ArtiodactylaCetacea: An order of wholly aquatic MAMMALS occurring in all the OCEANS and adjoining seas of the world, as well as in certain river systems. They feed generally on FISHES, cephalopods, and crustaceans. Most are gregarious and most have a relatively long period of parental care and maturation. Included are DOLPHINS; PORPOISES; and WHALES. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp969-70)Perissodactyla: An order of ungulates having an odd number of toes, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros. (Dorland, 27th ed)Carnivora: An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.Porpoises: Mammals of the family Phocoenidae comprising four genera found in the North Pacific Ocean and both sides of the North Atlantic Ocean and in various other seas. They differ from DOLPHINS in that porpoises have a blunt snout and a rather stocky body while dolphins have a beak-like snout and a slender, streamlined body. They usually travel in small groups. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp1003-4)Antelopes: Any of various ruminant mammals of the order Bovidae. They include numerous species in Africa and the American pronghorn.Dolphins: Mammals of the families Delphinidae (ocean dolphins), Iniidae, Lipotidae, Pontoporiidae, and Platanistidae (all river dolphins). Among the most well-known species are the BOTTLE-NOSED DOLPHIN and the KILLER WHALE (a dolphin). The common name dolphin is applied to small cetaceans having a beaklike snout and a slender, streamlined body, whereas PORPOISES are small cetaceans with a blunt snout and rather stocky body. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp978-9)Whales: Large marine mammals of the order CETACEA. In the past, they were commercially valued for whale oil, for their flesh as human food and in ANIMAL FEED and FERTILIZERS, and for baleen. Today, there is a moratorium on most commercial whaling, as all species are either listed as endangered or threatened.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.GermanyCattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Camelids, New World: Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.ArgentinaCamels: Hoofed mammals with four legs, a big-lipped snout, and a humped back belonging to the family Camelidae.Calcium Sulfate: A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.TexasAstragalus Plant: A plant genus in the family FABACEAE, subfamily Papilionaceae, order Fabales, subclass Rosidae. Many of the species are associated with poisoning of grazing animals. Some of the species are used medicinally.Astragalus membranaceus: A plant species of the Astragalus genus which is source of Huang qi preparation used in TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE.Hoof and Claw: Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.Toes: Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.Primary Dysautonomias: Disorders of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM occurring as a primary condition. Manifestations can involve any or all body systems but commonly affect the BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.Bison: A genus of the family Bovidae having two species: B. bison and B. bonasus. This concept is differentiated from BUFFALOES, which refers to Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer.Mycoplasma bovis: A species of gram-negative bacteria causing MASTITIS; ARTHRITIS; and RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASES in CATTLE.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Malignant Catarrh: A herpesvirus infection of cattle characterized by catarrhal inflammation of the upper respiratory and alimentary epithelia, keratoconjunctivitis, encephalitis and lymph node enlargement. Syn: bovine epitheliosis, snotsiekte.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Colubridae: The largest family of snakes, comprising five subfamilies: Colubrinae, Natricinae, Homalopsinae, Lycodontinae, and Xenodontinae. They show a great diversity of eating habits, some eating almost anything, others having a specialized diet. They can be oviparous, ovoviviparous, or viviparous. The majority of North American snakes are colubrines. Among the colubrids are king snakes, water moccasins, water snakes, and garter snakes. Some genera are poisonous. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp321-29)Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)Shoulder: Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.Snakes: Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Fibrin Tissue Adhesive: An autologous or commercial tissue adhesive containing FIBRINOGEN and THROMBIN. The commercial product is a two component system from human plasma that contains more than fibrinogen and thrombin. The first component contains highly concentrated fibrinogen, FACTOR VIII, fibronectin, and traces of other plasma proteins. The second component contains thrombin, calcium chloride, and antifibrinolytic agents such as APROTININ. Mixing of the two components promotes BLOOD CLOTTING and the formation and cross-linking of fibrin. The tissue adhesive is used for tissue sealing, HEMOSTASIS, and WOUND HEALING.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Meat Products: Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).Tissue Adhesives: Substances used to cause adherence of tissue to tissue or tissue to non-tissue surfaces, as for prostheses.Buffaloes: Ruminants of the family Bovidae consisting of Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer. This concept is differentiated from BISON, which refers to Bison bison and Bison bonasus.Ruminants: A suborder of the order ARTIODACTYLA whose members have the distinguishing feature of a four-chambered stomach, including the capacious RUMEN. Horns or antlers are usually present, at least in males.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Aphrodisiacs: Chemical agents or odors that stimulate sexual desires. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Animals, ZooFrench Guiana: A French overseas department on the northeast coast of South America. Its capital is Cayenne. It was first settled by the French in 1604. Early development was hindered because of the presence of a penal colony. The name of the country and the capital are variants of Guyana, possibly from the native Indian Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p418 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p195)

A survey of serum and dietary carotenoids in captive wild animals. (1/184)

Accumulation of carotenoids varies greatly among animal species and is not fully characterized. Circulating carotenoid concentration data in captive wild animals are limited and may be useful for their management. Serum carotenoid concentrations and dietary intakes were surveyed and the extent of accumulation categorized for 76 species of captive wild animals at Brookfield Zoo. Blood samples were obtained opportunistically from 275 individual animals immobilized for a variety of reasons; serum was analyzed for alpha- and beta-carotene, lutein + zeaxanthin, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin and canthaxanthin. Total carotenoid content of diets was calculated from tables and chemical analyses of commonly consumed dietary components. Diets were categorized as low, moderate or high in carotenoid content as were total serum carotenoid concentrations. Animals were classified as unknown, high, moderate or low (non-) accumulators of dietary cartenoids. Nonaccumulators had total serum carotenoid concentrations of 0-101 nmol/L, whereas accumulators had concentrations that ranged widely, from 225 to 35,351 nmol/L. Primates were uniquely distinguished by the widest range of type and concentration of carotenoids in their sera. Most were classified as high to moderate accumulators. Felids had high accumulation of beta-carotene regardless of dietary intake, whereas a wide range of exotic birds accumulated only the xanthophylls, lutein + zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin or cryptoxanthin. The exotic ungulates, with the exception of the bovids, had negligible or nondetectable carotenoid serum concentrations despite moderate intakes. Bovids accumulated only beta-carotene despite moderately high lutein + zeaxanthin intakes. Wild captive species demonstrated a wide variety of carotenoid accumulation patterns, which could be exploited to answer remaining questions concerning carotenoid metabolism and function.  (+info)

The prevalence of Balantidium coli infection in fifty-six mammalian species. (2/184)

A total of 375 fecal samples of 56 mammalian species belonging to 17 families of 4 orders were examined for the detection of Balantidium coli from December 1994 to August 1995. As a result, B. coli was found from 6 species belonging to 4 families of 2 orders (Primates and Artiodactyla) of host animals examined. White-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar), squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciurea) and Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) were new hosts for B. coli. All the wild boar (Sus scrofa) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) examined were positive. The highest number of B. coli was obtained from a chimpanzee (1,230/g feces). No B. coli was detected from the animals of orders Rodentia and Carnivora including dogs and cats. The rarity of B. coli infection in breeding animals in Japan. suggests that there is no serious problem in controlling infections.  (+info)

Phylogenetic relationships among cetartiodactyls based on insertions of short and long interpersed elements: hippopotamuses are the closest extant relatives of whales. (3/184)

Insertion analysis of short and long interspersed elements is a powerful method for phylogenetic inference. In a previous study of short interspersed element data, it was found that cetaceans, hippopotamuses, and ruminants form a monophyletic group. To further resolve the relationships among these taxa, we now have isolated and characterized 10 additional loci. A phylogenetic analysis of these data was able to resolve relationships among the major cetartiodactyl groups, thereby shedding light on the origin of whales. The results indicated (i) that cetaceans are deeply nested within Artiodactyla, (ii) that cetaceans and hippopotamuses form a monophyletic group, (iii) that pigs and peccaries form a monophyletic group to the exclusion of hippopotamuses, (iv) that chevrotains diverged first among ruminants, and (v) that camels diverged first among cetartiodactyls. These findings lead us to conclude that cetaceans evolved from an immediate artiodactyl, not mesonychian, ancestor.  (+info)

Genealogy of families of SINEs in cetaceans and artiodactyls: the presence of a huge superfamily of tRNA(Glu)-derived families of SINEs. (4/184)

