An order of wholly aquatic MAMMALS occurring in all the OCEANS and adjoining seas of the world, as well as in certain river systems. They feed generally on FISHES, cephalopods, and crustaceans. Most are gregarious and most have a relatively long period of parental care and maturation. Included are DOLPHINS; PORPOISES; and WHALES. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp969-70)
An order of ungulates having an odd number of toes, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros. (Dorland, 27th ed)
An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.
Mammals of the family Phocoenidae comprising four genera found in the North Pacific Ocean and both sides of the North Atlantic Ocean and in various other seas. They differ from DOLPHINS in that porpoises have a blunt snout and a rather stocky body while dolphins have a beak-like snout and a slender, streamlined body. They usually travel in small groups. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp1003-4)
Any of various ruminant mammals of the order Bovidae. They include numerous species in Africa and the American pronghorn.
Mammals of the families Delphinidae (ocean dolphins), Iniidae, Lipotidae, Pontoporiidae, and Platanistidae (all river dolphins). Among the most well-known species are the BOTTLE-NOSED DOLPHIN and the KILLER WHALE (a dolphin). The common name dolphin is applied to small cetaceans having a beaklike snout and a slender, streamlined body, whereas PORPOISES are small cetaceans with a blunt snout and rather stocky body. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp978-9)
Large marine mammals of the order CETACEA. In the past, they were commercially valued for whale oil, for their flesh as human food and in ANIMAL FEED and FERTILIZERS, and for baleen. Today, there is a moratorium on most commercial whaling, as all species are either listed as endangered or threatened.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.
Hoofed mammals with four legs, a big-lipped snout, and a humped back belonging to the family Camelidae.
A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.
A plant genus in the family FABACEAE, subfamily Papilionaceae, order Fabales, subclass Rosidae. Many of the species are associated with poisoning of grazing animals. Some of the species are used medicinally.
A plant species of the Astragalus genus which is source of Huang qi preparation used in TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE.
Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.
Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.
Disorders of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM occurring as a primary condition. Manifestations can involve any or all body systems but commonly affect the BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.
A genus of the family Bovidae having two species: B. bison and B. bonasus. This concept is differentiated from BUFFALOES, which refers to Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer.
A species of gram-negative bacteria causing MASTITIS; ARTHRITIS; and RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASES in CATTLE.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A herpesvirus infection of cattle characterized by catarrhal inflammation of the upper respiratory and alimentary epithelia, keratoconjunctivitis, encephalitis and lymph node enlargement. Syn: bovine epitheliosis, snotsiekte.
An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
A semisynthetic ampicillin-derived acylureido penicillin.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
An autologous or commercial tissue adhesive containing FIBRINOGEN and THROMBIN. The commercial product is a two component system from human plasma that contains more than fibrinogen and thrombin. The first component contains highly concentrated fibrinogen, FACTOR VIII, fibronectin, and traces of other plasma proteins. The second component contains thrombin, calcium chloride, and antifibrinolytic agents such as APROTININ. Mixing of the two components promotes BLOOD CLOTTING and the formation and cross-linking of fibrin. The tissue adhesive is used for tissue sealing, HEMOSTASIS, and WOUND HEALING.
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).
Substances used to cause adherence of tissue to tissue or tissue to non-tissue surfaces, as for prostheses.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.

A survey of serum and dietary carotenoids in captive wild animals. (1/184)

Accumulation of carotenoids varies greatly among animal species and is not fully characterized. Circulating carotenoid concentration data in captive wild animals are limited and may be useful for their management. Serum carotenoid concentrations and dietary intakes were surveyed and the extent of accumulation categorized for 76 species of captive wild animals at Brookfield Zoo. Blood samples were obtained opportunistically from 275 individual animals immobilized for a variety of reasons; serum was analyzed for alpha- and beta-carotene, lutein + zeaxanthin, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin and canthaxanthin. Total carotenoid content of diets was calculated from tables and chemical analyses of commonly consumed dietary components. Diets were categorized as low, moderate or high in carotenoid content as were total serum carotenoid concentrations. Animals were classified as unknown, high, moderate or low (non-) accumulators of dietary cartenoids. Nonaccumulators had total serum carotenoid concentrations of 0-101 nmol/L, whereas accumulators had concentrations that ranged widely, from 225 to 35,351 nmol/L. Primates were uniquely distinguished by the widest range of type and concentration of carotenoids in their sera. Most were classified as high to moderate accumulators. Felids had high accumulation of beta-carotene regardless of dietary intake, whereas a wide range of exotic birds accumulated only the xanthophylls, lutein + zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin or cryptoxanthin. The exotic ungulates, with the exception of the bovids, had negligible or nondetectable carotenoid serum concentrations despite moderate intakes. Bovids accumulated only beta-carotene despite moderately high lutein + zeaxanthin intakes. Wild captive species demonstrated a wide variety of carotenoid accumulation patterns, which could be exploited to answer remaining questions concerning carotenoid metabolism and function.  (+info)

The prevalence of Balantidium coli infection in fifty-six mammalian species. (2/184)

A total of 375 fecal samples of 56 mammalian species belonging to 17 families of 4 orders were examined for the detection of Balantidium coli from December 1994 to August 1995. As a result, B. coli was found from 6 species belonging to 4 families of 2 orders (Primates and Artiodactyla) of host animals examined. White-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar), squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciurea) and Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) were new hosts for B. coli. All the wild boar (Sus scrofa) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) examined were positive. The highest number of B. coli was obtained from a chimpanzee (1,230/g feces). No B. coli was detected from the animals of orders Rodentia and Carnivora including dogs and cats. The rarity of B. coli infection in breeding animals in Japan. suggests that there is no serious problem in controlling infections.  (+info)

Phylogenetic relationships among cetartiodactyls based on insertions of short and long interpersed elements: hippopotamuses are the closest extant relatives of whales. (3/184)

Insertion analysis of short and long interspersed elements is a powerful method for phylogenetic inference. In a previous study of short interspersed element data, it was found that cetaceans, hippopotamuses, and ruminants form a monophyletic group. To further resolve the relationships among these taxa, we now have isolated and characterized 10 additional loci. A phylogenetic analysis of these data was able to resolve relationships among the major cetartiodactyl groups, thereby shedding light on the origin of whales. The results indicated (i) that cetaceans are deeply nested within Artiodactyla, (ii) that cetaceans and hippopotamuses form a monophyletic group, (iii) that pigs and peccaries form a monophyletic group to the exclusion of hippopotamuses, (iv) that chevrotains diverged first among ruminants, and (v) that camels diverged first among cetartiodactyls. These findings lead us to conclude that cetaceans evolved from an immediate artiodactyl, not mesonychian, ancestor.  (+info)

Genealogy of families of SINEs in cetaceans and artiodactyls: the presence of a huge superfamily of tRNA(Glu)-derived families of SINEs. (4/184)

Several novel (sub)families of SINEs were isolated from the genomes of cetaceans and artiodactyls, and their sequences were determined. From comparisons of diagnostic nucleotides among the short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs) in these (sub)families, we were able to draw the following conclusions. (1) After the divergence of the suborder Tylopoda (camels), the CHRS family of SINEs was newly created from tRNA(Glu) in a common ancestor of the lineages of the Suina (pigs and peccaries), Ruminantia (cows and deer), and Cetacea (whales and dolphins). (2) After divergence of the Suina lineage, the CHR-1 SINE and the CHR-2 SINE were generated successively in a common ancestor of ruminants, hippopotamuses, and cetaceans. (3) In the Ruminantia lineage, the Bov-tA SINE was generated by recombination between the CHR-2 SINE and Bov-A. (4) In the Suina lineage, the CHRS-S SINE was generated from the CHRS SINE. (5) In this latter lineage, the PRE-1 family of SINEs was created by insertion of part of the gene for tRNA(Arg) into the 5' region of the CHRS-S family. The distribution of a particular family of SINEs among species of artiodactyls and cetaceans confirmed the most recent conclusion for paraphyly of the order Artiodactyla. The present study also revealed that a newly created tRNA(Glu)-derived family of SINEs was subjected both to recombination with different units and to duplication of an internal sequence within a SINE unit to generate, during evolution, a huge superfamily of tRNA(Glu)-related families of SINEs that are now found in the genomes of artiodactyls and cetaceans.  (+info)

The role of wild ruminants in the epidemiology of bovine petechial fever. (5/184)

