Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator is a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF containing protein that forms a complex with DIOXIN RECEPTOR. The complex binds xenobiotic regulatory elements and activates transcription of a variety of genes including UDP GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. AhR nuclear translocator is also a subunit of HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1.Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin: A chemical by-product that results from burning or incinerating chlorinated industrial chemicals and other hydrocarbons. This compound is considered an environmental toxin, and may pose reproductive, as well as, other health risks for animals and humans.Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1: A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.Dioxins: Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs: Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in APOPTOSIS. It is composed of two subunits: ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR NUCLEAR TRANSLOCATOR and HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cell Hypoxia: A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.HydrocarbonsRNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases: A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Benzo(a)pyrene: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.Teratogens: An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.beta-Naphthoflavone: A polyaromatic hydrocarbon inducer of P4501A1 and P4501A2 cytochromes. (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1994 Dec:207(3):302-308)Benzoflavones: Organic compounds containing a BENZENE ring attached to a flavone group. Some of these are potent arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase inhibitors. They may also inhibit the binding of NUCLEIC ACIDS to BENZOPYRENES and related compounds. The designation includes all isomers; the 7,8-isomer is most frequently encountered.Methylcholanthrene: A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Umbilical Arteries: Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.Fetal Growth Retardation: The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Receptors, Glucocorticoid: Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind glucocorticoids and mediate their cellular effects. The glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of DNA. Glucocorticoids were named for their actions on blood glucose concentration, but they have equally important effects on protein and fat metabolism. Cortisol is the most important example.Receptors, Steroid: Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Phenylpropanolamine: A sympathomimetic that acts mainly by causing release of NOREPINEPHRINE but also has direct agonist activity at some adrenergic receptors. It is most commonly used as a nasal vasoconstrictor and an appetite depressant.Enterococcaceae: A family of gram-positive bacteria in the order Lactobacillales, phylum Firmicutes.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.

AhR, ARNT, and CYP1A1 mRNA quantitation in cultured human embryonic palates exposed to TCDD and comparison with mouse palate in vivo and in culture. (1/421)

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is developmentally toxic in many species and induces cleft palate in the C57BL/6N mouse embryo. Palatogenesis in mouse and human embryos involves homologous processes at the morphological, cellular, and molecular levels. In organ culture, mouse and human palates respond similarly to TCDD. The present study quantitates the expression of AhR, ARNT, and CYP1A1 mRNA in human embryonic palates in organ culture. Palatal tissues were exposed to 1 x 10(-10), 1 x 10(-9), or 1 x 10(-8) M TCDD or control medium and sampled at 0, 2, 4, and 6 hours for quantitative RT-PCR using a synthetic RNA internal standard. Similar measurements of CYP1A1 gene expression were collected for mouse palates cultured in this model. In human palates, AhR expression correlated with ARNT and CYP1A1 mRNA expression. TCDD induction of CYP1A1 was time- and concentration-dependent. The expression of these genes presented a uniform and continuous distribution across the group of embryos, with no subset of either high or low expressors/responders. The ratio of AhR to ARNT was approximately 4:1. AhR mRNA increased during the culture period in both treated and control subjects; however, ARNT expression was relatively constant. TCDD did not alter either AhR or ARNT expression in a consistent dose- or time-related manner. Comparison of human and mouse data showed a high correlation across species for the induction of CYP1A1. Human embryos expressed approximately 350 times less AhR mRNA than the mouse, and in earlier studies it was shown that human palates required 200 times more TCDD to produce the same effects. When the morphological, cellular, and molecular responses to TCDD between mouse and human are compared, it seems highly unlikely that human embryos could be exposed to sufficient TCDD to achieve changes in palatal differentiation that would lead to cleft palate.  (+info)

RT-PCR quantification of AHR, ARNT, GR, and CYP1A1 mRNA in craniofacial tissues of embryonic mice exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and hydrocortisone. (2/421)

C57BL/6N mouse embryos exposed to hydrocortisone (HC) or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) develop cleft palate. An interaction between these agents produces clefts at doses which alone are not teratogenic. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and dioxin receptor (AhR) mediated these responses and their gene expression was altered by TCDD and/or HC in palates examined on gestation day (GD) 14 by Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization. The present study quantifies AhR, AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT), and GR mRNA at 4, 12, 24, and 48 h after exposure (time 0 = dose administration at 8 A.M. on gestation day 12) on GD12 to TCDD (24 micrograms/kg), HC (100 mg/kg) or HC (25 mg/kg) + TCDD (3 micrograms/kg). The induction of CYP1A1 mRNA was also quantified at 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h for control and TCDD-exposed samples. Total RNA was prepared from midfacial tissue of 4-6 embryos/litter at each time and dose. An RNA internal standard (IS) for each gene was synthesized, which included the gene's primer sequences separated by a pUC19 plasmid sequence. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed on total RNA + IS using a range of 5-7 IS concentrations across a constant level of total RNA. PCR products were separated in gels (mRNA and IS-amplified sequences differed by 30-50 bases), ethidium bromide-stained, imaged (Hamamatsu Photonics Systems, Bridgewater, NJ), and quantified with NIH Image. CYP1A1 mRNA was significantly induced in the TCDD-exposed samples at all time points examined (p = 0.005 at 2 h and 0.001 after 2 h). During palatal shelf outgrowth on GD12, AhR mRNA levels increased significantly and this was not affected by treatment with TCDD or HC + TCDD. A significant increase in GR was detected at 24 h (p < 0.05) and this was unaffected by any of the exposures. Expression of ARNT increased at 12 h (p < 0.001); however, treatment with HC or HC + TCDD blocked this increase (p < 0.05). At 24 h, the TCDD-treated embryos had significantly lower ARNT mRNA compared with controls (p < 0.001). The relative overall expression level of the genes was AhR > ARNT > GR. Within individuals, expression of AhR and/or ARNT was highly correlated with GR level. In conclusion, CYP1A1 mRNA was expressed in developing craniofacial tissue and was highly induced by TCDD exposure. AhR, ARNT, and GR mRNA are upregulated in early palatogenesis, although not on the same schedule. The TCDD-induced decrease in ARNT at 24 h after dosing and the HC and HC + TCDD-induced delay in upregulation of ARNT may affect the dynamics of heterodimer formation between AhR and ARNT. The changes in ARNT mRNA level could also affect availability of this transcriptional regulator to interact with other potential partners, and these effects, separately or in combination, may be involved in disruption of normal embryonic development.  (+info)

Inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 activation by carbon monoxide and nitric oxide. Implications for oxygen sensing and signaling. (3/421)

