An order of wholly aquatic MAMMALS occurring in all the OCEANS and adjoining seas of the world, as well as in certain river systems. They feed generally on FISHES, cephalopods, and crustaceans. Most are gregarious and most have a relatively long period of parental care and maturation. Included are DOLPHINS; PORPOISES; and WHALES. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp969-70)
An order of ungulates having an odd number of toes, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros. (Dorland, 27th ed)
An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.
Mammals of the family Phocoenidae comprising four genera found in the North Pacific Ocean and both sides of the North Atlantic Ocean and in various other seas. They differ from DOLPHINS in that porpoises have a blunt snout and a rather stocky body while dolphins have a beak-like snout and a slender, streamlined body. They usually travel in small groups. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp1003-4)
Any of various ruminant mammals of the order Bovidae. They include numerous species in Africa and the American pronghorn.
Mammals of the families Delphinidae (ocean dolphins), Iniidae, Lipotidae, Pontoporiidae, and Platanistidae (all river dolphins). Among the most well-known species are the BOTTLE-NOSED DOLPHIN and the KILLER WHALE (a dolphin). The common name dolphin is applied to small cetaceans having a beaklike snout and a slender, streamlined body, whereas PORPOISES are small cetaceans with a blunt snout and rather stocky body. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp978-9)
Large marine mammals of the order CETACEA. In the past, they were commercially valued for whale oil, for their flesh as human food and in ANIMAL FEED and FERTILIZERS, and for baleen. Today, there is a moratorium on most commercial whaling, as all species are either listed as endangered or threatened.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.
Hoofed mammals with four legs, a big-lipped snout, and a humped back belonging to the family Camelidae.
A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.
A plant genus in the family FABACEAE, subfamily Papilionaceae, order Fabales, subclass Rosidae. Many of the species are associated with poisoning of grazing animals. Some of the species are used medicinally.
A plant species of the Astragalus genus which is source of Huang qi preparation used in TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE.
Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.
Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.
Disorders of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM occurring as a primary condition. Manifestations can involve any or all body systems but commonly affect the BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.
A genus of the family Bovidae having two species: B. bison and B. bonasus. This concept is differentiated from BUFFALOES, which refers to Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer.
A species of gram-negative bacteria causing MASTITIS; ARTHRITIS; and RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASES in CATTLE.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A herpesvirus infection of cattle characterized by catarrhal inflammation of the upper respiratory and alimentary epithelia, keratoconjunctivitis, encephalitis and lymph node enlargement. Syn: bovine epitheliosis, snotsiekte.
An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
A semisynthetic ampicillin-derived acylureido penicillin.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
An autologous or commercial tissue adhesive containing FIBRINOGEN and THROMBIN. The commercial product is a two component system from human plasma that contains more than fibrinogen and thrombin. The first component contains highly concentrated fibrinogen, FACTOR VIII, fibronectin, and traces of other plasma proteins. The second component contains thrombin, calcium chloride, and antifibrinolytic agents such as APROTININ. Mixing of the two components promotes BLOOD CLOTTING and the formation and cross-linking of fibrin. The tissue adhesive is used for tissue sealing, HEMOSTASIS, and WOUND HEALING.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).
Substances used to cause adherence of tissue to tissue or tissue to non-tissue surfaces, as for prostheses.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.

A survey of serum and dietary carotenoids in captive wild animals. (1/184)

Accumulation of carotenoids varies greatly among animal species and is not fully characterized. Circulating carotenoid concentration data in captive wild animals are limited and may be useful for their management. Serum carotenoid concentrations and dietary intakes were surveyed and the extent of accumulation categorized for 76 species of captive wild animals at Brookfield Zoo. Blood samples were obtained opportunistically from 275 individual animals immobilized for a variety of reasons; serum was analyzed for alpha- and beta-carotene, lutein + zeaxanthin, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin and canthaxanthin. Total carotenoid content of diets was calculated from tables and chemical analyses of commonly consumed dietary components. Diets were categorized as low, moderate or high in carotenoid content as were total serum carotenoid concentrations. Animals were classified as unknown, high, moderate or low (non-) accumulators of dietary cartenoids. Nonaccumulators had total serum carotenoid concentrations of 0-101 nmol/L, whereas accumulators had concentrations that ranged widely, from 225 to 35,351 nmol/L. Primates were uniquely distinguished by the widest range of type and concentration of carotenoids in their sera. Most were classified as high to moderate accumulators. Felids had high accumulation of beta-carotene regardless of dietary intake, whereas a wide range of exotic birds accumulated only the xanthophylls, lutein + zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin or cryptoxanthin. The exotic ungulates, with the exception of the bovids, had negligible or nondetectable carotenoid serum concentrations despite moderate intakes. Bovids accumulated only beta-carotene despite moderately high lutein + zeaxanthin intakes. Wild captive species demonstrated a wide variety of carotenoid accumulation patterns, which could be exploited to answer remaining questions concerning carotenoid metabolism and function.  (+info)

The prevalence of Balantidium coli infection in fifty-six mammalian species. (2/184)

A total of 375 fecal samples of 56 mammalian species belonging to 17 families of 4 orders were examined for the detection of Balantidium coli from December 1994 to August 1995. As a result, B. coli was found from 6 species belonging to 4 families of 2 orders (Primates and Artiodactyla) of host animals examined. White-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar), squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciurea) and Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) were new hosts for B. coli. All the wild boar (Sus scrofa) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) examined were positive. The highest number of B. coli was obtained from a chimpanzee (1,230/g feces). No B. coli was detected from the animals of orders Rodentia and Carnivora including dogs and cats. The rarity of B. coli infection in breeding animals in Japan. suggests that there is no serious problem in controlling infections.  (+info)

Phylogenetic relationships among cetartiodactyls based on insertions of short and long interpersed elements: hippopotamuses are the closest extant relatives of whales. (3/184)

Insertion analysis of short and long interspersed elements is a powerful method for phylogenetic inference. In a previous study of short interspersed element data, it was found that cetaceans, hippopotamuses, and ruminants form a monophyletic group. To further resolve the relationships among these taxa, we now have isolated and characterized 10 additional loci. A phylogenetic analysis of these data was able to resolve relationships among the major cetartiodactyl groups, thereby shedding light on the origin of whales. The results indicated (i) that cetaceans are deeply nested within Artiodactyla, (ii) that cetaceans and hippopotamuses form a monophyletic group, (iii) that pigs and peccaries form a monophyletic group to the exclusion of hippopotamuses, (iv) that chevrotains diverged first among ruminants, and (v) that camels diverged first among cetartiodactyls. These findings lead us to conclude that cetaceans evolved from an immediate artiodactyl, not mesonychian, ancestor.  (+info)

Genealogy of families of SINEs in cetaceans and artiodactyls: the presence of a huge superfamily of tRNA(Glu)-derived families of SINEs. (4/184)

