmful environmental effects on various species and the environment in general. What is less well-known is the potential harmful medical effects of excessive poor nighttime lighting. A significant body of research has been developed over the last few years regarding this problem. One of the most significant effects is the startling increased risk for breast cancer by excessive exposure to nighttime lighting. The mechanism is felt to be by disruption of the circadian rhythm and suppression of melatonin production from the pineal gland. Melatonin has an anticancer effect that is lost when its production is disrupted. I am in the process of developing a monograph that will summarize this important body of research, to be presented and endorsed by the American Medical Association, and its Council of Science and Public health. This paper is a brief overall summary of this little known potential harmful effect of poor ...
Lack of sleep due to insomnia and other sleep disorders can be solved using herbal remedies like valerian extract and ensuring proper melatonin production.
Research has shown that during the evening hours, it is important to avoid exposure to wavelengths of blue light to allow for the healthy regulation of our sleep/wake cycles (circadian rhythms). Blue wavelengths of light are emitted from televisions, computer screens, cell phones, blue LEDs on your stereo equipment, and from fluorescent light sources. Exposure to these sources of light, even in very small amounts, can suppress the natural production of the neurotransmitter melatonin, which encourages deep sleep through the night. In a bedroom setting, then, some dimmable incandescent or halogen sources are recommended. Remove or conceal items that emit blue wavelengths of light in the evening hours. If you like a nightlight, use a red LED. Red wavelengths have the least effect on altering melatonin production. -Julia Rezek. ...
END YOUR ENERGY CRISIS. 15-40% of Americans are deficient in B vitamins which can lead to deep and ongoing fatigue, brain fog, irritability, depression, and even insomnia (as they play a crucial role in melatonin production). The body depends on B6 to make the hormones serotonin and norepinephrine, which affect both mood and feelings of happiness. Improved Vitamin B intake helps us sleep well and helps balance our hormones and increase our energy levels, clarity & overall mental function. ...
How you think and feel every day depends on the pineal gland Dr. Edward Group | Global Healing Center The famous philosopher Descartes described the pineal gland as the
Located in the brain, the pineal gland is responsible for secreting melatonin, which is a hormone that helps coordinate your circadian rhythm, or internal...
NAA60 - NAA60 (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human N-acetyltransferase 15 (GCN5-related, putative) (NAT15), transcript variant 2 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Complete information for HGSNAT gene (Protein Coding), Heparan-Alpha-Glucosaminide N-Acetyltransferase, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for HGSNAT gene (Protein Coding), Heparan-Alpha-Glucosaminide N-Acetyltransferase, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
As a well-known animal hormone, melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is also involved in multiple plant biological processes, especially in various stress responses. Rice is one of the most important crops, and melatonin is taken in by many people everyday from rice. However, the transcriptional profiling of melatonin-related genes in rice is largely unknown. In this study, the expression patterns of 11 melatonin related genes in rice in different periods, tissues, in response to different treatments were synthetically analyzed using published microarray data. These results suggest that the melatonin-related genes may play important and dual roles in rice developmental stages. We highlight the commonly regulation of rice melatonin-related genes by abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), various abiotic stresses and pathogen infection, indicating the possible role of these genes in multiple stress responses and underlying crosstalks of plant hormones, especially ABA and JA. Taken together, this
Image source: freedigitalphotos.net / khongkitwiriyachan. Optimize Melatonin and Reduce Breast Cancer Risk. Research indicates that low levels of melatonin are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. In this article, I will share with you the role that melatonin plays, as well as 10 tips to optimize melatonin production, so you can get a better nights sleep and reduce your risk of breast cancer.. Melatonin Is A Natural Hormone. Melatonin is a natural hormone produced in the pineal gland of the brain, best known for its function with our sleep/waking cycles. Light inhibits the production of melatonin in your brain and alters your natural rhythms (called Circadian rhythms). Way back in 1976, a research project called the Nurses Health Study followed 121,701 female nurses for a number of years. Among other health issues, the study found that nurses who worked night shifts had a 36% higher risk of breast cancer. Since then, other studies have found a relationship between lack of sleep, ...
We live in a world where 10% of the adult population suffers from chronic insomnia which affects peoples psychomotor performance, causes sleepiness, accidents, and memory impairment. Shift workers are also in this situation where they cannot sleep during normal hours and these are usually hospital and airport workers to name a few. So what else happens when you have continuously loss of sleep? Well in 2001, a study has found that increased exposure to light has an increased risk of breast cancer (1). This is due to the fact that with light exposure there is a decreased melatonin production in the pineal gland. Melatonin is our natural sleep hormone but it also is an antioxidant (2). So how do you minimize disruptions to our natural circadian rhythms (sleep patterns ...
