Artificial Limbs: Prosthetic replacements for arms, legs, and parts thereof.Amputation Stumps: The part of a limb or tail following amputation that is proximal to the amputated section.AmputeesLimb Buds: Distinct regions of mesenchymal outgrowth at both flanks of an embryo during the SOMITE period. Limb buds, covered by ECTODERM, give rise to forelimb, hindlimb, and eventual functional limb structures. Limb bud cultures are used to study CELL DIFFERENTIATION; ORGANOGENESIS; and MORPHOGENESIS.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Postal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Prosthesis Fitting: The fitting and adjusting of artificial parts of the body. (From Stedman's, 26th ed)Durable Medical Equipment: Devices which are very resistant to wear and may be used over a long period of time. They include items such as wheelchairs, hospital beds, artificial limbs, etc.Economic Recession: Significant decline in economic activity spread across the economy, lasting more than a few months, normally visible in real gross domestic product, real income, employment, industrial production, and wholesale-retail sales. (National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc,, accessed 4/23/2009)Competitive Bidding: Pricing statements presented by more than one party for the purpose of securing a contract.Upper Extremity: The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.Plastics: Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Social Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.Spinacia oleracea: A widely cultivated plant, native to Asia, having succulent, edible leaves eaten as a vegetable. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Amputation: The removal of a limb or other appendage or outgrowth of the body. (Dorland, 28th ed)Diabetic Foot: Common foot problems in persons with DIABETES MELLITUS, caused by any combination of factors such as DIABETIC NEUROPATHIES; PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASES; and INFECTION. With the loss of sensation and poor circulation, injuries and infections often lead to severe foot ulceration, GANGRENE and AMPUTATION.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Phantom Limb: Perception of painful and nonpainful phantom sensations that occur following the complete or partial loss of a limb. The majority of individuals with an amputated extremity will experience the impression that the limb is still present, and in many cases, painful. (From Neurol Clin 1998 Nov;16(4):919-36; Brain 1998 Sep;121(Pt 9):1603-30)Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)EncyclopediasDictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Prostheses and Implants: Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.Medicare Assignment: Concept referring to the standardized fees for services rendered by health care providers, e.g., laboratories and physicians, and reimbursement for those services under Medicare Part B. It includes acceptance by the physician.Man-Machine Systems: A system in which the functions of the man and the machine are interrelated and necessary for the operation of the system.Communication Aids for Disabled: Equipment that provides mentally or physically disabled persons with a means of communication. The aids include display boards, typewriters, cathode ray tubes, computers, and speech synthesizers. The output of such aids includes written words, artificial speech, language signs, Morse code, and pictures.Blogging: Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.Tanning: A process of preserving animal hides by chemical treatment (using vegetable tannins, metallic sulfates, and sulfurized phenol compounds, or syntans) to make them immune to bacterial attack, and subsequent treatments with fats and greases to make them pliable. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Aerospace Medicine: That branch of medicine dealing with the studies and effects of flight through the atmosphere or in space upon the human body and with the prevention or cure of physiological or psychological malfunctions arising from these effects. (from NASA Thesaurus)Aircraft: A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)

Prosthetic reconstruction for tumours of the distal tibia and fibula. (1/333)

We have carried out prosthetic reconstruction in six patients with malignant or aggressively benign bone tumours of the distal tibia or fibula. The diagnoses were osteosarcoma in four patients, parosteal osteosarcoma in one and recurrent giant-cell tumour in one. Five tumours were in the distal tibia and one in the distal fibula. The mean duration of follow-up was 5.3 years (2.0 to 7.1). Reconstruction was achieved using custom-made, hinged prostheses which replaced the distal tibia and the ankle. The mean range of ankle movement after operation was 31 degrees and the joints were stable. The average functional score according to the system of the International Society of Limb Salvage was 24.2 and five of the patients had a good outcome. Complications occurred in two with wound infection and talar collapse. All patients were free from neoplastic disease at the latest follow-up. Prosthetic reconstruction may be used for the treatment of malignant tumours of the distal tibia and fibula in selected patients.  (+info)