It has been proposed that cells sense hypoxia by a heme protein, which transmits a signal that activates the heterodimeric transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), thereby inducing a number of physiologically relevant genes such as erythropoietin (Epo). We have investigated the mechanism by which two heme-binding ligands, carbon monoxide and nitric oxide, affect oxygen sensing and signaling. Two concentrations of CO (10 and 80%) suppressed the activation of HIF-1 and induction of Epo mRNA by hypoxia in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, CO had no effect on the induction of HIF-1 activity and Epo expression by either cobalt chloride or the iron chelator desferrioxamine. The affinity of CO for the putative sensor was much lower than that of oxygen (Haldane coefficient, approximately 0.5). Parallel experiments were done with 100 microM sodium nitroprusside, a nitric oxide donor. Both NO and CO inhibited HIF-1 DNA binding by abrogating hypoxia-induced accumulation of HIF-1alpha protein. Moreover, both NO and CO specifically targeted the internal oxygen-dependent degradation domain of HIF-1alpha, and also repressed the C-terminal transactivation domain of HIF-1alpha. Thus, NO and CO act proximally, presumably as heme ligands binding to the oxygen sensor, whereas desferrioxamine and perhaps cobalt appear to act at a site downstream.  (+info)

Induction and nuclear translocation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1): heterodimerization with ARNT is not necessary for nuclear accumulation of HIF-1alpha. (4/421)

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a master regulator of mammalian oxygen homeostasis. HIF-1 consists of two subunits, HIF-1alpha and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT). Whereas hypoxia prevents proteasomal degradation of HIF-1alpha, ARNT expression is thought to be oxygen-independent. We and others previously showed that ARNT is indispensable for HIF-1 DNA-binding and transactivation function. Here, we have used ARNT-mutant mouse hepatoma and embryonic stem cells to examine the requirement of ARNT for accumulation and nuclear translocation of HIF-1alpha in hypoxia. As shown by immunofluorescence, HIF-1alpha accumulation in the nucleus of hypoxic cells was independent of the presence of ARNT, suggesting that nuclear translocation is intrinsic to HIF-1alpha. Co-immunoprecipitation of HIF-1alpha together with ARNT could be performed in nuclear extracts but not in cytosolic fractions, implying that formation of the HIF-1 complex occurs in the nucleus. A proteasome inhibitor and a thiol-reducing agent could mimic hypoxia by inducing HIF-1alpha in the nucleus, indicating that escape from proteolytic degradation is sufficient for accumulation and nuclear translocation of HIF-1alpha. During biochemical separation, both HIF-1alpha and ARNT tend to leak from the nuclei in the absence of either subunit, suggesting that heterodimerization is required for stable association within the nuclear compartment. Nuclear stabilization of the heterodimer might also explain the hypoxically increased total cellular ARNT levels observed in some of the cell lines examined.  (+info)

Protein kinase C modulates aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator protein-mediated transactivation potential in a dimer context. (5/421)

Protein kinase C (PKC)- and protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated modulation of the transactivation potential of human aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (hARNT), a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-PAS transcription factor, and the bHLH-ZIP transcription factors USF-1 (for upstream regulatory factor 1) and c-Myc were examined. An 81 nM dose of the PKC activator phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), shown here to specifically activate PKC in COS-1 cells, or a 1 nM dose of the PKA activator 8-bromoadenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP) results in 2. 6- and 1.9-fold enhancements, respectively, in hARNT-mediated transactivation of the class B, E-box-driven reporter pMyc3E1bLuc relative to identically transfected, carrier solvent-treated COS-1 cells. In contrast, 81 nM PMA and 1 nM 8-Br-cAMP did not enhance transactivation of pMyc3E1bLuc-driven by USF-1 and c-Myc expression relative to identically transfected, carrier-treated COS-1 cells. Co-transfection of pcDNA3/ARNT-474-Flag, expressing a hARNT carboxyl-terminal transactivation domain deletion, and pMyc3E1bLuc does not result in induction of reporter activity, suggesting PMA's effects do not involve formation of unknown hARNT-protein heterodimers. Additionally, PMA had no effect on hARNT expression relative to Me2SO-treated cells. Metabolic 32P labeling of hARNT in cells treated with carrier solvent or 81 nM PMA demonstrates that PMA does not increase the overall phosphorylation level of hARNT. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that the transactivation potential of ARNT in a dimer context can be specifically modulated by PKC or PKA stimulation and that the bHLH-PAS and bHLH-ZIP transcription factors are differentially regulated by these pathways in COS-1 cells.  (+info)

Repression of dioxin signal transduction in fibroblasts. Identification Of a putative repressor associated with Arnt. (6/421)

Heterodimeric complexes of basic helix-loop-helix/PAS transcription factors are involved in regulation of diverse physiological phenomena such as circadian rhythms, reaction to low oxygen tension, and detoxification. In fibroblasts, the basic helix-loop-helix/PAS heterodimer consisting of the ligand-inducible dioxin receptor and Arnt shows DNA-binding activity, and the receptor and Arnt are able to activate transcription when fused to a heterologous DNA-binding domain. However, fibroblasts are nonresponsive to dioxin with regard to induction mediated by the DNA response element recognized by the receptor and Arnt. Here we demonstrate that Arnt is associated with a fibroblast-specific factor, forming a complex that is capable of binding the dioxin response element. This factor may function as a repressor since negative regulation of target gene induction appears to be abolished by inhibition of histone deacetylase activity by trichostatin A. Finally, the negative regulatory function of this factor appears to be restricted for dioxin signaling since Arnt was able to mediate, together with hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, transcriptional activation in hypoxic cells. Taken together, these data suggest that fibroblast-specific inhibition of dioxin responsiveness involves recruitment by Arnt of a cell type- and signaling pathway-specific corepressor associated with a histone deacetylase.  (+info)

Aromatic hydrocarbon nuclear translocator as a common component for the hypoxia- and dioxin-induced gene expression. (7/421)

Aromatic hydrocarbon nuclear translocator (Arnt) is an ubiquitously expressed protein that contains basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and Per-AhR-Arnt-Sim (PAS) motifs. Other bHLH-PAS proteins, hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediate hypoxia- and dioxin-signal pathway, respectively. Arnt has been identified as a heterodimerization partner for AhR. AhR/Arnt heterodimer binds the regulatory region of xenobiotic-induced genes and activates their transcription. Here, in vivo results provide evidence that Arnt is involved in not only xenobiotic- but also hypoxia-induced transcriptional activation. In hypoxic condition, Arnt dimerizes with HIF-1alpha to make HIF-1alpha/Arnt heterodimer which is able to bind hypoxia-responsive DNA elements. The HIF-1alpha/Arnt heterodimer functions as a transactivator for hypoxia-inducible genes. Given that the expression of Arnt is limited, HIF-1alpha may compete with AhR for recruiting Arnt as a heteromeric partner. Consistent with this idea, the results indicate that the hypoxic activation of HIF-1alpha reduces dioxin-induced AhR's function on the dioxin-responsive reporter gene and the endogenous gene.  (+info)

Expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 depends on cell-specific factors in human breast cancer cell lines: role of estrogen receptor status. (8/421)

The impact of estrogen receptor (ER) was examined for expression and activity of cytochrome P4501B1 (CYP1B1) and cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) in two pairs of ER+/ER- human breast epithelial cell lines derived from single lineages, and representing earlier (T47D) or later (MDA-MB-231) stages of tumorigenesis. Acute loss of ER was evaluated using the anti-estrogen ICI 182,780 (ICI). In all lines, CYP1B1 was expressed constitutively and was induced by 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), whereas CYP1A1 was expressed only following induction. Expression of each CYP (with or without TCDD) was greater in T47D cells than MDA cells. The ER impacted expression of these genes in opposite directions. The ER- phenotype was associated with less TCDD-induced CYP1A1 expression, but greater basal and induced CYP1B1 expression. A 48 h treatment of ER+ cells with ICI did not revert the P450 expression pattern to that of ER- cells. Based on activities of recombinant enzyme and expression levels, differences in 7,2-dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA) metabolism between the cell lines were consistent with differences in CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression. In T47D lines, basal microsomal DMBA metabolism was primarily due to CYP1B1, based on regioselective metabolite distribution and inhibition by anti-CYP1B1 antibodies (>80%). Metabolism in TCDD-induced microsomes was mostly due to CYP1A1 and was inhibited by anti-CYP1A1 antibody (>50%). TCDD-induced MDA+ cells demonstrated CYP1A1 activity, whereas TCDD-induced MDA- cells displayed CYP1B1 activity. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) levels, but not AhR nuclear translocator protein (ARNT) levels were highly dependent on cell type; AhR was high and ER-independent in MDA, and low and ER-linked in T47D. AhR levels were insensitive to ICI. ER does not directly modulate the expression of CYP1A1, CYP1B1 or AhR. Indeed, factors that have replaced ER in growth regulation during clonal selection predominate in this regulation. Characteristics unique to each cell line, including ER status, determine CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression.  (+info)