The brain is a powerhouse for activity. There are so many things happening at once in your brain and some of them we dont even realize are going on. The brain governs all of the responses for our bodies and produces these responses as well. There are many different parts of the brain, and one part at the front of the brain is called the pineal gland. The pineal gland is called as such because from an anatomical view, it resembles a pine cone. The pineal glad regulates things like your sleep patterns as well as sexual hormones. The pineal gland is also known as the seat of the soul and is said to connect us with our extrasensory perception. In historic and biblical texts the pineal gland is referred to and is said to be the third eye which can open us up to enlightenment through connecting with our soul and to the rest of the universe. Seeing through the third eye, or pineal gland is not like seeing with your two other eyes, it gives you the ability to see within, to imagine, to have inner ...
Secondary Insomnia. • More common than primary insomnia.. • Occurs when insomnia is caused by a psychiatric disorder (most often depression) or a medical disorder (most often chronic pain. • Underlying disorder needs to be treated appropriately. E.G. many people sleep much better after taking anti-depressants even though these have no effect on sleep patterns of people who are not depressed.. Causes of secondary insomnia. • Hormonal changes in women, e.g. premenstrual syndrome, menstruation, pregnancy and menopause.. • Decreased melatonin production: levels of melatonin, decrease as a person ages. By age 60, the body produces very little melatonin.. • Medical conditions: e.g. allergies, arthritis, asthma, heart disease, high blood pressure and Parkinsons disease.. Psychiatric conditions: secondary insomnia is a common symptom of depression. It is also associated with anxiety disorders, PTSD and dementia.. • Overuse of stimulants - caffeine, alcohol, nicotine. • Parasomnias - ...
From the Melanated Man: Just the facts on this post, no preaching today folks! (lol) Mentioned in the Melanin Production post, the pineal gland is where the production of melanin takes place, inside and outside your body. Also mentioned is the fact that the pineal gland needs SUNLIGHT, which is mainly received through the retina…
Cleaning up the Pineal Gland is useful for those wishing to develop their multidimensional perceptio... Cleaning up the Pineal Gland is useful for those wishing
The pineal gland, a pine-cone shaped gland of the endocrine system, is a highly essential part of the brain necessary to our survival. It is often associated with the third eye or the Ajna chakra, when activated, leads one to higher realms of consciousness. The third eye gives us perception of the universe around us…
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about The BMJ.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Your childs teeth and ongoing oral health is very important. Establish a great homebase as your Washington DC Pediatric Dentist.
Succinate dehydrogenase activity was investigated histochemically in the rat pineal gland. The influence of fixation on the activity pattern, the possible diffusion of enzyme, the nothing...
Thesis topic: The role of protein and RNA synthesis in the regulation of melatonin production by Y79 human retinoblastoma cells. Recipient of a NRSA Predoctoral Fellowship (NIMH F31 MH09929). Subsequent position: Resident, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA. Subsequent position: Resident, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA. Current position: Neurology, Director, Hayward/ Fremont Stroke Program, Fremont Medical Center, California.. Jon M. Kornhauser (1989-1995) ...
Deer grow and shed antlers annually. Males typically begin growing a new set of antlers in late spring. Growth starts at the pedicle, which is the antler growing base attached to the skull (see Figure 2). Antler growth is regulated by hormones, which are controlled by photoperiod (day length). The antler growth cycle coincides with the breeding season, so that males have hardened antlers for fighting other males, subsequently establishing dominance and breeding privileges (Figure 5).. Growing day length corresponds to a reduction in melatonin production, which initiates the hormone cycles responsible for antler growth. Throughout late spring and summer, antlers are equipped with a very rich blood supply and are covered with a hairlike membrane commonly known as velvet (Figure 6). While "in velvet," antlers are particularly vulnerable to injury, and cuts or bruises suffered at this time often result in deformed antlers.. Growing antlers are high in water and low in dry matter content. The ...
Editor, In5D.com. More and more people are wearing sunglasses, even if the sun is not shining bright and I see also that little children (toddlers) have sunglasses on. I remember an article by Dr. Ornstein in the Lets live Magazine in October 1980 were it is explained that Sunlight is very important, day light is very vital. The Creator provided for our emotional and physical health by giving us the Pineal Gland and commanding "Let there be Light ". The Pineal Gland is an active, secreting gland throughout life. Natural, unfiltered sunlight is necessary for the proper functioning of this gland. Light as conscious electromagnetic energy from the sun enters the body through the optic nerves of the eyes which, in turn, directly stimulates the pineal gland, a photo reactive organ. The pineal gland converts light energy into an electrochemical impulse which feeds directly into the hypothalamus.. ...
Human N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) is polymorphic in humans and may associate with cancer risk by modifying individual susceptibility to cancers from carcinogen exposure. Since molecular epidemiological studies investigating these associations usually include determining NAT2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), haplotypes or genotypes, their conclusions can be compromised by the uncertainty of genotype-phenotype relationships. We characterized NAT2 SNPs and haplotypes by cloning and expressing recombinant NAT2 allozymes in mammalian cells. The reference and variant recombinant NAT2 allozymes were characterized for arylamine N-acetylation and O-acetylation of N-hydroxy-arylamines. SNPs and haplotypes that conferred reduced enzymatic activity did so by reducing NAT2 protein without changing NAT2 mRNA levels. Among SNPs that reduced catalytic activity, G191A (R64Q), G590A (R197Q) and G857A (G286E) reduced protein half-life but T341C (I114T), G499A (E167K) and A411T (L137F) did not. G857A ...