Several novel (sub)families of SINEs were isolated from the genomes of cetaceans and artiodactyls, and their sequences were determined. From comparisons of diagnostic nucleotides among the short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs) in these (sub)families, we were able to draw the following conclusions. (1) After the divergence of the suborder Tylopoda (camels), the CHRS family of SINEs was newly created from tRNA(Glu) in a common ancestor of the lineages of the Suina (pigs and peccaries), Ruminantia (cows and deer), and Cetacea (whales and dolphins). (2) After divergence of the Suina lineage, the CHR-1 SINE and the CHR-2 SINE were generated successively in a common ancestor of ruminants, hippopotamuses, and cetaceans. (3) In the Ruminantia lineage, the Bov-tA SINE was generated by recombination between the CHR-2 SINE and Bov-A. (4) In the Suina lineage, the CHRS-S SINE was generated from the CHRS SINE. (5) In this latter lineage, the PRE-1 family of SINEs was created by insertion of part of the gene for tRNA(Arg) into the 5' region of the CHRS-S family. The distribution of a particular family of SINEs among species of artiodactyls and cetaceans confirmed the most recent conclusion for paraphyly of the order Artiodactyla. The present study also revealed that a newly created tRNA(Glu)-derived family of SINEs was subjected both to recombination with different units and to duplication of an internal sequence within a SINE unit to generate, during evolution, a huge superfamily of tRNA(Glu)-related families of SINEs that are now found in the genomes of artiodactyls and cetaceans.  (+info)

The role of wild ruminants in the epidemiology of bovine petechial fever. (5/184)

After experimental inoculation of Cytoecetes ondiri, the agent of bovine petechial fever (BPF), multiplication occurred in impala, bushbuck, Thomson's gazelles and wildebeest, as shown by infectivity studies and clinical findings. Similar attempts to infect one eland failed. As a sequel to this, blood and spleen samples were collected from four species of wild ruminants in an area where BPTF was endemic. Isolations of C. ondiri were made from three of five bushbuck, but not from any other species.  (+info)

Phylogeography of three closely related African bovids (tribe Alcelaphini). (6/184)

The phylogeography of three species of African bovids, the hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus), the topi (Damaliscus lunatus), and the wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), is inferred from sequence variation of 345 sequences at the control region (d-loop) of the mtDNA. The three species are closely related (tribe Alcelaphini) and share similar habitat requirements. Moreover, their former distribution extended over Africa, as a probable result of the expansion of open grassland on the continent during the last 2.5 Myr. A combination of population genetics (diversity and structure) and intraspecific phylogeny (tree topology and relative branch length) methods is used to substantiate scenarios of the species history. Population dynamics are inferred from the distribution of sequence pairwise differences within populations. In the three species, there is a significant structuring of the populations, as shown by analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) pairwise and hierarchical differentiation estimations. In the wildebeest, a pattern of colonization from southern Africa toward east Africa is consistent with the asymmetric topology of the gene tree, showing a paraphyletic position of southern lineages, as well as their relatively longer branch lengths, and is supported by a progressive decline in population nucleotide diversity toward east Africa. The phylogenetic pattern found in the topi and the hartebeest differs from that of the wildebeest: lineages split into monophyletic clades, and no geographical trend is detected in population diversity. We suggest a scenario where these antelopes, previously with wide pan-African distributions, became extinct except in a few refugia. The hartebeest, and probably also the topi, survived in refugia north of the equator, in the east and the west, respectively, as well as one in the south. The southern refugium furthermore seems to have been the only place where the wildebeest has survived.  (+info)

Model dependence of the phylogenetic inference: relationship among carnivores, Perissodactyls and cetartiodactyls as inferred from mitochondrial genome sequences. (7/184)

Some previous analysis of mitochondrial proteins strongly support the Carnivora/Perissodactyla grouping excluding Cetartiodactyla (Artiodactyla + Cetacea) as an outgroup, but the support of the hypothesis remains equivocal from the analysis of several nuclear-encoded proteins. In order to evaluate the strength of the support by mitochondrial proteins, phylogenetic relationship among Carnivora, Perissodactyla, and Cetartiodactyla was estimated with the ML method by using the updated data set of the 12 mitochondrial proteins with several alternative models. The analyses demonstrate that the phylogenetic inference depends on the model used in the ML analysis; i.e., whether the site-heterogeneity is taken into account and whether the rate parameters are estimated for each individual proteins or for the concatenated sequences. Although the analysis of concatenated sequences strongly supports the Carnivora/Perissodactyla grouping, the total evaluation of the separate analyses of individual proteins, which approximates the data better than the concatenated analysis, gives only ambiguous results, and therefore it is concluded that more data are needed to resolve this trichotomy.  (+info)

Conservation within artiodactyls of an AATA interrupt in the IGF-I microsatellite for 19-35 million years. (8/184)

Occurrence of an AATA interrupt in the IGF-I microsatellite was investigated in a number of Artiodactyl species, namely pigs, camels, deer, cattle, goats, and sheep. Comparison of DNA sequences in the 5' flank of the microsatellite in these species revealed that the interrupt within the microsatellite is conserved in deer, cattle, sheep, and goats but is absent from camels and pigs. The interrupt was introduced into the Artiodactyl phylogeny after the divergence of the Camelidae but before the divergence of the Cervidae, and thus its time of origin can be estimated to be 19-35 MYA. In contrast to the repeat units which are hypermutable, the interrupt has been conserved for a very long time and may even have suppressed microsatellite variation by inhibiting replication slippage. A 12-bp deletion in the 5' flank of the microsatellite in camels corresponds to a consensus reversed repeat in deer, cattle, sheep, and goats with unknown functional significance. Apart from this deletion, the 5' flank of the microsatellite is highly conserved in Artiodactyl species.  (+info)