After experimental inoculation of Cytoecetes ondiri, the agent of bovine petechial fever (BPF), multiplication occurred in impala, bushbuck, Thomson's gazelles and wildebeest, as shown by infectivity studies and clinical findings. Similar attempts to infect one eland failed. As a sequel to this, blood and spleen samples were collected from four species of wild ruminants in an area where BPTF was endemic. Isolations of C. ondiri were made from three of five bushbuck, but not from any other species.  (+info)

Phylogeography of three closely related African bovids (tribe Alcelaphini). (6/184)

The phylogeography of three species of African bovids, the hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus), the topi (Damaliscus lunatus), and the wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), is inferred from sequence variation of 345 sequences at the control region (d-loop) of the mtDNA. The three species are closely related (tribe Alcelaphini) and share similar habitat requirements. Moreover, their former distribution extended over Africa, as a probable result of the expansion of open grassland on the continent during the last 2.5 Myr. A combination of population genetics (diversity and structure) and intraspecific phylogeny (tree topology and relative branch length) methods is used to substantiate scenarios of the species history. Population dynamics are inferred from the distribution of sequence pairwise differences within populations. In the three species, there is a significant structuring of the populations, as shown by analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) pairwise and hierarchical differentiation estimations. In the wildebeest, a pattern of colonization from southern Africa toward east Africa is consistent with the asymmetric topology of the gene tree, showing a paraphyletic position of southern lineages, as well as their relatively longer branch lengths, and is supported by a progressive decline in population nucleotide diversity toward east Africa. The phylogenetic pattern found in the topi and the hartebeest differs from that of the wildebeest: lineages split into monophyletic clades, and no geographical trend is detected in population diversity. We suggest a scenario where these antelopes, previously with wide pan-African distributions, became extinct except in a few refugia. The hartebeest, and probably also the topi, survived in refugia north of the equator, in the east and the west, respectively, as well as one in the south. The southern refugium furthermore seems to have been the only place where the wildebeest has survived.  (+info)

Model dependence of the phylogenetic inference: relationship among carnivores, Perissodactyls and cetartiodactyls as inferred from mitochondrial genome sequences. (7/184)

Some previous analysis of mitochondrial proteins strongly support the Carnivora/Perissodactyla grouping excluding Cetartiodactyla (Artiodactyla + Cetacea) as an outgroup, but the support of the hypothesis remains equivocal from the analysis of several nuclear-encoded proteins. In order to evaluate the strength of the support by mitochondrial proteins, phylogenetic relationship among Carnivora, Perissodactyla, and Cetartiodactyla was estimated with the ML method by using the updated data set of the 12 mitochondrial proteins with several alternative models. The analyses demonstrate that the phylogenetic inference depends on the model used in the ML analysis; i.e., whether the site-heterogeneity is taken into account and whether the rate parameters are estimated for each individual proteins or for the concatenated sequences. Although the analysis of concatenated sequences strongly supports the Carnivora/Perissodactyla grouping, the total evaluation of the separate analyses of individual proteins, which approximates the data better than the concatenated analysis, gives only ambiguous results, and therefore it is concluded that more data are needed to resolve this trichotomy.  (+info)

Conservation within artiodactyls of an AATA interrupt in the IGF-I microsatellite for 19-35 million years. (8/184)

Occurrence of an AATA interrupt in the IGF-I microsatellite was investigated in a number of Artiodactyl species, namely pigs, camels, deer, cattle, goats, and sheep. Comparison of DNA sequences in the 5' flank of the microsatellite in these species revealed that the interrupt within the microsatellite is conserved in deer, cattle, sheep, and goats but is absent from camels and pigs. The interrupt was introduced into the Artiodactyl phylogeny after the divergence of the Camelidae but before the divergence of the Cervidae, and thus its time of origin can be estimated to be 19-35 MYA. In contrast to the repeat units which are hypermutable, the interrupt has been conserved for a very long time and may even have suppressed microsatellite variation by inhibiting replication slippage. A 12-bp deletion in the 5' flank of the microsatellite in camels corresponds to a consensus reversed repeat in deer, cattle, sheep, and goats with unknown functional significance. Apart from this deletion, the 5' flank of the microsatellite is highly conserved in Artiodactyl species.  (+info)