Lengthening of congenital below-elbow amputation stumps by the Ilizarov technique. (2/333)

Patients with short congenital amputations below the elbow often function as if they have had a disarticulation of the elbow. We have reviewed the results in six patients who had lengthening of such stumps by the Ilizarov technique to improve the fitting of prostheses. The mean lengthening was 5.6 cm (3.4 to 8.4), and in two patients flexion contractures of the elbows were corrected simultaneously. Additional lateral distraction was used in one patient to provide a better surface on the stump. There were no major complications. All six patients were able to use their prosthesis at the latest follow-up after 39 to 78 months.  (+info)

Quadrilateral shaped brims made from high-density polyethylene for long leg calipers. (3/333)

Quadrilateral shaped brims made of high-density polyethylene have been used with satisfactory results on more than 120 patients who needed ischial-bearing long leg calipers. At first the fitting technique was the same as that used for thigh amputees. Subsequently it has been possible to fit most patients from a range of pre-formed brims. The properties of high-density polyethylene allow the caliper side irons to be riveted directly to the brim which, with the use of ready-made brims, allows a patient to be fitted rapidly with a comfortable and effective caliper.  (+info)

Prosthetic ambulation in a paraplegic patient with a transfemoral amputation and radial nerve palsy. (4/333)

Great importance and caution should be placed on prosthetic fitting for a paraplegic patient with an anesthetic residual limb if functional ambulation is to be achieved. The combination of paraplegia with a transfemoral amputation and radial nerve palsy is a complex injury that makes the rehabilitation process difficult. This article describes a case of L2 paraplegia with a transfemoral amputation and radial nerve palsy on the right side. Following the rehabilitation course, the patient independently walked using a walker at indoor level with a transfemoral prosthesis with ischial containment socket, polycentric knee assembly, endoskeletal shank and multiaxis foot assembly and a knee ankle foot orthosis on the sound side. The difficulties of fitting a functional prosthesis to an insensate limb and the rehabilitation stages leading to functional ambulation are reviewed.  (+info)

Left tactile extinction following visual stimulation of a rubber hand. (5/333)

In close analogy with neurophysiological findings in monkeys, neuropsychological studies have shown that the human brain constructs visual maps of space surrounding different body parts. In right-brain-damaged patients with tactile extinction, the existence of a visual peripersonal space centred on the hand has been demonstrated by showing that cross-modal visual-tactile extinction is segregated mainly in the space near the hand. That is, tactile stimuli on the contralesional hand are extinguished more consistently by visual stimuli presented near the ipsilesional hand than those presented far from it. Here, we report the first evidence in humans that this hand-centred visual peripersonal space can be coded in relation to a seen rubber replica of the hand, as if it were a real hand. In patients with left tactile extinction, a visual stimulus presented near a seen right rubber hand induced strong cross-modal visual-tactile extinction, similar to that obtained by presenting the same visual stimulus near the patient's right hand. Critically, this specific cross-modal effect was evident when subjects saw the rubber hand as having a plausible posture relative to their own body (i.e. when it was aligned with the subject's right shoulder). In contrast, cross-modal extinction was strongly reduced when the seen rubber hand was arranged in an implausible posture (i. e. misaligned with respect to the subject's right shoulder). We suggest that this phenomenon is due to the dominance of vision over proprioception: the system coding peripersonal space can be 'deceived' by the vision of a fake hand, provided that its appearance looks plausible with respect to the subject's body.  (+info)

Intermediate rehabilitation outcome in below-knee amputations: descriptive study comparing war-related with other causes of amputation. (6/333)