In this study, the ovaries of 27 wild collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) fromthe Amazonian region of northeastern Peru were examined macroscopically and microscopically, and expression of major steroidogenic enzymes was detected by immunohistochemistry. Our observations suggest a mean ovulation rate of 2.3 +/- 0.6 follicles and a low rate of reproductive wastage (0.4 +/- 0.6 oocytes or embryos per pregnancy). The collared peccary seems to exhibit follicular waves involving the synchronous growth of a cohort of follicles, several of which seem to attain selection. The presence of antral follicles in pregnant females suggests that follicular turnover continues during pregnancy. In cyclic animals, corpora lutea were characterised by the presence of distinct large and small luteal cell populations. The luteal volume in pregnant females was larger than that recorded for non-pregnant females. Through immunohistochemistry, it was observed that luteal cells from active corpora lutea exhibit intensive 3 ...
We describe the macroscopic anatomy of the intestine of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). The small intestine was divided into duodenum, jejunum and ileum as usual. The caecum was attached to the ileum by a long ileocaecal fold, and to the proximal ansa of the ascending colon by a caecocolic fold. The ascending colon was the most developed portion of the gross intestine and had the most complex arrangement with three ansae: the proximal ansa, the spiral ansa and the distal ansa. The proximal ansa completely encircled the caecum, describing a 360° gyrus, and represented the widest portion of the intestine. The spiral ansa was formed by three and a half centripetal gyri, a central flexure and three centrifugal gyri. The last centrifugal gyrus left the spiral and described nine flexures of different form and direction over the ...
In September 2011, a total of 511 human cases of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) infection and 5 deaths were reported in a game management area in the district of Chama, Zambia, near where 85 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious) had recently died of suspected anthrax. The human infections generally responded to antibiotics. To clarify transmission, we conducted a cross-sectional, interviewer-administered household survey in villages where human anthrax cases and hippopotamus deaths were reported. Among 284 respondents, 84% ate hippopotamus meat before the outbreak. Eating, carrying, and preparing meat were associated with anthrax infection. Despite the risk, 23% of respondents reported they would eat meat from hippopotamuses found dead again because of food shortage (73%), lack of meat (12%), hunger (7%), and protein shortage (5%). Chronic food insecurity can lead to consumption of unsafe foods, leaving communities susceptible to zoonotic infection. Interagency cooperation is necessary to prevent
The even-toed ungulates form the mammal order Artiodactyla. They are ungulates whose weight is borne about equally by the third and fourth toes, rather than mostly or entirely by the third as in perissodactyls. There are about 220 artiodactyl species, including many that are of great economic importance to humans. As with many mammal groups, even-toed ungulates first appeared during the Early Eocene (about 54 million years ago). In form they were rather like todays chevrotains: small, short-legged creatures that ate leaves and the soft parts of plants. By the Late Eocene (46 million years ago), the three modern suborders had already developed: Suina (the pig group); Tylopoda (the camel group); and Ruminantia (the goat and cattle group). Nevertheless, artiodactyls were far from dominant at that time: the odd-toed ungulates (ancestors of todays horses and rhinos) were much more successful and far more numerous. Even-toed ungulates survived in niche roles, usually occupying marginal habitats, and ...
Three (possibly four) living species of peccaries are found from the southwestern United States through Central America and into South America and Trinidad.. The collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) or "musk hog", referring to the animals scent glands, occurs from the southwestern United States into South America and the island of Trinidad. The coat consists of wiry peppered black, gray, and brown hair with a lighter colored "collar" circling the shoulders. They bear young year-round, but most often between November and March, with the average litter size consisting of two to three piglets. They are found in all kinds of habitats, from arid scrublands to humid tropical rain forests. The collared peccary is well adapted to habitat disturbed by humans, merely requiring sufficient cover; they can be found in cities and agricultural land throughout their range. Notable populations exist in the suburbs of Phoenix and Tucson, Arizona, where they feed on ornamental plants and other cultivated ...
The hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), or hippo, from the ancient Greek for "river horse" (???????????), is a large, mostly herbivorous mammal in sub-Saharan Africa, and one of only two extant species in the family Hippopotamidae (the other is the pygmy hippopotamus). After the elephant and rhinoceros, the hippopotamus is the third largest type of land mammal and the heaviest extant artiodactyl. Despite their physical resemblance to pigs and other terrestrial even-toed ungulates, their closest living relatives are cetaceans (whales, porpoises, etc.) from which they diverged about 55 million years ago. The common ancestor of whales and hippos split from other even-toed ungulates around 60 million years ago. The earliest known hippopotamus fossils, belonging to the genus Kenyapotamus in Africa, date to around 16 million years ago. The hippopotamus is semi-aquatic, inhabiting rivers, lakes and mangrove swamps, where territorial bulls preside over a stretch of river and groups of 5 to 30 females ...
ABSTRACT: Many methods of age determination have been used to date. However, most of them require laboratory procedures which are, in general, not available for wildlife managers in the field. In this paper we attempt to standardize the age categories for six mammal species through the analysis of dental wear, dental eruption and body mass. We analyzed 632 skulls, including Mazama nemorivaga (brown brocket deer), Mazama americana (red brocket deer), Tayassu pecari (white-lipped peccary), Pecari tajacu (collared peccary), Cuniculus paca (paca) and Dasyprocta leporina (agouti). Using biological and morphological criteria we define four age categories: young, sub adult, adult and senescent adult. Scores and variables of molar cusp wear and eruption were defined for each age category within each species. We found significant differences in mean weights among age categories for D. leporina (F = 81.1; df = 3; p < 0.05), C. paca (F = 39.0; df = 3; p < 0.05), P. tajacu (F = 24.6; df = 3; p < 0.05) and ...
The control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is at a critical point in the last stage of eradication in livestock. Wildlife species recently have emerged infected with TB in Europe, particularly ungulates in the Iberian Peninsula. Epidemiological information regarding TB in wild ungulates including affected species, prevalence, associated risk factors and appropriate diagnostic methods need to be obtained in these countries. A cross-sectional study was carried out on wild artiodactyl species, including Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) red deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer (Capraelus capraelus), fallow deer (Dama dama), Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica) and mouflon (Ovis musimon), in Spain to assess the seroprevalence against Mycobacterium bovis or cross-reacting members of the Mycobcaterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), and to provide information on associated risk factors. Previously, two in-house indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (bPPD-ELISA and MPB83-ELISA) were developed using known ...
The phenomenon of a remarkable conservation of the X chromosome in eutherian mammals has been first described by Susumu Ohno in 1964. A notable exception is the cetartiodactyl X chromosome, which varies widely in morphology and G-banding pattern between species. It is hypothesized that this sex chromosome has undergone multiple rearrangements that changed the centromere position and the order of syntenic segments over the last 80 million years of Cetartiodactyla speciation. To investigate its evolution we have selected 26 evolutionarily conserved bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from the cattle CHORI-240 library evenly distributed along the cattle X chromosome. High-resolution BAC maps of the X chromosome on a representative range of cetartiodactyl species from different branches: pig (Suidae), alpaca (Camelidae), gray whale (Cetacea), hippopotamus (Hippopotamidae), Java mouse-deer (Tragulidae), pronghorn (Antilocapridae), Siberian musk deer (Moschidae), and giraffe (Giraffidae) were ...
Collared peccaries Tayassu tajacu. They have loads. Until recently there was just a single wire fence seperating the peccaries from the public, and I always thought this was a bit dangerous in view of the immense teeth these animals have. Theyve now installed a separate barrier fence that keeps people further back from the animals. Id like to think this is because one of the peccaries chewed someones arm off, but sadly I lack confirmation of this fine theory. Peccaries are omnivores, though they mostly eat vegetation (predominantly roots, fruits and tubers), and the suid-like rhinarial disk they have is obviously great for rooting in soil. They have particularly short tails (with only seven caudal vertebrae or less), hind feet strongly modified for cursoriality (some of them even lack digit II), and vertically implanted canines where the lower canine fits into a special pocket on the side of the muzzle. A similar feature is seen in hippos, so some workers think that peccaries and hippos are ...