In this study, the ovaries of 27 wild collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) fromthe Amazonian region of northeastern Peru were examined macroscopically and microscopically, and expression of major steroidogenic enzymes was detected by immunohistochemistry. Our observations suggest a mean ovulation rate of 2.3 +/- 0.6 follicles and a low rate of reproductive wastage (0.4 +/- 0.6 oocytes or embryos per pregnancy). The collared peccary seems to exhibit follicular waves involving the synchronous growth of a cohort of follicles, several of which seem to attain selection. The presence of antral follicles in pregnant females suggests that follicular turnover continues during pregnancy. In cyclic animals, corpora lutea were characterised by the presence of distinct large and small luteal cell populations. The luteal volume in pregnant females was larger than that recorded for non-pregnant females. Through immunohistochemistry, it was observed that luteal cells from active corpora lutea exhibit intensive 3 ...
We describe the macroscopic anatomy of the intestine of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). The small intestine was divided into duodenum, jejunum and ileum as usual. The caecum was attached to the ileum by a long ileocaecal fold, and to the proximal ansa of the ascending colon by a caecocolic fold. The ascending colon was the most developed portion of the gross intestine and had the most complex arrangement with three ansae: the proximal ansa, the spiral ansa and the distal ansa. The proximal ansa completely encircled the caecum, describing a 360° gyrus, and represented the widest portion of the intestine. The spiral ansa was formed by three and a half centripetal gyri, a central flexure and three centrifugal gyri. The last centrifugal gyrus left the spiral and described nine flexures of different form and direction over the ...
In September 2011, a total of 511 human cases of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) infection and 5 deaths were reported in a game management area in the district of Chama, Zambia, near where 85 hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus amphibious) had recently died of suspected anthrax. The human infections generally responded to antibiotics. To clarify transmission, we conducted a cross-sectional, interviewer-administered household survey in villages where human anthrax cases and hippopotamus deaths were reported. Among 284 respondents, 84% ate hippopotamus meat before the outbreak. Eating, carrying, and preparing meat were associated with anthrax infection. Despite the risk, 23% of respondents reported they would eat meat from hippopotamuses found dead again because of food shortage (73%), lack of meat (12%), hunger (7%), and protein shortage (5%). Chronic food insecurity can lead to consumption of unsafe foods, leaving communities susceptible to zoonotic infection. Interagency cooperation is necessary to prevent
The even-toed ungulates form the mammal order Artiodactyla. They are ungulates whose weight is borne about equally by the third and fourth toes, rather than mostly or entirely by the third as in perissodactyls. There are about 220 artiodactyl species, including many that are of great economic importance to humans. As with many mammal groups, even-toed ungulates first appeared during the Early Eocene (about 54 million years ago). In form they were rather like todays chevrotains: small, short-legged creatures that ate leaves and the soft parts of plants. By the Late Eocene (46 million years ago), the three modern suborders had already developed: Suina (the pig group); Tylopoda (the camel group); and Ruminantia (the goat and cattle group). Nevertheless, artiodactyls were far from dominant at that time: the odd-toed ungulates (ancestors of todays horses and rhinos) were much more successful and far more numerous. Even-toed ungulates survived in niche roles, usually occupying marginal habitats, and ...
Three (possibly four) living species of peccaries are found from the southwestern United States through Central America and into South America and Trinidad.. The collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) or musk hog, referring to the animals scent glands, occurs from the southwestern United States into South America and the island of Trinidad. The coat consists of wiry peppered black, gray, and brown hair with a lighter colored collar circling the shoulders. They bear young year-round, but most often between November and March, with the average litter size consisting of two to three piglets. They are found in all kinds of habitats, from arid scrublands to humid tropical rain forests. The collared peccary is well adapted to habitat disturbed by humans, merely requiring sufficient cover; they can be found in cities and agricultural land throughout their range. Notable populations exist in the suburbs of Phoenix and Tucson, Arizona, where they feed on ornamental plants and other cultivated ...
The hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), or hippo, from the ancient Greek for river horse (???????????), is a large, mostly herbivorous mammal in sub-Saharan Africa, and one of only two extant species in the family Hippopotamidae (the other is the pygmy hippopotamus). After the elephant and rhinoceros, the hippopotamus is the third largest type of land mammal and the heaviest extant artiodactyl. Despite their physical resemblance to pigs and other terrestrial even-toed ungulates, their closest living relatives are cetaceans (whales, porpoises, etc.) from which they diverged about 55 million years ago. The common ancestor of whales and hippos split from other even-toed ungulates around 60 million years ago. The earliest known hippopotamus fossils, belonging to the genus Kenyapotamus in Africa, date to around 16 million years ago. The hippopotamus is semi-aquatic, inhabiting rivers, lakes and mangrove swamps, where territorial bulls preside over a stretch of river and groups of 5 to 30 females ...
ABSTRACT: Many methods of age determination have been used to date. However, most of them require laboratory procedures which are, in general, not available for wildlife managers in the field. In this paper we attempt to standardize the age categories for six mammal species through the analysis of dental wear, dental eruption and body mass. We analyzed 632 skulls, including Mazama nemorivaga (brown brocket deer), Mazama americana (red brocket deer), Tayassu pecari (white-lipped peccary), Pecari tajacu (collared peccary), Cuniculus paca (paca) and Dasyprocta leporina (agouti). Using biological and morphological criteria we define four age categories: young, sub adult, adult and senescent adult. Scores and variables of molar cusp wear and eruption were defined for each age category within each species. We found significant differences in mean weights among age categories for D. leporina (F = 81.1; df = 3; p < 0.05), C. paca (F = 39.0; df = 3; p < 0.05), P. tajacu (F = 24.6; df = 3; p < 0.05) and ...
The control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is at a critical point in the last stage of eradication in livestock. Wildlife species recently have emerged infected with TB in Europe, particularly ungulates in the Iberian Peninsula. Epidemiological information regarding TB in wild ungulates including affected species, prevalence, associated risk factors and appropriate diagnostic methods need to be obtained in these countries. A cross-sectional study was carried out on wild artiodactyl species, including Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) red deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer (Capraelus capraelus), fallow deer (Dama dama), Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica) and mouflon (Ovis musimon), in Spain to assess the seroprevalence against Mycobacterium bovis or cross-reacting members of the Mycobcaterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), and to provide information on associated risk factors. Previously, two in-house indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (bPPD-ELISA and MPB83-ELISA) were developed using known ...
The phenomenon of a remarkable conservation of the X chromosome in eutherian mammals has been first described by Susumu Ohno in 1964. A notable exception is the cetartiodactyl X chromosome, which varies widely in morphology and G-banding pattern between species. It is hypothesized that this sex chromosome has undergone multiple rearrangements that changed the centromere position and the order of syntenic segments over the last 80 million years of Cetartiodactyla speciation. To investigate its evolution we have selected 26 evolutionarily conserved bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from the cattle CHORI-240 library evenly distributed along the cattle X chromosome. High-resolution BAC maps of the X chromosome on a representative range of cetartiodactyl species from different branches: pig (Suidae), alpaca (Camelidae), gray whale (Cetacea), hippopotamus (Hippopotamidae), Java mouse-deer (Tragulidae), pronghorn (Antilocapridae), Siberian musk deer (Moschidae), and giraffe (Giraffidae) were ...
Suleima do Socorro Bastos da Silva, Yvonnick Le Pendu, Otavio Mitio Ohashi, Eunice Oba, Natália Inagaki de Albuquerque, Alexandre Rossetto Garcia, Pedro Mayor, Diva Anelie de Araujo Guimarães ...
Collared peccaries Tayassu tajacu. They have loads. Until recently there was just a single wire fence seperating the peccaries from the public, and I always thought this was a bit dangerous in view of the immense teeth these animals have. Theyve now installed a separate barrier fence that keeps people further back from the animals. Id like to think this is because one of the peccaries chewed someones arm off, but sadly I lack confirmation of this fine theory. Peccaries are omnivores, though they mostly eat vegetation (predominantly roots, fruits and tubers), and the suid-like rhinarial disk they have is obviously great for rooting in soil. They have particularly short tails (with only seven caudal vertebrae or less), hind feet strongly modified for cursoriality (some of them even lack digit II), and vertically implanted canines where the lower canine fits into a special pocket on the side of the muzzle. A similar feature is seen in hippos, so some workers think that peccaries and hippos are ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - X chromosome evolution in cetartiodactyla. AU - Proskuryakova, Anastasia A.. AU - Kulemzina, Anastasia I.. AU - Perelman, Polina L.. AU - Makunin, Alexey I.. AU - Larkin, Denis M.. AU - Farré, Marta. AU - Kukekova, Anna V.. AU - Lynn Johnson, Jennifer. AU - Lemskaya, Natalya A.. AU - Beklemisheva, Violetta R.. AU - Roelke-Parker, Melody E.. AU - Bellizzi, June. AU - Ryder, Oliver A.. AU - OBrien, Stephen J.. AU - Graphodatsky, Alexander S.. PY - 2017/8/31. Y1 - 2017/8/31. N2 - The phenomenon of a remarkable conservation of the X chromosome in eutherian mammals has been first described by Susumu Ohno in 1964. A notable exception is the cetartiodactyl X chromosome, which varies widely in morphology and G-banding pattern between species. It is hypothesized that this seX chromosome has undergone multiple rearrangements that changed the centromere position and the order of syntenic segments over the last 80 million years of Cetartiodactyla speciation. To investigate its evolution we ...