AIM: To asses the intermediate rehabilitation outcome of patients with war-related below-knee amputations and compare it with the patients with other causes of amputation. METHOD: The study comprised 74 patients with below-knee stumps admitted for rehabilitation at the Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Split University Hospital, Croatia, in 1994. They were fitted with a preliminary prosthesis, a donation from the Finish Red Cross. The rehabilitation was performed by a professional team and included regular bandaging of the stump, exercises to prevent knee and hip joint contracture, general fitness exercises, standing-up, falling and walking exercises, and electrostimulation of the thigh muscles. The time to reach each rehabilitation phase (walking with 2 crutches, walking with 1 crutch, walking with no crutches) was measured. The satisfaction of the patients with the prosthesis was also assessed at the end of rehabilitation. RESULTS: Among 74 patients with below knee amputation, war trauma was the cause for amputation in 31 patients, and in 6 of them the amputations were bilateral. Patients with war-related below-knee amputations were younger than the patients with amputations related to vascular disease, including diabetes. The rehabilitation time was significantly shorter in patients with war-related amputations (61.1+/-11.4 days to walking with no crutches) compared with patients with vascular disease-related amputations (80.9+/-8.1 days; p<0.001). The satisfaction with the prosthesis was more variable in patients with war-related amputations than in other patients. CONCLUSION: Early physical rehabilitation and replacement of the lost extremity with a preliminary prosthesis is an optimal intervention in below-knee amputations due to war-injury. Special attention should be paid to the psychological support to these patients during rehabilitation therapy.  (+info)

Problems with excessive residual lower leg length in pediatric amputees. (7/333)

We studied six pediatric amputees with long below-knee residual limbs, in order to delineate their functional and prosthetic situations, specifically in relation to problems with fitting for dynamic-response prosthetic feet. Three patients had congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia secondary to neurofibromatosis, one had fibular hemimelia, one had a traumatic amputation, and one had amputation secondary to burns. Five patients had Syme's amputations, one had a Boyd amputation. Ages at amputation ranged from nine months to five years (average age 3 years 1 month). After amputation, the long residual below-knee limbs allowed fitting with only the lowest-profile prostheses, such as deflection plates. In three patients, the femoral dome to tibial plafond length was greater on the amputated side than on the normal side. To allow room for more dynamic-response (and larger) foot prostheses, two patients have undergone proximal and distal tibial-fibular epiphyseodeses (one at age 5 years 10 months, the other at 3 years 7 months) and one had a proximal tibial-fibular epiphyseodesis at age 7 years 10 months. (All three patients are still skeletally immature.) The families of two other patients are considering epiphyseodeses, and one patient is not a candidate (skeletally mature). Scanogram data indicate that at skeletal maturity the epiphyseodesed patients will have adequate length distal to their residual limbs to fit larger and more dynamic-response prosthetic feet.  (+info)

Surgical experiences in Nepal. (8/333)

Some examples of surgical problems presenting to the authors during a 2-year attachment to the British Military Hospital, Dharan, Nepal, are described.  (+info)