Several novel (sub)families of SINEs were isolated from the genomes of cetaceans and artiodactyls, and their sequences were determined. From comparisons of diagnostic nucleotides among the short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs) in these (sub)families, we were able to draw the following conclusions. (1) After the divergence of the suborder Tylopoda (camels), the CHRS family of SINEs was newly created from tRNA(Glu) in a common ancestor of the lineages of the Suina (pigs and peccaries), Ruminantia (cows and deer), and Cetacea (whales and dolphins). (2) After divergence of the Suina lineage, the CHR-1 SINE and the CHR-2 SINE were generated successively in a common ancestor of ruminants, hippopotamuses, and cetaceans. (3) In the Ruminantia lineage, the Bov-tA SINE was generated by recombination between the CHR-2 SINE and Bov-A. (4) In the Suina lineage, the CHRS-S SINE was generated from the CHRS SINE. (5) In this latter lineage, the PRE-1 family of SINEs was created by insertion of part of the gene for tRNA(Arg) into the 5' region of the CHRS-S family. The distribution of a particular family of SINEs among species of artiodactyls and cetaceans confirmed the most recent conclusion for paraphyly of the order Artiodactyla. The present study also revealed that a newly created tRNA(Glu)-derived family of SINEs was subjected both to recombination with different units and to duplication of an internal sequence within a SINE unit to generate, during evolution, a huge superfamily of tRNA(Glu)-related families of SINEs that are now found in the genomes of artiodactyls and cetaceans.  (+info)

The role of wild ruminants in the epidemiology of bovine petechial fever. (5/184)

After experimental inoculation of Cytoecetes ondiri, the agent of bovine petechial fever (BPF), multiplication occurred in impala, bushbuck, Thomson's gazelles and wildebeest, as shown by infectivity studies and clinical findings. Similar attempts to infect one eland failed. As a sequel to this, blood and spleen samples were collected from four species of wild ruminants in an area where BPTF was endemic. Isolations of C. ondiri were made from three of five bushbuck, but not from any other species.  (+info)

Phylogeography of three closely related African bovids (tribe Alcelaphini). (6/184)

The phylogeography of three species of African bovids, the hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus), the topi (Damaliscus lunatus), and the wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), is inferred from sequence variation of 345 sequences at the control region (d-loop) of the mtDNA. The three species are closely related (tribe Alcelaphini) and share similar habitat requirements. Moreover, their former distribution extended over Africa, as a probable result of the expansion of open grassland on the continent during the last 2.5 Myr. A combination of population genetics (diversity and structure) and intraspecific phylogeny (tree topology and relative branch length) methods is used to substantiate scenarios of the species history. Population dynamics are inferred from the distribution of sequence pairwise differences within populations. In the three species, there is a significant structuring of the populations, as shown by analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) pairwise and hierarchical differentiation estimations. In the wildebeest, a pattern of colonization from southern Africa toward east Africa is consistent with the asymmetric topology of the gene tree, showing a paraphyletic position of southern lineages, as well as their relatively longer branch lengths, and is supported by a progressive decline in population nucleotide diversity toward east Africa. The phylogenetic pattern found in the topi and the hartebeest differs from that of the wildebeest: lineages split into monophyletic clades, and no geographical trend is detected in population diversity. We suggest a scenario where these antelopes, previously with wide pan-African distributions, became extinct except in a few refugia. The hartebeest, and probably also the topi, survived in refugia north of the equator, in the east and the west, respectively, as well as one in the south. The southern refugium furthermore seems to have been the only place where the wildebeest has survived.  (+info)

Model dependence of the phylogenetic inference: relationship among carnivores, Perissodactyls and cetartiodactyls as inferred from mitochondrial genome sequences. (7/184)

Some previous analysis of mitochondrial proteins strongly support the Carnivora/Perissodactyla grouping excluding Cetartiodactyla (Artiodactyla + Cetacea) as an outgroup, but the support of the hypothesis remains equivocal from the analysis of several nuclear-encoded proteins. In order to evaluate the strength of the support by mitochondrial proteins, phylogenetic relationship among Carnivora, Perissodactyla, and Cetartiodactyla was estimated with the ML method by using the updated data set of the 12 mitochondrial proteins with several alternative models. The analyses demonstrate that the phylogenetic inference depends on the model used in the ML analysis; i.e., whether the site-heterogeneity is taken into account and whether the rate parameters are estimated for each individual proteins or for the concatenated sequences. Although the analysis of concatenated sequences strongly supports the Carnivora/Perissodactyla grouping, the total evaluation of the separate analyses of individual proteins, which approximates the data better than the concatenated analysis, gives only ambiguous results, and therefore it is concluded that more data are needed to resolve this trichotomy.  (+info)

Conservation within artiodactyls of an AATA interrupt in the IGF-I microsatellite for 19-35 million years. (8/184)

Occurrence of an AATA interrupt in the IGF-I microsatellite was investigated in a number of Artiodactyl species, namely pigs, camels, deer, cattle, goats, and sheep. Comparison of DNA sequences in the 5' flank of the microsatellite in these species revealed that the interrupt within the microsatellite is conserved in deer, cattle, sheep, and goats but is absent from camels and pigs. The interrupt was introduced into the Artiodactyl phylogeny after the divergence of the Camelidae but before the divergence of the Cervidae, and thus its time of origin can be estimated to be 19-35 MYA. In contrast to the repeat units which are hypermutable, the interrupt has been conserved for a very long time and may even have suppressed microsatellite variation by inhibiting replication slippage. A 12-bp deletion in the 5' flank of the microsatellite in camels corresponds to a consensus reversed repeat in deer, cattle, sheep, and goats with unknown functional significance. Apart from this deletion, the 5' flank of the microsatellite is highly conserved in Artiodactyl species.  (+info)