This study was carried out in the eastern Transvaal Lowveld in an area 2 with a giraffe population density of 2,6 per km . Lions are the only predators and it was estimated that 48% of the calves die in their first year. The sex ratio departs significantly from unity in favour of females. Plant fragments in the rumen were identified. Giraffe subsist on the leaves of trees and shrubs, though fruit, flowers, twigs and grass were also utilised. Marked seasonal changes in the plant species selected were determined by availability and different habitats were utilised accordingly. Chemical analysis of rumen content showed correlations of nutritional value with species eaten and seasonal phenological changes of the vegetation. Tooth eruption, wear and incremental layers in the cementum were found to be suitable criteria for age determination. Total body mass was measured and carcasses dressed out at 61,9% for males and 56,6% for females. Lower mass and lower proportion of fat was found in the dry ...
The heads of both male and female giraffes have a pair of hair-covered horns called ossicones, which are permanently covered by skin and ending in a tuft of black hair. Male giraffes use their horns to playfully fight with one another. The horns of male giraffes are larger than those of female giraffes, growing up to 25 centimetres (about 10 inches) long.. As male giraffes age, calcium deposits form on their skulls and other horn-like bumps develop. Giraffes can have up to three of these large bumps, two in the rear of the skull and one in the forehead region, so that it may look like they have five horns.. This characteristic which is found in no other mammal is linked to the fights that male giraffes stage to establish dominance for mating.. Their small horns on top of their heads are covered in hair and are quite often used in combat between males (bulls), particularly when conflicting for dominance over a mating partner. The horns on female giraffes are quite smaller and more ...
The idea that whales evolved from within the Artiodactyla was based on analysis of DNA sequences. In the initial molecular analyses, whales were shown to be more closely related to ruminants (such as cattle and deer) than ruminants are to pigs. In order for the order name to reflect a real evolutionary unit, the term Cetartiodactyla was coined.. Later molecular analyses included a wider sampling of artiodactyls and produced a more complete tale. Hippos were determined to be the closest relative of whales, ruminants were related to a whale/hippo clade, and pigs were more distant. In addition to producing the controversial whale/hippo clade, these analyses debunked the idea that hippos and pigs are closely related. This had been a popular taxonomic hypothesis (Suiformes) based on similarities in morphological (physical) characteristics.. In addition to DNA and protein sequences, researchers tracked the movement of transposons called SINEs in the genome (see the method at retrotransposon marker). A ...
Agrarian Artiodactyla Cattle Domestic: 20 assigned downloads, like Herd of sheep, Windeck, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, Europe from stock-photos
Hippopotamus amphibius. To protect them still more from the sun, as for the other hippopotamus, the skin secretes a kind of natural solar screen of reddish colo
artiodactyl: Any member of the mammalian order Artiodactyla, or even-toed ungulates, which includes the pigs, peccaries, hippopotamuses, camels, chevrotains, deer, giraffes, pronghorn, antelopes,...
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In artiodactyls, the structure of the foot is especially diagnostic, specifically the number of toes and the morphology of the astragalus. Most species have either 2 or 4 toes on each foot (for exceptions see Pecari and Tayassu) as the first digit, present in most ancestral mammals, has been lost through evolution and the second and fifth digits have been significantly reduced. As a result, artiodactyls are paraxonic. The unique structure of the astragalus, which consists of a "double-pulley" arrangement of the articular surfaces, completely restricts lateral motion and allows for greater flexion and extension of the hind limb. The astragalus, in conjunction with springing ligaments in the limbs, hard hooves, relatively small feet, and elongated lightweight limbs, allows for highly developed cursorial locomotion in more derived species. In the families Camelidae, Cervidae, Giraffidae, Antilocapridae, and Bovidae, the third and fourth metapodials have become fused to create the cannon bone, which ...
The two families of oreodonts are the Merycoidodontidae (originally known as Oreodontidae) which contains all of the advanced species, and the Agriochoeridae, smaller, primitive oreodonts. Together they form the now-extinct suborder Oreodonta. Oreodonts may have been distantly related to pigs, hippopotamuses, and the pig-like peccaries. Indeed, some scholars[who?] place Merycoidodontidae within the pig-related suborder Suina (Suiformes). Other scholars[who?] place oreodonts closer to camels in the suborder Tylopoda. Still other experts[who?] put the oreodonts together with the short-lived cainotheres in the taxonomic suborder Ancodonta comprising these two groups of extinct ancodonts. All scholars agree, however, that the oreodont was an early form of even-toed ungulate, belonging to the order Artiodactyla. Today, most evidence points towards the oreodonts being tylopods, along with camels, xiphodonts, and protoceratids.[citation needed] Over 50 genera of Oreodonta have been described in the ...
Although they resemble bison, musk oxen are neither bison nor oxen they are more closely related to goats and sheep. Their closest relative is believed to be the Asian takin. Musk oxen can withstand severe arctic temperatures as low as -100 F (-73 C) because of an undercoat of fine wool, known as qiviut. The wool is as soft as cashmere and eight times warmer than sheep s wool. Each musk ox sheds five to seven pounds of wool naturally each spring. Their outer coat is dark brown to black in colour, made up of hairs up to 24 inches (62 cm) in length. Both males and females have large horns, and males have a thick shield that protects their skull during the annual mating season. Males are larger than females. Musk oxen have excellent sight and hearing and can run quickly when necessary. ...
The content requirements presented in this chapter outline what students should know, understand, and be able to do in natural science. We further elaborate entangled vascular networks from area-filling mathematical topologies and explore the oxygenation and circulate of human crimson blood cells throughout tidal ventilation and distension of a proximate airway. After 24-hour dissolution in rain water, 2.eight% of recent hippo feces biogenic Si was dissolved, which is 17.2 occasions more than that of undigested grass in similar circumstances, but it decreases with the age of the feces ( Fig.. When comparing the metabolic profile of in vitro-activated CD4+ T cells from sufferers and HCs, we observed that T cells from patients during relapse (n = 24), however not in remission (n = 25), exhibit an enhanced OXPHOS and glycolytic activity as in comparison with HCs (n = 24) ( Fig.. Nowadays, we are very acquainted to hearing the phrase Knowledge Science. Likewise, a rise in antigen affinities has ...
Whilst giraffe are commonly seen on safari, in the media and in zoos, people - including conservationists - are unaware that these majestic animals are undergoing a silent extinction, says Julian Fennessy, co-chair of the IUCN SSC Giraffe and Okapi Specialist Group. "With a decline of almost 40 percent in the last three decades alone, the worlds tallest animal is under severe pressure in some of its core ranges across East, Central and West Africa. As one of the worlds most iconic animals, it is timely that we stick our neck out for the giraffe before it is too late.". The Zoological Society of London (ZSL) supports the management and monitoring of key sites for giraffe in the wild, including the Tsavo Conservation Area in Kenya via the SMART patrol management system, and has also supported the development of Kenyas first National Giraffe Conservation Strategy. Both ZSL London Zoo and ZSL Whipsnade Zoo are home to giraffes, and ZSL co-hosts the IUCN SSC Giraffe and Okapi Specialist Group with ...
We demonstrate that more branches from the tree-of-life are pruned when extinction is phylogenetically non-random, but that the loss of their summed lengths is no greater than expected by chance. Furthermore, in some cases (e.g. Artiodactyla), non-random extinction can reduce the loss of branch lengths, presumably because threatened species tend to cluster within young, species-rich clades, while the number of branches being pruned may still be greater than random expectations. We suggest that number of branches, rather than branch lengths, might be important if trait variation accumulates in bursts at speciation events (represented by the nodes in the phylogenetic tree), as would be expected under a model of punctuated equilibrium [26]. If evolution follows a speciational model (and this may be the case for body size in mammals; [27]), short branches separating rapidly diverging lineages might capture as much feature diversity as longer branches in more slowly diversifying clades, although ...
Sioutis, S., Coates, A. M., Buckley, J. D., Murphy, T. W., Channon, H. A. and Howe, P. R. C. (2008), N-3 enrichment of pork with fishmeal: Effects on production and consumer acceptability. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 110: 701-706. doi: 10.1002/ejlt.200700253 ...
... es are shy and elusive animals, so they were not discovered by the scientific community until 1849. Even so, many people did not believe they existed because none had been captured. It was not considered a distinct and existent species until 1911, when five live specimens were captured and brought to Europe. Pygmy hippos usually hide in the thick undergrowth found in tropical rainforests. They live both on land and in water, but spend less time in water than full-sized hippos, their only relatives. They sleep on land during the day, but wake up late afternoon or early evening to begin feeding. Unlike full-sized hippos, who are extremely gregarious and live in groups, pygmy hippos live solitary lives, rarely coming into contact with each other except during mating season. Although they have large, strong teeth, rather than stay and try to defend themselves when threatened, they usually flee to the forest, unlike full-sized hippos who head for the water when in danger. They are ...
This is Digital Version of (Ebook) 978-0306460883 Faunal Extinction in an Island Society - Pygmy Hippopotamus Hunters of Cypru Product Will Be Deliver
Hippopotamus or shortly hippo is a huge herbivorous mammal commonly found in the Sub-Saharan Africa. The word hippopotamus is a Greek one which means river