Pineal gland, endocrine gland found in vertebrates that is the source of melatonin, a hormone derived from tryptophan that plays a central role in the regulation of circadian rhythm (the roughly 24-hour cycle of biological activities associated with natural periods of light and darkness).
Pineal Gland Lyrics: It was all a dream, I swear it never happened / I wrote like Edgar Allan, I was po like Edgar Allan / Let me hit the weed, you know I really need that / Missin screws, bendin
MANIFESTATIONS OF EVERYDAY CHAOS DID YOU KNOW THAT YOU HAVE A LOPSIDED PINEAL GLAND? Well, probably you do have one, and it s unfortunate because lopsided Pineal Glands have perverted the Free Spirit of Man, and subverted Life into a frustrating, unhappy and hopeless mess. Fortunately, you have before you a handbook that will show you how to discover your salvation through ERIS, THE GODDESS OF CONFUSION. It will advise you how to balance your Pineal Gland and reach spiritual Illumination. And it will teach you how to turn your miserable mess into a beautiful, joyful, and splendid one ...
Dr. R. Glenn Smith, a neurologist at Houston Methodist Medical center in Texas, called the new study 'surprising and possibly exciting, but there&
To date, there are no definite answers about how well melatonin works for a number of conditions or how safe it is when taken for long periods. Hundreds of melatonin studies have been published; many of them involved only small numbers of people, were not scientifically rigorous, and used unspecified types of melatonin products.
Melatonin是一种由松果体制成的激素,可激活褪黑激素受体。Melatonin 在睡眠中起作用并具有重要的抗氧化和抗炎特性。Melatonin 是一种新型的选择性 ATF-6 抑制剂,可通过 COX-2 下调诱导人肝癌细胞凋亡 ...
Melatonin has been speculated to be mainly synthesized by mitochondria. This speculation is supported by the recent discovery that aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase/serotonin N-acetyltransferase (AANAT/SNAT) is localized in mitochondria of oocytes and the isolated mitochondria generate melatonin. We have also speculated that melatonin is a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant. It accumulates in mitochondria with high concentration against a concentration gradient. This is probably achieved by an active transportation via mitochondrial melatonin transporter(s). Melatonin protects mitochondria by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibiting the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP), and activating uncoupling proteins (UCPs). Thus, melatonin maintains the optimal mitochondrial membrane potential and preserves mitochondrial functions. In addition, mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics is also regulated by melatonin. In most cases, melatonin reduces mitochondrial fission and elevates their
The hormone melatonin is of interest in autism due to theoretical considerations and reports of altered melatonin production in individuals with autism. Melatonin produced in the pineal gland helps regulate human circadian rhythms including sleep-wake, and is considered as the best measure of circadian rhythms.. Several studies revealed that plasmatic and urinary nocturnal levels of melatonin are significantly lower in individuals with autism (in particular, in prepubertal children) compared to typically developing individuals. In addition, this reduction in nocturnal melatonin was significantly associated with the severity of communication and social interaction impairments, especially in verbal communication and play. Finally, diurnal excretion of melatonin was also found to be decreased in individuals with autistic disorder.. Given these results, administration of melatonin could serve, at least in prepubertal children wih autism, to normalize physiological, developmental and behavioral ...
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the main etiologic factor for skin cancer. The endogenous hormone melatonin has been proposed to have protective effects against sunlight and topically-applied melatonin has a protective effect against UV-induced erythema. Four human studies and 16 experimental studies evaluated melatonins protective effect against UVR-induced damage to cellular structures and pathways. Melatonin acts directly as an antioxidant, and indirectly by regulating gene expression and inducing a DNA stabilizing effect. The destructive effects of the UVR are significantly counteracted or modulated by melatonin in the context of a complex intracutaneous melatoninergic anti-oxidative system with UVR-enhanced or UVR-independent melatonin metabolites. Therefore, endogenous intracutaneous melatonin production, together with topically-applied exogenous melatonin or metabolites would be expected to represent one of the most potent anti-oxidative defense systems against the UV-induced damage to the ...
Pineal organ is a small endocrine organ present in the vertebrate brain also known as the third eye. It produces a hormone known as melatonin which regulates the sleep-wake cycle as well as seasonal functions of vertebrates. Melatonin is a serotonin subordinate. It is a reddish-dim substance resembling a minor pine cone fit as a fiddle. It is found rostro-dorsal to the superior colliculus just behind and underneath the striamedullaris, between the thalamic bodies. Pineal organ is a piece of epithalamus. It is a calcified part of brain that can be easily seen in plain X-beam. In people it is comprised of a lobular parenchyma of pinealocytes surrounded by connective tissue spaces. The organs surface is secured by a pial capsule. Pinealocytes structure the greatest main part of this organ yet different types of cells are also present that contrast in their cellular details.. CAUSES. Five types of cells that vary in their cellular structures are found in the pineal organ. Pinealocytes are the most ...