In this study, the ovaries of 27 wild collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) fromthe Amazonian region of northeastern Peru were examined macroscopically and microscopically, and expression of major steroidogenic enzymes was detected by immunohistochemistry. Our observations suggest a mean ovulation rate of 2.3 +/- 0.6 follicles and a low rate of reproductive wastage (0.4 +/- 0.6 oocytes or embryos per pregnancy). The collared peccary seems to exhibit follicular waves involving the synchronous growth of a cohort of follicles, several of which seem to attain selection. The presence of antral follicles in pregnant females suggests that follicular turnover continues during pregnancy. In cyclic animals, corpora lutea were characterised by the presence of distinct large and small luteal cell populations. The luteal volume in pregnant females was larger than that recorded for non-pregnant females. Through immunohistochemistry, it was observed that luteal cells from active corpora lutea exhibit intensive 3 ...
We describe the macroscopic anatomy of the intestine of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). The small intestine was divided into duodenum, jejunum and ileum as usual. The caecum was attached to the ileum by a long ileocaecal fold, and to the proximal ansa of the ascending colon by a caecocolic fold. The ascending colon was the most developed portion of the gross intestine and had the most complex arrangement with three ansae: the proximal ansa, the spiral ansa and the distal ansa. The proximal ansa completely encircled the caecum, describing a 360° gyrus, and represented the widest portion of the intestine. The spiral ansa was formed by three and a half centripetal gyri, a central flexure and three centrifugal gyri. The last centrifugal gyrus left the spiral and described nine flexures of different form and direction over the ...
In September 2011, a total of 511 human cases of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) infection and 5 deaths were reported in a game management area in the district of Chama, Zambia, near where 85 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious) had recently died of suspected anthrax. The human infections generally responded to antibiotics. To clarify transmission, we conducted a cross-sectional, interviewer-administered household survey in villages where human anthrax cases and hippopotamus deaths were reported. Among 284 respondents, 84% ate hippopotamus meat before the outbreak. Eating, carrying, and preparing meat were associated with anthrax infection. Despite the risk, 23% of respondents reported they would eat meat from hippopotamuses found dead again because of food shortage (73%), lack of meat (12%), hunger (7%), and protein shortage (5%). Chronic food insecurity can lead to consumption of unsafe foods, leaving communities susceptible to zoonotic infection. Interagency cooperation is necessary to prevent
The even-toed ungulates form the mammal order Artiodactyla. They are ungulates whose weight is borne about equally by the third and fourth toes, rather than mostly or entirely by the third as in perissodactyls. There are about 220 artiodactyl species, including many that are of great economic importance to humans. As with many mammal groups, even-toed ungulates first appeared during the Early Eocene (about 54 million years ago). In form they were rather like todays chevrotains: small, short-legged creatures that ate leaves and the soft parts of plants. By the Late Eocene (46 million years ago), the three modern suborders had already developed: Suina (the pig group); Tylopoda (the camel group); and Ruminantia (the goat and cattle group). Nevertheless, artiodactyls were far from dominant at that time: the odd-toed ungulates (ancestors of todays horses and rhinos) were much more successful and far more numerous. Even-toed ungulates survived in niche roles, usually occupying marginal habitats, and ...
Three (possibly four) living species of peccaries are found from the southwestern United States through Central America and into South America and Trinidad.. The collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) or musk hog, referring to the animals scent glands, occurs from the southwestern United States into South America and the island of Trinidad. The coat consists of wiry peppered black, gray, and brown hair with a lighter colored collar circling the shoulders. They bear young year-round, but most often between November and March, with the average litter size consisting of two to three piglets. They are found in all kinds of habitats, from arid scrublands to humid tropical rain forests. The collared peccary is well adapted to habitat disturbed by humans, merely requiring sufficient cover; they can be found in cities and agricultural land throughout their range. Notable populations exist in the suburbs of Phoenix and Tucson, Arizona, where they feed on ornamental plants and other cultivated ...
The hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), or hippo, from the ancient Greek for river horse (???????????), is a large, mostly herbivorous mammal in sub-Saharan Africa, and one of only two extant species in the family Hippopotamidae (the other is the pygmy hippopotamus). After the elephant and rhinoceros, the hippopotamus is the third largest type of land mammal and the heaviest extant artiodactyl. Despite their physical resemblance to pigs and other terrestrial even-toed ungulates, their closest living relatives are cetaceans (whales, porpoises, etc.) from which they diverged about 55 million years ago. The common ancestor of whales and hippos split from other even-toed ungulates around 60 million years ago. The earliest known hippopotamus fossils, belonging to the genus Kenyapotamus in Africa, date to around 16 million years ago. The hippopotamus is semi-aquatic, inhabiting rivers, lakes and mangrove swamps, where territorial bulls preside over a stretch of river and groups of 5 to 30 females ...
ABSTRACT: Many methods of age determination have been used to date. However, most of them require laboratory procedures which are, in general, not available for wildlife managers in the field. In this paper we attempt to standardize the age categories for six mammal species through the analysis of dental wear, dental eruption and body mass. We analyzed 632 skulls, including Mazama nemorivaga (brown brocket deer), Mazama americana (red brocket deer), Tayassu pecari (white-lipped peccary), Pecari tajacu (collared peccary), Cuniculus paca (paca) and Dasyprocta leporina (agouti). Using biological and morphological criteria we define four age categories: young, sub adult, adult and senescent adult. Scores and variables of molar cusp wear and eruption were defined for each age category within each species. We found significant differences in mean weights among age categories for D. leporina (F = 81.1; df = 3; p < 0.05), C. paca (F = 39.0; df = 3; p < 0.05), P. tajacu (F = 24.6; df = 3; p < 0.05) and ...
The control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is at a critical point in the last stage of eradication in livestock. Wildlife species recently have emerged infected with TB in Europe, particularly ungulates in the Iberian Peninsula. Epidemiological information regarding TB in wild ungulates including affected species, prevalence, associated risk factors and appropriate diagnostic methods need to be obtained in these countries. A cross-sectional study was carried out on wild artiodactyl species, including Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) red deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer (Capraelus capraelus), fallow deer (Dama dama), Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica) and mouflon (Ovis musimon), in Spain to assess the seroprevalence against Mycobacterium bovis or cross-reacting members of the Mycobcaterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), and to provide information on associated risk factors. Previously, two in-house indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (bPPD-ELISA and MPB83-ELISA) were developed using known ...
The phenomenon of a remarkable conservation of the X chromosome in eutherian mammals has been first described by Susumu Ohno in 1964. A notable exception is the cetartiodactyl X chromosome, which varies widely in morphology and G-banding pattern between species. It is hypothesized that this sex chromosome has undergone multiple rearrangements that changed the centromere position and the order of syntenic segments over the last 80 million years of Cetartiodactyla speciation. To investigate its evolution we have selected 26 evolutionarily conserved bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from the cattle CHORI-240 library evenly distributed along the cattle X chromosome. High-resolution BAC maps of the X chromosome on a representative range of cetartiodactyl species from different branches: pig (Suidae), alpaca (Camelidae), gray whale (Cetacea), hippopotamus (Hippopotamidae), Java mouse-deer (Tragulidae), pronghorn (Antilocapridae), Siberian musk deer (Moschidae), and giraffe (Giraffidae) were ...