This study was carried out in the eastern Transvaal Lowveld in an area 2 with a giraffe population density of 2,6 per km . Lions are the only predators and it was estimated that 48% of the calves die in their first year. The sex ratio departs significantly from unity in favour of females. Plant fragments in the rumen were identified. Giraffe subsist on the leaves of trees and shrubs, though fruit, flowers, twigs and grass were also utilised. Marked seasonal changes in the plant species selected were determined by availability and different habitats were utilised accordingly. Chemical analysis of rumen content showed correlations of nutritional value with species eaten and seasonal phenological changes of the vegetation. Tooth eruption, wear and incremental layers in the cementum were found to be suitable criteria for age determination. Total body mass was measured and carcasses dressed out at 61,9% for males and 56,6% for females. Lower mass and lower proportion of fat was found in the dry ...
The heads of both male and female giraffes have a pair of hair-covered horns called ossicones, which are permanently covered by skin and ending in a tuft of black hair. Male giraffes use their horns to playfully fight with one another. The horns of male giraffes are larger than those of female giraffes, growing up to 25 centimetres (about 10 inches) long.. As male giraffes age, calcium deposits form on their skulls and other horn-like bumps develop. Giraffes can have up to three of these large bumps, two in the rear of the skull and one in the forehead region, so that it may look like they have five horns.. This characteristic which is found in no other mammal is linked to the fights that male giraffes stage to establish dominance for mating.. Their small horns on top of their heads are covered in hair and are quite often used in combat between males (bulls), particularly when conflicting for dominance over a mating partner. The horns on female giraffes are quite smaller and more ...
Additional info for A Giraffe Calf Grows Up (Baby Animals). Sample text. At 10 years old, he is considered full grown. Even so, a giraffe can continue to grow very slowly for most of its life. Giraffes have two-toed hooves like deer, sheep, and cows. But the giraffes neck is quite a bit different. Scientists think that the giraffe is descended from long-necked hooved animals that lived millions of years ago. Giraffes, like humans, have 7 neck bones. But a giraffes neck is about 6 feet long. Its neck bones are big and heavy. The giraffe has strong neck muscles to support its neck bones. But a giraffes neck is about 6 feet long. Its neck bones are big and heavy. The giraffe has strong neck muscles to support its neck bones. The giraffes extra large heart pumps blood all the way up to its head. Giraffes live in Africa. The plains of central and eastern Africa are dotted with acacia trees. Acacia leaves are the giraffes favorite food. Other hooved animals roam these great plains. But only the ...
The idea that whales evolved from within the Artiodactyla was based on analysis of DNA sequences. In the initial molecular analyses, whales were shown to be more closely related to ruminants (such as cattle and deer) than ruminants are to pigs. In order for the order name to reflect a real evolutionary unit, the term Cetartiodactyla was coined.. Later molecular analyses included a wider sampling of artiodactyls and produced a more complete tale. Hippos were determined to be the closest relative of whales, ruminants were related to a whale/hippo clade, and pigs were more distant. In addition to producing the controversial whale/hippo clade, these analyses debunked the idea that hippos and pigs are closely related. This had been a popular taxonomic hypothesis (Suiformes) based on similarities in morphological (physical) characteristics.. In addition to DNA and protein sequences, researchers tracked the movement of transposons called SINEs in the genome (see the method at retrotransposon marker). A ...
Agrarian Artiodactyla Cattle Domestic: 20 assigned downloads, like Herd of sheep, Windeck, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, Europe from stock-photos
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine publishes original research findings, clinical observations, and case reports in the field of veterinary medicine.
Hippopotamus amphibius. To protect them still more from the sun, as for the other hippopotamus, the skin secretes a kind of natural solar screen of reddish colo
artiodactyl: Any member of the mammalian order Artiodactyla, or even-toed ungulates, which includes the pigs, peccaries, hippopotamuses, camels, chevrotains, deer, giraffes, pronghorn, antelopes,...
Sociality involves a constant trade-off between fitness benefits and costs of living in groups, and this trade-off can be influenced by the social and ecological environment in which individuals live. In this PhD I explored socioecological factors underlying the social and spatial population structure and dynamics of a large tropical herbivore with a highly fission-fusion social system, the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). Using a dataset of more than 3,000 uniquely identified individuals collected over a period of 8 years in the coupled human-natural Tarangire Ecosystem of northern Tanzania, I (1) investigated natural and anthropogenic factors as mechanisms of giraffe grouping dynamics, social structure, space use, and vital rates; (2) quantified fitness consequences of social behaviours of adult female giraffes in relation to the influence of their physical environment; and (3) compared social versus spatial dispersal of subadult female and male giraffes. I used capture-mark-recapture ...
Elastic Cartilage. Giraffes average between 14 and 17 feet tall, with the neck providing approximately six feet of that height. Although giraffes have extremely long necks, they only have seven cervical vertebrae, which is the same number found in humans. Top Answer. Each vertebrae may be over 10 inches long. Of the proteins in giraffe and okapi genes, 19.4% are identical. How many neck vertebrae does a giraffe have? How many thoracic vertebrae do giraffes have? Humans have 5 sacral vertebrae. Giraffes body weight can vary between 2,000 and 3,500 pounds. The coat patterns of modern giraffes may also have coincided with these habitat changes. Giraffes eat up to 75 pounds of foliage and drink as much as 100 gallons of water each day. 1 decade ago. Although giraffes have extremely long necks, they only have seven cervical vertebrae, which is the same number found in humans. Marshall Cavendish, 2008. Humans and giraffes have the same amount of bones in their neck! The lips of the giraffe are very ...
Thomas, O. 1911. The mammals of the tenth edition of Linnaeus; an attempt to fix the types of the genera and the exact bases and localities of the species. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1911: 150 ...
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. ...
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. ...
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. ...
In artiodactyls, the structure of the foot is especially diagnostic, specifically the number of toes and the morphology of the astragalus. Most species have either 2 or 4 toes on each foot (for exceptions see Pecari and Tayassu) as the first digit, present in most ancestral mammals, has been lost through evolution and the second and fifth digits have been significantly reduced. As a result, artiodactyls are paraxonic. The unique structure of the astragalus, which consists of a double-pulley arrangement of the articular surfaces, completely restricts lateral motion and allows for greater flexion and extension of the hind limb. The astragalus, in conjunction with springing ligaments in the limbs, hard hooves, relatively small feet, and elongated lightweight limbs, allows for highly developed cursorial locomotion in more derived species. In the families Camelidae, Cervidae, Giraffidae, Antilocapridae, and Bovidae, the third and fourth metapodials have become fused to create the cannon bone, which ...
Hippopotamus Skulls and Teeth replias are cast polyurethane replicas. All of our replicas are museum quality Hippopotamus Skulls and Teeth. Shop Today!
Darwin essentially plagiarized the work of Jean Baptiste Lamarck, a French biologist, to explain how the giraffe got its long neck, with a different twist. There are only seven vertebrae in mammal necks, meaning that the giraffe has vertebrae that are nearly a foot long each! Interesting theory… My question is how does evolution explain the development of a special organ that sits between the brain and arteries… which acts as a kind of blood capacitor? Male giraffes battle for mates by swinging their powerful necks--which can be over six feet long and weigh more than 200 pounds. Get unlimited access when you subscribe. a. Applying the darwin theory to giraffes is that giraffes had varied neck sizes and the short necked giraffes were naturally selected against, causing only the … In a study that shows just how cool giraffes can get, researchers have tested a hypothesis that the giraffes long neck actually helps regulate their body temperature. Can anyone answer that ? An animal similar ...