... Use this realistic-looking, life-size, resin-cast replica for hands-on discussions of the relationship between tooth structure and animal diet. This Bone Clone® replica measures 2¾
A cheeky crocodile met its match when it tried to use some hippopotamuses as stepping stones in Serengeti national park, Tanzania
Cute Christmas Song sung by a kid that had their heart set on gettng a Hippopotamus for Christmas - - - (this is NOT shirley temple singing - its Gayla Peeve...
The common hippopotamus, or hippo, is a large, mostly herbivorous mammal in sub-Saharan Africa, and one of only two extant species in the family Hippopotamidae, the other being the pygmy hippopotamus. Err, change that to 4th or 5th. Snakes are actually more dangerous than crocodiles or hippos, especially in places such as India where there are incredibly venomous species that are likely to come into contact with local populations. - CocoBird. The hippo has giant killer tusks that can be a foot long. It can easily bite a crocodile in half. It looks slow but it can run 20 mph. It is the third biggest land animal and can be 4 tons of super mean killer. It kills the most people in Africa and can destroy a van. They are awesome animals but dont get to close or you will be charged by fury. - nando. Hippo kills more than shark and crocodile, I believe. Since it was more sensitive and look harmless. BECAUSE it looks harmless, people often cross the boundaries hippos make. Yawning is actually their way ...
MITCHELL, G.; SKINNER, J. D.: On the origin, evolution and phylogeny of giraffes: Giraffa camelopardalis. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa, 2003. Vol. 58, p. 51-73. GRAHAM, M., Documentário "Autópsia Animal, Girafa" - Netgeo, 2010 ...
Giraffids like Palaeotragus, Shansitherium and Samotherium appeared 14 mya and lived throughout Africa and Eurasia. These animals had bare ossicones and small cranial sinuses and were longer with broader skulls.[11][12] Paleotragus resembled the okapi and may have been its ancestor.[11] Others find that the okapi lineage diverged earlier, before Giraffokeryx.[12] Samotherium was a particularly important transitional fossil in the giraffe lineage as its cervical vertebrae was intermediate in length and structure between a modern giraffe and an okapi, and was more vertical than the okapis.[13] Bohlinia, which first appeared in southeastern Europe and lived 9-7 mya was likely a direct ancestor of the giraffe. Bohlinia closely resembled modern giraffes, having a long neck and legs and similar ossicones and dentition.[11]. Bohlinia entered China and northern India in response to climate change. From there, the genus Giraffa evolved and, around 7 mya, entered Africa.[14] Further climate changes ...
A 39-week pregnant SC woman posted a almost 8-minute-long video of herself prancing around in a giraffe mask, hands on hips, belly displayed in all its glory, to Facebook late Sunday.. For almost three weeks, millions of people have tuned in to the live-stream of April the Giraffe as she awaits the birth of her calf at Animal Adventure Park in Harpursville, N.Y. As of 12 p.m. ET Monday, the video had over 10 million views and 235,000 shares.. She made a decision to have her own giraffe cam style set up for her own waiting. Thats when a stroke of comedic genius hit her and her husband and they made a decision to create their own video.. Dietrich also commented she did not think so many people would get a kick out of it.. "It was my husbands idea to order a mask off Amazon and my idea to do a live feed last night to look like Aprils", she told HuffPost.. She donned a giraffe mask, and the rest is history. Itll be Dietrichs fourth child.. "Clearly we live an exciting life over here in the ...
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Meridiungulata might have originated in South America from a North American condylarth ancestor,[1] and they may be members of the clade Laurasiatheria, related to other ungulates, including artiodactyls and perissodactyls.[2] It has, however, been suggested the Meridiungulata are part of a different macro-group of placental mammals called Atlantogenata.[3] Much of the evolution of meridiungulates occurred in isolation from other ungulates, a great example of convergent evolution. However, the argument that meridiungulates are related to artiodactyls and perissodactyls needs support from molecular sequencing. Some paleontologists have also challenged the monophyly of Meridiungulata by suggesting that the pyrotheres are more closely related to other mammals, such as Embrithopoda (an African order possibly related to elephants), than to other South American ungulates.[4] Results from the sequencing of collagen from Pleistocene fossils of the notoungulate Toxodon and the litoptern Macrauchenia have ...
Аммосов И.А. 1993. Хозяйственные и биологические особенности аборигенного якутского скота в условиях крайнего севера. Автореферат кандидатской диссертации. СПб-Пушкин. 18 с.. Асратян Э.А. 1951. Принцип переключения в условнорефлекторной деятельности // Журнал высшей нервной деятельности им. И.П. Павлова. Вып.7. №1. С. 47-54.. Банников А.Г., Флинт В.Е. 1989. Отряд Парнокопытные (Artiodactyla) // Жизнь животных. Т.7. М.: Изд. Мир. С. 432-511.. Барышева С.Л. 1989. Кормовые запасы в биоценозах южной тайги. Дипломная работа. Географический факультет Московского гос. университета. 96 ...
Abstract Dichobunoid artiodactyls are described in this paper from the middle Eocene Geiseltal lignite deposits near Halle (Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany). The genera Eurodexis and Parahexacodus are established based on odontologica1 studies. The type-species are E. ceciliensis (FRANZEN & KRUMBIEGEL, 1981) and P. germanicus n. sp. from the "obere Mittelkohle" (see text), MP 13. The genera are referred to the new subfamily Eurodexeinae (Dichobunidae, Artiodactyla, Mammalia), which also contains the monospecific genus Eygalayodon SUDRE & MARANDAT, 1993. These new genera show many features similar to North American homacodontids and antiacodontids. They exemplify a high degree of diversity in European dichobunids. Moreover, the family Dichobunidae includes the Dichobuninae and the Hyperdichobuninae. The connection of the posthypocristid with the postentocristid, the shift of a medial to a lingual position of the hypoconulid on the lower molars and the development of a large, caniniform P1 are regarded as ...
The giraffe is a tall mammal with long legs, a spotted coat and an elongated neck. This mammal is the tallest in the world, with male giraffes growing as tall as 18...
Looking for Cainotherioidea? Find out information about Cainotherioidea. A superfamily of extinct, rabbit-sized tylopod ruminants in the mammalian order Artiodactyla Explanation of Cainotherioidea
chital: (Cervus axis, sometimes Axis axis), Asiatic deer, belonging to the family Cervidae (order Artiodactyla). It lives in grasslands and forests in India and Sri Lanka in herds of up...
The elk is a large animal of the ungulate order Artiodactyla, possessing an even number of toes on each foot, similar to those of camels, goats and cattle. It is a ruminant species, with a four-chambered stomach, and feeds on grasses, plants, leaves and bark. During the summer, elk eat almost constantly, consuming between 4 and 7 kilograms (8.8 and 15.4 lb) of vegetation daily.[22] In North America, males are called bulls, and females are called cows. In Asia, stag and hind, respectively, are sometimes used instead. Elk are more than twice as heavy as mule deer and have a more reddish hue to their hair coloring, as well as large, buff-colored rump patches and smaller tails. Moose are larger and darker than elk; bulls have distinctively different antlers. Elk gather in herds, while moose are solitary. Elk cows average 225 to 241 kg (496 to 531 lb), stand 1.3 m (4.3 ft) at the wither, and are 2.1 m (6.9 ft) from nose to tail. Bulls are some 40% larger than cows at maturity, weighing an average of ...
ID W5Q265_SHEEP Unreviewed; 1103 AA. AC W5Q265; DT 16-APR-2014, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 16-APR-2014, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 27. DE SubName: Full=Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 8 {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSOARP00000016803}; GN Name=KCNH8 {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSOARP00000016803}; OS Ovis aries (Sheep). OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; OC Mammalia; Eutheria; Laurasiatheria; Cetartiodactyla; Ruminantia; OC Pecora; Bovidae; Caprinae; Ovis. OX NCBI_TaxID=9940 {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSOARP00000016803, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002356}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSOARP00000016803, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002356} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=Texel {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSOARP00000016803}; RX PubMed=20809919; DOI=10.1111/j.1365-2052.2010.02100.x; RA Archibald A.L., Cockett N.E., Dalrymple B.P., Faraut T., Kijas J.W., RA Maddox J.F., McEwan J.C., Hutton Oddy V., Raadsma H.W., ...
ID W5P7E3_SHEEP Unreviewed; 581 AA. AC W5P7E3; DT 16-APR-2014, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 16-APR-2014, sequence version 1. DT 22-NOV-2017, entry version 20. DE SubName: Full=Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2D {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSOARP00000006347}; GN Name=EIF2D {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSOARP00000006347}; OS Ovis aries (Sheep). OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; OC Mammalia; Eutheria; Laurasiatheria; Cetartiodactyla; Ruminantia; OC Pecora; Bovidae; Caprinae; Ovis. OX NCBI_TaxID=9940 {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSOARP00000006347, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002356}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSOARP00000006347, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002356} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=Texel {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSOARP00000006347}; RX PubMed=20809919; DOI=10.1111/j.1365-2052.2010.02100.x; RA Archibald A.L., Cockett N.E., Dalrymple B.P., Faraut T., Kijas J.W., RA Maddox J.F., McEwan J.C., Hutton Oddy V., Raadsma H.W., Wade C., RA ...