Hi how are you. I just joined this site a couple of months ago that that is why I didnt write to you sooner. Okay now the pineal gland has many different ways of opening the basic ways are through meditation yoga and relaxation however those ways have never worked for me. When I was 16 years old I got hit by a car and I died for 8 minutes that opened up my pineal gland 100% it has been open ever since those things that you read about online about the headaches and the itching thats the pineal gland actually getting bigger. Thats why its causing the brain to react to it in that way. You can only go so far with guided meditation. If youve gotten that far through meditation your best bet is to start mixing something thatll make your body physically go down in heart rate. Or to basically take the mind off the body nuerologically. Not something detrimental to your health, something in the lines of marijuana or mushrooms. I would not recommend the usage of LSD unless you have supervision. ...
The pineal gland has various names such as pineal body, epiphysis cerebri, epiphysis or the third eye. It is believed that it connects our soul to our body.
Tickets are selling Fast - Dont Miss Out - Click Here to Book Now for this years special event. http://www.tcche.org/...WELCOME TO OUR NEWSGROUPS. Enjoy our work and go back into the timeline.WILLKOMMEN AUF UNSERER Newsgroups. Genießen Sie unsere Arbeit und gehen zurück in die TimelineBIENVENIDOS A NUESTRO grupos de noticias. Disfrutamos nuestro trabajo yvolver a la línea de tiempo.BEM VINDO AO NOSSO NEWSGROUPS. Desfrute do nosso trabalho e voltar para a linha do tempo.BIENVENUE SUR NOTRE newsgroups. Profitez de notre travail et de revenirdans la chronologie.Καλώς ήρθατε σε ομάδες συζητήσεων ΜΑΣ. Απολαύστε τη δουλειά μας και να πάει πίσω στο timeline.ברוכים הבאים לקבוצות דיון שלנו. תהנה העבודה שלנו ולחזור לתוך ציר זמן.BENVENUTI NEL NOSTRO i newsgroup. Godetevi il nostro lavoro e tornarenella ...
Pineal gland skin boil - Boil Lemons In The Evening And Drink The Liquid As Soon As .... We provides discount BoilX relieves painful Boils fast and naturally.
The pineal gland hangs on the brain behind its very center. French 18th century scientist Rene Descartes thought that the pineal gland was the core of the
We hope that this book will help those working in this field to link the pineal gland and cancer and encourage others from diverse areas to join and thus enrich this field of research. The interplay between the pineal gland and malignancy has to be viewed in the chronobiologic framework of the largely epigenetic, highly complex, and non-lineary organized psychoneuroimmunoendocrine network as well as progressing genomic aberrations within the tumor.. Note: This group of research seems unfortunately to be mostly focussed on the role of Melatonin, the pineal hormone, but discuss also some publications about Epithalamin from page 294-303. My opinion is that they are trying to "drown the fish", meaning that they focuss their research on Melatonin, a very complex subject, instead of going right to the point, taking the shortcut to curing cancer that is much faster with the use of Epitalon ...
Ever since the Greek doctor and philosopher Galen described the pineal gland in the second century, scientists pondered the point of this little organ in...
Melatonin is a hormone commonly linked to proper sleep, but did you know that it can help fight off cancer, diabetes and heart disease too? Melatonin increases beige fat which is a fat that promotes your body to burn calories rather than store them. Studies also find that melatonin calms reproductive hormones; and as
Learn about the potential benefits of Melatonin including contraindications, adverse reactions, toxicology, pharmacology and historical usage.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pineal biosynthetic activity and neuroendocrine physiology in the aging hamster and gerbil. AU - Reiter, Russel J.. AU - Johnson, Linda Y.. AU - Steger, Richard W.. AU - Richardson, Bruce A.. AU - Petterborg, Larry J.. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. N2 - The effects of advancing age on the ability of the pineal gland to produce melatonin and on the neuroendocrine physiology of Syrian hamsters and Mongolian gerbils were investigated. In 2-month-old male and female hamsters the nocturnal rise in pineal melatonin levels is on the order of 8-fold. As hamsters age the nighttime increases become progressively more depressed until in 18-month-old animals the nighttime rise in pineal melatonin is only twice the levels measured during the daylight hours. In male gerbils, the normal nocturnal increase in pineal melatonin levels observed in 2-month-old animals has completely disappeared by the time gerbils reach 19 months of age. The results suggest a marked reduction in pineal biosynthetic activity ...
Sustained Release Melatonin Plus Magnesium and B-6 USAGE: Take one or one-half tablet 20-30 minutes prior to bedtime, or as directed by your qualified health consultant. Warning: Do not drive or operate machinery immediately following use of this product. note: Do not use if you are pregnant, lactating or under the age of 18. Anyone who has beendiagnosed with MS, lymphoma, leukemia, diabetes, epilepsy, autoimmune disease, or uses MAO inhibitors (such as iproniazid)should not take melatonin. Do NOT use if asthmatic. Melatonin may provoke an asthma attack in persons that already have asthma. Melatonin is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland that aidsbiorhythm regulation. Biorhythm is disturbed by stress, crossingtime zones and changing work shifts. Melatonin production also declines with age. Vitamin B6 aids melatonin metabolism. Keep out of the reach of children. SUPPLEMENT FACTS Serving Size 1 Tablet Amount %DV ------------------------------------------------------------------
The pineal gland, also known as the pineal body, is an important endocrine gland that produces the hormone melatonin. Melatonin plays a key role in the sleep/wake cycle and the bodys respon