The two families of oreodonts are the Merycoidodontidae (originally known as Oreodontidae) which contains all of the advanced species, and the Agriochoeridae, smaller, primitive oreodonts. Together they form the now-extinct suborder Oreodonta. Oreodonts may have been distantly related to pigs, hippopotamuses, and the pig-like peccaries. Indeed, some scholars[who?] place Merycoidodontidae within the pig-related suborder Suina (Suiformes). Other scholars[who?] place oreodonts closer to camels in the suborder Tylopoda. Still other experts[who?] put the oreodonts together with the short-lived cainotheres in the taxonomic suborder Ancodonta comprising these two groups of extinct ancodonts. All scholars agree, however, that the oreodont was an early form of even-toed ungulate, belonging to the order Artiodactyla. Today, most evidence points towards the oreodonts being tylopods, along with camels, xiphodonts, and protoceratids.[citation needed] Over 50 genera of Oreodonta have been described in the ...
Although they resemble bison, musk oxen are neither bison nor oxen they are more closely related to goats and sheep. Their closest relative is believed to be the Asian takin. Musk oxen can withstand severe arctic temperatures as low as -100 F (-73 C) because of an undercoat of fine wool, known as qiviut. The wool is as soft as cashmere and eight times warmer than sheep s wool. Each musk ox sheds five to seven pounds of wool naturally each spring. Their outer coat is dark brown to black in colour, made up of hairs up to 24 inches (62 cm) in length. Both males and females have large horns, and males have a thick shield that protects their skull during the annual mating season. Males are larger than females. Musk oxen have excellent sight and hearing and can run quickly when necessary. ...
The content requirements presented in this chapter outline what students should know, understand, and be able to do in natural science. We further elaborate entangled vascular networks from area-filling mathematical topologies and explore the oxygenation and circulate of human crimson blood cells throughout tidal ventilation and distension of a proximate airway. After 24-hour dissolution in rain water, 2.eight% of recent hippo feces biogenic Si was dissolved, which is 17.2 occasions more than that of undigested grass in similar circumstances, but it decreases with the age of the feces ( Fig.. When comparing the metabolic profile of in vitro-activated CD4+ T cells from sufferers and HCs, we observed that T cells from patients during relapse (n = 24), however not in remission (n = 25), exhibit an enhanced OXPHOS and glycolytic activity as in comparison with HCs (n = 24) ( Fig.. Nowadays, we are very acquainted to hearing the phrase Knowledge Science. Likewise, a rise in antigen affinities has ...
All sites were sampled during the dry season (February 2014). River discharge was measured upstream (5.3 m3 s−1 near site 1) and downstream (5.4 m3 s−1 near site 10) using depth transducers at rated cross sections. At site 1, stage height was measured every 15 min using a RuggedTROLL 100 pressure transducer that was corrected for atmospheric pressure changes (In-Situ Inc., Fort Collins, CO, USA). At site 10, the stage height was measured every 15 min with a pressure transducer connected to a Eureka Manta2 sonde (Eureka Water Probes, Austin, TX, USA). Rating curves were developed at both sites by measuring discharge using the area-velocity method on multiple occasions in 2011 and 2014 using either a handheld staff gauge or weighted measuring tape for depth and velocimeter for velocity or a HydroSurveyor (SonTek, San Diego, CA, USA). The stage height was converted to discharge using a rating curve developed for each site (39). Discharge measurements were averaged over a 10-day period before ...
Whilst giraffe are commonly seen on safari, in the media and in zoos, people - including conservationists - are unaware that these majestic animals are undergoing a silent extinction, says Julian Fennessy, co-chair of the IUCN SSC Giraffe and Okapi Specialist Group. With a decline of almost 40 percent in the last three decades alone, the worlds tallest animal is under severe pressure in some of its core ranges across East, Central and West Africa. As one of the worlds most iconic animals, it is timely that we stick our neck out for the giraffe before it is too late.. The Zoological Society of London (ZSL) supports the management and monitoring of key sites for giraffe in the wild, including the Tsavo Conservation Area in Kenya via the SMART patrol management system, and has also supported the development of Kenyas first National Giraffe Conservation Strategy. Both ZSL London Zoo and ZSL Whipsnade Zoo are home to giraffes, and ZSL co-hosts the IUCN SSC Giraffe and Okapi Specialist Group with ...
We demonstrate that more branches from the tree-of-life are pruned when extinction is phylogenetically non-random, but that the loss of their summed lengths is no greater than expected by chance. Furthermore, in some cases (e.g. Artiodactyla), non-random extinction can reduce the loss of branch lengths, presumably because threatened species tend to cluster within young, species-rich clades, while the number of branches being pruned may still be greater than random expectations. We suggest that number of branches, rather than branch lengths, might be important if trait variation accumulates in bursts at speciation events (represented by the nodes in the phylogenetic tree), as would be expected under a model of punctuated equilibrium [26]. If evolution follows a speciational model (and this may be the case for body size in mammals; [27]), short branches separating rapidly diverging lineages might capture as much feature diversity as longer branches in more slowly diversifying clades, although ...
Sioutis, S., Coates, A. M., Buckley, J. D., Murphy, T. W., Channon, H. A. and Howe, P. R. C. (2008), N-3 enrichment of pork with fishmeal: Effects on production and consumer acceptability. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 110: 701-706. doi: 10.1002/ejlt.200700253 ...
Pygmy hippopotamuses are shy and elusive animals, so they were not discovered by the scientific community until 1849. Even so, many people did not believe they existed because none had been captured. It was not considered a distinct and existent species until 1911, when five live specimens were captured and brought to Europe. Pygmy hippos usually hide in the thick undergrowth found in tropical rainforests. They live both on land and in water, but spend less time in water than full-sized hippos, their only relatives. They sleep on land during the day, but wake up late afternoon or early evening to begin feeding. Unlike full-sized hippos, who are extremely gregarious and live in groups, pygmy hippos live solitary lives, rarely coming into contact with each other except during mating season. Although they have large, strong teeth, rather than stay and try to defend themselves when threatened, they usually flee to the forest, unlike full-sized hippos who head for the water when in danger. They are ...
This is Digital Version of (Ebook) 978-0306460883 Faunal Extinction in an Island Society - Pygmy Hippopotamus Hunters of Cypru Product Will Be Deliver
Hippopotamus or shortly hippo is a huge herbivorous mammal commonly found in the Sub-Saharan Africa. The word hippopotamus is a Greek one which means river
HIPPOPOTAMUS MOLAR TOOTH REPLICA. Use this realistic-looking, life-size, resin-cast replica for hands-on discussions of the relationship between tooth structure and animal diet. This Bone Clone® replica measures 2¾
There is no published account where hippopotamuses are demonstrably shown swimming or floating at the surface of any body of water. But if they cant swim, how did they reach and colonize islands?
A cheeky crocodile met its match when it tried to use some hippopotamuses as stepping stones in Serengeti national park, Tanzania
Cute Christmas Song sung by a kid that had their heart set on gettng a Hippopotamus for Christmas - - - (this is NOT shirley temple singing - its Gayla Peeve...
The common hippopotamus, or hippo, is a large, mostly herbivorous mammal in sub-Saharan Africa, and one of only two extant species in the family Hippopotamidae, the other being the pygmy hippopotamus. Err, change that to 4th or 5th. Snakes are actually more dangerous than crocodiles or hippos, especially in places such as India where there are incredibly venomous species that are likely to come into contact with local populations. - CocoBird. The hippo has giant killer tusks that can be a foot long. It can easily bite a crocodile in half. It looks slow but it can run 20 mph. It is the third biggest land animal and can be 4 tons of super mean killer. It kills the most people in Africa and can destroy a van. They are awesome animals but dont get to close or you will be charged by fury. - nando. Hippo kills more than shark and crocodile, I believe. Since it was more sensitive and look harmless. BECAUSE it looks harmless, people often cross the boundaries hippos make. Yawning is actually their way ...
MITCHELL, G.; SKINNER, J. D.: On the origin, evolution and phylogeny of giraffes: Giraffa camelopardalis. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa, 2003. Vol. 58, p. 51-73. GRAHAM, M., Documentário Autópsia Animal, Girafa - Netgeo, 2010 ...
© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Large mammals have drastically declined in the past few decades yet we know little about their ecology. Giraffe numbers for instance, have dropped by more than 40% in the last 15 years and recently, a skin disease, has been observed in numerous giraffe populations across Africa. The disease(s), commonly referred to as giraffe skin disease (GSD), manifests as lesions, wrinkled skin, and encrustations that can affect the limbs, shoulder or neck of giraffes. Here, we review GSD cases from literature reports and surveying efforts of individuals working with giraffes in the wild and in captivity. The aim of this review was to describe spatial variation in the anatomical location of lesions, prevalence, and severity of GSD. In total, we retrieved 16 published sources that referenced GSD and we received 63 respondents to our survey. We found that GSD has been observed in 13 protected areas across 7 countries in Africa and in 11 out of 48 zoos distributed across 6 countries. The prevalence
