Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.
A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.
A chemical by-product that results from burning or incinerating chlorinated industrial chemicals and other hydrocarbons. This compound is considered an environmental toxin, and may pose reproductive, as well as, other health risks for animals and humans.
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator is a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF containing protein that forms a complex with DIOXIN RECEPTOR. The complex binds xenobiotic regulatory elements and activates transcription of a variety of genes including UDP GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. AhR nuclear translocator is also a subunit of HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1.
A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
A mixed-function oxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of a prolyl-glycyl containing peptide, usually in PROTOCOLLAGEN, to a hydroxyprolylglycyl-containing-peptide. The enzyme utilizes molecular OXYGEN with a concomitant oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate to SUCCINATE. The enzyme occurs as a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits. The beta subunit of procollagen-proline dioxygenase is identical to the enzyme PROTEIN DISULFIDE-ISOMERASES.
Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.
A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.
Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.
Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.
Enzymes that specifically hydroxylate PROLINE residues on proteins.
Dioxygenase enzymes that specifically hydroxylate a PROLINE residue on the HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT. They are OXYGEN-dependent enzymes that play an important role in mediating cellular adaptive responses to HYPOXIA.
Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A polyaromatic hydrocarbon inducer of P4501A1 and P4501A2 cytochromes. (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1994 Dec:207(3):302-308)
Organic compounds containing a BENZENE ring attached to a flavone group. Some of these are potent arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase inhibitors. They may also inhibit the binding of NUCLEIC ACIDS to BENZOPYRENES and related compounds. The designation includes all isomers; the 7,8-isomer is most frequently encountered.
A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.
A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-448 (P-450) enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of benzopyrene to 3-hydroxybenzopyrene in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. Also acts on certain anthracene derivatives. An aspect of EC
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.
An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in APOPTOSIS. It is composed of two subunits: ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR NUCLEAR TRANSLOCATOR and HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT.
A cytochrome P450 enzyme subtype that has specificity for relatively planar heteroaromatic small molecules, such as CAFFEINE and ACETAMINOPHEN.
A P450 oxidoreductase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of the terminal carbon of linear hydrocarbons such as octane and FATTY ACIDS in the omega position. The enzyme may also play a role in the oxidation of a variety of structurally unrelated compounds such as XENOBIOTICS, and STEROIDS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
A mixed-function oxygenase that catalyzes the hydroxylation of peptidyllysine, usually in protocollagen, to peptidylhydroxylysine. The enzyme utilizes molecular oxygen with concomitant oxidative decarboxylation of the cosubstrate 2-oxoglutarate to succinate. EC
An aldehyde oxidoreductase expressed predominantly in the LIVER; LUNGS; and KIDNEY. It catalyzes the oxidation of a variety of organic aldehydes and N-heterocyclic compounds to CARBOXYLIC ACIDS, and also oxidizes quinoline and pyridine derivatives. The enzyme utilizes molybdenum cofactor and FAD as cofactors.
Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the formation of L-TYROSINE, dihydrobiopterin, and water from L-PHENYLALANINE, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen. Deficiency of this enzyme may cause PHENYLKETONURIAS and PHENYLKETONURIA, MATERNAL. EC
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
An NAPH-dependent cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates such as the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
ACNE-like skin eruptions caused by exposure to CHLORINE-containing compounds. Exposure can be by inhalation, ingestion, or through the skin. Chloracne is often seen in people who have occupational contact with chlorinated pesticides, wood preservatives, and sealants.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.
Steroids which are substituted with one or more fluorine atoms in any position.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of TRYPTOPHAN to 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN in the presence of NADPH and molecular oxygen. It is important in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of XANTHINE in the presence of NAD+ to form URIC ACID and NADH. It acts also on a variety of other purines and aldehydes.
Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the jaw.
Family of small, surface-dwelling fish that inhabit fresh and brackish waters, and coastal marine areas.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A drug-metabolizing enzyme found in the hepatic, placental and intestinal microsomes that metabolizes 7-alkoxycoumarin to 7-hydroxycoumarin. The enzyme is cytochrome P-450- dependent.
Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, spherical cells usually occurring in pairs. The resting stage is considered a cyst. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.
A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES whose members act in the mechanism of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by STEROID RECEPTORS.
Steroids which are substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.
A ubiquitin-protein ligase that mediates OXYGEN-dependent polyubiquitination of HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT. It is inactivated in VON HIPPEL-LINDAU SYNDROME.
Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.
A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen. Three or more carbon atoms are arranged in a cyclic structure and they possess aliphatic properties.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen where no carbon atoms join to form a ring structure.
Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
The species Delphinapterus leucas, in the family Monodontidae, found primarily in the Arctic Ocean and adjoining seas. They are small WHALES lacking a dorsal fin.
A pituitary tumor that secretes GROWTH HORMONE. In humans, excess HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE leads to ACROMEGALY.
A natural product that has been considered as a growth factor for some insects.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The simultaneous or sequential binding of multiple cell surface receptors to different ligands resulting in coordinated stimulation or suppression of signal transduction.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol) in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP27B1 gene, converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 which is the active form of VITAMIN D in regulating bone growth and calcium metabolism. This enzyme is also active on plant 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).
A group of 4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.
Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.
7,8,8a,9a-Tetrahydrobenzo(10,11)chryseno (3,4-b)oxirene-7,8-diol. A benzopyrene derivative with carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Steroids which are substituted with one or more bromine atoms in any position.
A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
A flavoprotein that catalyzes the synthesis of protocatechuic acid from 4-hydroxybenzoate in the presence of molecular oxygen. EC
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.
Benzo-indoles similar to CARBOLINES which are pyrido-indoles. In plants, carbazoles are derived from indole and form some of the INDOLE ALKALOIDS.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
1,2-Benzphenanthrenes. POLYCYCLIC COMPOUNDS obtained from coal tar.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Release of oil into the environment usually due to human activity.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of fumaric acid to yield L-malic acid. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC
Used in the form of its salts as a dye and as an intermediate in manufacture of Acid Yellow, diazo dyes, and indulines.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Blocking the process leading to OVULATION. Various factors are known to inhibit ovulation, such as neuroendocrine, psychological, and pharmacological agents.
A group of FLAVONOLS based on kaempferol. They are derived from naringenin and can be hydroxylated to QUERCETIN or reduced to leucopelargonidin.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
Derivatives of adipic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,6-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
Compounds based on pyrazino[2,3-d]pyrimidine which is a pyrimidine fused to a pyrazine, containing four NITROGEN atoms.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A flavoprotein that reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of NADH or NADPH by various quinones and oxidation-reduction dyes. The enzyme is inhibited by dicoumarol, capsaicin, and caffeine.
A by-product of the destructive distillation of coal used as a topical antieczematic. It is an antipruritic and keratoplastic agent used also in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin conditions. Occupational exposure to soots, tars, and certain mineral oils is known to be carcinogenic according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985) (Merck Index, 11th ed).
3-Hydroxy-4-oxo-1(4H)-pyridinealanine. An antineoplastic alanine-substituted pyridine derivative isolated from Leucena glauca.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
A liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 16-alpha-hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme is encoded by a number of genes from several CYP2 subfamilies.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A residue of coal, left after dry (destructive) distillation, used as a fuel.
An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.
Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
The science of drugs prepared from natural-sources including preparations from PLANTS, animals, and other organisms as well as MINERALS and other substances included in MATERIA MEDICA. The therapeutic usage of plants is PHYTOTHERAPY.
A genus of brown-rot fungi in the family Coriolaceae. The biologically active ingredients of its species have potential pharmaceutical value.
A widely used industrial solvent.
A concave exterior region on some POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS that have three phenyl rings in a non-linear arrangement.