  • After the success of the Paralympic Games last summer Jonathan is hoping that anyone who's missing a limb or has experienced an amputation won't see having a prosthetic as part of a disability. (
  • These limbs were not very functional and were primarily used to hide the amputation. (
  • The level of function achieved following a transfemoral amputation is believed to be affected by surgical attachment of the remaining musculature, resulting orientation of the femur, residual limb length, and eventual prosthetic fit. (
  • Now, EPFL scientists have used ultra-high field 7 Tesla fMRI to show how TMSR affects upper-limb representations in the brains of patients with amputations, in particular in primary motor cortex and the somatosensory cortex and regions processing more complex brain functions. (
  • The lab of Olaf Blanke at EPFL, in collaboration with Andrea Serino at the University Hospital of Lausanne and teams of clinicians and researchers in Switzerland and abroad have successfully mapped out these changes in the cortices of three patients with upper-limb amputations who had undergone TMSR and were proficient users of prosthetic limbs developed by Todd Kuiken and his group at the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. (
  • Transfemoral amputations: the effect of residual limb length and orientation on gait analysis outcome measures. (
  • A moderate correlation was observed with speed (r = 0.550), indicating that subjects with shorter residual limbs experienced a greater excursion in the torso and pelvis, while walking at a slower self-selected pace. (
  • Prosthetic sockets are static interfaces for dynamic residual limbs. (
  • Moreover, when investigating the connections between upper-limb maps in both cortices, the researchers found normal connections in the TMSR patients, which were comparable with healthy controls. (
  • One publication by Hafner and others (2007) reports the findings of a small, nonrandomized, cross-over controlled design study in which each subject was exposed to two different prosthetic limb conditions (mechanical and microprocessor controlled C-Leg) twice during the trial. (
  • Work on embedded sensing and intelligent feedback control should be continued in future research in order to create a viable consumer product which can improve a lower limb amputee's quality of life. (
  • The main reason for these advancements was that United States soldiers returned home from World War II with limb injuries and loss. (
  • Certain parts of the limb (for example, the feet) have traditionally been made of wood (such as maple, hickory basswood, willow, poplar, and linden) and rubber. (
  • The metal industry is made up of any company that manufactures, recycles and modifies any metal product such as Iron, Steel, Aluminum, Galvanizing metal, Garages and Artificial Limbs. (
  • Archaeologists have uncovered the mummy of an Egyptian noblewoman with an artificial toe made of wood and leather. (
  • Residual nerves from the amputated limb are transferred to reinnervate and activate new muscle targets. (
  • The approach was even able to identify maps of missing (phantom) fingers in the somatosensory cortex of the TMSR patients that were activated through the reinnervated skin regions from the chest or residual limb. (
  • Kuiken decided to take the residual nerves and connect them to the chest muscles so that the signals can be used to move the artificial limb. (
  • EPFL scientists from the Center for Neuroprosthetics have used functional MRI to show how the brain re-maps motor and sensory pathways following targeted motor and sensory reinnervation (TMSR), a neuroprosthetic approach where residual limb nerves are rerouted towards intact muscles and skin regions to control a robotic limb. (
  • Two electrodes lay on the bare skin of the residual limb of his lower left arm. (
  • afferent pathway within the residual limb . (
  • By interfacing with residual nerves in the patient's partial limb, some sense of touch by the fingers is restored. (
  • PLP can be related to a certain position or movement of the phantom limb, and might be elicited or worsened by a range of physical factors (e.g. changes in the weather or pressure on the residual limb) and psychological factors (e.g. emotional stress). (
  • Here, we conducted three tests of functional similarity between this amputee sprinter and competitive male runners with intact limbs: the metabolic cost of running, sprinting endurance, and running mechanics. (
  • In general, artificial limbs accompanying with a bending and extending action of the knee comprises an upper member including a knee plate to which a load or weight of the user (amputee) applies, a lower member connected to the upper member atthe knee portion, a knee axis rotatably connecting the upper and lower members together, and in addition, an auxiliary means for assisting a bending and extending action of the knee. (
  • As the need for limbs increased with the growing number of amputee soldiers, methods of mass production and standardisation were employed. (
  • Approximately 6% of the amputee population is at the upper limb level. (
  • Major advancements were made in 2014 when researchers used implanted stimulating electrodes to provide sensory information back to an upper limb amputee for detecting different objects during grasping 4 , conveying pressure information to complete dexterous manipulation of a fragile object 5 , and general tactile activation 6 . (