Giraffids like Palaeotragus, Shansitherium and Samotherium appeared 14 mya and lived throughout Africa and Eurasia. These animals had bare ossicones and small cranial sinuses and were longer with broader skulls.[11][12] Paleotragus resembled the okapi and may have been its ancestor.[11] Others find that the okapi lineage diverged earlier, before Giraffokeryx.[12] Samotherium was a particularly important transitional fossil in the giraffe lineage as its cervical vertebrae was intermediate in length and structure between a modern giraffe and an okapi, and was more vertical than the okapis.[13] Bohlinia, which first appeared in southeastern Europe and lived 9-7 mya was likely a direct ancestor of the giraffe. Bohlinia closely resembled modern giraffes, having a long neck and legs and similar ossicones and dentition.[11]. Bohlinia entered China and northern India in response to climate change. From there, the genus Giraffa evolved and, around 7 mya, entered Africa.[14] Further climate changes ...
I watched an incredible movie a few months back called The Woman Who Loves Giraffes. My interest was less about giraffes and more about the story of Dr. Anne Innis Dagg. Not to say I dont like giraffes. They are beautiful animals, so graceful and curious, and they have blue tongues. I was impressed with how Anne stepped out of the world she knew, the safety of it, and explored what she was driven by. In 1956, Anne left for a journey to South Africa to be the first person, let alone the first woman, to study the life of giraffes. Anne had many challenges from first being a woman. For this reason alone she was turned down. Then Anne came across the bias of apartheid. Neither of these two issues stopped Anne from following what she knew she needed to do.. Something about her story struck me. Anne reports that her mother taught her to treat people as human beings, not by their color or their sex, and this is how she treats people. This led to people turning away from her, but she did not turn ...
A 39-week pregnant SC woman posted a almost 8-minute-long video of herself prancing around in a giraffe mask, hands on hips, belly displayed in all its glory, to Facebook late Sunday.. For almost three weeks, millions of people have tuned in to the live-stream of April the Giraffe as she awaits the birth of her calf at Animal Adventure Park in Harpursville, N.Y. As of 12 p.m. ET Monday, the video had over 10 million views and 235,000 shares.. She made a decision to have her own giraffe cam style set up for her own waiting. Thats when a stroke of comedic genius hit her and her husband and they made a decision to create their own video.. Dietrich also commented she did not think so many people would get a kick out of it.. It was my husbands idea to order a mask off Amazon and my idea to do a live feed last night to look like Aprils, she told HuffPost.. She donned a giraffe mask, and the rest is history. Itll be Dietrichs fourth child.. Clearly we live an exciting life over here in the ...
ever study of giraffes and one of the largest ever individually-based demography studies of a large mammal.. A lot of people didnt think tracking hundreds, let alone thousands, of individual wildebeest was possible, but we managed with Wild-ID, says lead author Tom Morrison, who conducted the wildebeest study as part of his PhD in Dartmouths Ecology and Evolutionary Biology program and who is now a research associate at the University of Glasgow studying Tanzanias other well-known wildebeest migration, in Serengeti National Park. The Wild-ID technique not only provided an understanding of population size, but importantly, it also allowed us to know the movement and migration patterns of individual animals over time. Together, this information provides a basis for predicting the future prospects of this wildebeest population.. In their new study, Morrison and his colleagues found that as the number of migration routes declined in this Tanzanian ecosystem, so too has the population size of ...
Even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla)[edit]. The hippopotamus is the most massive of the even-toed ungulates. ...
"Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed ... "New phylogenetic perspectives on the Cervidae (Artiodactyla) are provided by the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene". Proceedings ...
... is an extinct gazelle which existed in what is now Ethiopia during the Pliocene epoch. It was described by Denis Geraads, René Bobe and Kaye Reed in 2012. Approximately the size of a living dorcas gazelle, the animal was noted for its unusual, spiral horn cores.[1]. ...
Cetaceans and artiodactyls now are classified under the order Cetartiodactyla, often still referred to as Artiodactyla, which ...
Artiodactyla Infraorder:. Cetacea Family:. Delphinidae Genus:. Grampus. Gray, 1828 [3] Species: G. griseus ...
A major conservation concern for beaked whales (family Ziphiidae) is they appear to be vulnerable to modern sonar operations, which arises from recent strandings that temporally and physically coincide with naval sonar exercises.[20] Post mortem examinations of the stranded whales in concurrence with naval exercises have reported the presence of hemorrhaging near the ears or gas and fat emboli, which could have a deleterious impact on beaked whales that is analogous to decompression sickness in humans.[11] Gas and fat emboli have been shown to cause nervous and cardiovascular system dysfunction, respiratory distress, pain, and disorientation in both humans and animals.[20] In the inner ear, gas embolism can cause hemorrhages, leading to disorientation or vestibular dysfunction. Breath-holding divers, like beaked whales, can develop decompression-related problems (the "bends") when they return to the surface after deep dives.[1] This is a possible hypothesis for the mass strandings of pelagic ...
Artiodactyla Family: Bovidae Subfamily: Caprinae Genus: Arabitragus. Ropiquet & Hassanin, 2005 Species: A. jayakari ...
"Relationships of Cetacea (Artiodactyla) Among Mammals: Increased Taxon Sampling Alters Interpretations of Key Fossils and ...
In eastern Europe, where it survived until nearly 400 years ago, the aurochs has left traces in fixed expressions. In Russia, a drunken person behaving badly was described as "behaving like an aurochs", whereas in Poland, big, strong people were characterized as being "a bloke like an aurochs".[78]. In Central Europe, the aurochs features in toponyms and heraldic coats of arms. For example, the names Ursenbach and Aurach am Hongar are derived from the aurochs. An aurochs head, the traditional arms of the German region Mecklenburg, figures in the coat of arms of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The aurochs (Romanian bour, from Latin būbalus) was also the symbol of Moldavia; nowadays, they can be found in the coat of arms of both Romania and Moldova. An aurochs head is featured on an 1858 series of Moldavian stamps, the so-called Bull's Heads (cap de bour in Romanian), renowned for their rarity and price among collectors. In Romania there are still villages named Boureni, after the Romanian word for the ...
Artiodactyla. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ... Tak, P.C.; Lamba, B.S. (1984). "Ecology and Ethology of the Spotted-deer: Axis axis axis (Erxleben) (Artiodactyla : Cervidae ... First record of the invasive alien species Axis axis (Erxleben, 1777) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in Brazil ... "Systematics and evolution of the Eurasian Plio-Pleistocene tribe Cervini (Artiodactyla, Mammalia)" (PDF). Geologica Romana. 36 ...
The decline of the Siberian Musk Deer's population began in China where most of the deer population was abundant. Most notably in the Sichuan plains, the musk production was accounted for 80% of the domestic trade in the 1950s.[4] New sightings of musk deer was later spotted in the upper northeast Asia and Russia; these spotted places soon opened their own musk market. After the 1980s, the production begins to steadily decline due to hunting for their musk glands. Then the cycle of over-harvesting the deer's musk continued until the exploitation severely reduced the musk deer's population. Another threat comes from the habitat loss by deforestation. For a long period, China cut more of its forest than they could replant. 200million cm3[4] of China's forest recourses were cut down in the past 25 years in order to harvest the timber stock in trade for commerce. Deforestation is a severe threat to the musk deer's long term survival because the deer can only live in a few areas. ...
Artiodactyla. Family:. Cervidae. Subfamily:. Capreolinae. Genus:. Odocoileus. Species:. O. hemionus. Subspecies:. O. h. ...
The false killer whale has been known to interact non-aggressively with several dolphin species: the common bottlenose dolphin, the Pacific white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens), the rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis), the pilot whales, the melon-headed whale, the pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata), the pygmy killer whale, and Risso's dolphin.[17][6][7] The false killer whale may respond to distress calls and protect other species from predators, aid in childbirth by helping to remove the afterbirth, and has been known to interact sexually with bottlenose dolphins and pilot whales,[6] including homosexually.[18] It has been known to form mixed-species pods with those dolphins, probably due to shared feeding grounds. In Japan, these only occur in winter, suggesting it is tied to seasonal food shortages.[7][6][13] A pod near Chile had a 15 km/h (9.3 mph) cruising speed, and false killer whales in captivity were recorded to have a maximum speed of 26.9-28.8 km/h ...
... were imported to Africa over many hundreds of years, and interbred with taurine cattle there. Genetic analysis of African cattle has found higher concentrations of zebu genes all along the east coast of Africa, with especially pure cattle on the island of Madagascar, either implying that the method of dispersal was cattle transported by ship or alternatively, the zebu may have reached East Africa via the coastal route (Pakistan, Iran, Southern Arabian coast) much earlier and crossed over to Madagascar. Partial resistance to rinderpest led to another increase in the frequency of zebu in Africa. Zebu, which can tolerate extreme heat,[11] were imported into Brazil in the early 20th century. Their importation marked a change in cattle ranching in Brazil, where feral cattle had grazed freely on extensive pasturage, and bred without animal husbandry. Zebu were considered "ecological" since they could graze on natural grasses and their meat was lean and without chemical residues.[12] In the early ...
Artiodactyla. Family:. Suidae. Genus:. Sus. Species:. S. scrofa. Subspecies:. S. s. domesticus. ...