An investigation into the binding of the carcinogen 15,16-dihydro-11-methylcyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one to DNA in vitro. (1/3060)

After metabolic activation the carcinogen 15,16-dihydro-11-[3H]methylcyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one binds to DNA in vitro, and this binding is prevented by 7,8-benzoflavone. Radioactivity cannot be removed from the DNA with organic solvents or by chromatography on Sephadex G-50, even after heat denaturation of the DNA. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields radioactive fractions, which elute from a column of Sephadex LH-20 immediately after the natural nucleosides. At least two species of reactive metabolites are involved in this bending, those with a half-life of a few hr and others with greater stability. After extraction from the aqueous incubation mixture, they could be detected in discrete polar fractions from separations of the complex metabolite mixture by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Their ability to bind to DNA decreased with time at ambient temperature, and they were rapidly deactivated by acid. 7,8-Benzolflavone acted by suppressing the formation of polar metabolites derived from enzymatic oxidation of the aromatic double bonds. The inhibitor had no effect on the enzymes hydroxylating saturated carbon; hence it is unlikely that metabolism of the methyl group is important in conversion of this carcinogen to its proximate form, although the presence of the 11-methyl group is essential for carcinogenic activity in this series.  (+info)

The repressed nuclear receptor CAR responds to phenobarbital in activating the human CYP2B6 gene. (2/3060)

The endogenous CYP2B6 gene becomes phenobarbital (PB) inducible in androstenol-treated HepG2 cells either transiently or stably transfected with a nuclear receptor CAR expression vector. The PB induction mediated by CAR is regulated by a conserved 51-base pair element called PB-responsive enhancer module (PBREM) that has now been located between -1733 and -1683 bp in the gene's 5'-flanking region. An in vitro translated CAR acting as a retinoid X receptor alpha heterodimer binds directly to the two nuclear receptor sites NR1 and NR2 within PBREM. In a stably transfected HepG2 cell line, both PBREM and NR1 are activated by PB and PB-type compounds such as chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorpromazine. In addition to PBREM, CAR also transactivates the steroid/rifampicin-response element of the human CYP3A4 gene in HepG2 cells. Thus, activation of the repressed nuclear receptor CAR appears to be a versatile mediator that regulates PB induction of the CYP2B and other genes.  (+info)

Induction of hepatic cytochromes P450 in dogs exposed to a chronic low dose of polychlorinated biphenyls. (3/3060)

Induction of cytochrome P450 isoforms, specifically CYP1A1, and their catalytic activities are potential biomarkers of environmental contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, dogs were exposed to 25 ppm or 5 ppm Aroclor 1248 (PCB mixture) daily in their diet for 10 or 20 weeks, respectively. Relative to controls, hepatic microsomes from dogs dosed with PCBs had higher levels of CYP1A1 detected in immunoblots and higher levels of EROD activity, but low levels of induction for CYP2B and PROD activity. Concentrations of 96 PCB congeners in serum and liver were evaluated using capillary chromatography. Results showed that all dogs exposed to PCB mixtures had higher levels of PCB in serum and liver. Dogs preferentially sequestered highly chlorinated PCB congeners in liver relative to serum. With these experiments, we demonstrated that EROD activity was a potentially sensitive marker of PCB exposure at 5 and 25 ppm. Furthermore, CYP1A1 and EROD activity were maximally induced in dogs consuming dietary concentrations only 2.5 times the maximal permissible level for human food (FDA). The value of CYP1A1 induction as a biomarker of PCB exposure was tenuous because neither CYP1A1 levels nor EROD activity correlated with total PCB body burden. However, a small subset of congeners were identified in liver that may strongly influence EROD and PROD induction. Finally, two dogs in the 25 ppm dose group were fasted for 48 h. After 24 h of fasting, several new congeners appeared in the serum and remained in the serum for the remainder of the fast. The fast caused a 293% increase in PCB concentration in serum. This increase has strong implications regarding mobilization of toxic PCBs in wildlife during fasting (e.g., migration, hibernation).  (+info)