ID BOVIN15_78_PE2 STANDARD; PRT; 248 AA. AC BOVIN15_78_PE2; Q58CY8; DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 1, Created) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 2, Last sequence update) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 3, Last annotation update) DE RecName: Full=Tetraspanin-18; Short=Tspan-18; (BOVIN15_78.PE2). GN Name=TSPAN18; OS BOS TAURUS. OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Eumetazoa; Bilateria; Coelomata; Deuterostomia; OC Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Gnathostomata; Teleostomi; Euteleostomi; OC Sarcopterygii; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Mammalia; Theria; Eutheria; OC Laurasiatheria; Cetartiodactyla; Ruminantia; Pecora; Bovidae; Bovinae; Bos. OX NCBI_TaxID=9913; RN [0] RP -.; RG -.; RL -.; CC -!- SEQ. DATA ORIGIN: Translated from the HOGENOM CDS BOVIN15_78.PE2. CC Bos taurus chromosome 15 Btau_4.0 partial sequence 74831989..75831988 CC annotated by Ensembl CC -!- ANNOTATIONS ORIGIN:TSN18_BOVIN CC -!- SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein CC (Potential). CC -!- SIMILARITY: Belongs to the tetraspanin (TM4SF) family. CC -!- GENE_FAMILY: ...
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Animal Boars Even-toed Germany: 12 assigned downloads, like Wild Boar Sus scrofa, sow, portrait, Black Forest, Germany from stock-photos
This study aimed to develop pork products of acceptable organoleptic quality enriched with long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA). Female pigs were fed a finisher diet containing 15% PorcOmega™ tuna fishmeal or a commercial diet. Pigs and rations were weighed weekly. The feed conversion ratio was significantly lower in pigs fed fishmeal than in controls (2.61 ± 0.01 versus 2.96 ± 0.06, p ,0.05). After 6 weeks, the pigs were butchered and the fatty acid contents of selected pork products were analyzed by gas chromatography. Shelf life was tested by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), initially and after 5 days of cold storage, and sensory qualities were evaluated after cooking. LC n-3 PUFA contents of pork products from pigs fed fishmeal were higher than in controls (steak 300%, stir-fry 250%, diced 520%, mince 480%, sausage 360%; p ,0.05 in all cases). There were no differences between n-3-enriched and regular pork in either TBARS content of stored raw products ...
NAIROBI(AFP) - A baby hippopotamus that survived the tsunami waves on the Kenyan coast has formed a strong bond with a giant male century-old tortoise, in an animal facility in the port city ofMombassa, officials said.The hippopotamus, nicknamedOwenand weighing about 300 kilograms (650 pounds), was swept down Sabaki River into the Indian Ocean, then forced back to shore when tsunami waves struck the Kenyan coast on December 26, before wildlife rangers rescued him."It is incredible. A-less-than-a-year-old hippo has adopted a male tortoise, about acentury old, and the tortoise seems to be very happy with being a mother," ecologistPaula Kahumbu,who is in charge of Lafarge Park, told AFP ...
Black wildebeest are mainly active during the early morning and late afternoon, preferring to rest during the hottest part of the day.[26] The animals can run at speeds of 80 km/h (50 mph).[26] When a person approaches a herd to within a few hundred metres, the wildebeest snort and run a short distance before stopping and looking back, repeating this behaviour if further approached. They communicate with each other using pheromones detected by flehmen and several forms of vocal communication. One of these is a metallic snort or an echoing "hick", that can be heard up to 1.5 km (1 mi) away.[27] They are preyed on by the lion, spotted hyena, Cape hunting dog, leopard, cheetah, and crocodile. Of these, the calves are targeted mainly by the hyenas, while lions attack the adults.[2]. The black wildebeest is a gregarious animal with a complex social structure comprising three distinct groups, the female herds consisting of adult females and their young, the bachelor herds consisting only of yearlings ...
Dear Mr Postman .. Im sure my mother will love this post - these are the sorts of things that would have amused her .. and Id have been sent home to find out more about George Washington, his portrait and his teeth .. and shed definitely have laughed at the hippo having its teeth cleaned! Today it is a mild day here .. further north Britain is still in the grips of winter, as are many in the Northern Hemisphere - the other London in Ontario has had a major dump or two .. we are due to another Arctic blast next week - ugh ...
A woman called to make reservations, "I want to go from Chicago to Hippopotamus, New York" The agent was at a loss for words. Finally, the agent: "Are you sure thats the name of the town?" "Yes, what flights do you have?" replied the customer. After some searching, the agent came back with, "Im sorry, maam, Ive looked up every airport code in the country and cant find a Hippopotamus anywhere." The customer retorted, "Oh dont be silly. Everyone knows where it is. Check your map!" The agent scoured a map of the state of New York and finally offered, "You dont mean Buffalo, do you?" "Thats it! I knew it was a big animal ...
Ex Collection Reverend William Frankland Hood (d. 1864); sold at Sothebys London, Nov. 11, 1924; Brummer Gallery, New York. The Guennol Collection; sold to the MMA through Merrin Gallery, New York, 1997
CITES is an international agreement between governments, aimed to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival.. ...
Steven L. Peck is an Associate Professor in the Biology Department at Brigham Young University where he teaches the History and Philosophy of Biology. He blogs on issues of Science and Faith at The Mormon Organon (sciencebysteve.net). Nothing he says should ever be taken seriously by anyone, anywhere, at anytime. He is a long time fan of BCC and is thrilled to be a guest blogger for the next couple of weeks, (although he fears they may regret this invitation). Right now we are all situated in a life. We stand in relation to many things: other people, hierarchies of social power, natural and ecological processes, familial relationships, economic connections with people in a global economy, etc. On top of that we have a historical context that places us in a certain place and time and embeds us in both a cultural setting and a pile of accidental ways of doing things and manipulating the world around us. These things allow us to live biologically and find meaning in the things we do. We also ...
Darker male giraffes have been found to be more solitary and less social than their lighter-colored counterparts, according to new research from The University of Queensland.
A seven-year-old male giraffe has died of anxiety after being caged and loaded onto a truck at a Taiwan zoo, the latest animal death to spark angry calls for tougher protection laws.
After repeated warnings late last year, a 40-year-old Eland farmer failed to properly care for his 48 cattle, horses and chickens, according to a criminal complaint filed Wednesday.
The giraffe lives mainly on dry savannas and in open woodlands and can browse higher than any other mammal. It usually sleeps standing up but occasionally lies down. When upright, its heart has to pump blood upward at enormous pressure to reach its brain. You can see and even feed our giraffes in the Giants of the Savanna exhibit.. ...
Learn All about Our Long-Necked Friends. Physical Characteristics The giraffe is the tallest living mammal with an overall height of 15-19. Shoulder height is 8-12; head/shoulder length is approximately 13 for the male. Weight is 1,100-2,800 lbs. The reticulated giraffes are handsomely patterned in golden browns,
Besides their graceful long necks and legs, giraffes are most recognizable by their distinctive spots. Now, conservationists are concerned about a different sort of spots on giraffes, made up of dead tissue and crusty sores ...
... Dont try and split up this clique A Parisian zoo has kept a 13-strong herd of giraffes together despite construction wor...
When a giraffe calf is born, it drops to the ground head first from about 6 feet (1.8 meters) high. The fall surprises the calf and makes it take a big breath, but doesnt really hurt it. The calf can walk after about an hour, and it can run with its mom just 10 hours after its born. After theyre a few weeks old, calves join a group of young giraffes called a crèche ...
“I’m a giraffe,” Sophia Loren once said. “I even walk like a giraffe—with a long neck and legs. It’s a pretty dumb animal, mind you.” Dumb but dignified, J. M. Ledgard would doubtless respond.
Stock video footage Video footage of giraffe head licking mouth with tongue at the zoo. Giraffe is the tallest living animals in the world.. 00:00:13 . From $79. Royalty free. Download now on Pond5 ...
Brecks parents, named "Mumsy" and "Pops", gave Bennett a little giraffe the other day for us to put in his isolet. We were thrilled to see Bennett really like it. He loves to look up at it and listen to the music. Even the nurse told us last night that Bennett had "been a good boy all day" and "loved his giraffe!" Will Monkey be jealous ...
Download Boy feeding giraffe 54470 - Animal Collection - Animal wallpaper, Boy feeding giraffe high-definition picture, free 100%.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Omics of gut function. AU - Mulder, I. AU - Schmidt, B.. AU - Aminov, R.. AU - Gill, P.. AU - Stokes, C.. AU - Bailey, M.. AU - Lewis, M.. AU - Kelly, D.. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. KW - Artiodactyla Mammalia Vertebrata Chordata Animalia (Animals, Artiodactyls, Chordates, Mammals, Nonhuman Vertebrates, Nonhuman Mammals, Vertebrates) - Suidae [85740] pig common host. KW - Microorganisms (Bacteria, Eubacteria, Microorganisms) - Bacteria [05000] bacteria common pathogen. KW - 16S rRNA 16S ribosomal RNA. KW - chemokine. KW - cytokine. KW - gene. KW - probe. KW - toll-like receptor. KW - 00520, General biology - Symposia, transactions and proceedings. KW - 03502, Genetics - General. KW - 03506, Genetics - Animal. KW - 10062, Biochemistry studies - Nucleic acids, purines and pyrimidines. KW - 14004, Digestive system - Physiology and biochemistry. KW - 17002, Endocrine - General. KW - 31000, Physiology and biochemistry of bacteria. KW - 31500, Genetics of bacteria and viruses. KW - 34502, ...