Suleima do Socorro Bastos da Silva, Yvonnick Le Pendu, Otavio Mitio Ohashi, Eunice Oba, Natália Inagaki de Albuquerque, Alexandre Rossetto Garcia, Pedro Mayor, Diva Anelie de Araujo Guimarães ...
Collared peccaries Tayassu tajacu. They have loads. Until recently there was just a single wire fence seperating the peccaries from the public, and I always thought this was a bit dangerous in view of the immense teeth these animals have. Theyve now installed a separate barrier fence that keeps people further back from the animals. Id like to think this is because one of the peccaries chewed someones arm off, but sadly I lack confirmation of this fine theory. Peccaries are omnivores, though they mostly eat vegetation (predominantly roots, fruits and tubers), and the suid-like rhinarial disk they have is obviously great for rooting in soil. They have particularly short tails (with only seven caudal vertebrae or less), hind feet strongly modified for cursoriality (some of them even lack digit II), and vertically implanted canines where the lower canine fits into a special pocket on the side of the muzzle. A similar feature is seen in hippos, so some workers think that peccaries and hippos are ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - X chromosome evolution in cetartiodactyla. AU - Proskuryakova, Anastasia A.. AU - Kulemzina, Anastasia I.. AU - Perelman, Polina L.. AU - Makunin, Alexey I.. AU - Larkin, Denis M.. AU - Farré, Marta. AU - Kukekova, Anna V.. AU - Lynn Johnson, Jennifer. AU - Lemskaya, Natalya A.. AU - Beklemisheva, Violetta R.. AU - Roelke-Parker, Melody E.. AU - Bellizzi, June. AU - Ryder, Oliver A.. AU - OBrien, Stephen J.. AU - Graphodatsky, Alexander S.. PY - 2017/8/31. Y1 - 2017/8/31. N2 - The phenomenon of a remarkable conservation of the X chromosome in eutherian mammals has been first described by Susumu Ohno in 1964. A notable exception is the cetartiodactyl X chromosome, which varies widely in morphology and G-banding pattern between species. It is hypothesized that this seX chromosome has undergone multiple rearrangements that changed the centromere position and the order of syntenic segments over the last 80 million years of Cetartiodactyla speciation. To investigate its evolution we ...
This study was carried out in the eastern Transvaal Lowveld in an area 2 with a giraffe population density of 2,6 per km . Lions are the only predators and it was estimated that 48% of the calves die in their first year. The sex ratio departs significantly from unity in favour of females. Plant fragments in the rumen were identified. Giraffe subsist on the leaves of trees and shrubs, though fruit, flowers, twigs and grass were also utilised. Marked seasonal changes in the plant species selected were determined by availability and different habitats were utilised accordingly. Chemical analysis of rumen content showed correlations of nutritional value with species eaten and seasonal phenological changes of the vegetation. Tooth eruption, wear and incremental layers in the cementum were found to be suitable criteria for age determination. Total body mass was measured and carcasses dressed out at 61,9% for males and 56,6% for females. Lower mass and lower proportion of fat was found in the dry ...
The heads of both male and female giraffes have a pair of hair-covered horns called ossicones, which are permanently covered by skin and ending in a tuft of black hair. Male giraffes use their horns to playfully fight with one another. The horns of male giraffes are larger than those of female giraffes, growing up to 25 centimetres (about 10 inches) long.. As male giraffes age, calcium deposits form on their skulls and other horn-like bumps develop. Giraffes can have up to three of these large bumps, two in the rear of the skull and one in the forehead region, so that it may look like they have five horns.. This characteristic which is found in no other mammal is linked to the fights that male giraffes stage to establish dominance for mating.. Their small horns on top of their heads are covered in hair and are quite often used in combat between males (bulls), particularly when conflicting for dominance over a mating partner. The horns on female giraffes are quite smaller and more ...
Additional info for A Giraffe Calf Grows Up (Baby Animals). Sample text. At 10 years old, he is considered full grown. Even so, a giraffe can continue to grow very slowly for most of its life. Giraffes have two-toed hooves like deer, sheep, and cows. But the giraffes neck is quite a bit different. Scientists think that the giraffe is descended from long-necked hooved animals that lived millions of years ago. Giraffes, like humans, have 7 neck bones. But a giraffes neck is about 6 feet long. Its neck bones are big and heavy. The giraffe has strong neck muscles to support its neck bones. But a giraffes neck is about 6 feet long. Its neck bones are big and heavy. The giraffe has strong neck muscles to support its neck bones. The giraffes extra large heart pumps blood all the way up to its head. Giraffes live in Africa. The plains of central and eastern Africa are dotted with acacia trees. Acacia leaves are the giraffes favorite food. Other hooved animals roam these great plains. But only the ...
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The idea that whales evolved from within the Artiodactyla was based on analysis of DNA sequences. In the initial molecular analyses, whales were shown to be more closely related to ruminants (such as cattle and deer) than ruminants are to pigs. In order for the order name to reflect a real evolutionary unit, the term Cetartiodactyla was coined.. Later molecular analyses included a wider sampling of artiodactyls and produced a more complete tale. Hippos were determined to be the closest relative of whales, ruminants were related to a whale/hippo clade, and pigs were more distant. In addition to producing the controversial whale/hippo clade, these analyses debunked the idea that hippos and pigs are closely related. This had been a popular taxonomic hypothesis (Suiformes) based on similarities in morphological (physical) characteristics.. In addition to DNA and protein sequences, researchers tracked the movement of transposons called SINEs in the genome (see the method at retrotransposon marker). A ...
Agrarian Artiodactyla Cattle Domestic: 20 assigned downloads, like Herd of sheep, Windeck, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, Europe from stock-photos
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine publishes original research findings, clinical observations, and case reports in the field of veterinary medicine.
Hippopotamus amphibius. To protect them still more from the sun, as for the other hippopotamus, the skin secretes a kind of natural solar screen of reddish colo
artiodactyl: Any member of the mammalian order Artiodactyla, or even-toed ungulates, which includes the pigs, peccaries, hippopotamuses, camels, chevrotains, deer, giraffes, pronghorn, antelopes,...
Sociality involves a constant trade-off between fitness benefits and costs of living in groups, and this trade-off can be influenced by the social and ecological environment in which individuals live. In this PhD I explored socioecological factors underlying the social and spatial population structure and dynamics of a large tropical herbivore with a highly fission-fusion social system, the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). Using a dataset of more than 3,000 uniquely identified individuals collected over a period of 8 years in the coupled human-natural Tarangire Ecosystem of northern Tanzania, I (1) investigated natural and anthropogenic factors as mechanisms of giraffe grouping dynamics, social structure, space use, and vital rates; (2) quantified fitness consequences of social behaviours of adult female giraffes in relation to the influence of their physical environment; and (3) compared social versus spatial dispersal of subadult female and male giraffes. I used capture-mark-recapture ...
Elastic Cartilage. Giraffes average between 14 and 17 feet tall, with the neck providing approximately six feet of that height. Although giraffes have extremely long necks, they only have seven cervical vertebrae, which is the same number found in humans. Top Answer. Each vertebrae may be over 10 inches long. Of the proteins in giraffe and okapi genes, 19.4% are identical. How many neck vertebrae does a giraffe have? How many thoracic vertebrae do giraffes have? Humans have 5 sacral vertebrae. Giraffes body weight can vary between 2,000 and 3,500 pounds. The coat patterns of modern giraffes may also have coincided with these habitat changes. Giraffes eat up to 75 pounds of foliage and drink as much as 100 gallons of water each day. 1 decade ago. Although giraffes have extremely long necks, they only have seven cervical vertebrae, which is the same number found in humans. Marshall Cavendish, 2008. Humans and giraffes have the same amount of bones in their neck! The lips of the giraffe are very ...