Regulation of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 1B1 in mouse Hepa-1 variant cell lines: A possible role for aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) as a suppressor of CYP1B1 gene expression. (4/3060)

Cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 1B1 expression in mouse hepatoma (Hepa-1) wild-type (WT) cells was compared with responses in Hepa-1 variants LA1 and LA2, which, respectively, exhibit low aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) level and defective AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) protein. 10T1/2 mouse embryo fibroblasts express predominantly CYP1B1 and at a 100 times higher level than in Hepa-1 cells, whereas they express about 300-fold lower CYP1A1 than Hepa-1 cells. The expression of CYP1B1 in WT and LA1 variant, although at a much lower level, follows that of CYP1A1, reflecting their common regulation through the AhR. The LA2 (ARNT-defective) cells showed a major difference between CYP1B1 and CYP1A1 expression. Although CYP1A1 mRNA levels in LA2 were extremely low and unresponsive to 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), basal CYP1B1 mRNA and protein were expressed at levels similar to those seen in TCDD-induced WT. The elevated basal CYP1B1 mRNA in LA2 cells decreased by 50% after transient transfection of ARNT cDNA, in parallel with substantial restoration of CYP1A1 induction. This implicates ARNT as a suppressor of CYP1B1 basal expression in Hepa cells. In transient CYP1B1-luciferase constructs in LA2 cells, ARNT shows stimulatory effects in the enhancer region but an inhibitory effect on the proximal promoter. Two CYP1B1 enhancer elements [xenobiotic-responsive element (XRE) 1/2 and XRE4] formed TCDD-unresponsive complexes of similar mobility to TCDD-stimulated AhR-ARNT complex with XRE5. However, because these two complexes were formed to the same extent in LA2 as in WT cells, they cannot be due to ARNT or contribute to ARNT-regulated suppression.  (+info)

Cytochrome P450 CYP1B1 determines susceptibility to 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced lymphomas. (5/3060)

CYP1B1-null mice, created by targeted gene disruption in embryonic stem cells, were born at the expected frequency from heterozygous matings with no observable phenotype, thus establishing that CYP1B1 is not required for mouse development. CYP1B1 was not detectable in cultured embryonic fibroblast (EF) or in different tissues, such as lung, of the CYP1B1-null mouse treated with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin whereas the equivalent wild-type EF cells express basal and substantial inducible CYP1B1 and lung expresses inducible CYP1B1. CYP1A1 is induced to far higher levels than CYP1B1 in liver, kidney, and lung in wild-type mice and is induced to a similar extent in CYP1B1-null mice. 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) was toxic in wild-type EFs that express CYP1B1 but not CYP1A1. These cells effectively metabolized DMBA, consistent with CYP1B1 involvement in producing the procarcinogenic 3,4-dihydrodiol as a major metabolite, whereas CYP1B1-null EF showed no significant metabolism and were resistant to DMBA-mediated toxicity. When wild-type mice were administered high levels of DMBA intragastrically, 70% developed highly malignant lymphomas whereas only 7.5% of CYP1B1-null mice had lymphomas. Skin hyperplasia and tumors were also more frequent in wild-type mice. These results establish that CYP1B1, located exclusively at extrahepatic sites, mediates the carcinogenicity of DMBA. Surprisingly, CYP1A1, which has a high rate of DMBA metabolism in vitro, is not sufficient for this carcinogenesis, which demonstrates the importance of extrahepatic P450s in determining susceptibility to chemical carcinogens and validates the search for associations between P450 expression and cancer risk in humans.  (+info)

Effect of cryopreservation on cytochrome P-450 enzyme induction in cultured rat hepatocytes. (6/3060)

In the present study, we evaluated the inducibility of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) CYP1A, CYP2B, CYP3A, and CYP4A by beta-naphthoflavone, phenobarbital, dexamethasone, and clofibric acid, respectively, in primary hepatocyte cultures prepared from both fresh and cryopreserved rat hepatocytes. Rat hepatocytes were successfully thawed and cultured after cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen for up to 1 month. Percentage of total recovery, viable cell recovery, and final viability of the cells were 68%, 72%, and 85%, respectively. Regardless of whether they were cryopreserved or not, cultured hepatocytes exhibited near-normal morphology. Treatment of cryopreserved hepatocytes with beta-naphthoflavone caused an 8-fold increase in 7-ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (CYP1A1/2) activity, with an EC50 of 1.5 microM; treatment with phenobarbital caused a 26-fold increase in 7-pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (CYP2B1/2) activity, with an EC50 of 10 microM; treatment with dexamethasone caused a 10-fold increase in testosterone 6beta-hydroxylase (CYP3A1/2) activity, with an EC50 of 1.3 microM, whereas treatment with clofibric acid caused a 3-fold increase in lauric acid 12-hydroxylase (CYP4A1-3) activity, with an EC50 of 170 microM. The induction of CYP1A, CYP2B, CYP3A, and CYP4A enzymes by these inducers was confirmed by Western immunoblotting. The patterns of P-450 induction in cryopreserved rat hepatocytes, in terms of concentration response, reproducibility, magnitude, and specificity of response, were similar to those observed in freshly isolated hepatocytes. Additionally, the magnitude and specificity of induction was similar to that observed in vivo in rats. In conclusion, under the conditions examined, cryopreserved rat hepatocytes appear to be a suitable in vitro system for evaluating xenobiotics as inducers of P-450 enzymes.  (+info)