The dental formula for Dorudon atrox is 3.1.4.23.1.4.3. [13] Typical for cetaceans, the upper incisors are aligned with the cheek teeth, and, except the small I1, separated by large diastemata containing pits into which the lower incisors fit. The upper incisors are simple conical teeth with a single root, lacking accessory denticles, and difficult to distinguish from lower incisors. The upper incisors are missing in most specimens and are only known from two specimens. The upper canine is a little larger than the upper incisors, and, like them, directed slightly buccally and mesially.[13] P1, only preserved in a single specimen, is the only single-rooted upper premolar. Apparently, P1 is conical, smaller than the remaining premolars and lacks accessory denticles. P2 is the largest upper tooth and the first in the upper row with large accessory denticles. Like the more posterior premolars, it is buccolingually compressed and double-rooted. It has a dominant central protocone flanked by denticles ...
Traditionally, discussion of the cause of their extinction has focused on the antler size (rather than on their overall body size), which may be due more to their impact on the observer than any actual property. Some have suggested hunting by humans was a contributing factor in the demise of the Irish elk, as may have been the case with other prehistoric megafauna, even assuming that the large antler size restricted the movement of males through forested regions or that it was by some other means a "maladaptation".[18] Others assume the ultimate cause of extinction may have been the adaptations for mineral metabolism that were beneficial to the Irish elk until vegetation changed.[32] But given the difficulty of recovering quantitative records of human hunting impacts from the sub-fossil record alone, the role of humans in the extinction of the Irish elk is not yet clear. Some research has suggested that a lack of sufficient high-quality forage caused the extinction of the elk. According to an ...
"A revised phylogeny of Antilopini (Bovidae, Artiodactyla) using combined mitochondrial and nuclear genes" (PDF). Molecular ...
Because vaquitas are endemic to the Gulf of California, Mexico is leading conservation efforts with the creation of the International Committee for the Recovery of the Vaquita (CIRVA), which has tried to prevent the accidental deaths of vaquitas by outlawing the use of fishing nets within the vaquita's habitat.[26] CIRVA has worked with the CITES, the ESA, and the Marine Mammal Protection Act to make a plan to nurse the vaquita population back to a point at which they can sustain themselves.[28] CIRVA concluded in 2000 that between 39 and 84 individuals were killed annually by such gillnets. To try to prevent extinction, the Mexican government has created a nature reserve covering the upper part of the Gulf of California and the Colorado River delta. CIRVA recommends that this reserve be extended southwards to cover the full known area of the vaquita's range and that trawlers be completely banned from the reserve area. On 28 October 2008, Canada, Mexico, and the United States launched the North ...
... live in large herds, and do not typically follow a single leader ram, unlike the mouflon, the ancestor of the domestic sheep, which has a strict dominance hierarchy. Prior to the mating season or "rut", the rams attempt to establish a dominance hierarchy to determine access to ewes for mating. During the prerut period, most of the characteristic horn clashing occurs between rams, although this behavior may occur to a limited extent throughout the year.[27] Bighorn sheep exhibit agonistic behavior: two competitors walk away from each other and then turn to face each other before jumping and lunging into headbutts.[28] Rams' horns can frequently exhibit damage from repeated clashes.[24] Females exhibit a stable, nonlinear hierarchy that correlates with age.[29] Females may fight for high social status when they are integrated into the hierarchy at one to two years of age.[29]. Rocky Mountain bighorn rams employ at least three different courting strategies.[30] The most common and ...
It belongs to the order Artiodactyla, family Bovidae and subfamily Bovinae.[16] Common elands are sometimes considered part of ... Groves, CP; Grubb P (2011). "Artiodactyla". Ungulate Taxonomy. Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 142. ISBN 978-1- ... "Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed ...
Artiodactyla. Family:. Bovidae. Subfamily:. Bovinae. Genus:. Bubalus. Species:. B. depressicornis. B. quarlesi. ...
The sable antelope is sexually dimorphic, with the male heavier and about one-fifth taller than the female.[9] The head-and-body length is typically between 190 and 255 cm (75 and 100 in).[10] Males reach about 117-140 cm (46-55 in) at the shoulder, while females are slightly shorter. Males typically weigh 235 kg (518 lb) and females 220 kg (490 lb).[11] The tail is 40-75 cm (16-30 in) long, with a tuft at the end.[9][10]. The sable antelope has a compact and robust build, characterized by a thick neck and tough skin.[9] It has a well-developed and often upright mane on its neck, as well as a short mane on the throat.[11] Its general colouration is rich chestnut to black. Females and juveniles are chestnut to dark brown, while males begin darkening and turn black after three years. However, in southern populations, females have a brown to black coat. Calves less than two months old are a light tan and show faint markings.[11] The underparts, cheek, and chin are all white, creating a great ...
Artiodactyla Family:. Bovidae Subfamily:. Caprinae Genus:. Ammotragus. Blyth, 1840 Species: A. lervia ...
Like other forest ungulates, bongos are seldom seen in large groups. Males, called bulls, tend to be solitary, while females with young live in groups of six to eight. Bongos have seldom been seen in herds of more than 20. Gestation is about 285 days (9.5 months), with one young per birth, and weaning occurs at six months. Sexual maturity is reached at 24-27 months. The preferred habitat of this species is so dense and difficult to operate in, that few Europeans or Americans observed this species until the 1960s. As young males mature and leave their maternal groups, they most often remain solitary, although rarely they join an older male. Adult males of similar size/age tend to avoid one another. Occasionally, they meet and spar with their horns in a ritualised manner and it is rare for serious fights to take place. However, such fights are usually discouraged by visual displays, in which the males bulge their necks, roll their eyes, and hold their horns in a vertical position while slowly ...
The commersonii subspecies has a black head, dorsal fin, and fluke, with a white throat and body. The demarcation between the two colours is very clear-cut. This stocky creature is one of the smallest of all cetaceans, growing to around 1.5 m (5 ft). A mature female caught off of southern Patagonia, at 23 kg (51 lb) and 1.36 m (4.5 ft), may be the smallest adult cetacean on record.[5] Its appearance resembles that of a porpoise, but its conspicuous behaviour is typical of a dolphin. The dorsal fin has a long, straight leading edge which ends in a curved tip. The trailing is typically concave but not falcate. The fluke has a notch in the middle. This dolphin has no rostrum.[citation needed]. Sexes are easily distinguished by the different shape of the black blotch on the belly - it is shaped like a teardrop in males but is more rounded in females. Females reach breeding age at six to 9 years. Males reach sexual maturity at about the same age. Mating occurs in the spring and summer and calving ...
The Astor markhor has large, flat horns, branching out very widely, and then going up nearly straight with only a half turn. It is synonymous with Capra falconeri cashmiriensis or Pir Panjal markhor, which has heavy, flat horns, twisted like a corkscrew.[14] Within Afghanistan, the Astor markhor is limited to the east in the high and mountainous monsoon forests of Laghman and Nuristan. In India, this subspecies is restricted to a portion of the Pir Panjal range in southwestern Jammu and Kashmir. Throughout this range, Astor markhor populations are scattered, starting east of the Banihal Pass (50 km from the Chenab River) on the Jammu-Srinagar highway westward to the disputed border with Pakistan. Recent surveys indicate it still occurs in catchments of the Limber and Lachipora Rivers in the Jhelum Valley Forest Division, and around Shupiyan to the south of Srinagar. In Pakistan, the Astor markhor there is restricted to the Indus and its tributaries, as well as to the Kunar (Chitral) River and ...
Artiodactyla Family: Camelidae Tribe: Lamini. Webb, 1965 Genera *†Hemiauchenia Gervais & Ameghino, 1880 ...
The blue whale is the largest animal known to have ever lived.[5][6]. Blue whales are difficult to weigh because of their size. They were never weighed whole, but cut into blocks 0.5-0.6 meters (1.6-2.0 ft) across and weighed by parts.[28] This caused a considerable loss of blood and body fluids, estimated to be about 6% of the total weight.[29] As a whole, blue whales from the Northern Atlantic and Pacific are smaller on average than those from Antarctic waters. Adult weights typically range from 45-136 tonnes (50-150 short tons).[30] There is some uncertainty about the biggest blue whale ever found, as most data came from blue whales killed in Antarctic waters during the first half of the twentieth century, which were collected by whalers not well-versed in standard zoological measurement techniques. The standard measuring technique is to measure in a straight line from the upper jaw to the notch in the tail flukes. This came about because the edges of the tail flukes were typically cut off, ...
... 's presumed location within Artiodactyla can be represented in the following cladogram:[59][60][61][62][63] ... Modern nomenclature divides Artiodactyla (or Cetartiodactyla) in four subordinate taxa: camelids (Tylopoda), pigs and peccaries ... Artiodactyla). Whales direct lineage began in the early Eocene, around 55.8 million years ago, with early artiodactyls.[53] ...
Artiodactyla,state=autocollapse}}. *. {{navbar}}. , {{sidebar}}. , അഥവാ ഉള്ളടക്കം മറയ്ക്കാൻ നിർദേശിക്കുന്ന മറ്റേതെങ്കിലും ... Artiodactyla,state=expanded}}. ഈ ഫലകത്തിന്റെ ഉള്ളടക്കത്തെ എപ്പോഴും മുഴുവനായി കാണിക്കാൻ ഇങ്ങനെ ഉപയോഗിക്കുക.. *. ,state= ... Artiodactyla,state=collapsed}}. ഈ ഫലകത്തിന്റെ ഉള്ളടക്കത്തെ മറച്ചുവെച്ച് പ്രധാന തലക്കെട്ട് മാത്രമായി കാണിക്കാൻ ഇങ്ങനെ ... "https://ml.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=ഫലകം:Artiodactyla&oldid=2231336" എന്ന താളിൽനിന്ന് ശേഖരിച്ചത് ...