BACKGROUND: Replacing beta-cells by islet-transplantation can cure type 1 diabetes, but up to 70% of beta-cells die within 10 days of transplantation. ARNT (Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator) regulates beta-cell function, and potentially survival. Lack of ARNT impairs the ability of beta-cells to respond to physiological stress and potentiates the onset of diabetes, but the exact role of ARNT in graft outcome is unknown. AIM: To investigate the effect of beta-cell deletion of ARNT on graft outcomes. METHODS: Islets were isolated from donor mice which had beta-cell specific ARNT-deletion (beta-ARNT) or littermate floxed controls. The islets were transplanted into diabetic SCID recipients in ratios of (a) 3 donors: 1 recipient, (b) 1 donor: 1 recipient or (c) (1/2) of the islets from 1 donor: 1 recipient. After 28 days, the kidney containing the graft was removed (nephrectomy) to exclude regeneration of the endogenous pancreas. RESULTS: In the supra-physiological-mass model (3:1), both groups
Pregnancies complicated by severe fetal growth restriction with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry (FGRadv) are at substantial risk for adverse perinatal and long-term outcomes. Impaired angiogenesis of the placental vasculature in these pregnancies results in a sparse, poorly branched vascular tree, which structurally contributes to the abnormally elevated fetoplacental vascular resistance that is clinically manifested by absent or reversed umbilical artery Doppler indices. Previous studies have shown that aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) is a key mediator of proper placental angiogenesis, and within placental endothelial cells (ECs) from human FGRadv pregnancies, low expression of ARNT leads to decreased vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) expression and deficient tube formation. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of VEGFA administration or ARNT overexpression on angiogenic potential of FGRadv ECs. ECs were isolated and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of AhR/ARNT system in skin homeostasis. AU - Furue, Masutaka. AU - Takahara, Masakazu. AU - Nakahara, Takeshi. AU - Uchi, Hiroshi. PY - 2014/1/1. Y1 - 2014/1/1. N2 - Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that binds to structurally diverse synthetic and naturally occurring chemicals including dioxins, flavonoids, tryptophan photoproducts, and Malassezia metabolites. Upon binding to its ligands, cytoplasmic AhR translocates to the nucleus, heterodimerizes with aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), and mediates numerous biological and toxicological effects by inducing the transcription of various AhR-responsive genes. AhR ligation controls oxidation/antioxidation, epidermal barrier function, photo-induced response, melanogenesis, and innate immunity. This review summarizes recent advances in the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of skin homeostasis mediated by the AhR/ARNT system.. AB - Aryl hydrocarbon receptor ...
The Drosophila spineless (ss) gene encodes a basic-helix-loop-helix-PAS transcription factor that is required for proper specification of distal antennal identity, establishment of the tarsal regions of the legs, and normal bristle growth. ss is the closest known homolog of the mammalian aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr), also known as the dioxin receptor. Dioxin and other aryl hydrocarbons bind to the PAS domain of Ahr, causing Ahr to translocate to the nucleus, where it dimerizes with another bHLH-PAS protein, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (Arnt). Ahr:Arnt heterodimers then activate transcription of target genes that encode enzymes involved in metabolizing aryl hydrocarbons. In this report, we present evidence that Ss functions as a heterodimer with the Drosophila ortholog of Arnt, Tango (Tgo). We show that the ss and tgo genes have a close functional relationship: loss-of-function alleles of tgo were recovered as dominant enhancers of a ss mutation, and tgo-mutant somatic ...
Simple helixCloopChelix/PerCArntCSim (bHLH/PAS) transcription factors function broadly in development, stress and homeostasis response. particular features of neuronal bHLH/PAS elements and/or to prevent neuronal bHLH/PAS Rabbit Polyclonal to EFNB3 elements from interfering with AhR/Arnt signalling. Launch The mammalian simple helixCloopChelix/PerCArntCSim (bHLH/PAS) family members of transcription elements comprises of 19 structurally related protein that are important for a variety of natural procedures, including air homeostasis, xenobiotic Lumacaftor response, neurogenesis, urge for food control and circadian tempo (1,2). Prototypical signal-regulated associates of this family members consist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and hypoxia-inducible factor-alphas (HIF-s), which exert their actions by heterodimerizing with the common bHLH/PAS partner proteins aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (Arnt), to type energetic DNA-binding processes. In addition, Arnt provides been ...
Hypoxia, a condition of low tissue O2 concentration, plays an important role in normal physiological processes and tumor formation. Under hypoxic conditions mammalian cells up regulate the expression of hypoxic genes, including induction of angiogenesis and a switch to anaerobic metabolism, in order to survive. HIF-1 (Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1) is one of the key regulators of the transcriptional response to oxygen deprivation (1). HIF-1 is composed of two subunits, HIF-1alphaand HIF-1beta also known as aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)) that are members of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) (bHLH-PAS) family of transcription factors. HIF-1 is essential for angiogenesis, embryonic development, and is associated with tumor progression, erythropoiesis, vascular development/remodeling, vasodilation, and glucose/energy metabolism. The over expression of HIF-1alphahas been demonstrated in many common human cancers including prostate and breast, in which ...
Low oxygen levels (hypoxia) trigger a variety of adaptive responses with the Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) complex acting as a master regulator. HIF-1 consists of a heterodimeric oxygen-regulated ? subunit (HIF-1?) and constitutively expressed ? subunit (HIF-1?) also known as aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), regulating genes involved in diverse processes including angiogenesis, erythropoiesis and glycolysis. The identification of HIF-1 interacting proteins is key to the understanding of the hypoxia signaling pathway. Besides the regulation of HIF-1? stability, hypoxia also triggers the nuclear translocation of many transcription factors including HIF-1? and ARNT. Notably, most of the current methods used to study such protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are based on systems where protein levels are artificially increased through protein overexpression. Protein overexpression often leads to non-physiological results arising from temporal and spatial artifacts. Here we ...
Objectives Dioxin-like chemicals are known to exert their effect by binding to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), forming complexes with aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator (ARNT), and binding to specific dioxin responsive elements in promoter region to regulate the transcription of specific genes. In human, induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) family of enzymes is well documented. In previous study, CYP1A2 induction had been reported to be an excellent biomarker of dioxin exposure and human health effects in people highly exposed to dioxin-like chemicals, the Yucheng cohort. The goal of this study is to examine the relationship between inducibility of CYP1A2 and genetic polymorphisms of AhR, ARNT, and AhRR in human.. ...
This project sought to identify which amino acid residues of cyclo-CLLFVY were critical to its activity by synthesising five alanine analogues and testing them in cell and biophysical assays. It was not possible to identify an active motif and it could be concluded that the specific conformation of the intact cyclic peptide is required for activity. The functionality of independently bacterially expressed fragments of HIF-1? and HIF-1? was also validated by an EMSA. The Tavassoli group used these proteins to establish the binding location of the inhibitor to the HIF-1?-PAS-B domain (work by A. Tavassoli and A. Male ...
The vT{2} cell line was derived by co-transfection of a 6 thioguanine-resistant derivative of c4 (B13NBii1) [ATCC CRL-2717] cell line using the plasmid pSV2gpt and pBM5/NEO-M1-1. M1-1 is a cDNA clone containing the entire human ARNT cDNA sequence. The cells were expanded in G418 to obtain vT{2} (ATCC CRL-2712). The vT{2} cell line expresses the human aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) gene The vectors contain cytomegalovirus (CMV) and SV40 viral DNA sequences and the neomycin resistance gene. ARNT is directly involved in the regulation of xenobiotic metabolism (including chemical carcinogenesis), hypoxia and differentiation during embryogeneses. The parental cell line c4 (B13NBii1) (ATCC CRL-2717) lacks functional ARNT while its derivative vT{2} (ATCC CRL-2712) possesses a complete transfected ARNT cDNA. Together, they can be used to study ARNT processes and the role of ARNT in vivo.