The aromatase inactivator 4-hydroxyandrostenedione (4-OH-A) inhibits tamoxifen metabolism by rat hepatic cytochrome P-450 3A: potential for drug-drug interaction of tamoxifen and 4-OH-A in combined anti-breast cancer therapy. (7/3060)

Tamoxifen (tam), an anti-breast cancer agent, is metabolized into tam-N-oxide by the hepatic flavin-containing monooxygenase and into N-desmethyl- and 4-hydroxy-tam by cytochrome P-450s (CYPs). Additionally, tam is metabolically activated by hepatic CYP3A, forming a reactive intermediate that binds covalently to proteins. Tam and 4-hydroxyandrostenedione (4-OH-A) are currently used to treat breast cancer, and it has been contemplated that 4-OH-A be given concurrently with tam to contravene potential tumor resistance to tam. Because alterations in tam metabolism may influence its therapeutic efficacy, the effect of 4-OH-A on tam metabolism was examined. Incubation of tam with liver microsomes from phenobarbital-treated rats, in the presence of 4-OH-A (10-100 microM), resulted in marked inhibition of tam-N-demethylation and tam covalent binding and in decreased tam-N-oxide accumulation; however, there was no inhibition of the formation of 4-hydroxy-tam and of 3,4-dihydroxytamoxifen. These findings indicate that 4-OH-A inhibits CYP3A, but not P-450(s) that catalyze tam 4-hydroxylation. The diminished tam-N-oxide accumulation could be due to decreased N-oxide formation and/or due to increased N-oxide reduction. Incubation of tam-N-oxide with liver microsomes containing heat-inactivated flavin-containing monooxygenase demonstrated that 4-OH-A increases the accumulation of tam, possibly by diminishing its P-450-mediated metabolism. Kinetic studies indicate that 4-OH-A is a competitive inhibitor of CYP3A, but not a time-dependent inactivator. Consequently, the concurrent treatment of tam and 4-OH-A may result in increased tam half-life and thus could potentiate the therapeutic efficacy of tam and diminish the potential side effects of tam by inhibiting its covalent binding to proteins and possibly to DNA.  (+info)

Quantitative analysis of constitutive and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced cytochrome P450 1B1 expression in human lymphocytes. (8/3060)

Exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD or dioxin) results in a broad spectrum of biological responses, including altered metabolism, disruption of normal hormone signaling pathways, reproductive and developmental effects, and cancer. Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is a dioxin-inducible gene that is active in the formation of 4-hydroxyestradiol, a potentially genotoxic catechol estrogen. Therefore, the analysis of CYP1B1 in humans may be useful in establishing relationships between dioxin exposure and adverse health effects. In this study, we examined the expression of CYP1B1 in human peripheral blood lymphocytes of unexposed individuals using a quantitative reverse transcription-PCR method. Absolute CYP1B1 RNA levels varied more than 30-fold in uncultured mononuclear cells obtained from 10 individuals. In vitro treatment of mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes with TCDD for 1-5 days of culture resulted in a peak induction of CYP1B1 after 3 days. The induction of CYP1B1 RNA levels after 3 days of culture was dose-dependent, exhibited a maximum response above 10 nM TCDD, and varied greatly among different individuals. However, the half maximal dose required for this induction was similar between individuals and comparable to that observed in the MCF-7 and HepG2 human cell lines. These observations indicate that CYP1B1 exhibits variable constitutive expression and is inducible in vitro by TCDD in human lymphocytes and that the magnitude of induction varies within the population. These data define the suitability of CYP1B1 for use as a mechanistically based biomarker in ongoing molecular epidemiological studies of human populations exposed to dioxins and related chemicals that bind the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor.  (+info)

The condition is caused by an adverse reaction to certain medications, specifically chlorpromazine and other related drugs. The exact mechanism of how these medications cause chloracne is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve changes in the immune system and hormone levels.

Chloracne typically appears within 2-4 weeks after starting treatment with chlorpromazine or another related medication. It may present as a mild, moderate, or severe form of acne, with papules, pustules, nodules, or cysts on the skin. In some cases, the condition may resolve once the medication is discontinued, but in other cases, it may persist for several months after stopping the medication.

There is no specific treatment for chloracne, and management of the condition involves discontinuing the offending medication and using topical or systemic therapies to control symptoms. Treatment options may include antibiotics, retinoids, corticosteroids, and other medications that are commonly used to treat acne. In severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove large cysts or scarring.

Preventing chloracne involves monitoring patients for signs of the condition while they are taking chlorpromazine or other related medications, and stopping the medication if any signs of the condition appear. In addition, alternative medications that do not carry the risk of chloracne may be considered for patients who require treatment with these drugs.

Overall, chloracne is a relatively rare but potentially serious side effect of certain medications, and prompt recognition and management are essential to prevent long-term scarring and other complications.

Types of Jaw Abnormalities:

1. Malocclusion: This is a misalignment of the teeth, which can cause problems with biting and chewing, as well as difficulty opening and closing the mouth.
2. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders: These are conditions that affect the joint that connects the jawbone to the skull, leading to pain, limited movement, and clicking or locking of the jaw.
3. Osteogenesis imperfecta: This is a genetic disorder that affects the development of the jaw bones, causing them to be weak and brittle.
4. Cleft lip and palate: A congenital deformity that can affect the jaw bones, teeth, and soft tissues of the face and mouth.
5. Orthognathic anomalies: These are abnormalities in the position or shape of the jaw bones, such as a receding chin or a protruding jaw.
6. Tumors: Benign or malignant growths can occur in the jaw bones or soft tissues, causing pain, swelling, and other symptoms.
7. Trauma: Injuries to the jaw can result from accidents, sports injuries, or other forms of trauma.
8. Infection: Bacterial, viral, or fungal infections can affect the jaw bones, muscles, or other tissues, causing pain, swelling, and other symptoms.
9. Degenerative conditions: Conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and temporomandibular joint disease can cause degeneration of the jaw bones and surrounding tissues.
10. Genetic syndromes: Certain genetic syndromes, such as Down syndrome, can increase the risk of jaw abnormalities.