Rats exposed for 3 weeks to uniform 60-Hz electric fields of 39 kV/m (effective field strength) failed to show normal pineal gland circadian rhythms in serotonin N-acetyl transferase activity and melatonin concentrations. The time required for recovery of the melatonin rhythm after cessation of field exposure was determined to be less than 3 days. The rapid recovery suggests that the overall metabolic competence of the pineal is not permanently compromised by electric-field exposure, and that the circadian rhythm effect may be neuronally mediated. ...
Just another morning taking shots of apple cider vinegar. This is how I keep my pineal gland clean & clear. The pineal gland: The pineal gland, also known as the pineal body, conarium or epiphysis cerebri, is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain. It produces melatonin, a serotonin derived hormone, which affects the…
‎Knowledge bomb: One of the most important organs in the body. The pineal gland. Product review: The best and worse antiseptic mouth washes. Dr. Gabrielle Lyon is a functional medicine physician specializing in Muscle-Centric Medicine. This concept of medicine focuses on the largest organ in the bo…
Pineal gland aka Glandula pinealis in the latin terminology and part of structures seen on the medial view of the brain. the images show a midsagittal section of the brain. Learn more now!
Women with low levels of melatonin may be more at risk for developing diabetes, a new study reveals. The hormone linked to sleep regulation, melatonin plays an important role in maintaining the bodys natural rhythms.
The next step is to determine the presence of DMT in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the fluid that bathes the brain and pineal. CSF is a possible route for pineal-synthesized DMT to effect changes in brain function. Successfully establishing DMTs presence in this gland adds another link in the chain between the pineal and consciousness and opens new avenues for research. ...
To deal with severe and chronic symptoms of insomnia and other sleep-related problems, adults need to buy sleeping tablets UK and other worldwide countries.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Sibah Hasan, Nayantara Santhi, Alpar S Lazar, Ana Slak, June Lo, Malcolm von Schantz, Simon N Archer, Jonathan D Johnston, Derk-Jan Dijk].
|p|Melatonin is a methoxyindole hormone that is produced in the pineal gland in the brain. It is synthesized from L-tryptophan in the diet, which is converted into 5- hydroxytrytophan then into melatonin. Melatonin is reported to help regulate sleep/wake
Hormon melatonin izloča žleza epifiza in je izredno pomemben pri uravnavanju ritmov številnih bioloških funkcij, dokazano pa ima tudi vlogo močnega antioksidanta. Največji organ, ki proizvaja melatonin, je koža, kjer se le-ta sintetizira iz aminokisline triptofana. Melatonin sodeluje pri ciklu spanje - budnost, tako da povzroča zaspanost in zniža telesno temperaturo. Svetloba zavre tvorbo melatonina, medtem ko jo tema spodbuja, zaradi česar je ta hormon znan kot »hormon noči«.. Sicer pa ima melatonin kot antioksidant mnogo učinkov delovanja. Uporablja se za zdravljenje sindroma zapoznele faze spanja in spalno-budnega sindroma, pomaga pri učenju, spominu in Alzheimerjevi bolezni, pri motnjah pozornosti s hiperaktivnostjo, pri neplodnosti, pri migrenah in glavobolih, motnjah razpoloženja, rakavih obolenjih in celo podaljšuje življenje. Pomembno pa melatonin deluje tudi na inzulin. Z inzulinom povzroči spodbujeno izražanje hormona leptina, kar zmanjša apetit.To je še posebej ...
The Benefits of exposure to the sun are often overlooked and should not be discounted or forgotten. Melatonin, for instance, which is synthesized by your pineal gland, is profoundly affected by light and dark, and proper exposure to the suns bright light during the day is critical for maintaining your inner rhythm Melatonin, as I…
Descartes criterion for determining whether a function belongs to the body or soul was as follows: "anything we experience as being in us, and which we see can also exist in wholly inanimate bodies, must be attributed only to our body. On the other hand, anything in us which we cannot conceive in any way as capable of belonging to a body must be attributed to our soul. Thus, because we have no conception of the body as thinking in any way at all, we have reason to believe that every kind of thought present in us belongs to the soul. And since we do not doubt that there are inanimate bodies which can move in as many different ways as our bodies, if not more, and which have as much heat or more […], we must believe that all the heat and all the movements present in us, in so far as they do not depend on thought, belong solely to the body" (AT XI:329, CSM I:329 ...
Phys.org internet news portal provides the latest news on science including: Physics, Space Science, Earth Science, Health and Medicine
Find the best melatonin supplement based on independent tests and reviews by ConsumerLab.com covering best quality, dose and price. Includes what melatonin can and cannot do, product comparisons, dose, and melatonin side effects.
China melatonin cas no. 73-31-4 Factory and Exporter,custom melatonin cas no. 73-31-4 Manufacturing - Sinoway Industrial Co.,Ltd
Abnormalities in melatonin physiology may be involved or closely linked to the pathophysiology and behavioral expression of autistic disorder, given its role in neurodevelopment and reports of sleep-wake rhythm disturbances, decreased nocturnal melatonin production, and beneficial therapeutic effects of melatonin in individuals with autism. In addition, melatonin, as a pineal gland hormone produced from serotonin, is of special interest in autistic disorder given reported alterations in central and peripheral serotonin neurobiology. More specifically, the role of melatonin in the ontogenetic establishment of circadian rhythms and the synchronization of peripheral oscillators opens interesting perspectives to ascertain better the mechanisms underlying the significant relationship found between lower nocturnal melatonin excretion and increased severity of autistic social communication impairments, especially for verbal communication and social imitative play. In this article, first we review the studies

arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 ELISA Kits | Biocompare.comarylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 ELISA Kits | Biocompare.com

Compare arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, ... arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody- ... Your search returned 21 arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 ELISA ELISA Kit across 1 supplier. ...
more infohttps://www.biocompare.com/pfu/110627/soids/2-1951503/ELISA_Kit/ELISA_arylalkylamine_N-acetyltransferase_2

AANAT (arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase) - KOMP (Knockout Mouse Project)AANAT (arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase) - KOMP (Knockout Mouse Project)

Vega: OTTMUSG3949 (Aanat, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase)*CCDS: 25671, 25671.1*OMIM: ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE; ... arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase. Synonyms: Nat-2, Nat4, SNAT. Gene nomenclature, locus information, and GO, OMIM, and PMID ...
more infohttps://www.komp.org/geneinfo.php?geneid=17848

Significant association of the arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase ( AA-NAT) gene with delayed sleep phase syndrome.  - PubMed -...Significant association of the arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase ( AA-NAT) gene with delayed sleep phase syndrome. - PubMed -...

Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) is a rate-limiting enzyme in melatonin hormone synthesis and participates in daily ... Significant association of the arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase ( AA-NAT) gene with delayed sleep phase syndrome.. Hohjoh H1 ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12736803?dopt=Abstract

Virtual Screening and Molecular Docking for Arylalkylamine-N-Acetyltransferase (aaNAT) Inhibitors, a Key Enzyme of <i>Aedes</i>...Virtual Screening and Molecular Docking for Arylalkylamine-N-Acetyltransferase (aaNAT) Inhibitors, a Key Enzyme of <i>Aedes</i>...

Molecular Evolution of Multiple Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase (AANAT) in Fish. NF-κB Drives the Synthesis of Melatonin in ... Virtual Screening and Molecular Docking for Arylalkylamine-N-Acetyltransferase (aaNAT) Inhibitors, a Key Enzyme of Aedes ( ... 2010) Mutations of an Arylalkylamine-N-Acetyltransferase, Bm-iaaNAT, Are Responsible for Silkworm Melanism Mutant. The Journal ... Klein, D.C. (2007) Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase: "The Timezyme". The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 282, 4233-4237. ...
more infohttp://www.oalib.com/paper/3151287

Insect Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferases as Potential Targets for Novel Insecticide DesignInsect Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferases as Potential Targets for Novel Insecticide Design

... , Brian G OFlynn, Aidan J ... One such avenue, which holds potential, are the arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferases. Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferases (AANAT ... Insect Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferases as Potential Targets for Novel Insecticide Design. Brian G OFlynn, Aidan J Hawley ... Long Y, Li J, Zhao T, Li G, Zhu Y (2015) A new Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase in Silkworm (Bombyx mori) affects integument ...
more infohttp://biochem-molbio.imedpub.com/insect-arylalkylamine-nacetyltransferases-as-potential-targets-for-novel-insecticide-design.php?aid=21792

AAB - Relations - Genetic polymorphism in melatonin receptor 1A and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase and its impact on...AAB - Relations - Genetic polymorphism in melatonin receptor 1A and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase and its impact on...