Order Artiodactyla even-toed ungulates Artiodactyla: information (1) Artiodactyla: pictures (866) Artiodactyla: specimens (581) ...
The Pu Hoat muntjac (Muntiacus puhoatensis) is a species of muntjac only known from Pu Hoat region in Vietnam, which is bordering Laos. It is sometimes considered to be conspecific with Roosevelts muntjac, and its habitat and behavior are likely to be similar. The Pu Hoat muntjac has only been recorded once at its type locality of Hạnh Dịch Village, Hạnh Dịch Commune, Quế Phong District, Nghệ An Province, Viet Nam.[1] ...
Order: Artiodactyla. Family: Bovidae. Genus: Connochaetes. The gnu, also known as the wildebeest, is a striking animal native ...
Artiodactyla Bovidae - / 2009 Gazella cuvieri Cuviers Gazelle Mammalia Artiodactyla Bovidae 1979 / - Nanger dama Dama Gazelle ... Artiodactyla Bovidae 1979 / - Ammotragus lervia Barbary Sheep Mammalia ...
Artiodactyla Bovidae 1985 / - Tringa glareola Wood Sandpiper Aves Charadriiformes Scolopacidae - / 1979 Gyps fulvus Griffon ...
Artiodactyla. Familia. Bovidae. Nombre científico. Ovis ammon. COVID-19 Y ESPECIES MIGRATORIAS. ...
Memorandum of Understanding between the Argentine Republic and the Republic of Chile concerning Conservation Measures for the Ruddy-headed Goose (Chloephaga rubidiceps). ...
Guidelines and Recommendations to Mitigate Barrier Effects of Border Fencing and Railroad Corridors on Saiga Antelope in Kazakhstan
Artiodactyla. Famille. Bovidae. Nom scientifique. Gazella dorcas. COVID-19 ET ESPÈCES MIGRATRICES. ...
Artiodactyla Camelidae 1979 / 1979 Sarkidiornis melanotos Comb Duck Aves Anseriformes Anatidae - / 1979 ...
Memorandum of Understanding concerning Conservation Measures for Marine Turtles of the Atlantic Coast of Africa. ...
The Chinese river dolphin (Lipotes vexillifer) or baiji was a river dolphin. It was found only in the Yangtze River in China. The last confirmed sighting of the baiji was in 2004 but there were possible sightings in 2007 and 2016 as well.[5] The baiji was declared functionally extinct in 2007. that means experts said that even if there had been a few baiji left alive in 2007, there were probably not enough left to have young and keep the species alive.[6] The IUCN Red List says the baiji is critically endangered but not really extinct.[3] ...
Artiodactyla Bovidae - / 2002 Balaenoptera edeni Brydes Whale, Tropical Whale Mammalia Cetacea Balaenopteridae - / 2002 ...
Ovis is a genus of the subfamily Caprinae, of the family Bovidae. The wild sheep and domestic sheep and other animals like it belong to this genus. There are 5 or more animals in this genus. ...
Ordo: Artiodactyla Subordo: Ruminantia. Familia: Bovidae. Subfamilia: Bovinae Genus: Bison Species: Bison bonasus Subspecies: B ...
Ordo: Artiodactyla Subordo: Ruminantia. Familia: Bovidae. Subfamilia: Caprinae Genus: Capra Species: Capra hircus. Subspecies: ...
Ordo: Artiodactyla Subordo: Whippomorpha Infraordo: Cetacea Cladus: Neoceti. Parvordo: Odontoceti. Informal group: Delphinida. ...
Order Artiodactyla. A. Deer. 1. White-tailed Deer (167). 2. Black-tailed Deer (166). 3. Mule Deer (165). 4. Elk (Wapiti) (164) ...
Testua Creative Commons Aitortu-PartekatuBerdin 3.0 lizentziari jarraituz erabil daiteke; baliteke beste klausularen batzuk ere aplikatu behar izatea. Xehetasunen berri izateko, ikus erabilera-baldintzak ...
bison:animal:animalia:artiodactyla:autumn:bison:bison. *bison:bovidae:bovinae:buffalo:chordata:creature:environment:fall: ...
Order: Artiodactyla. Family: Bovidae. Subfamily: Hippotraginae. Genus: Addax. Species: Addax nasomaculatus. Citing Research ...
Eemages o a few members o the faimily Cervidae (clockwise frae tap left) conseestin o the reid deer, the sika deer, the barasingha, the reindeer, an the white-tailed deer ...
Order Artiodactyla. Cervidae. Suidae. Order Carnivora. Canidae. Felidae. Mustelidae. Order Chiroptera. Vespertilionidae. ...
Parasite commonality at Swamp Deer (Mammalia: Artiodactyla: Cervidae: Rucervus duvaucelii duvaucelii) and livestock interface ...
Theoretical morphology of horn of Bovidae(Mammalia, Artiodactyla) (jointly worked) Earth science (Chikyu Kagaku) 44(4) 196 - ...
Artiodactyla Owen, 1848 - artiodactyls, porco do mato, veado, cloven-hoofed ungulates, even-toed ungulates. ...
  • The tribal radiation of the family Bovidae (Artiodactyla) and the evolution of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. (springer.com)
  • The order Artiodactyla contains nine families of living mammals, of which the Bovidae (antelopes, cattle, sheep, and goats) is by far the largest, containing nearly 100 species. (britannica.com)
  • In this they differ from permanently horned antelope, which are part of a different family (Bovidae) within the same order of even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla). (wikipedia.org)
  • A delfinfélék (Delphinidae) az emlősök (Mammalia) osztályának párosujjú patások (Artiodactyla) rendjébe , ezen belül a cetek (Cetacea) alrendágába tartozó család . (wikipedia.org)
  • To the Editor: Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is an acute, generalized, and usually fatal disease previously thought to be restricted to mammals of the order Artiodactyla , often members of the subfamilies Bovinae, Cervidae, and Suidae (1). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Artiodactyla and Carnivora) showed negative or mass-independent scaling exponents, while orders of small animals (i.e. (biologists.org)
  • We test our hypothesis using simulations and the observed distribution of extinction risks in three well-studied mammal clades: Primates, Carnivora and Artiodactyla. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Specifically, we analyse three well-resolved clades: Primates, Carnivora and Artiodactyla. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Based on morphological evidence, the order Artiodactyla is considered to be monophyletic and traditionally has been divided into three suborders: Ruminantia (chevrotains, deer, giraffes, cows, etc. (pnas.org)
  • 1996. Instability of quartet analyses of molecular sequence data by the maximum likelihood method: The Cetacea/Artiodactyla relationships. (tolweb.org)
  • New morphological evidence for the phylogeny of Artiodactyla, Cetacea, and Mesonychidae. (tolweb.org)
  • Shortest trees place Cetacea within Artiodactyla and close to † Indohyus , with †Mesonychia outside of Artiodactyla. (plos.org)
  • The relationships of †Mesonychia and † Indohyus are highly unstable, however - in trees only two steps longer than minimum length, †Mesonychia falls inside Artiodactyla and displaces † Indohyus from a position close to Cetacea. (plos.org)
  • Trees based only on data that fossilize continue to show the classic arrangement of relationships within Artiodactyla with Cetacea grouping outside the clade, a signal incongruent with the molecular data that dominate the total evidence result. (plos.org)
  • Thus, a changing view of the evolution of Artiodactyla and Cetacea is emerging based on molecular data, but the picture is by no means clear because of insufficient statistical support. (pnas.org)
  • Notes on the systematics of Babyrousa (Artiodactyla, Suidae). (scienceblogs.com)
  • 3] Currently the cetaceans and even-toed ungulates have been placed in Cetartiodactyla as sister groups, although DNA analysis has shown cetaceans evolved from within Artiodactyla. (scientificlib.com)
  • The artiodactyla are the even-toed ungulates (that is, animals with hooves and an even number of toes). (wikibooks.org)
  • A zsiráffélék (Giraffidae) a párosujjú patások (Artiodactyla) rendjének egy családja . (wikipedia.org)
  • As an even-toed ungulate (order Artiodactyla), the giraffe is related to deer and cattle , but it is placed in a separate family, the Giraffidae, comprising only the giraffe and its closest relative, the okapi. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The giraffe is one of only two living genera of the family Giraffidae in the order Artiodactyla , the other being the okapi . (rug.nl)
  • Now-extinct Artiodactyla which developed during the Miocene include the species Ampelomeryx, Tauromeryx, Triceromeryx, and others. (scientificlib.com)
  • However, recent studies using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data have challenged the previously accepted monophyly of Artiodactyla. (pnas.org)
  • The results indicated ( i ) that cetaceans are deeply nested within Artiodactyla, ( ii ) that cetaceans and hippopotamuses form a monophyletic group, ( iii ) that pigs and peccaries form a monophyletic group to the exclusion of hippopotamuses, ( iv ) that chevrotains diverged first among ruminants, and ( v ) that camels diverged first among cetartiodactyls. (pnas.org)
  • 1994. Molecular evidence for the inclusion of cetaceans within the order Artiodactyla. (tolweb.org)
  • 1999. Inclusion of cetaceans within the order Artiodactyla based on phylogenetic analysis of pancreatic ribonuclease genes. (tolweb.org)
  • Download Agrarian Artiodactyla Cattle Domestic, artiodactyla, bovin. (tradebit.com)
  • This tentative third feline BA222-like genotype constellation is an intriguing genotype mosaic, sometimes possessing Walike nonstructural protein (NSP) 2 or NSP3 gene segments and partially resembling the genotype constellation found in RVA strains from cattle and other artiodactyla (5,7,70,77). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Canadian Encyclopedia https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/en/article/artiodactyla/ (accessed August 16, 2018). (thecanadianencyclopedia.com)
  • Characterization of the complete mitogenome of Indian Mouse Deer, Moschiola indica (Artiodactyla: Tragulidae) and its evolutionary significance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nefasatol (Hyemoschus) tir tani moukolafi oxi vey Tragulidae yasa ke ARTIODACTYLA veem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cwol (Camelus) tir tani moukolafi oxi vey Camelidae yasa ke ARTIODACTYLA veem. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1996. K‑casein gene phylogeny of higher ruminants (Pecora, Artiodactyla). (lgl.com)
  • en pli han bleras da questas spezias 40 fin 50 dents, pia bundant dapli che animals da placenta cumparegliabels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Squamiger and a flock of Tayassu pecari link, 1795 (artiodactyla: tayassuidae) Records of Neomorphus squamiger todd, 1925 (cuculiforme: cuculidae) and interaction between n. (scielo.br)

No images available that match "artiodactyla"