Os catetos (Peccary tajacu) est o entre as esp cies mais ca adas na Am rica Latina devido a aprecia o de seu couro e carne. No intuito de otimizar o manejo produtivo de catetos nascidos em cativeiro sob condi es semi ridas, o objetivo foi descrever e correlacionar as modifica es verificadas no padr o ultrassonogr fico ovariano, o perfil hormonal, a apar ncia vulvar, e a citologia vaginal durante o ciclo estral nesta esp cie. Durante 45 dias, f meas (n=4) foram submetidas a coleta de sangue destinado a dosagem hormonal por meio de teste imuno-enzim tico (EIA). Na mesma ocasi o, foram conduzidas a avalia o da genit lia externa, a ultrassonografia ovariana e a citologia vaginal. Os resultados s o apresentados com m dia e desvio padr o De acordo com a dosagem hormonal, foram identificados seis ciclos estrais, com dura o 21,0 5,7 dias, sendo em m dia 6 dias de fase estrog nica e 15 dias de fase progester nica. O estr geno apresentou valores m dios de pico de 55,6 20,5pg/mL. Durante a fase luteal, os ...
The large, very thick hippopotamus and rhinoceros skulls, also on display, dont have the open nasal void structure of the elephant. Their brains appear to be more protected. The elephant seal has a nasal void, but the rear structure at the back of the nasal void looks quite solid compared to the elephant. The walrus and bear also have nasal voids. The giraffe has a large skull. I could not see a cutaway of the giraffe skull, so I am not sure about the brain size. Strangely enough, the beaver also appears to have a large brain for its size. Ill have to have a closer look at these on my next visit ...
Imports and transit of certain ungulate animals. The European Union (EU) establishes health rules for the importation and transit of ungulate animals (llamas, giraffes, hippopotamuses, warthogs, deer, etc.) on its territory. The Directive brings together in one text the conditions and requirements for importing wild or domestic animals belonging to species which are sensitive to certain diseases, such as foot-and-mouth disease or hog cholera.. ACT. Council Directive 2004/68/EC of 26 April 2004 laying down animal health rules for the importation into and transit through the Community of certain live ungulate animals, amending Directives 90/426/EEC and 92/65/EEC and repealing Directive 72/462/EEC.. SUMMARY. This Directive lays down the animal health rules governing the importation from non-EU Member States and transit through the European Union (EU) of certain ungulates listed in Annex I.. Animals imported into or in transit through the EU must come from countries or regions that appear on a list ...
Scientific Name: Addax nasomaculatus Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammal Order: Artiodactyla Family: Bovidae Subfamily: Hippotraginae Genus: Addax
Bover P., Quintana J., Alcover J. A. (2010) A new species of Myotragus Bate, 1909 (Artiodactyla, Caprinae) from the Early Pliocene of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, western Mediterranean). Geological Magazine. 147(6):871-885. doi: 10.1017/S0016756810000336 ...
Our nuclear and mitochondrial gene analyses clearly show that giraffes are not a homogeneous taxon but are deeply structured into distinct genetic groups. The degree of population genetic differentiation of seven nuclear markers from 105 individuals and concordance to mitochondrial (mt) data of 190 individuals suggests that some of the currently recognized subspecies are distinct species.. Read more…. ...
I take it he meant mammals? _______________________________________________ --- On Mon, 11/23/09, Richard W. Travsky ,[email protected], wrote: , There are not many animals that have evolved to have a , very long neck, says giraffe expert Professor Graham , Mitchell from the Centre of Wildlife Studies in , Onderstepoort, South Africa ...
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The giraffe exhibit was truly exciting because one of the giraffes pooped right in front of us. Since poop is such a big part of our lives, Bri is fascinated by it. In case youre curious, giraffe poop looks like deer niblets. Bridgette couldnt stop talking about it. She still mentions it whenever she sees a picture of a giraffe ...
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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vTYzfoO9sDs HARPURSVILLE, NY -- There was sadly no April Fools baby for April the Giraffe! Keepers think they can get April out and about today in the yard, and hope that will shake things up! https://www.facebook.
RH Baby & Childs Chambray Giraffe - Natural:Embroidered accents bring lots of character to these lovable creatures and make them safe for children of all ages.
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If you bred some giraffes in captivity, and the only bushes they had access to were really low down, would they eventually evolve back into basical...
DecalGirl Apple MacBook Pro Retina 15 skins feature vibrant full-color artwork that helps protect the Apple MacBook Pro Retina 15 from minor scratches and abuse without adding any bulk or interfering with the devices operation. This skin features the artwork Whimsical Giraffe by Aimee Stewart - just one of hundreds of designs by dozens of talented artists from around the world.
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You know about the giraffes tongue? Its blue.Client asks why Edgar Allan Poe elected to write about a raven. All I know of ravens is that theyre the first of the Northern birds to breed in the
Almost two months after the pregnant New York giraffe named April was catapulted onto the world stage, the live stream that provided a 24-hour window into her world will go dark. Animal Adventure Parks...
Zoo New England announced today that Beau the giraffe is scheduled to undergo an ultrasound and liver biopsy on Wednesday, August 12. The...
Im filing this post under Lifestyles of the Cute and Cuddly even though, Smithsonian magazine informs us:[...] lore has it that hippos kill more people each year than lions, elephants, leopards, buffaloes and rhinos combined.Hippopotami can and have swallowed people whole. But that does not deter this worker at the Tennoji Zoo in Osaka from cleaning a hippos mouth and teeth with his hands and a brush. [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NpDbPngukU8](Video Link)-via Gifsboom...
The hippopotamus, a semiaquatic mammal native to Africa, eats mostly grasses and other vegetation, but occasionally scavenges for meat. The hippo uses its molars, located in the back of the mouth, to grind these foods. The molars are crucial to consuming the diet; a hippo whose molars are too worn will starve.
Thus, the giant panda has an almost exclusive diet of different species of bamboo, mainly the very fibrous leaves and stems, and buds in spring and summer. It is therefore a poor quality -digestive diet, with little protein and plenty of fibre and lignin content. They spend about 14 hours a day eating and can ingest about 12 kg of bamboo a day.. Most herbivores have modifications of the digestive tract that help them to retain the food in digestion process and contain microbial populations that allow them to eat exclusively plant materials, rich in complex polysaccharides such as cellulose and hemicellulose. These specializations may be compartmentalization of the stomach of ruminants and other typical non-ruminants (kangaroos, hamster, hippopotamus and some primates) or enlargement of the large intestine, characteristic of equines, some rodents and lagomorphs (rabbits and hares).. However, despite his exclusively herbivorous diet, surprisingly the giant panda has a typical carnivorous ...
Thus, the giant panda has an almost exclusive diet of different species of bamboo, mainly the very fibrous leaves and stems, and buds in spring and summer. It is therefore a poor quality -digestive diet, with little protein and plenty of fibre and lignin content. They spend about 14 hours a day eating and can ingest about 12 kg of bamboo a day.. Most herbivores have modifications of the digestive tract that help them to retain the food in digestion process and contain microbial populations that allow them to eat exclusively plant materials, rich in complex polysaccharides such as cellulose and hemicellulose. These specializations may be compartmentalization of the stomach of ruminants and other typical non-ruminants (kangaroos, hamster, hippopotamus and some primates) or enlargement of the large intestine, characteristic of equines, some rodents and lagomorphs (rabbits and hares).. However, despite his exclusively herbivorous diet, surprisingly the giant panda has a typical carnivorous ...
Month by month guide to Kenya and Tanzanias best safari lodges and camps where you can see the great East African wildebeest migration.
This is a second-left metatarsal (foot) bone from a hippopotamus. It was discovered in 1965 during work for the Honiton by-pass.. Find out more on the mammals pages.. ...
Learn about pronghorn, meerkats, lions, koalas, hippopotamuses, Japanese macaques, dolphins and more through this collection of pictures.
|p|The young Kenyan hippopotamus has leucism, a condition in which the skin produces less pigment than usual, a scientist says.|/p|
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Even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla)[edit]. The hippopotamus is the most massive of the even-toed ungulates. ...
Artiodactyla. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ... Tak, P.C.; Lamba, B.S. (1984). "Ecology and Ethology of the Spotted-deer: Axis axis axis (Erxleben) (Artiodactyla : Cervidae ... First record of the invasive alien species Axis axis (Erxleben, 1777) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in Brazil Ciervo Axis (Axis axis ... Di Stefano, G.; Petronio, C. (2002). "Systematics and evolution of the Eurasian Plio-Pleistocene tribe Cervini (Artiodactyla, ...
Some artiodactyla, such as white-tailed deer, lack a gall bladder. The penises of even-toed ungulates have an S-shape at rest ... This makes the Artiodactyla as traditionally defined an invalid paraphyletic taxon, since it includes animals descended from a ... "Artiodactyla". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 15 November 2014. Ungulate Taxonomy: A new perspective from Groves and Grubb ( ... There are two trends in terms of teeth within Artiodactyla. The Suina and hippopotamuses have a relatively large number of ...
Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic ... It belongs to the order Artiodactyla, family Bovidae and subfamily Bovinae. Common elands are sometimes considered part of the ... Groves, CP; Grubb P (2011). "Artiodactyla". Ungulate Taxonomy. Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 142. ISBN 978-1- ...
Peter Grubb (2005). "Artiodactyla: Cervidae: Capreolinae". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A ... Long, John L. (2003). "Artiodactyla". Introduced Mammals of the World: their History, Distribution and Influence. CSIRO ...
"Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed ... "New phylogenetic perspectives on the Cervidae (Artiodactyla) are provided by the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene". Proceedings ...
... is an extinct gazelle which existed in what is now Ethiopia during the Pliocene epoch. It was described by Denis Geraads, René Bobe and Kaye Reed in 2012. Approximately the size of a living dorcas gazelle, the animal was noted for its unusual, spiral horn cores.[1]. ...
Cetaceans and artiodactyls now are classified under the order Cetartiodactyla, often still referred to as Artiodactyla, which ...
Artiodactyla Infraorder:. Cetacea Family:. Delphinidae Genus:. Grampus. Gray, 1828 [3] Species: G. griseus ...
A major conservation concern for beaked whales (family Ziphiidae) is they appear to be vulnerable to modern sonar operations, which arises from recent strandings that temporally and physically coincide with naval sonar exercises.[20] Post mortem examinations of the stranded whales in concurrence with naval exercises have reported the presence of hemorrhaging near the ears or gas and fat emboli, which could have a deleterious impact on beaked whales that is analogous to decompression sickness in humans.[11] Gas and fat emboli have been shown to cause nervous and cardiovascular system dysfunction, respiratory distress, pain, and disorientation in both humans and animals.[20] In the inner ear, gas embolism can cause hemorrhages, leading to disorientation or vestibular dysfunction. Breath-holding divers, like beaked whales, can develop decompression-related problems (the "bends") when they return to the surface after deep dives.[1] This is a possible hypothesis for the mass strandings of pelagic ...
Artiodactyla Family: Bovidae Subfamily: Caprinae Genus: Arabitragus. Ropiquet & Hassanin, 2005 Species: A. jayakari ...
"Relationships of Cetacea (Artiodactyla) Among Mammals: Increased Taxon Sampling Alters Interpretations of Key Fossils and ...
In eastern Europe, where it survived until nearly 400 years ago, the aurochs has left traces in fixed expressions. In Russia, a drunken person behaving badly was described as "behaving like an aurochs", whereas in Poland, big, strong people were characterized as being "a bloke like an aurochs".[78]. In Central Europe, the aurochs features in toponyms and heraldic coats of arms. For example, the names Ursenbach and Aurach am Hongar are derived from the aurochs. An aurochs head, the traditional arms of the German region Mecklenburg, figures in the coat of arms of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The aurochs (Romanian bour, from Latin būbalus) was also the symbol of Moldavia; nowadays, they can be found in the coat of arms of both Romania and Moldova. An aurochs head is featured on an 1858 series of Moldavian stamps, the so-called Bull's Heads (cap de bour in Romanian), renowned for their rarity and price among collectors. In Romania there are still villages named Boureni, after the Romanian word for the ...
The decline of the Siberian Musk Deer's population began in China where most of the deer population was abundant. Most notably in the Sichuan plains, the musk production was accounted for 80% of the domestic trade in the 1950s.[4] New sightings of musk deer was later spotted in the upper northeast Asia and Russia; these spotted places soon opened their own musk market. After the 1980s, the production begins to steadily decline due to hunting for their musk glands. Then the cycle of over-harvesting the deer's musk continued until the exploitation severely reduced the musk deer's population. Another threat comes from the habitat loss by deforestation. For a long period, China cut more of its forest than they could replant. 200million cm3[4] of China's forest recourses were cut down in the past 25 years in order to harvest the timber stock in trade for commerce. Deforestation is a severe threat to the musk deer's long term survival because the deer can only live in a few areas. ...
Artiodactyla. Family:. Cervidae. Subfamily:. Capreolinae. Genus:. Odocoileus. Species:. O. hemionus. Subspecies:. O. h. ...
Artiodactyla. Family:. Suidae. Genus:. Sus. Species:. S. scrofa. Subspecies:. S. s. domesticus. ...
The dental formula for Dorudon atrox is 3.1.4.23.1.4.3. [13] Typical for cetaceans, the upper incisors are aligned with the cheek teeth, and, except the small I1, separated by large diastemata containing pits into which the lower incisors fit. The upper incisors are simple conical teeth with a single root, lacking accessory denticles, and difficult to distinguish from lower incisors. The upper incisors are missing in most specimens and are only known from two specimens. The upper canine is a little larger than the upper incisors, and, like them, directed slightly buccally and mesially.[13] P1, only preserved in a single specimen, is the only single-rooted upper premolar. Apparently, P1 is conical, smaller than the remaining premolars and lacks accessory denticles. P2 is the largest upper tooth and the first in the upper row with large accessory denticles. Like the more posterior premolars, it is buccolingually compressed and double-rooted. It has a dominant central protocone flanked by denticles ...
Traditionally, discussion of the cause of their extinction has focused on the antler size (rather than on their overall body size), which may be due more to their impact on the observer than any actual property. Some have suggested hunting by humans was a contributing factor in the demise of the Irish elk, as may have been the case with other prehistoric megafauna, even assuming that the large antler size restricted the movement of males through forested regions or that it was by some other means a "maladaptation".[18] Others assume the ultimate cause of extinction may have been the adaptations for mineral metabolism that were beneficial to the Irish elk until vegetation changed.[32] But given the difficulty of recovering quantitative records of human hunting impacts from the sub-fossil record alone, the role of humans in the extinction of the Irish elk is not yet clear. Some research has suggested that a lack of sufficient high-quality forage caused the extinction of the elk. According to an ...
"A revised phylogeny of Antilopini (Bovidae, Artiodactyla) using combined mitochondrial and nuclear genes" (PDF). Molecular ...
Because vaquitas are endemic to the Gulf of California, Mexico is leading conservation efforts with the creation of the International Committee for the Recovery of the Vaquita (CIRVA), which has tried to prevent the accidental deaths of vaquitas by outlawing the use of fishing nets within the vaquita's habitat.[26] CIRVA has worked with the CITES, the ESA, and the Marine Mammal Protection Act to make a plan to nurse the vaquita population back to a point at which they can sustain themselves.[28] CIRVA concluded in 2000 that between 39 and 84 individuals were killed annually by such gillnets. To try to prevent extinction, the Mexican government has created a nature reserve covering the upper part of the Gulf of California and the Colorado River delta. CIRVA recommends that this reserve be extended southwards to cover the full known area of the vaquita's range and that trawlers be completely banned from the reserve area. On 28 October 2008, Canada, Mexico, and the United States launched the North ...
... live in large herds, and do not typically follow a single leader ram, unlike the mouflon, the ancestor of the domestic sheep, which has a strict dominance hierarchy. Prior to the mating season or "rut", the rams attempt to establish a dominance hierarchy to determine access to ewes for mating. During the prerut period, most of the characteristic horn clashing occurs between rams, although this behavior may occur to a limited extent throughout the year.[27] Bighorn sheep exhibit agonistic behavior: two competitors walk away from each other and then turn to face each other before jumping and lunging into headbutts.[28] Rams' horns can frequently exhibit damage from repeated clashes.[24] Females exhibit a stable, nonlinear hierarchy that correlates with age.[29] Females may fight for high social status when they are integrated into the hierarchy at one to two years of age.[29]. Rocky Mountain bighorn rams employ at least three different courting strategies.[30] The most common and ...
Artiodactyla. Family:. Bovidae. Subfamily:. Bovinae. Genus:. Bubalus. Species:. B. depressicornis. B. quarlesi. ...
The sable antelope is sexually dimorphic, with the male heavier and about one-fifth taller than the female.[9] The head-and-body length is typically between 190 and 255 cm (75 and 100 in).[10] Males reach about 117-140 cm (46-55 in) at the shoulder, while females are slightly shorter. Males typically weigh 235 kg (518 lb) and females 220 kg (490 lb).[11] The tail is 40-75 cm (16-30 in) long, with a tuft at the end.[9][10]. The sable antelope has a compact and robust build, characterized by a thick neck and tough skin.[9] It has a well-developed and often upright mane on its neck, as well as a short mane on the throat.[11] Its general colouration is rich chestnut to black. Females and juveniles are chestnut to dark brown, while males begin darkening and turn black after three years. However, in southern populations, females have a brown to black coat. Calves less than two months old are a light tan and show faint markings.[11] The underparts, cheek, and chin are all white, creating a great ...
Artiodactyla Family:. Bovidae Subfamily:. Caprinae Genus:. Ammotragus. Blyth, 1840 Species: A. lervia ...
Like other forest ungulates, bongos are seldom seen in large groups. Males, called bulls, tend to be solitary, while females with young live in groups of six to eight. Bongos have seldom been seen in herds of more than 20. Gestation is about 285 days (9.5 months), with one young per birth, and weaning occurs at six months. Sexual maturity is reached at 24-27 months. The preferred habitat of this species is so dense and difficult to operate in, that few Europeans or Americans observed this species until the 1960s. As young males mature and leave their maternal groups, they most often remain solitary, although rarely they join an older male. Adult males of similar size/age tend to avoid one another. Occasionally, they meet and spar with their horns in a ritualised manner and it is rare for serious fights to take place. However, such fights are usually discouraged by visual displays, in which the males bulge their necks, roll their eyes, and hold their horns in a vertical position while slowly ...

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