Causes of Jaw Pain in Children:

1. Teething: Teething can cause discomfort and pain in the jaw, especially during the eruption of the first and second molars.
2. Ear infections: Middle ear infections can cause pain in the jaw, as well as fever and other symptoms.
3. Sinusitis: Inflammation of the sinuses can cause pain in the jaw and face.
4. Dental problems: Tooth decay, gum disease, or other dental issues can cause pain in the jaw.
5. Orthodontic problems: Issues with braces or other orthodontic appliances can cause discomfort and pain in the jaw.
6. Jaw injuries: Injuries to the jaw bones or soft tissues, such as from sports or falls, can cause pain and swelling.
7. TMJ disorders: Disorders of the temporomandibular joint can cause pain and dysfunction in the jaw.
8. Genetic conditions: Certain genetic conditions, such as Down syndrome, can increase the risk of jaw pain in children.
9. Osteogenesis imperfecta: A rare genetic disorder that affects the development of bones, including the jaw.
10. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: An autoimmune condition that affects the joints, including the temporomandibular joint.

It's important to note that jaw pain in children can be a symptom of a more serious underlying condition, so it's always best to consult with a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and treatment.

There are different types of anoxia, including:

1. Cerebral anoxia: This occurs when the brain does not receive enough oxygen, leading to cognitive impairment, confusion, and loss of consciousness.
2. Pulmonary anoxia: This occurs when the lungs do not receive enough oxygen, leading to shortness of breath, coughing, and chest pain.
3. Cardiac anoxia: This occurs when the heart does not receive enough oxygen, leading to cardiac arrest and potentially death.
4. Global anoxia: This is a complete lack of oxygen to the entire body, leading to widespread tissue damage and death.

Treatment for anoxia depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide oxygen therapy, pain management, and other supportive care. In severe cases, anoxia can lead to long-term disability or death.

Prevention of anoxia is important, and this includes managing underlying medical conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, and respiratory problems. It also involves avoiding activities that can lead to oxygen deprivation, such as scuba diving or high-altitude climbing, without proper training and equipment.

In summary, anoxia is a serious medical condition that occurs when there is a lack of oxygen in the body or specific tissues or organs. It can cause cell death and tissue damage, leading to serious health complications and even death if left untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term disability or death.

Synonyms: GH-secreting pituitary adenoma, growth hormone-producing pituitary adenoma.

Note: This definition is intended for use by medical professionals and may not be easily understandable by the general public. It is important to consult a qualified healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Examples of experimental liver neoplasms include:

1. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): This is the most common type of primary liver cancer and can be induced experimentally by injecting carcinogens such as diethylnitrosamine (DEN) or dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) into the liver tissue of animals.
2. Cholangiocarcinoma: This type of cancer originates in the bile ducts within the liver and can be induced experimentally by injecting chemical carcinogens such as DEN or DMBA into the bile ducts of animals.
3. Hepatoblastoma: This is a rare type of liver cancer that primarily affects children and can be induced experimentally by administering chemotherapy drugs to newborn mice or rats.
4. Metastatic tumors: These are tumors that originate in other parts of the body and spread to the liver through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. Experimental models of metastatic tumors can be studied by injecting cancer cells into the liver tissue of animals.

The study of experimental liver neoplasms is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms of liver cancer development and progression, as well as identifying potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of this disease. Animal models can be used to test the efficacy of new drugs or therapies before they are tested in humans, which can help to accelerate the development of new treatments for liver cancer.