Mouse anti Human ARNT antibody, clone 3D10 recognizes human Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator, also known as ARNT, Class E ba
Conformational changes in inhibitory PAS domain protein associated with binding of HIF-1α and Bcl-xL in living cells.Conformational changes in inhibitory PAS domain protein associated with binding of HIF-1α and Bcl-xL in living cells. ...
There are limited information and not many adequately powered random- ized trials with regard to the post of adjuvant chemotherapy after extremist surgery for the treatment of cervical cancer. The AhR also contains other structural motifs that are paramount against its deed, including the PAS-A and PAS-B domains that participate in protein dimerisation and ligand binding. So who would help from a clean buy fildena 150mg without a prescription erectile dysfunction miracle shake. Since the biological sketch out of lung conglomeration facilitates expeditious oxygenation of blood as it perfuses the alveolar spaces, lungs do not obtain ana- tomical barriers restricting the accumulation of foreign airborne chemicals. Whether working with an interpreter in myself or in the phone, it is substantial to coordinate efforts so that both the m‚nage and the interpreter catch on to the information to be communicated. Kumar VA, Yeun JY, Depner TA, et al buy penegra 100 mg amex prostate kegels. We deliver ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ligand-independent activation of the arylhydrocarbon receptor by ETK (Bmx) tyrosine kinase helps MCF10AT1 breast cancer cells to survive in an apoptosis-inducing environment. AU - Fujisawa, Yasuko. AU - Li, Wen. AU - Wu, Dalei. AU - Wong, Patrick. AU - Vogel, Christoph. AU - Dong, Bin. AU - Kung, Hsing Jien. AU - Matsumura, Fumio. PY - 2011/10/1. Y1 - 2011/10/1. N2 - It has been reported that the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is overexpressed in certain types of breast tumors. However, so far no concrete evidence has been provided yet as to why and how the overexpressed AHR in those cancer cells is functionally activated without exogenous ligands. Here we show that the AHR was functionally activated when estrogen receptor-negative, AHR overexpressing MCF10AT1 human breast cancer cells (designated P20E) were subjected to serum starvation. Transfection of cells with ETK-KQ, a plasmid for kinase-dead epithelial and endothelial tyrosine kinase (ETK), attenuated this AHR activation. ...
Genetic heterogeneity is widespread in tumors, but poorly documented in cell lines. According to immunoglobulin hypermutation analysis, the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell line U-2932 comprises two subpopulations faithfully representing original tumor subclones. We set out to identify molecular causes underlying subclone-specific expression affecting 221 genes including surface markers and the germinal center oncogenes BCL6 and MYC. Genomic copy number variations explained 58/221 genes differentially expressed in the two U-2932 clones. Subclone-specific expression of the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and the resulting activity of the AhR/ARNT complex underlaid differential regulation of 11 genes including MEF2B. Knock-down and inhibitor experiments confirmed that AhR/ARNT regulates MEF2B, a key transcription factor for BCL6. AhR, MEF2B and BCL6 levels correlated not only in the U-2932 subclones but in the majority of 23 cell lines tested, indicting overexpression of AhR as a novel mechanism ...
Genetic heterogeneity is widespread in tumors, but poorly documented in cell lines. According to immunoglobulin hypermutation analysis, the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell line U-2932 comprises two subpopulations faithfully representing original tumor subclones. We set out to identify molecular causes underlying subclone-specific expression affecting 221 genes including surface markers and the germinal center oncogenes BCL6 and MYC. Genomic copy number variations explained 58/221 genes differentially expressed in the two U-2932 clones. Subclone-specific expression of the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor and the resulting activity of the AhR/ARNT complex underlay differential regulation of 11 genes including MEF2B. Knock-down and inhibitor experiments confirmed that AhR/ARNT regulates MEF2B, key transcription factor for BCL6. AhR, MEF2B and BCL6 levels correlated not only in the U-2932 subclones but in the majority of 23 cell lines tested, indicting overexpression of AhR as novel mechanism behind ...
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) and the intracellular dioxin receptor mediate hypoxia and dioxin signalling, respectively. Both proteins are conditionally regulated basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors that, in addition to the bHLH motif, share a Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) region of homology and form heterodimeric complexes with the common bHLH/PAS partner factor Arnt. Here we demonstrate that HIF-1 alpha required Arnt for DNA binding in vitro and functional activity in vivo. Both the bHLH and PAS motifs of Arnt were critical for dimerization with HIF-1 alpha. Strikingly, HIF-1 alpha exhibited very high affinity for Arnt in coimmunoprecipitation assays in vitro, resulting in competition with the ligand-activated dioxin receptor for recruitment of Arnt. Consistent with these observations, activation of HIF-1 alpha function in vivo or overexpression of HIF-1 alpha inhibited ligand-dependent induction of DNA binding activity by the dioxin receptor and dioxin receptor function ...
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) and the intracellular dioxin receptor mediate hypoxia and dioxin signalling, respectively. Both proteins are conditionally regulated basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors that, in addition to the bHLH motif, share a Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) region of homology and form heterodimeric complexes with the common bHLH/PAS partner factor Arnt. Here we demonstrate that HIF-1 alpha required Arnt for DNA binding in vitro and functional activity in vivo. Both the bHLH and PAS motifs of Arnt were critical for dimerization with HIF-1 alpha. Strikingly, HIF-1 alpha exhibited very high affinity for Arnt in coimmunoprecipitation assays in vitro, resulting in competition with the ligand-activated dioxin receptor for recruitment of Arnt. Consistent with these observations, activation of HIF-1 alpha function in vivo or overexpression of HIF-1 alpha inhibited ligand-dependent induction of DNA binding activity by the dioxin receptor and dioxin receptor function ...
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor and its expression is influenced by environmental compounds, such as 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and β-naphthoflavone (β-NF). AhR and its downstream genes, such as CYP1A1, are considered to play a pivotal role in xenobiotic responses. AhR signaling has also been proposed to mediate osteogenesis in experimental animals, but its details have remained unclear. Therefore, in this study, we examined the possible roles of AhR in human bone. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that AhR was detected in both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. We then screened AhR-target genes using a microarray analysis in human osteoblastic hFOB cells. Results of microarray and subsequent PCR analysis did reveal that estrogen metabolizing and synthesizing enzymes, such as CYP1B1 and aromatase, were increased by 3-MC in hFOB and osteosarcoma cell line, MG-63. The subsequent antibody cytokine analysis also demonstrated that interleukin-1β and -6 expression
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that upon activation by the toxicant 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) stimulates gene expression and toxicity. AHR is also important for normal mouse physiology and may play a role in cancer progression in the absence of environmental toxicants. The objective of this report was to identify AHR-dependent genes (ADGs) whose expression is regulated by AHR in the absence of toxicants. RNA-Seq analysis revealed that AHR regulated the expression of over 600 genes at an FDR | 10% in MCF-7 breast cancer cells upon knockdown with short interfering RNA. Pathway analysis revealed that a significant number of ADGs were components of TCDD and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) pathways. We also demonstrated that siRNA knockdown of AHR modulated TNF induction of MNSOD and cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells. Collectively, the major new findings of this report are: (1) endogenous AHR promotes the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes
GNF351 is a full aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) antagonist. GNF351 competes with a photoaffinity AHR ligand for binding to the AHR with an IC50 of 62 nM. GNF351 is minimal toxicity in mouse or human keratinocytes. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
Page contains details about example of polymer-coated aryl hydrocarbon receptor transcription factor-binding ligand loaded magnetic nanoparticles . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