Thomas, O. 1911. The mammals of the tenth edition of Linnaeus; an attempt to fix the types of the genera and the exact bases and localities of the species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1911: 150 ...
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In artiodactyls, the structure of the foot is especially diagnostic, specifically the number of toes and the morphology of the astragalus. Most species have either 2 or 4 toes on each foot (for exceptions see Pecari and Tayassu) as the first digit, present in most ancestral mammals, has been lost through evolution and the second and fifth digits have been significantly reduced. As a result, artiodactyls are paraxonic. The unique structure of the astragalus, which consists of a double-pulley arrangement of the articular surfaces, completely restricts lateral motion and allows for greater flexion and extension of the hind limb. The astragalus, in conjunction with springing ligaments in the limbs, hard hooves, relatively small feet, and elongated lightweight limbs, allows for highly developed cursorial locomotion in more derived species. In the families Camelidae, Cervidae, Giraffidae, Antilocapridae, and Bovidae, the third and fourth metapodials have become fused to create the cannon bone, which ...
Hippopotamus Skulls and Teeth replias are cast polyurethane replicas. All of our replicas are museum quality Hippopotamus Skulls and Teeth. Shop Today!
Darwin essentially plagiarized the work of Jean Baptiste Lamarck, a French biologist, to explain how the giraffe got its long neck, with a different twist. There are only seven vertebrae in mammal necks, meaning that the giraffe has vertebrae that are nearly a foot long each! Interesting theory… My question is how does evolution explain the development of a special organ that sits between the brain and arteries… which acts as a kind of blood capacitor? Male giraffes battle for mates by swinging their powerful necks--which can be over six feet long and weigh more than 200 pounds. Get unlimited access when you subscribe. a. Applying the darwin theory to giraffes is that giraffes had varied neck sizes and the short necked giraffes were naturally selected against, causing only the … In a study that shows just how cool giraffes can get, researchers have tested a hypothesis that the giraffes long neck actually helps regulate their body temperature. Can anyone answer that ? An animal similar ...
The two families of oreodonts are the Merycoidodontidae (originally known as Oreodontidae) which contains all of the advanced species, and the Agriochoeridae, smaller, primitive oreodonts. Together they form the now-extinct suborder Oreodonta. Oreodonts may have been distantly related to pigs, hippopotamuses, and the pig-like peccaries. Indeed, some scholars[who?] place Merycoidodontidae within the pig-related suborder Suina (Suiformes). Other scholars[who?] place oreodonts closer to camels in the suborder Tylopoda. Still other experts[who?] put the oreodonts together with the short-lived cainotheres in the taxonomic suborder Ancodonta comprising these two groups of extinct ancodonts. All scholars agree, however, that the oreodont was an early form of even-toed ungulate, belonging to the order Artiodactyla. Today, most evidence points towards the oreodonts being tylopods, along with camels, xiphodonts, and protoceratids.[citation needed] Over 50 genera of Oreodonta have been described in the ...
Dive into the research topics of On some helminth parasites of the taruca, Hippocamelus antisensis (Mammalia: Artiodactyla). Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Although they resemble bison, musk oxen are neither bison nor oxen they are more closely related to goats and sheep. Their closest relative is believed to be the Asian takin. Musk oxen can withstand severe arctic temperatures as low as -100 F (-73 C) because of an undercoat of fine wool, known as qiviut. The wool is as soft as cashmere and eight times warmer than sheep s wool. Each musk ox sheds five to seven pounds of wool naturally each spring. Their outer coat is dark brown to black in colour, made up of hairs up to 24 inches (62 cm) in length. Both males and females have large horns, and males have a thick shield that protects their skull during the annual mating season. Males are larger than females. Musk oxen have excellent sight and hearing and can run quickly when necessary. ...
The content requirements presented in this chapter outline what students should know, understand, and be able to do in natural science. We further elaborate entangled vascular networks from area-filling mathematical topologies and explore the oxygenation and circulate of human crimson blood cells throughout tidal ventilation and distension of a proximate airway. After 24-hour dissolution in rain water, 2.eight% of recent hippo feces biogenic Si was dissolved, which is 17.2 occasions more than that of undigested grass in similar circumstances, but it decreases with the age of the feces ( Fig.. When comparing the metabolic profile of in vitro-activated CD4+ T cells from sufferers and HCs, we observed that T cells from patients during relapse (n = 24), however not in remission (n = 25), exhibit an enhanced OXPHOS and glycolytic activity as in comparison with HCs (n = 24) ( Fig.. Nowadays, we are very acquainted to hearing the phrase Knowledge Science. Likewise, a rise in antigen affinities has ...
All sites were sampled during the dry season (February 2014). River discharge was measured upstream (5.3 m3 s−1 near site 1) and downstream (5.4 m3 s−1 near site 10) using depth transducers at rated cross sections. At site 1, stage height was measured every 15 min using a RuggedTROLL 100 pressure transducer that was corrected for atmospheric pressure changes (In-Situ Inc., Fort Collins, CO, USA). At site 10, the stage height was measured every 15 min with a pressure transducer connected to a Eureka Manta2 sonde (Eureka Water Probes, Austin, TX, USA). Rating curves were developed at both sites by measuring discharge using the area-velocity method on multiple occasions in 2011 and 2014 using either a handheld staff gauge or weighted measuring tape for depth and velocimeter for velocity or a HydroSurveyor (SonTek, San Diego, CA, USA). The stage height was converted to discharge using a rating curve developed for each site (39). Discharge measurements were averaged over a 10-day period before ...
Whilst giraffe are commonly seen on safari, in the media and in zoos, people - including conservationists - are unaware that these majestic animals are undergoing a silent extinction, says Julian Fennessy, co-chair of the IUCN SSC Giraffe and Okapi Specialist Group. With a decline of almost 40 percent in the last three decades alone, the worlds tallest animal is under severe pressure in some of its core ranges across East, Central and West Africa. As one of the worlds most iconic animals, it is timely that we stick our neck out for the giraffe before it is too late.. The Zoological Society of London (ZSL) supports the management and monitoring of key sites for giraffe in the wild, including the Tsavo Conservation Area in Kenya via the SMART patrol management system, and has also supported the development of Kenyas first National Giraffe Conservation Strategy. Both ZSL London Zoo and ZSL Whipsnade Zoo are home to giraffes, and ZSL co-hosts the IUCN SSC Giraffe and Okapi Specialist Group with ...
We demonstrate that more branches from the tree-of-life are pruned when extinction is phylogenetically non-random, but that the loss of their summed lengths is no greater than expected by chance. Furthermore, in some cases (e.g. Artiodactyla), non-random extinction can reduce the loss of branch lengths, presumably because threatened species tend to cluster within young, species-rich clades, while the number of branches being pruned may still be greater than random expectations. We suggest that number of branches, rather than branch lengths, might be important if trait variation accumulates in bursts at speciation events (represented by the nodes in the phylogenetic tree), as would be expected under a model of punctuated equilibrium [26]. If evolution follows a speciational model (and this may be the case for body size in mammals; [27]), short branches separating rapidly diverging lineages might capture as much feature diversity as longer branches in more slowly diversifying clades, although ...
Sioutis, S., Coates, A. M., Buckley, J. D., Murphy, T. W., Channon, H. A. and Howe, P. R. C. (2008), N-3 enrichment of pork with fishmeal: Effects on production and consumer acceptability. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 110: 701-706. doi: 10.1002/ejlt.200700253 ...