... is also known as AHH (aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase). It is involved in the metabolic activation of aromatic hydrocarbons ... Kiyohara C, Hirohata T, Inutsuka S (Jan 1996). "The relationship between aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and polymorphisms of the ... and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator. In the intestine, but not the liver, CYP1A1 expression moreover depends ... is regulated by a heterodimeric transcription factor that consist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, a ligand activated ...
Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity in the fungus Cunninghamella bainieri: Evidence for the presence of cytochrome P-450. J.P ... Many species are also capable of oxidizing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, a class of stable organic molecules that tends to ... Cerniglia, Carl E. (1992). "Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons". Biodegradation. 3 (2-3): 351-368. doi:10.1007/ ...
... basal activities and inducibility of epoxide hydrolases and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase". Biochem. Pharmacol. 33 (1): 71-7. ... Casson AG, Zheng Z, Porter GA, Guernsey DL (2006). "Genetic polymorphisms of microsomal epoxide hydroxylase and glutathione S- ... but more complex compounds as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are rather bioactivated to genotoxic species. EPHX1 mediates the ... "Stereoselective epoxidation and hydration at the K-region of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by cDNA-expressed cytochromes ...
Exposure to o-toluidine enhances the microsomal activity of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (particularly in the kidney), NADPH- ...
... aryl-4-monooxygenase, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase, microsomal P-450, flavoprotein-linked monooxygenase, and flavoprotein ... Mitoma C, Udenfriend S (1962). "Aryl-4-hydroxylase". Methods Enzymol. 5: 816-819. doi:10.1016/s0076-6879(62)05318-5. Napoli JL ... Nebert DW, Gelboin HV (1968). "Substrate-inducible microsomal aryl hydroxylase in mammalian cell culture. I. Assay and ...
... aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylases MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.040.050 - aniline hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.040.110 - ... steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.730 - steroid 12-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.737 - ... steroid 16-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.748 - steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.760 ... cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.212 - cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme MeSH D12.776.422.220. ...
... aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylases MeSH D08.244.453.040.050 - aniline hydroxylase MeSH D08.244.453.040.110 - benzopyrene hydroxylase ... aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylases MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170.040.024 - 7-alkoxycoumarin o-dealkylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170 ... steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase MeSH D08.244.453.915.730 - steroid 12-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.244.453.915.737 - steroid 16-alpha ... hydroxylase MeSH D08.244.453.915.748 - steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.244.453.915.760 - steroid 21-hydroxylase MeSH ...
... aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), ethylmorphine N-demethylase, Uridine diphosphate glucuronic_acid, Uridine diphosphate ...
1990) compared the effects of fetal versus adult exposure to 3-MC on both induction of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) ... 3-MC is a ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which stimulates transcription directed by xenobiotic response ... Shipley JM, Waxman DJ (June 2006). "Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-independent activation of estrogen receptor-dependent ... Eastman A, Sweetenham J, Bresnick E (December 1978). "Comparison of in vivo and in vitro binding of polycyclic hydrocarbons to ...
Nguyen NT, Kimura A, Nakahama T, Chinen I, Masuda K, Nohara K, Fujii-Kuriyama Y, Kishimoto T (2010). "Aryl hydrocarbon receptor ... Kynurenine 3-hydroxylase converts kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine. Kynurenine has also been identified as one of two ... aryl hydrocarbon receptor and plasma kynurenine in major depressive disorder: metabolomics-informed genomics". Translational ... "An endogenous tumour-promoting ligand of the human aryl hydrocarbon receptor". Nature. 478 (7368): 197-203. Bibcode:2011Natur. ...
... has been identified as an agonist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. This may be involved in the hepatotoxicity of ... Flutamide and hydroxyflutamide have been found in vitro to inhibit CYP17A1 (17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase), an enzyme which is ... Aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists, CYP17A1 inhibitors, Enantiopure drugs, Hair loss medications, Hair removal, Hepatotoxins, ... "The antiandrogen flutamide is a novel aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand that disrupts bile acid homeostasis in mice through ...
This enzyme is responsible in part for the reductive dearomatization of aryl compounds mediated by bacteria under anaerobic ... This intermediate is subsequently converted by a benzophenone 3′-hydroxylase, a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, leading to the ... "Anaerobic oxidation of aromatic compounds and hydrocarbons" Current Opinion in Chemical Biology 2002 Volume 6, pp. 604-611. doi ...
... of aryl carboxylates can generate the equivalent of the corresponding aryl anion, which in turn can undergo ... Iron-based hydroxylases operate by reductive activation of O2 using the decarboxylation of alpha-ketoglutarate as an electron ... Hydrodecarboxylations involve the conversion of a carboxylic acid to the corresponding hydrocarbon. This is conceptually the ...
... the latter being a constitutively-expressed aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT). HIF-1 belongs to the PER- ... By inhibiting prolyl-hydroxylase enzyme, the stability of HIF-2α in the kidney is increased, which results in an increase in ... factor 1-alpha PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the structure information available in the PDB for Human Aryl hydrocarbon ... In normal circumstances after injury HIF-1a is degraded by prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs). In June 2015, scientists found that the ...
... and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (Arnt), the beta subunit. HIF1A contains a basic helix-loop-helix domain ... In normal circumstances after injury HIF1A is degraded by prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs). In June 2015, scientists found that the ... In addition, the coordinated activity of the prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs) maintain the appropriate balance of HIF1A protein in ... Bruick RK, McKnight SL (November 2001). "A conserved family of prolyl-4-hydroxylases that modify HIF". Science. 294 (5545): ...
... is due to the fact that angelicin decreases the activity and expression of CYP1A1 which is regulated by aryl hydrocarbon ... 4-Coumaric acid 2-hydroxylase (C2'H) hydroxylates the p-coumaric acid at the ortho position. Notably, this reaction uses alpha- ... Enzymes such as ammonialyases, methylases and hydroxylases then transform these amino acids to cinnamic acid derivatives which ...