59 products from 14 suppliers. Compare and order Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, sensitivity, prices and more. Recommended products for the most popular species. Our scientists will help you find the right ELISA kit for your needs.
... , Authors: Sayka Barry, Márta Korbonits. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Order monoclonal and polyclonal Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor antibodies for many applications. Selected quality suppliers for anti-Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor antibodies.
Rabbit polyclonal Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor antibody validated for WB and tested in Human and Mouse. With 2 independent reviews. Immunogen corresponding to…
Preface. A. Historical background.. 1. History of Research on the AHR (Thomas A. Gasiewocz and Ellen C. Henry).. B. AHR as a ligand-activated transcription factor.. 2. Overview of AHR functional domains and the classical signaling pathway: induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes (Qiang Ma).. 3. Role of chaperone proteins in AHR function (Iain A. Murray and Gary H. Perdew).. 4. AHR Ligands: Promiscuity in Binding and Diversity in Response (Danica DeGroot, Guochun He, Domenico Fraccalvieri, Laura Bonati, Allesandro Pandin and Michael S. Denison).. 5. Dioxin response elements and regulation of gene transcription (Hollie Swanson).. 6. The AHR/ARNT dimer and transcriptional coactivators (Oliver Hankinson).. 7. Regulation of AHR by the AHR repressor (AHRR) (Yoshiaki Fujii-Kuriyama and Kaname Kawajiri).. 8. Influence of HIF-1α and Nrf2 signaling on AHR-mediated gene expression, toxicity and biological functions (Thomas Haarmann-Stemmann and Josef Abel).. 9. Functional interactions of AHR with other ...
Principal Investigator:ICHIHARA Sahoko, Project Period (FY):2006 - 2008, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Hygiene
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-dependent transcriptional factor widely expressed among immune, epithelial, endothelial and stromal cells in barrier tissues.
Background Malignancy control cells (CSCs) possess increased level of resistance to cancers chemotherapy. possess been mystery, but right here we demonstrate it is definitely an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonist and this takes on a essential part. AHR is definitely a transcription element triggered by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-value using the Cheng-Prussoff formula [55], where Kis the inhibition continuous for a medication (the contending ligand, i.elizabeth. tranilast or another non-labeled ligand): it represents the focus of the contending ligand in a competition assay which would take up 50% 2226-96-2 supplier of the receptors if no radioligand had been present. T is definitely the focus of free of charge radioligand utilized in the assay, and KD is definitely the dissociation continuous of the radioligand for the receptor. The Ki worth for a contending ligand is definitely an estimation of its presenting identified in an self-employed presenting or practical assay under related ...
Abstract Background Environmental toxicants, whose actions are often mediated through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway, pose risks to the health and well-being of exposed species, including humans. Of particular ...
Abstract Background Environmental toxicants, whose actions are often mediated through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway, pose risks to the health and well-being of exposed species, including humans. Of particular ...
Telegraph Dating Member Profile: Two2tango - It takes two to tango. I tried to keep this short but it wont let me. So here comes the bragging: An OCD...
After checking on Falls of Clyde this morning, I walked down the street to Pier 13. Tango II is still there, tied to a barge. A previous post about the vessel: High and Dry
private static final String INTENT_CLASSPACKAGE = "com.projecttango.tango"; private static final String INTENT_IMPORTEXPORT_CLASSNAME = "com.google.atap.tango.RequestImportExportActivity"; // startActivityForResult requires a code number. public static final int TANGO_INTENT_ACTIVITYCODE = 1129; private static final String EXTRA_KEY_SOURCEUUID = "SOURCE_UUID"; private static final String EXTRA_KEY_DESTINATIONFILE = "DESTINATION_FILE"; Intent exportIntent = new Intent(); exportIntent.setClassName(INTENT_CLASSPACKAGE, INTENT_IMPORTEXPORT_CLASSNAME); exportIntent.putExtra(EXTRA_KEY_SOURCEUUID, mUUIDList[info.position]); exportIntent.putExtra(EXTRA_KEY_DESTINATIONFILE, mAppSpaceADFFolder); thisActivity.startActivityForResult(exportIntent, TANGO_INTENT_ACTIVITYCODE ...
Watch this video to learn about wide variety uses for the Bruker Optics TANGO System for Instant FT-NIR Identification and Quantification of Constituents in Food, Feed, Polymer, Chemical and Pharma Applications.
Buy Redcon1 Tango Recovery 30 Serving now available online in India at Healthxp.in. Check the authentic user reviews and find the best offers!
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a cytosolic ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates most of the toxic and carcinogenic effects of drugs and environmental toxins collectively known as xenobiotics. Ligand activation of the AhR stimulates the transcription of genes that encode several xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. The molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways evoked by the activation of the AhR are becoming increasingly understood and underscore the participation of the AhR in crucial processes, including cellular stress response, proliferation, differentiation, inflammation, and carcinogenesis. Studies now implicate the AhR as an integral part of the multifaceted signal transduction pathway initiated by the exposure of keratinocytes to ultraviolet B radiation (UVB), which is the most ubiquitous hazard to human skin and the principal risk factor for skin cancer. Ligand-dependent activation of the AhR in the cytosol provides a molecular bridge that links cytoplasmic events to ...
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the prototypic ligand for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), promotes tumor formation in some model systems. However, with regard to breast cancer, epidemiological and animal studies are inconclusive as to whether exposure increases tumor incidence or may instead be protective. We have previously reported that mice exposed to TCDD during pregnancy have impaired differentiation of mammary tissue, including decreased branching and poor development of lobuloalveolar structures. Because normal pregnancy-induced mammary differentiation may protect against subsequent neoplastic transformation, we hypothesized that TCDD-treated mice would be more susceptible to chemical carcinogenesis after parturition. To test this, mice were treated with TCDD or vehicle during pregnancy. Four weeks later, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) was administered to induce mammary tumor formation. Contrary to our hypothesis, TCDD-exposed parous mice showed a 4-week delay in ...
playlists (72) Tango history (50) cortinology (14) tango festivals (10) DJ resources (9) pearls of wisdom (8) Francisco Canaro (7) Russian tango (6) folk music history (6) tango statistics (6) Carlos di Sarli (5) Donato Racciatti (5) Miguel Calo (5) Pedro Laurenz (5) alternative music (5) tango foxtrot (5) tango orchestras (5) Argentine food (4) Dia del Tango (4) Enrique Rodriguez (4) Ojos negros que fascinan (4) empanadas (4) Adolfo Carabelli (3) Edgardo Donato (3) Federico Scorticati (3) Juan DArienzo (3) Lucio Demare (3) Maruja Pacheco (3) Mountain Milonga Retreat 2015 (3) Osvaldo Pugliese (3) Sebastian Piana (3) chacarera (3) tango musicality (3) Alberto Besprosvan (2) Alberto Podesta (2) Baile del Internado (2) Ben Molar (2) Daniel Diaz (2) Eddie Rosner (2) Erskine Maytorena (2) Lita Morales (2) Mountain Milonga Retreat 2014 (2) Osvalso Fresedo (2) Palais de Glace (2) Pedro Maffia (2) Piotr Leschenko (2) Poema (2) QTANGO (2) Raúl Kaplún (2) Roberto Firpo (2) Rodolfo Biagi (2) Romeo ...
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is found in mammalian cells cultured under reduced O2 tension and is necessary for transcriptional activation mediated by the erythropoietin gene enhancer in hypoxic cells. We show that both HIF-1 subunits are basic-helix-loop-helix proteins containing a PAS domain, defined by its presence in the Drosophila Per and Sim proteins and in the mammalian ARNT and AHR proteins. HIF-1 alpha is most closely related to Sim. HIF-1 beta is a series of ARNT gene products, which can thus heterodimerize with either HIF-1 alpha or AHR. HIF-1 alpha and HIF-1 beta (ARNT) RNA and protein levels were induced in cells exposed to 1% O2 and decayed rapidly upon return of the cells to 20% O2, consistent with the role of HIF-1 as a mediator of transcriptional responses to hypoxia.. ...
We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. You can change your cookie settings at any time.Find out more ...
Complete information for AHR gene (Protein Coding), Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Research Dancing the Argentine tango could have potential benefits for people at certain stages in the development of Parkinsons disease, according to findings in a new study by researchers at McGill, the Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, and and the Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre. The study looked at changes in patients motor abilities following a 12-week tango course, and is also the first study to assess the effect that tango has on non-motor symptoms.. ...