Pygmy hippopotamuses are shy and elusive animals, so they were not discovered by the scientific community until 1849. Even so, many people did not believe they existed because none had been captured. It was not considered a distinct and existent species until 1911, when five live specimens were captured and brought to Europe. Pygmy hippos usually hide in the thick undergrowth found in tropical rainforests. They live both on land and in water, but spend less time in water than full-sized hippos, their only relatives. They sleep on land during the day, but wake up late afternoon or early evening to begin feeding. Unlike full-sized hippos, who are extremely gregarious and live in groups, pygmy hippos live solitary lives, rarely coming into contact with each other except during mating season. Although they have large, strong teeth, rather than stay and try to defend themselves when threatened, they usually flee to the forest, unlike full-sized hippos who head for the water when in danger. They are ...
This is Digital Version of (Ebook) 978-0306460883 Faunal Extinction in an Island Society - Pygmy Hippopotamus Hunters of Cypru Product Will Be Deliver
Hippopotamus or shortly hippo is a huge herbivorous mammal commonly found in the Sub-Saharan Africa. The word hippopotamus is a Greek one which means river
HIPPOPOTAMUS MOLAR TOOTH REPLICA. Use this realistic-looking, life-size, resin-cast replica for hands-on discussions of the relationship between tooth structure and animal diet. This Bone Clone® replica measures 2¾
There is no published account where hippopotamuses are demonstrably shown swimming or floating at the surface of any body of water. But if they cant swim, how did they reach and colonize islands?
A cheeky crocodile met its match when it tried to use some hippopotamuses as stepping stones in Serengeti national park, Tanzania
Cute Christmas Song sung by a kid that had their heart set on gettng a Hippopotamus for Christmas - - - (this is NOT shirley temple singing - its Gayla Peeve...
The common hippopotamus, or hippo, is a large, mostly herbivorous mammal in sub-Saharan Africa, and one of only two extant species in the family Hippopotamidae, the other being the pygmy hippopotamus. Err, change that to 4th or 5th. Snakes are actually more dangerous than crocodiles or hippos, especially in places such as India where there are incredibly venomous species that are likely to come into contact with local populations. - CocoBird. The hippo has giant killer tusks that can be a foot long. It can easily bite a crocodile in half. It looks slow but it can run 20 mph. It is the third biggest land animal and can be 4 tons of super mean killer. It kills the most people in Africa and can destroy a van. They are awesome animals but dont get to close or you will be charged by fury. - nando. Hippo kills more than shark and crocodile, I believe. Since it was more sensitive and look harmless. BECAUSE it looks harmless, people often cross the boundaries hippos make. Yawning is actually their way ...
MITCHELL, G.; SKINNER, J. D.: On the origin, evolution and phylogeny of giraffes: Giraffa camelopardalis. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa, 2003. Vol. 58, p. 51-73. GRAHAM, M., Documentário Autópsia Animal, Girafa - Netgeo, 2010 ...
The Reticulated giraffes distribution: western Kenya, southern Ethiopia and eastern Uganda. Description: Giraffes are long-necked browsing animals that taxonomists place in a separate family, Giraffidae, from other artiodactylids: camels, deer and bovines. Possessing only seven cervical vertebrae (like other mammals), giraffes, at almost 19 feet, are the tallest of all mammals. Adult males weigh as much as 4,000 lbs. They are characterized by having two knobs, called ossicones, on their head. Some individuals may have additional bumps on the sides of their skulls that are irregularly located. Unlike antlers on deer or horns on bovids, ossicones are permanently covered by hair and never shed. After a gestation of 15 months, females give birth to a single young; twins occur rarely. Adults are not territorial but rather feed over a large roaming area. When alarmed, giraffes can reach speeds of 30 to 36 miles per hour. Unlike most mammals giraffes walk using both legs from the same side of the ...
© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Large mammals have drastically declined in the past few decades yet we know little about their ecology. Giraffe numbers for instance, have dropped by more than 40% in the last 15 years and recently, a skin disease, has been observed in numerous giraffe populations across Africa. The disease(s), commonly referred to as giraffe skin disease (GSD), manifests as lesions, wrinkled skin, and encrustations that can affect the limbs, shoulder or neck of giraffes. Here, we review GSD cases from literature reports and surveying efforts of individuals working with giraffes in the wild and in captivity. The aim of this review was to describe spatial variation in the anatomical location of lesions, prevalence, and severity of GSD. In total, we retrieved 16 published sources that referenced GSD and we received 63 respondents to our survey. We found that GSD has been observed in 13 protected areas across 7 countries in Africa and in 11 out of 48 zoos distributed across 6 countries. The prevalence
Up until two decades ago, giraffes had often been described as socially aloof.. A 1991 study went as far as describing the species as forming no lasting bonds with its fellows and associating in the most casual way.. Though giraffes are known to roam around in herds, it appears that individual giraffes are perpetually changing their alliances, which led the researchers to the conclusion that they dont manifest considerable social relationships to a more considerable extent than those between mothers and calves.. However, modern technology helped scientists turn that speculation around - Digital cameras and new means of analyzing data showed that the tall animals are socially advanced, more than theyve ever gotten credit for.. Muller and Stephen Harris, a zoologist from the University of Bristol, reviewed a total of over 400 studies analyzing the social behaviour of giraffes.. They found proof that, while solitary exemplars are a common sight, giraffes can also stick together in small ...
Even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla)[edit]. The hippopotamus is the most massive of the even-toed ungulates. ...
Artiodactyla. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ... doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.1989.tb00522.x. First record of the invasive alien species Axis axis (Erxleben, 1777) (Artiodactyla: ... Di Stefano, G. & Petronio, C. (2002). "Systematics and evolution of the Eurasian Plio-Pleistocene tribe Cervini (Artiodactyla, ...
... constitute the second most diverse family of artiodactyla after bovids. Though of a similar build, deer are strongly ... Wang, X.; Xie, G.; Dong, W. (2009). "A new species of crown-antlered deer Stephanocemas (Artiodactyla, Cervidae) from the ... ISBN 978-0-300-08142-8. De Vos, J.; Mol, D.; Reumer, J. W. F. (1995). "Early Pleistocene Cervidae (Mammalia, Artiodactyla) from ... Dong, W.; Pan, Y.; Liu, J. (September 2004). "The earliest Muntiacus (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) from the Late Miocene of Yuanmou ...
The presumed lineages within Artiodactyla can be represented in the following cladogram: The four summarized Artiodactyla taxa ... Some artiodactyla, such as white-tailed deer, lack a gall bladder. Pigs (such as this warthog) have a simple sack-shaped ... This makes the Artiodactyla as traditionally defined a paraphyletic taxon, since it includes animals descended from a common ... "Artiodactyla". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 15 November 2014. Ungulate Taxonomy: A new perspective from Groves and Grubb ( ...
Artiodactyla; Rodentia). Comunicaciones Paleontologicas del Museo de Historia Natural de Montevideo 1(20):255-270 A. Mones. ...
Retrieved 21 November 2011.old-form url Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal ... It belongs to the order Artiodactyla, family Bovidae and subfamily Bovinae. Common elands are sometimes considered part of the ... Groves, CP; Grubb P (2011). "Artiodactyla". Ungulate Taxonomy. Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 142. ISBN 978-1- ...
Peter Grubb (2005). "Artiodactyla: Cervidae: Capreolinae". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A ... Long, John L. (2003). "Artiodactyla". Introduced Mammals of the World: their History, Distribution and Influence. CSIRO ...
Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and ... Randi, E.; Mucci, N.; Pierpaoli, M.; Douzery, E. (1998). "New phylogenetic perspectives on the Cervidae (Artiodactyla) are ...
Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and ... Grubb, P. (2001). "Hippotragus Sundevall, 1845 (Mammalia, Artiodactyla): Proposed Conservation". Bulletin of Zoological ... Artiodactyla): conserved". Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature. 60: 90-91. ISSN 0007-5167. "Blauwbok, n." Dictionary of South ...
Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and ...
Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and ...
Retrieved 2009-01-16.old-form url Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species ...
"Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference ( ...
ISBN 978-0-231-13040-0. Scott, E.; Cox, S.M. (2008). "Late Pleistocene distribution of Bison (Mammalia; Artiodactyla) in the ... Kurten, B; Anderson, E (1980). "Order Artiodactyla". Pleistocene mammals of North America (1st ed.). New York: Columbia ...
Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and ...
Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and ... Artiodactyla) using combined mitochondrial and nuclear genes". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 67 (2): 484-93. doi: ...
Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and ... Rossi, R. V. (2000). Taxonomia de Mazama Rafinesque, 1817 do Brasil (Artiodactyla, Cervidae). M.Sc. Thesis, Universidade de São ...
Retrieved 1 May 2017.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, ...
Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and ... Meijaard, E.; Groves, C.P. (2004). "A taxonomic revision of the Tragulus mouse-deer (Artiodactyla)". Zoological Journal of the ... Artiodactyla, Tragulidae) from Vietnam, and its sympatric occurrence with T. kanchil" (PDF). Russian Journal of Theriology. 3 ( ...
"Order Artiodactyla". pp. 637-722 in Wilson, D.E. & Reeder, D.M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic ...
ISBN 0-12-408355-2 Ansell, W. F. H. (1972). Order Artiodactyla. Part 15. Pp. 1-84. in: Meester, J., and H. W. Setzer, eds (1972 ...
Order Artiodactyla. Part 15. Pp. 1-84, in The mammals of Africa: An identification manual (J. Meester and H. W. Setzer, eds.) [ ... Klassifikation der Säugetiere: Artiodactyla I. Handbuch der Zoologie, 8(32):1-167 (quoted in Grubb, P. (2005). Wilson, D.E.; ... 2009). "Capra ibex (Artiodactyla: Bovidae)". Mammalian Species. 830: 1-12. doi:10.1644/830.1. Gavashelishvili, A.; Yarovenko, Y ... Artiodactyla) Based on the Mitochondrial DNA Analysis. Russian Journal of Genetics, 2007, Vol. 43, No. 2, pp. 181-189. online V ...
Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and ... Notes on the systematics of Babyrousa (Artiodactyla, Suidae). Zoologische Mededelingen 55:29-46. BBC (2010). Babirusa. ...
Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and ... doi:10.1111/j.1365-2907.1992.tb00116.x. Leslie, D.M. & Schaller, G.B. (2008). "Pantholops hodgsonii (Artiodactyla: Bovidae)". ...
Retrieved 11 January 2018.[permanent dead link] Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). ...
ISBN 978-0-7614-7266-7. Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the ...
Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and ... Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and ... The family Bovidae is placed in the order Artiodactyla (which includes the even-toed ungulates). It includes 143 extant species ... ISBN 978-0-8018-7135-1. Hassanin, D.; Douzery, E.J. (1999). "The tribal radiation of the family Bovidae (Artiodactyla) and the ...
... is an extinct gazelle which existed in what is now Ethiopia during the Pliocene epoch. It was described by Denis Geraads, René Bobe and Kaye Reed in 2012. Approximately the size of a living dorcas gazelle, the animal was noted for its unusual, spiral horn cores.[1]. ...
Cetaceans and artiodactyls now are classified under the order Cetartiodactyla, often still referred to as Artiodactyla, which ...
Introduction to the Artiodactyla. UCMP Berkeley. *Order Artiodactyla. Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan Museum of ... Artiodactyla Even-toed ungulates. Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window ... Artiodactyla. Pages 337-357 in Evolution of Tertiary Mammals of North Americ. C. M. Janis, K. M. Scott and L. L. Jacobs, eds. ... Order Artiodactyla. Pages 377-414 in Mammal Species of the World D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder, eds. Smithsonian Institution ...
Families of Artiodactyla *BioLib link: Cetartiodactyla Montgelard, Catzeflis & Douzery, 1997 (Syn. of Artiodactyla) ... სტატიები კატეგორიაში „Artiodactyla". ეს კატეგორია შეიცავს მხოლოდ ამ გვერდს. F. *Commons:Featured pictures/Animals/Mammals/ ... Pictures of Artiodactyla by Eadweard Muybridge in the USC digital library‎ (5 კ) ... მოძიებულია „https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Artiodactyla&oldid=298732702"-დან ...
Artiodactyla. Artiodactyla is an order of even-toed mammals that walk on their toenails (unguis). This and the other order of ... Artiodactyla is an order of even-toed mammals that walk on their toenails (unguis). This and the other order of hoofed mammals ... The order Artiodactyla contains 195 species of predominantly herbivorous mammals grouped into families that contain pigs, ... "Artiodactyla". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Toronto: Historica Canada, 2007. Web. 22 May 2007. ...
Can you name the Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your ... Science Quiz / Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla. Random Science Quiz Can you name the Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla. by ...
Agrarian Artiodactyla Cattle Domestic: 20 assigned downloads, like Herd of sheep, Windeck, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, ... Similar tags: aegagrus • agrarian • alpine • animal • animals • artiodactyla • bovid • bovidae • bovids • bovine • bovines • ...
Faysal Bibi and Erksin Savas Güleç "Bovidae (Mammalia: Artiodactyla) From the Late Miocene Of Sivas, Turkey," Journal of ... Faysal Bibi, Erksin Savas Güleç "Bovidae (Mammalia: Artiodactyla) From the Late Miocene Of Sivas, Turkey," Journal of ...
Similar tags: agrarian • animal • artiodactyla • body • bovid • bovidae • breeding • cattle • day • daytime • during • european ...
Grubb, P. (1993). Order Artiodactyla. In: Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., D. E. ... Hassanin, A., and Douzery, E. J. P. (1999a). The tribal radiation of the family Bovidae (Artiodactyla) and the evolution of the ... Molecular Support for the Placement of Saiga and Procapra in Antilopinae (Artiodactyla, Bovidae). ... Artiodactyla) is a new buffalo. Naturwissenschaften 88: 123-125.Google Scholar ...
História natural de Mazama bororo (Artiodactyla; Cervidae) através de etnozoologia, monitoramento fotográfico e rádio- ...
Shortest trees place Cetacea within Artiodactyla and close to †Indohyus, with †Mesonychia outside of Artiodactyla. The ... We do this in the context of the largest total evidence analysis of morphological and molecular information for Artiodactyla ( ... Trees based only on data that fossilize continue to show the classic arrangement of relationships within Artiodactyla with ... Mesonychia falls inside Artiodactyla and displaces †Indohyus from a position close to Cetacea. ...
Article: Gross anatomy of the stomach of the pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) ... Gross anatomy of the stomach of the pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) ...
Total evidence phylogenetic analysis supports new morphological synapomorphies for Bovidae (Mammalia, Artiodactyla) (American ... Total evidence phylogenetic analysis supports new morphological synapomorphies for Bovidae (Mammalia, Artiodactyla) (American ...
ACKERMANN, RR; BRINK, JS; VRAHIMIS, S e DE KLERK, B. Hybrid wildebeest (Artiodactyla: Bovidae) provide further evidence for ...
Artiodactyla): discordance between mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome phylogenies ... The genus Brachyodus Artiodactyla, Mammalia in the Miocene of the Loire Basin Le genre Brachyodus Artiodactyla, Mammalia dans ... Revision of genus Diacodexis Artiodactyla, Mammalia from the Early Eocene of North-eastern Spain Revision del genero Diacodexis ... Pleistocene distributional and evolutionary history of the genus Saiga Gray, 1843 (Mammalia, Artiodactyla, Bovidae) in the ...
Artiodactyla, Camelidae): un caso de aplicación en el sitio Paso Otero 1, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mastozool. neotrop. [online ...
Find out information about Artiodactyla. An order of terrestrial, herbivorous mammals characterized by having an even number of ... toes and by having the main limb axes pass between the third and... Explanation of Artiodactyla ... Artiodactyla. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia. Artiodactyla. [‚ärd·ē·ō′dak·tə·lə] (vertebrate zoology ... Artiodactyla , Article about Artiodactyla by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Artiodactyla ...
Order Artiodactyla even-toed ungulates Artiodactyla: information (1) Artiodactyla: pictures (866) Artiodactyla: specimens (581) ...
... on Mammal species of the World.. Don E. Wilson & DeeAnn M. Reeder (editors). 2005. Mammal Species of the World : A ... Order Artiodactyla. o Suborder Suina. + Family Suidae: pigs (19 species). + Family Tayassuidae: peccaries (4 species). + Family ... Artiodactyla Owen 1841. Vernacular names. Internationalization. Български: Чифтокопитни. Català: Artiodàctil. Česky: ... Now-extinct Artiodactyla which developed during the Miocene include the species Ampelomeryx, Tauromeryx, Triceromeryx, and ...