... encoding protein Aryl hydrocarbon receptor pseudogene LST1: leukocyte specific transcript 1 (6p21.33) LY6G6E encoding protein ... and Tenascin-X types Hashimoto's thyroiditis hemochromatosis Hemochromatosis type 1 21-hydroxylase deficiency maple syrup urine ...
A. Jaworski; L. Sedlaczek; J. Dlugoński; Ewa Zajaczkowska (1985). "Inducible nature of the steroid 11-hydroxylases in spores of ... Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, aryl sulfotransferase, glutathione S-transferase, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, UDP- ... elegans has been implicated in the neutralization of numerous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). It can degrade molecules ...
... steroid 20α-hydroxylase, steroid 22-hydroxylase, cholesterol side-chain scission). CYP11B1 (encoding the protein P450c11β) ... are inducible by some polycyclic hydrocarbons, some of which are found in cigarette smoke and charred food. These enzymes are ... phenacetin Heterocyclic aryl amines Inducible and CYP1A2 5-10% deficient oxidize uroporphyrinogen to uroporphyrin (CYP1A2) in ... found in the inner mitochondrial membrane of adrenal cortex has steroid 11β-hydroxylase, steroid 18-hydroxylase, and steroid 18 ...
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonists, Chloroarenes, Cyclopropanes, CYP17A1 inhibitors, Enones, Glucocorticoids, Hair loss ... Ayub M, Levell MJ (July 1987). "Inhibition of rat testicular 17 alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities by anti-androgens ...
Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases* * Base Sequence * Benzoflavones / metabolism * Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C8 * Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9 ... replacement of Ile-369 by Val suppressed progesterone 16alpha-hydroxylase activity, whereas substitution of Ala-370 with Val ...
aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase. *CP1B. *CP1B1_HUMAN. *cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily B, polypeptide 1 ...
MeSH Terms: Amino Acid Sequence; Animals; Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases*; Base Sequence; Cell Membrane/enzymology; Cloning, ...
The aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity in the epidermis was monitored. TCDD is a potent inducer of AHH activity in ... Decreased induction of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity in hyperproliferative hairless mouse epidermis. ...
aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase. *cytochrome P450 1B1. *cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily B, polypeptide 1 ... by this gene localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and metabolizes procarcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and ...
All grades of pentachlorophenol also resulted in a dose-related induction of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and an increase in ...
Liver microsomal aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity measured 24 h after drug administration was not significantly different ... The role of heme oxygenase and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase in the protection by cysteamine from acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. ...
Pulmonary aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity was induced by about 2- to 3-fold in both mainstream and sidestream ... DNA adducts ; Smoke ; Tobacco ; C57BL inbred mice ; DBA inbred mice ; Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylases ; Carboxyhemoglobin ; ...
Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases 62% * TCDD 59% * Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins 53% * Inbred DBA Mouse 53% ... The effects of organochlorine pesticides as inducers of testosterone and benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylases. Haake, J. E., Kelley, M. ...
Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases D8.244.453.40 D8.244.453.05 D8.811.682.690.708.170.40 D8.811.682.690.708.170.10 D12.776.422.220. ... Aniline Hydroxylase D8.244.453.40.50 D8.244.453.05.50 D8.811.682.690.708.170.40.50 D8.811.682.690.708.170.10.50 D12.776.422.220 ... Vitamin D3 24-Hydroxylase D8.244.453.978 D8.244.453.496.500 D8.811.682.690.708.170.957 D8.811.682.690.708.170.469.500 D12.776. ... Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase D8.244.453.484.750 D8.811.682.690.708.170.425.750 D12.776.422.220.453.484.750 Steroid 12-alpha- ...
Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylases Synonymes. Aryl hydrocarbone hydroxylases Aryl-4-monooxygenase Microsomal P450 Microsomal ... Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylases - Concept préféré Concept UI. M0001774. Terme préféré. ... Aryl hydrocarbone hydroxylases. Aryl-4-monooxygenase. Microsomal P450. Microsomal monooxygenase. Monooxygénase non spécifique. ... Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylases Descripteur en anglais: Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases Descripteur en espagnol: Hidrocarburo de ...
Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases [D08.244.453.005] * Aniline Hydroxylase [D08.244.453.005.050] * Benzopyrene Hydroxylase [D08.244. ... Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases [D12.776.422.220.453.010] * Aniline Hydroxylase [D12.776.422.220.453.010.050] ... Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases Preferred Term Term UI T003554. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1975). ... Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases Preferred Concept UI. M0001774. Registry Number. EC Related Numbers. EC ...
Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases. *Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9. *Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System ... Liver microsomal testosterone 6beta-hydroxylase (CYP3A4) activity was slightly greater in females than males, but the ... Cholesterol 25-hydroxylase) (Cytochrome P-450MP) (Cytochrome P450 MP-4) (Cytochrome P450 MP-8) (Cytochrome P450 PB-1) (S- ... mephenytoin 4-hydroxylase) [CYP2C10] Publications[править]. Pediatric Cytochrome P450 Activity Alterations in Nonalcoholic ...
Effect of dioxins on regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression by aryl hydrocarbon receptor: a neurotoxicology study. ... TissuVolume 26, Issue 1, April 2016, Pages 21-27e distribution of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in the intestine: Implication of ... Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) production from alkylphenols, mono and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons using Bacillus sp. CYR1: A new ...
Arthropod Proteins N0000171459 Arthropod Venoms N0000170041 Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases N0000169992 Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor ... Hydroxylase N0000170031 Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase N0000170039 Steroid 21-Hydroxylase N0000170030 Steroid Hydroxylases ... Acyclic N0000008228 Hydrocarbons, Alicyclic N0000008229 Hydrocarbons, Aromatic N0000008230 Hydrocarbons, Brominated N0000007975 ... Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated N0000008280 Hydrocarbons, Cyclic N0000008231 Hydrocarbons, Fluorinated N0000007977 Hydrocarbons, ...
The second type of variant has low levels of basal and inducible aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity. This class contains ... One type of variant has no detectable basal or inducible aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity. This class contains apparently ... pyrene measured as various metabolites by HPLC and/or as aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH)6 activity. In accordance with other ... SU-10603 [7-chloro-3,4-dihydro-2-(3-pyridyl)naphthalen-1-(2H)one; a steroid 17 alpha-hydroxylase inhibitor] treatment of the ...