Brain tumor news: Apoptosis Therapy in Cancer: The First Single-molecule Co-activating p53 and the Translocator Protein in Glioblastoma.
Lavine, J.A.*, A.J. Rowatt,*T. Klimova,* A.J. Whitington,* E. Dengler,* C. Beck,* and W.H. Powell (2005) Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptors in the frog Xenopus laevis: Two AHR1 paralogs exhibit low affinity for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) Toxicol. Sci., in press ...
Environmental factors linked to development of autoimmune diseases. The research focused on a protein called the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). The res...
The classical tango is a dance characterized by a 2/4 or 4/4 rhythm in which the partners dance in a coordinated way, allowing dynamic contact. There is a surprising similarity between the tango and how KCNE β-subunits
Use TV Tango to search for and discover television shows, made-for-TV movies & miniseries, full-length free videos, paid downloads, and DVDs. If you are looking for a specific video or DVD or if you just want to browse available titles, TV Tango can help you find exactly what youre looking for ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a partial recombinant ARNT2. ARNT2 (NP_055677.3, 464 a.a. ~ 563 a.a) partial recombinant protein with GST tag. MW of the GST tag alone is 26 KDa. (H00009915-M03) - Products - Abnova
This serie description Ar Florascent Tu esi princese, kura rotaļājas plaukstošu rožu ziedu okeānā. Vai arī karaliene jasmīns - eleganta un cienīga! Vai bagāta kā austrumu šeihs, vai vieda kā indiešu guru. Baudi svaigu vēja brīzi uz baltas jahtas klāja Vidusjūras saulē, pastaigas Ķīnas imperatora ziedošajā dārzā vai dejo kaislīgu tango tveicīgā Spānijas piepilsētā. Ceļo, pārvērties un parādi savas personības dižciltību! Parfimērijas māksla un tradicionālas metodes, ko, gatavojot parfīmus aristokrātiem izmantoja 17.gs. Francijā, šodien atdzīvojušās vācu meistaru radītajos daudzveidīgajos un valdzinošajos Florascent aromātos. Florascent tualetes ūdeņi: • izgatavoti tikai no dabīgām izejvielām - izsmalcinātām augtākās kvalitātes augu esencēm un ēteriskajām eļļām; • nesatur ftalātus, naftas ķīmiju, sintētiskas vielas, dzīvnieku izcelsmes vielas; nav testēti uz dzīvniekiem; • teicama noturība panākta tikai ar ...
In the United States education in this field is not as universally organized - some universities have solid programs in dance medicine, but most do not. The people that I know in the field, in the US and in other countries, have forged their own path and sought education from a variety of sources - which is now what I find myself doing. Im working with my tango teacher, Daniela Arcuri, to get a picture of what is really needed in my own community, and with other teachers and mentors around the world to get an idea of what education is available and appropriate to the program I am trying to create ...
Buy Trio Pantango - Tango Argentino [CD] at DeepDiscount.com. Music: International: 5019396243729. Guaranteed Lowest Price. Free Shipping on Orders over $25!
At the top of the Tango music scene, the orchestra founded in Italy in 2008 by Mariano Speranza leads an international career with over 500...
The Medicines Company (NASDAQ:MDCO) today announced that new data from its TANGO II study of VABOMERE (meropenem and vaborbactam) will be presented th
Expression of ARNT2 (bHLHe1, KIAA0307) in prostate tissue. Antibody staining with HPA001056 and CAB005081 in immunohistochemistry.
Dropbox is a free service that lets you bring your photos, docs, and videos anywhere and share them easily. Never email yourself a file again!
I hit the tango scene last night too as I was feeling better. Also tonight after the rawk jim. Weve been doing this group thing that has morphed into me teaching which Im not that into. So I think well do a couple more Thursdays and be done with it. Its been a pretty sweet last six months or so with that whole scene. Theres this famous teacher who came up here to live for a few months and I have this whole bromance thing going on with him and rock it now with the tango ladies as a result ...
I hit the tango scene last night too as I was feeling better. Also tonight after the rawk jim. Weve been doing this group thing that has morphed into me teaching which Im not that into. So I think well do a couple more Thursdays and be done with it. Its been a pretty sweet last six months or so with that whole scene. Theres this famous teacher who came up here to live for a few months and I have this whole bromance thing going on with him and rock it now with the tango ladies as a result ...
lot have been said already. However, just to make sure I got it correctly, all your drivers are up to date arnt they ? If not then this can be a source of the problem, specially if you have anything.
Экономические системы Латинской Америки процветают с 2003 года. Их ВВП, включая предварительный показатель за 2006 год, вырос на 17%, средний годовой темп роста составил 4,3%, а прирост ВВП на душу населения равен 12%. Несмотря на столь внушительные показатели, ситуация, когда Латинская Америка испытывает положительный экономический рост в течение четырех лет подряд, возникает лишь второй раз за 25 лет. Как долго продолжатся такие хорошие времена? Этот недавний рост произошел благодаря буму цен на сырьевые товары, который включил в себя не только ...
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARNT2 gene. This gene encodes a ... "Entrez Gene: ARNT2 aryl-hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator 2". Human ARNT2 genome location and ARNT2 gene details page ... 2003). "Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator 2 (ARNT2): structure, gene mapping, polymorphisms, and candidate ... A highly similar protein in mouse forms functional complexes with both aryl hydrocarbon receptors and Single-minded proteins, ...
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 1 is protein that in humans is encoded by the ARNTL gene, also ... "Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like (BMAL1) is associated with susceptibility to hypertension and type 2 ... "ARNTL aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like [ Homo sapiens (human) ]". National Center for Biotechnology ... Arntl has been shown to interact with: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor CLOCK CREBBP CRY1 EP300 EPAS1 HIF1A NPAS2 SUMO3 Arntl2 - ...
... has been shown to interact with Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... homologs of the Drosophila single-minded protein that interact with the mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator ... homologs of the Drosophila single-minded protein that interact with the mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator ... Yamaki A, Kudoh J, Shimizu N, Shimizu Y (Jan 2004). "A novel nuclear localization signal in the human single-minded proteins ...
... has been shown to interact with aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator and ARNTL. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Luo JC, Shibuya M (March 2001). "A variant of nuclear localization signal of bipartite-type is required for the nuclear ... and Ets-1 in the transcriptional activation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (Flk-1)". The Journal of ...
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like 2, also known as Mop9, Bmal2, Clif, or Arntl2, is a gene. Arntl2 is a ...
... to some specific Down syndrome phenotypes SIM2 has been shown to interact with Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator. ... homologs of the Drosophila single-minded protein that interact with the mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator ... homologs of the Drosophila single-minded protein that interact with the mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator ... Yamaki A, Kudoh J, Shimizu N, Shimizu Y (Jan 2004). "A novel nuclear localization signal in the human single-minded proteins ...
"Trans-activation by the human aryl hydrocarbon receptor and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator proteins: direct ... putative cofactor TIF1alpha is a protein kinase that is hyperphosphorylated upon interaction with liganded nuclear receptors". ...
"Trans-activation by the human aryl hydrocarbon receptor and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator proteins: direct ... McEwan IJ, Gustafsson J (1997). "Interaction of the human androgen receptor transactivation function with the general ...
... may refer to: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator, a human gene Lipid IVA 4-amino-4-deoxy-L- ...
Bmal1 - Bmal1 also known as ARNTL or Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like, encodes a protein that forms a ... This is caused by two nuclear receptors, REV-ERB and ROR, which suppresses and activates Bmal1 transcription, respectively. In ...