This study was carried out to detect polymorphisms in the melatonin receptor 1A and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase genes ... Genetic polymorphism in melatonin receptor 1A and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase and its impact on seasonal reproduction in ... Klein, D.: ArylalkylamineN-Acetyltransferase: "theTimezyme", J. Biol. Chem., 7, 4233-4237, https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc. ...
more infohttps://www.arch-anim-breed.net/61/505/2018/aab-61-505-2018-relations.html

Hao Luo - DTUHao Luo - DTU

Arylalkylamine n-acetyltransferase and uses thereof Luo, Hao Patent no.: WO2018108966 , Date: 2018-06-21 ...
more infohttps://www.dtu.dk/service/telefonbog/person?id=72022&tab=2&qt=dtupublicationquery

Homeobox Genes and Melatonin Synthesis: Regulatory Roles of the Cone-Rod Homeobox Transcription Factor in the Rodent Pineal...Homeobox Genes and Melatonin Synthesis: Regulatory Roles of the Cone-Rod Homeobox Transcription Factor in the Rodent Pineal...

D. C. Klein, "Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase: the timezyme," Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 282, no. 7, pp. 4233- ... W. Chen and R. Baler, "The rat arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase E-box: differential use in a master vs. a slave oscillator," ... M. Pfeffer and J. H. Stehle, "Ontogeny of a diurnal rhythm in arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase mRNA in rat pineal gland," ... R. Baler, S. Covington, and D. C. Klein, "The rat arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase gene promoter. cAMP activation via a cAMP- ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/946075/

GO Gene ListGO Gene List

Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase. AY131261. Gene Info. Acvr1c. Activin A receptor, type IC. NM_001111030. NM_001033369. Gene ... Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase. NM_009591. Gene Info. Aanat. ... K(lysine) acetyltransferase 2B. NM_020005. NM_001190846. Gene ...
more infohttps://cgap.nci.nih.gov/Genes/GoGeneQuery?PAGE=1&ORG=Mm&GOID=1901652

Aanat - ddPCR Probe - Digital PCR | PrimePCR | Bio-RadAanat - ddPCR Probe - Digital PCR | PrimePCR | Bio-Rad

Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase. Aliases:. AA-NAT, Nat-2, Nat4, Snat. RefSeq:. NC_000077.6 NT_096135.6. ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the acetyltransferase superfamily. It is the penultimate enzyme in melatonin ...
more infohttp://www.bio-rad.com/en-us/prime-pcr-assays/assay/dmmucpe5111876-primepcr-ddpcr-expression-probe-assay-aanat-mouse

diapause hormone
     Summary Report | CureHunterdiapause hormone Summary Report | CureHunter

Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase 7. Messenger RNA (mRNA) 8. Proteins (Proteins, Gene) 9. Cyclic Nucleotides ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryC075027-diapause-hormone.do

Melatonin - WikipediaMelatonin - Wikipedia

... the arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT). On exposure to (day)light, noradrenergic stimulation stops and the protein is ... It has been proposed that histidine residue His122 of serotonin N-acetyl transferase is the catalytic residue that deprotonates ... Hickman AB, Klein DC, Dyda F (1999). "Melatonin biosynthesis: the structure of serotonin N-acetyltransferase at 2.5 A ... but is also converted into N-acetylserotonin by serotonin N-acetyltransferase with acetyl-CoA.[54] Hydroxyindole O- ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mela-T

N-acetylserotonin activates TrkB receptor in a circadian rhythm | PNASN-acetylserotonin activates TrkB receptor in a circadian rhythm | PNAS

2002) Melatonin synthesis enzymes in Macaca mulatta: Focus on arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.87) J Clin ... 1999) The expression of the melatonin synthesis enzyme: Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of ... 2001) Prolonged swim-test immobility of serotonin N-acetyltransferase (AANAT)-mutant mice. J Pineal Res 30:166-170. ... day and night profiles of pineal indoles is predominantly regulated by the activity of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase ( ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/107/8/3876

Melatonin - WikipediaMelatonin - Wikipedia

... the arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT). On exposure to (day)light, noradrenergic stimulation stops and the protein is ... It has been proposed that histidine residue His122 of serotonin N-acetyl transferase is the catalytic residue that deprotonates ... Hickman AB, Klein DC, Dyda F (1999). "Melatonin biosynthesis: the structure of serotonin N-acetyltransferase at 2.5 A ... but is also converted into N-acetylserotonin by serotonin N-acetyltransferase and acetyl-CoA. Hydroxyindole O-methyltransferase ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melatonin

Frontiers | Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Melatonin Synthesis and Catabolic Genes Indicates the Possible Role of...Frontiers | Comparative Transcriptional Profiling of Melatonin Synthesis and Catabolic Genes Indicates the Possible Role of...