  • As an amputee, you know that correct limb care is vital for maintaining perfect skin and preventing any further wounds. (
  • The most sophisticated artificial limbs, which are controlled via brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) that transmit neural commands to robotic mechanisms, rely on users' visual guidance and do not yet incorporate proprioceptive feedback. (
  • Combining Non-Invasive Vagus Nerve Stimulation and Robotic Training in Upper Limb -Impaired Chronic Stroke Patients Combining Non-Invasive Vagus Nerve Stimulation and Robotic Training in Upper Limb -Impaired Chronic Stroke Patients - Full Text View - Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. (
  • Combining Non-Invasive Vagus Nerve Stimulation and Robotic Training in Upper Limb -Impaired Chronic Stroke Patients The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. (
  • Vanderbilt's leg is reportedly the first robotic artificial leg that has coordinated moves between the powered knee and ankle joints. (
  • New Delhi, June 20 ( ANI ): Many Afghans who lost their limbs in land mine blast, due to war and militant attacks and facing grave hardship as handicapped are finding the famous Jaipur foot as a great relief. (
  • Afghanistan, which for over two and a half decades has seen wars and conflicts, has thousands of men and women who became the victim of war and lost their limbs for various other reasons like accidents and gangrene have found the Jaipur foot a very handy tool which is very easy to handle and has proven durability. (
  • While you were busy catapulting Angry Birds on your iPhone, scientists at Vanderbilt university were using the components inside your smartphone to create bionic limbs. (
  • durations: 2-90 s) were within 2.2 (SD 0.6)% of those predicted for intact-limb sprinters. (
  • The early adoption of technologies in this region has also supported the growth of the North America market for artificial limbs significantly. (
  • Well-established medical devices industry, a rising number of research activities for development of novel devices, the growing prevalence of chronic disorders, and continuous technological advancements made in digital techniques across the region is expected to boost the growth of the artificial limbs market in North America over the estimated timeframe. (
  • Ideal Artificial limbs Solutions is one of the top-notch Service Providers in the market. (
  • Ideal Artificial limbs Solutions All Rights Reserved. (
  • On earlier four visits, on the spot fitment were provided to 3051 people and this time the a team of specialists and artisans will provide 1000 artificial limbs. (
  • It has helped establish170 Limb Fitting Centres in various parts of the country to ensure proper fitting of aids and appliances. (
  • In comparison, it takes time to learn the use of traditional artificial arms, which are also limited in the number of movements they perform. (
  • Kuiken, who has been working of artificial arms since the 1980s, recalled his first patient. (
  • Head past the break to watch videos documenting the clinical trials of both studies -- the arms in the clips aren't quite the life-like limbs DARPA promised back in 2006 , but they sure are mighty impressive. (
  • Phantom limb pain (PLP) is one of such neuropathic pains arising from the loss of an extremity. (
  • Today it is believed that phantom limb pain may be related to changes in the cortex of the brain. (
  • This phenomenon is called phantom limb pain. (
  • It is not clear today why phantom limb pain occurs, and since the pain can be difficult to treat, it can affect the quality of life. (
  • Other scientific studies have shown, that the use of electrical stimulation applied through surface electrodes, can assist to decrease or alleviate the phantom limb pain. (
  • The aim of this study is to investigate if surface electrical stimulation for a period of 3 months can decrease or alleviate the phantom limb pain. (
  • The participant will be asked to fill out a series of questionnaires before, during and after the electrical stimulation, to describe how the electrical stimulation is experienced, and if the stimulation had an effect on the phantom limb pain and phantom sensations. (
  • 2. An artificial limb according to claim 1, wherein said air cylinder device becomes small in cylinder length when the knee portion is bent and large when the knee portion is extended. (
  • 5. An artificial limb according to claim 4, wherein said lower member includes a hollow frame, and a cylinder body of said air cylinder device is inserted into the hollow interior of said frame. (
  • 10. An artificial limb according to claim 1, wherein said hydraulic cylinder is subjected to a force coming from said air cylinder device through said second pin, and successively changes the position of said internal piston such that saidinternal piston moves away from said first pin. (
  • This invention relates to a prosthetic limb utilizing an air cylinder device for assisting a bending and extending action of the knee, and more particularly to a technology capable of enlarging an effective stroke of an air cylinder device andeffective in making a prosthetic limb small in size or in obtaining a motion in conformity with a walking speed of the user. (