... of thyroid hormone receptor/retinoblastoma-interacting protein 230 by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator is ... Thyroid receptor-interacting protein 11 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRIP11 gene. TRIP11 was first identified ... "Entrez Gene: TRIP11 thyroid hormone receptor interactor 11". Chang KH, Chen Y, Chen TT, Chou WH, Chen PL, Ma YY, Yang-Feng TL, ... "A thyroid hormone receptor coactivator negatively regulated by the retinoblastoma protein". Proceedings of the National Academy ...
... and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (Arnt), the beta subunit. HIF1A contains a basic helix-loop-helix domain ... The HIF1A polypeptide also contains a nuclear localization signal motif, two transactivating domains CTAD and NTAD, and an ... role of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors". Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America. 10 (2): 339-56, ix. ... HIF1 alpha and adenosine receptors". Nat. Rev. Immunol. 5 (9): 712-21. doi:10.1038/nri1685. PMID 16110315. Mobasheri A, ...
... the transformed receptor to translocate to the nucleus where it dimerises with aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator ... Induction of CYP1A1 by benzo[a]pyrene occurs via binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in the cytosol, leading ... Intestinal, but not hepatic, expression of CYP1A1 depends on TOLL-like receptor 2 (TLR2), which is a eucaryotic receptor for ... Pyrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon consisting of four benzene rings fused together in a planar aromatic arrangement ...
... the latter being a constitutively-expressed aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT). HIF-1 belongs to the PER- ... It was shown that NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) is a direct modulator of HIF-1α expression in the presence of normal oxygen ...
... aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator protein Sim - single-minded protein Since the initial discovery of the PAS ...
... aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator) and then binds xenobiotic response elements (XREs) in DNA located upstream of ... aryl hydrocarbon receptor) in the cytosol. Upon binding the transformed receptor translocates to the nucleus where it dimerises ... Intestinal, but not hepatic, expression of CYP1A1 depends on TOLL-like receptor 2 (TLR2), which is a eucaryotic receptor for ... Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in coal tar with the formula C20H12. The compound is one of the ...
... aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator MeSH D12.776.930.125.625.750 -- hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit MeSH ... estrogen receptor alpha MeSH D12.776.930.682.350.262 -- estrogen receptor beta MeSH D12.776.930.682.350.350 -- receptors, ... retinoid X receptor alpha MeSH D12.776.930.675.500.625 -- retinoid X receptor beta MeSH D12.776.930.675.500.750 -- retinoid X ... hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha MeSH D12.776.930.323.500.750 -- hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta MeSH D12.776.930.354.249.500 ...
... aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator MeSH D12.776.260.103.625.750 -- hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit MeSH ... hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha MeSH D12.776.260.262.500.750 -- hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta MeSH D12.776.260.400.249.249 ... hepatocyte nuclear factor 3-alpha MeSH D12.776.260.950.249.750 -- hepatocyte nuclear factor 3-beta MeSH D12.776.260.950.249.875 ... hepatocyte nuclear factor 6 MeSH D12.776.260.522.750.249 -- sp1 transcription factor MeSH D12.776.260.522.750.500 -- sp2 ...
... brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)-like 1) is the primary homolog of Drosophila CYC. Three ... suggesting that melatonin receptors present in the SCN mediate phase-shifting effects through the SCN. Chronobiology ...
... and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator. In the intestine, but not the liver, CYP1A1 expression moreover depends ... CYP1A1 is also known as AHH (aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase). It is involved in the metabolic activation of aromatic hydrocarbons ... is regulated by a heterodimeric transcription factor that consist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, a ligand activated ... Kiyohara C, Hirohata T, Inutsuka S (Jan 1996). "The relationship between aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and polymorphisms of the ...
... p160 family of transcriptional coactivators by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor/aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator ... Aryl hydrocarbon receptor,[7] PDE6G,[8] STAT1,[9][10] EPH receptor B2,[11][12] Androgenski receptor,[13][14][15] Proteinska ... Estrogenski receptor alfa,[13][31][32][33] Estrogenski receptor beta,[13][33] HNF1A,[34] KHDRBS1,[35][36][37][38][39] DDEF1,[40 ... Lee, S K; Jung S Y, Kim Y S, Na S Y, Lee Y C, Lee J W (February 2001). "Two distinct nuclear receptor-interaction domains and ...
"Role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator protein in aryl hydrocarbon (dioxin) receptor action". Mol. ... p160 family of transcriptional coactivators by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor/aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator ... and in AhR's dimerization partner the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT). The PAS domains support specific ... "The aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacts with estrogen receptor alpha and orphan receptors COUP-TFI and ERRalpha1". Arch. ...
... peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator. GRCh38: Ensembl ... AH receptor-interacting protein (AIP) also known as aryl-hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein, immunophilin homolog ARA9, ... role in aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated signalling possibly by influencing its receptivity for ligand and/or its nuclear ... Petrulis JR, Hord NG, Perdew GH (December 2000). "Subcellular localization of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor is modulated by the ...
... p160 family of transcriptional coactivators by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor/aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator ... is a coactivator of the androgen receptor". Cancer Res. 60 (21): 5946-9. PMID 11085509. nuclear receptor coactivator 2 at the ... The nuclear receptor coactivator 2 also known as NCoA-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NCOA2 gene. NCoA-2 is ... Hence, NCOA2 assists nuclear receptors in the upregulation of DNA expression. GRIP1 is a transcriptional co-activator of the ...
... in conjunction with the receptor's binding partner, aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT). The protein encoded ... "Repression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) signaling by AHR repressor: role of DNA binding and competition for AHR nuclear ... The aryl-hydrocarbon receptor repressor also known as AHRR is a human gene. Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds are teratogens ... Kanno Y, Takane Y, Izawa T, Nakahama T, Inouye Y (June 2006). "The Inhibitory Effect of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Repressor ( ...
... aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator) and then binds xenobiotic response elements (XREs) in DNA located upstream of ... aryl hydrocarbon receptor) in the cytosol.[28] Upon binding the transformed receptor translocates to the nucleus where it ... expression of CYP1A1 depends on TOLL-like receptor 2 (TLR2),[30] which is a eucaryotic receptor for bacterial surface ... Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in coal tar with the formula C20H12. The compound is one of the ...
Overexpression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator partially rescues fetoplacental angiogenesis in severe ... Previous studies have shown that aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) is a key mediator of proper placental ... Shuhan Ji, Hong Xin, Emily J. Su; Overexpression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator partially rescues ...
ARNT (Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator) regulates beta-cell function, and potentially survival. Lack of ARNT ... ARNT also partners HIF-2alpha and AhR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor) to form active transcriptional complexes, and further work to ... ARNT also partners HIF-2alpha and AhR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor) to form active transcriptional complexes, and further work to ... ARNT (Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator) regulates beta-cell function, and potentially survival. Lack of ARNT ...
  • Previous studies have shown that aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) is a key mediator of proper placental angiogenesis, and within placental endothelial cells (ECs) from human FGRadv pregnancies, low expression of ARNT leads to decreased vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) expression and deficient tube formation. (portlandpress.com)
  • ARNT (Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator) regulates beta-cell function, and potentially survival. (garvan.org.au)
  • ARNT also partners HIF-2alpha and AhR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor) to form active transcriptional complexes, and further work to understand the roles of HIF-2alpha and AhR in transplant outcomes is needed. (garvan.org.au)
more