2001). Role of a pineal cAMP-operated arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase/14-3-3-binding switch in melatonin synthesis. Proc. ... 2-ODD, 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase; AANAT, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase; ABA, abscisic acid; ASMT, N- ... Cloning and characterization of a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cDNA arylalkylamine N -acetyltransferase and its use in the genetic ... 14-3-3-dependent activation and inhibition of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase mediated by phosphoserine-205. Proc. Natl. ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2016.00676/full

Plus itPlus it

2005) Circadian clocks, clock networks, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase, and melatonin in the retina. Prog Retin Eye Res 24: ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/32/27/9359

Merkler D[au] - PubMed - NCBIMerkler D[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Insect Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferases as Potential Targets for Novel Insecticide Design.. OFlynn BG, Hawley AJ, Merkler ... Acetyl group coordinated progression through the catalytic cycle of an arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase. ... Insect Arylalkylamine N-Acyltransferases: Mechanism and Role in Fatty Acid Amide Biosynthesis. ... Structural and Mechanistic Analysis of Drosophila melanogaster Agmatine N-Acetyltransferase, an Enzyme that Catalyzes the ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Merkler+D%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Unravelling the neurophysiological basis of aggression in a fish model | BMC Genomics | Full TextUnravelling the neurophysiological basis of aggression in a fish model | BMC Genomics | Full Text

... arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase; ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone; ALD-DH, acetaldehyde dehydrogenase; AR, androgen ...
more infohttps://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2164-11-498

Phospho anti-Serotonin N-acetyltransferase (T29) antibody (ab3439) | AbcamPhospho anti-Serotonin N-acetyltransferase (T29) antibody (ab3439) | Abcam

Rabbit polyclonal Serotonin N-acetyltransferase (phospho T29) antibody validated for WB and tested in Rat. Immunogen ... Pineal gland Serotonin N-acetyltransferase (Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase, AA-NAT) is an ~23 kDa protein which is the rate ... Anti-Serotonin N-acetyltransferase (phospho T29) antibody. See all Serotonin N-acetyltransferase primary antibodies. ... Belongs to the acetyltransferase family. AANAT subfamily.. Contains 1 N-acetyltransferase domain. ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/serotonin-n-acetyltransferase-phospho-t29-antibody-ab3439.html

Anti-Serotonin N-acetyltransferase antibody (ab3506)Anti-Serotonin N-acetyltransferase antibody (ab3506)

Rabbit polyclonal Serotonin N-acetyltransferase antibody (ab3506) validated for WB and tested in Rat. Immunogen corresponding ... Pineal gland serotonin N-acetyltransferase (arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase, AA-NAT) is an ~23 kDa protein which is the rate ... Anti-Serotonin N-acetyltransferase antibody. See all Serotonin N-acetyltransferase primary antibodies. ... Belongs to the acetyltransferase family. AANAT subfamily.. Contains 1 N-acetyltransferase domain. ...
more infohttp://www.abcam.com/serotonin-n-acetyltransferase-antibody-ab3506.html

Natural melatonin fluctuation and its minimally invasive simulation in the zebra finch [PeerJ]Natural melatonin fluctuation and its minimally invasive simulation in the zebra finch [PeerJ]

Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase: "the Timezyme".. Journal of Biological Chemistry 282:4233-4237 ... MicroRNAs in the pineal gland: miR-483 regulates melatonin synthesis by targeting arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase.. Journal ... UV-A light regulation of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase activity in the chick pineal gland: role of cAMP and proteasomal ... arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase), which is essential for the synthesis of melatonin from serotonin (Klein, 2006; Klein, 2007 ...
more infohttps://peerj.com/articles/1939/

J-STORE SYSTEM(Search of Japanese Patents 4/6  page)J-STORE SYSTEM(Search of Japanese Patents 4/6 page)

ARYLALKYLAMINE-N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE GENE AND USE OF THE SAME Feb 7, 2013. Jan 5, 2018. National Agriculture and Food Research ...
more infohttps://jstore.jst.go.jp/nationalPatentSearch.html?listSort=ASC&lang=en&ftermCode=4B063&displayPulldown=100&pageNo=4&listOrder=patentNumber

Rhythmic Regulation of Photoreceptor and RPE Genes Important for Vision and Genetically Associated With Severe Retinal Diseases...Rhythmic Regulation of Photoreceptor and RPE Genes Important for Vision and Genetically Associated With Severe Retinal Diseases...

Circadian clocks, clock networks, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase, and melatonin in the retina. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2005; 24 ...
more infohttps://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2696329

Pinealocyte - WikipediaPinealocyte - Wikipedia

... arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase). The expression of the AANAT gene is controlled by the transcription factor pCREB, and this ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pinealocyte