Order Artiodactyla even-toed ungulates Artiodactyla: information (1) Artiodactyla: pictures (866) Artiodactyla: specimens (581) ... Artiodactyla (Even-toed ungulates). Pp. 263-417 in M Hutchins, D Kleiman, V Geist, M McDade, eds. Grzimeks Animal Life ... Artiodactyla. Pp. 1-639 in S Parker, ed. Grzimeks Encyclopedia of Mammals, Vol. 5, 1st Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill. ... "Introduction to the Artiodactyla" (On-line). The University of California Museum of Paleontology. Accessed February 17, 2009 at ...
آرٹیوڈیکٹائلا - Artiodactyla پاؤں کی زیریں سطح sole (تلوا) کہلاتی ہے۔ یہ لفظ لاطینی زبان کے "solea"(چپل) سے آیا ہے۔ چنانچہ sole ...
Even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla)[edit]. The hippopotamus is the most massive of the even-toed ungulates. ...
Order Artiodactyla. These mammals are known as the even-toed ungulates. They usually have an even number of well-developed ... This appearance is reminiscent of agoutis (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae) and African duikers (Artiodactyla: Bovidae: Cephalophinae ... Artiodactyla). Another suggestion is that they are closely allied with elephant shrews (Macroscelidea; Nowak 1999). ...
This page is a collection of images that are attached to a branch of the Tree of Life.. For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page.. close box ...
... *Cervus elaphus Elk. - antlers have large main beams that sweep back ... Orders: Artiodactyla, Perissodactyla Mammalogy Lab * know to species, know all listed Orders, Suborders, and Families ...
Ungulates Artiodactyla Perissodactyla and Proboscidea Elephants. Fri, 02 Mar 2012 , Amino Acids ...
Bos grunniens and Bos mutus (Artiodactyla: Bovidae). Bos grunniens Linnaeus, 1766, and Bos mutus (Przewalski, 1883) are the ...
What animals are in the order Artiodactyla?. * Q: How do you kill silverfish?. ...
Key to the Regional Artiodactyla 1. Upper incisors present; body shape piglike; elongate canines: Pecari tajacu. ...
Sus scrofa the feral pig (Artiodactyla: Suidae). Feral pigs (Sus scrofa L.) are perhaps the most abundant, widespread, and ...
  • The tribal radiation of the family Bovidae (Artiodactyla) and the evolution of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. (springer.com)
  • The order Artiodactyla contains nine families of living mammals, of which the Bovidae (antelopes, cattle, sheep, and goats) is by far the largest, containing nearly 100 species. (britannica.com)
  • A multi-calibrated mitochondrial phylogeny of extant Bovidae (Artiodactyla, Ruminantia) and the importance of the fossil record to systematics. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this they differ from permanently horned antelope, which are part of a different family (Bovidae) within the same order of even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla). (wikipedia.org)
  • Dental fossils of an indeterminate small cervoid (Ruminantia, Artiodactyla, Mammalia) from the lower Miocene Koura Formation of southwestern Japan are described. (elsevier.com)
  • A delfinfélék (Delphinidae) az emlősök (Mammalia) osztályának párosujjú patások (Artiodactyla) rendjébe , ezen belül a cetek (Cetacea) alrendágába tartozó család . (wikipedia.org)
  • To the Editor: Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is an acute, generalized, and usually fatal disease previously thought to be restricted to mammals of the order Artiodactyla , often members of the subfamilies Bovinae, Cervidae, and Suidae (1). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Based on morphological evidence, the order Artiodactyla is considered to be monophyletic and traditionally has been divided into three suborders: Ruminantia (chevrotains, deer, giraffes, cows, etc. (pnas.org)
  • Dvergmoskusdyr (Tragulidae) er en liten basal familie med spesielt småvokste drøvtyggere (Ruminantia) som lever i Afrika , Sør-Asia og Sørøst-Asia . (wikipedia.org)
  • 1996. Instability of quartet analyses of molecular sequence data by the maximum likelihood method: The Cetacea/Artiodactyla relationships. (tolweb.org)
  • New morphological evidence for the phylogeny of Artiodactyla, Cetacea, and Mesonychidae. (tolweb.org)
  • Shortest trees place Cetacea within Artiodactyla and close to † Indohyus , with †Mesonychia outside of Artiodactyla. (plos.org)
  • The relationships of †Mesonychia and † Indohyus are highly unstable, however - in trees only two steps longer than minimum length, †Mesonychia falls inside Artiodactyla and displaces † Indohyus from a position close to Cetacea. (plos.org)
  • Trees based only on data that fossilize continue to show the classic arrangement of relationships within Artiodactyla with Cetacea grouping outside the clade, a signal incongruent with the molecular data that dominate the total evidence result. (plos.org)
  • Thus, a changing view of the evolution of Artiodactyla and Cetacea is emerging based on molecular data, but the picture is by no means clear because of insufficient statistical support. (pnas.org)
  • Artiodactyla and Carnivora) showed negative or mass-independent scaling exponents, while orders of small animals (i.e. (biologists.org)
  • We test our hypothesis using simulations and the observed distribution of extinction risks in three well-studied mammal clades: Primates, Carnivora and Artiodactyla. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Specifically, we analyse three well-resolved clades: Primates, Carnivora and Artiodactyla. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • 3] Currently the cetaceans and even-toed ungulates have been placed in Cetartiodactyla as sister groups, although DNA analysis has shown cetaceans evolved from within Artiodactyla. (scientificlib.com)
  • The artiodactyla are the even-toed ungulates (that is, animals with hooves and an even number of toes). (wikibooks.org)
  • Artiodactyla is an order of even-toed mammals that walk on their toenails (unguis). (thecanadianencyclopedia.com)
  • Any of various hoofed mammals of the order Artiodactyla, having an even number of toes, either two or four, on each foot. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Artiodactyla on Mammal species of the World. (scientificlib.com)
  • 2. a hoofed, even-toed mammal of the order Artiodactyla, as the cow and other ruminants, the pig, and the hippopotamus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Now-extinct Artiodactyla which developed during the Miocene include the species Ampelomeryx, Tauromeryx, Triceromeryx, and others. (scientificlib.com)
  • Characterization of the complete mitogenome of Indian Mouse Deer, Moschiola indica (Artiodactyla: Tragulidae) and its evolutionary significance. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an even-toed ungulate (order Artiodactyla), the giraffe is related to deer and cattle , but it is placed in a separate family, the Giraffidae, comprising only the giraffe and its closest relative, the okapi. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • A zsiráffélék (Giraffidae) a párosujjú patások (Artiodactyla) rendjének egy családja . (wikipedia.org)
  • The giraffe is one of only two living genera of the family Giraffidae in the order Artiodactyla , the other being the okapi . (rug.nl)
  • However, recent studies using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data have challenged the previously accepted monophyly of Artiodactyla. (pnas.org)
  • Download Agrarian Artiodactyla Cattle Domestic, artiodactyla, bovin. (tradebit.com)
  • This tentative third feline BA222-like genotype constellation is an intriguing genotype mosaic, sometimes possessing Walike nonstructural protein (NSP) 2 or NSP3 gene segments and partially resembling the genotype constellation found in RVA strains from cattle and other artiodactyla (5,7,70,77). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The results indicated ( i ) that cetaceans are deeply nested within Artiodactyla, ( ii ) that cetaceans and hippopotamuses form a monophyletic group, ( iii ) that pigs and peccaries form a monophyletic group to the exclusion of hippopotamuses, ( iv ) that chevrotains diverged first among ruminants, and ( v ) that camels diverged first among cetartiodactyls. (pnas.org)
  • 1994. Molecular evidence for the inclusion of cetaceans within the order Artiodactyla. (tolweb.org)
  • 1999. Inclusion of cetaceans within the order Artiodactyla based on phylogenetic analysis of pancreatic ribonuclease genes. (tolweb.org)
  • 1988. The phylogeny of the Artiodactyla. (tolweb.org)
  • Horses and giraffes are in completely different Orders -- giraffes (and deer and cows) are even-toed, while horses and rhinos are odd-toed, so giraffes are in the Order artiodactyla and horses are in the Order perrissodactlya. (amusedbyjokersami.com)