Induction of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase in mouse tissues from a high and low cancer strain and their f1 hybrids., K Burki, A ... Differential effects of microsomal enzyme inducers on aryl hydrocarbon hydroxyalse (ahh) activity in mouse tissues in vivo and ...
All grades of pentachlorophenol also resulted in a dose-related induction of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and an increase in ...
L1.224.65 Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases D8.811.682.580.170.40 D8.811.682.690.708.170.40 Ascorbic Acid D9.203.811.100 D9.811.100 ... C19.391.301.699 Aniline Hydroxylase D8.811.682.580.170.40.50 D8.811.682.690.708.170.40.50 Animals, Congenic B1.50.199.520.40 ... Benzopyrene Hydroxylase D8.811.682.580.170.40.110 D8.811.682.690.708.170.40.110 beta-Defensins D12.644.350.200.75 D12.644. ... D24.185.101.825 Tryptophan Hydroxylase D8.811.682.580.870 D8.811.682.690.708.870 Tryptophan Oxygenase D8.811.682.690.803 D8.811 ...
Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases D8.244.453.40 D8.244.453.05 D8.811.682.690.708.170.40 D8.811.682.690.708.170.10 D12.776.422.220. ... Aniline Hydroxylase D8.244.453.40.50 D8.244.453.05.50 D8.811.682.690.708.170.40.50 D8.811.682.690.708.170.10.50 D12.776.422.220 ... Vitamin D3 24-Hydroxylase D8.244.453.978 D8.244.453.496.500 D8.811.682.690.708.170.957 D8.811.682.690.708.170.469.500 D12.776. ... Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase D8.244.453.484.750 D8.811.682.690.708.170.425.750 D12.776.422.220.453.484.750 Steroid 12-alpha- ...
Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases [D08.244.453.005] * Camphor 5-Monooxygenase [D08.244.453.012] * Cytochrome P450 Family 1 [D08.244 ...
Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylases [D08.811.682.690.708.170.010] Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylases * Camphor 5-monooxygenase [D08.811. ...
Pyykkö et al., 1994, Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity in chemically induced and toremifene-treated mammary tumors in rats ...
Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR). *c-Fos/AP-1. *c-Myc. *CREB/CBP ... FG-2216 is a potent HIF-prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor with IC50 ... Home > Inhibitors & Agonists > Nuclear Receptor/Transcription Factor > HIF/HIF Prolyl-hydroxylase. Cat. No.. Product name. CAS ... Vadadustat is a novel, titratable, oral hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase (HIF-PH) inhibitor in development for the ... A novel potent, orally active HIF prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) inhibitor with IC50 of 0.22 uM for PHD2. ...
Variation in aryl hydrocarbon (benzo(a)pyrene) hydroxylase activity in heteroploid and predominantly diploid rat liver cells in ... INDUCTION OF ARYL HYDROCARBON (BENZO[a]PYRENE) HYDROXYLASE AND TYROSINE AMINOTRANSFERASE IN HEPATOMA CELLS IN CULTURE ... BENZPYRENE HYDROXYLASE ACTIVITY IN ISOLATED PARENCHYMAL AND NONPARENCHYMAL CELLS OF RAT LIVER Elroy Cantrell, Elroy Cantrell ... The present study presents evidence that at least one of the microsomal NADPH-requirig enzymes, benzpyrene hydroxylase, is ...
  • All grades of pentachlorophenol also resulted in a dose-related induction of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and an increase in cytochrome P450. (
  • Hepatic catecholestrogen synthases: differential effect of sex, inducers of cytochromes P-450 and of antibody to the glucocorticoid inducible cytochrome P-450 on NADPH-dependent estrogen-2-hydroxylase and on organic hydroperoxide-dependent estrogen-2/4-hydroxylase activity of rat hepatic microsomes. (
  • Liver microsomal aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity measured 24 h after drug administration was not significantly different between treatment groups and controls receiving only saline. (
  • Differential effects of microsomal enzyme inducers on aryl hydrocarbon hydroxyalse (ahh) activity in mouse tissues in vivo and in organ culture. (
  • The present study presents evidence that at least one of the microsomal NADPH-requirig enzymes, benzpyrene hydroxylase, is present in nonparenchymal cells and, furthermore, is "inducible. (
  • In addition, a variety of substances such as fuel, water, antifreeze, dust, and various combustion products such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals, and metallic oxides accumulate in the oil. (
  • The enzyme encoded by this gene localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and metabolizes procarcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 17beta-estradiol. (
  • The similarity in the metabolism of steroids and polycyclic hydrocarbons suggested that the nonparenchymal cells possibly play a role in these areas. (
  • Decreased induction of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity in hyperproliferative hairless mouse epidermis. (
  • Induction of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase in mouse tissues from a high and low cancer strain and their f1 hybrids. (
  • Agonist and chemopreventative ligands induce differential transcriptional cofactor recruitment by aryl hydrocarbon receptor. (
  • Brevetoxin-6 (PbTx-6), a nonaromatic marine neurotoxin, is a ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. (
  • The Cyp2a5 promoter contains a "stress-responding" cluster of binding motifs, which interact with major mediators of toxic insults including nuclear factor-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). (
  • Altered thyroxin and retinoid metabolic response to 2,three,7,eight-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in aryl hydrocarbon receptor-null mice. (
  • Although the three mutants hydroxylated progesterone and testosterone primarily at the 6beta-position like the wild-type, replacement of Ile-369 by Val suppressed progesterone 16alpha-hydroxylase activity, whereas substitution of Ala-370 with Val enhanced progesterone 16alpha-hydroxylation. (
  • The aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity in the epidermis was monitored. (
  • Pulmonary aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity was induced by about 2- to 3-fold in both mainstream and sidestream groups of C57Bl and in mainstream smoke-exposed group of DBA mice, but not in sidestream smoke-exposed DBA mice. (
  • Vadadustat is a novel, titratable, oral hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase (HIF-PH) inhibitor in development for the treatment of anemia. (
  • In addition, a variety of substances such as fuel, water, antifreeze, dust, and various combustion products such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals, and metallic oxides accumulate in the oil. (
  • The enzyme encoded by this gene localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and metabolizes procarcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 17beta-estradiol. (
  • A potent epoxide hydrase and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase inhibitor. (
  • Inducing potency of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity in human lymphoblastoid cells and mice by polychlorinated dibenzofuran congeners. (
  • The anti-carcinogenic plant compound indole-3-carbinol differentially modulates P450-mediated steroid hydroxylase activities in mice. (
  • Liver microsomes from treated and untreated mice were subsequently assayed for CYP1A-mediated ethoxy-resorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, estradiol 2-hydroxylase activity and seven different testosterone hydroxylase activities. (