Biologically functional sequences of DNA chemically synthesized in vitro.
The in vitro fusion of GENES by RECOMBINANT DNA techniques to analyze protein behavior or GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, or to merge protein functions for specific medical or industrial uses.
The GENETIC RECOMBINATION of the parts of two or more GENES resulting in a gene with different or additional regulatory regions, or a new chimeric gene product. ONCOGENE FUSION includes an ONCOGENE as at least one of the fusion partners and such gene fusions are often detected in neoplastic cells and are transcribed into ONCOGENE FUSION PROTEINS. ARTIFICIAL GENE FUSION is carried out in vitro by RECOMBINANT DNA technology.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
The GENETIC RECOMBINATION of the parts of two or more GENES, including an ONCOGENE as at least one of the fusion partners. Such gene fusions are often detected in neoplastic cells and are transcribed into ONCOGENE FUSION PROTEINS.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The GENETIC TRANSLATION products of the fusion between an ONCOGENE and another gene. The latter may be of viral or cellular origin.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A family of galactoside hydrolases that hydrolyze compounds with an O-galactosyl linkage. EC 3.2.1.-.
The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.

Early induction of angiogenetic signals in gliomas of GFAP-v-src transgenic mice. (1/884)

Angiogenesis is a prerequisite for solid tumor growth. Glioblastoma multiforme, the most common malignant brain tumor, is characterized by extensive vascular proliferation. We previously showed that transgenic mice expressing a GFAP-v-src fusion gene in astrocytes develop low-grade astrocytomas that progressively evolve into hypervascularized glioblastomas. Here, we examined whether tumor progression triggers angiogenetic signals. We found abundant transcription of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in neoplastic astrocytes at surprisingly early stages of tumorigenesis. VEGF and v-src expression patterns were not identical, suggesting that VEGF activation was not only dependent on v-src. Late-stage gliomas showed perinecrotic VEGF up-regulation similarly to human glioblastoma. Expression patterns of the endothelial angiogenic receptors flt-1, flk-1, tie-1, and tie-2 were similar to those described in human gliomas, but flt-1 was expressed also in neoplastic astrocytes, suggesting an autocrine role in tumor growth. In crossbreeding experiments, hemizygous ablation of the tumor suppressor genes Rb and p53 had no significant effect on the expression of VEGF, flt-1, flk-1, tie-1, and tie-2. Therefore, expression of angiogenic signals is an early event during progression of GFAP-v-src tumors and precedes hypervascularization. Given the close similarities in the progression pattern between GFAP-v-src and human gliomas, the present results suggest that these mice may provide a useful tool for antiangiogenic therapy research.  (+info)

Conserved mechanism of PLAG1 activation in salivary gland tumors with and without chromosome 8q12 abnormalities: identification of SII as a new fusion partner gene. (2/884)

We have previously shown (K. Kas et al, Nat. Genet., 15: 170-174, 1997) that the developmentally regulated zinc finger gene pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) is the target gene in 8q12 in pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary glands with t(3;8)(p21;q12) translocations. The t(3;8) results in promoter swapping between PLAG1 and the constitutively expressed gene for beta-catenin (CTNNB1), leading to activation of PLAG1 expression and reduced expression of CTNNB1. Here we have studied the expression of PLAG1 by Northern blot analysis in 47 primary benign and malignant human tumors with or without cytogenetic abnormalities of 8q12. Overexpression of PLAG1 was found in 23 tumors (49%). Thirteen of 17 pleomorphic adenomas with a normal karyotype and 5 of 10 with 12q13-15 abnormalities overexpressed PLAG1, which demonstrates that PLAG1 activation is a frequent event in adenomas irrespective of karyotype. In contrast, PLAG1 was overexpressed in only 2 of 11 malignant salivary gland tumors analyzed, which suggests that, at least in salivary gland tumors, PLAG1 activation preferentially occurs in benign tumors. PLAG1 over-expression was also found in three of nine mesenchymal tumors, i.e., in two uterine leiomyomas and one leiomyosarcoma. RNase protection, rapid amplification of 5'-cDNA ends (5'-RACE), and reverse transcription-PCR analyses of five adenomas with a normal karyotype revealed fusion transcripts in three tumors. Nucleotide sequence analysis of these showed that they contained fusions between PLAG1 and CTNNB1 (one case) or PLAG1 and a novel fusion partner gene, i.e., the gene encoding the transcription elongation factor SII (two cases). The fusions occurred in the 5' noncoding region of PLAG1, leading to exchange of regulatory control elements and, as a consequence, activation of PLAG1 gene expression. Because all of the cases had grossly normal karyotypes, the rearrangements must result from cryptic rearrangements. The results suggest that in addition to chromosomal translocations and cryptic rearrangements, PLAG1 may also be activated by mutations or indirect mechanisms. Our findings establish a conserved mechanism of PLAG1 activation in salivary gland tumors with and without 8q12 aberrations, which indicates that such activation is a frequent event in these tumors.  (+info)

A novel Vpr peptide interactor fused to integrase (IN) restores integration activity to IN-defective HIV-1 virions. (3/884)

A novel approach to complement human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) integrase (IN)-defective virions has been identified. The approach involves fusion of a 23-amino-acid stretch to the N-terminus of wild-type IN and coexpression of this chimera with the IN-defective proviral template in virus producing cells. The 23-amino-acid peptide represents a Vpr "interactor," referred to as the the WxxF or WF domain, which apparently leads to docking of the domain along with the fusion partner onto HIV-1 Vpr, thus permitting virion incorporation of the chimeric protein when expressed, in trans, with other viral products. Transfection of the WF-IN expression plasmid along with HIV-1 viral clones that produce Vpr, but bear an IN mutation, results in the release of a proportion of viral particles that are competent for integration. The extent of complementation was assessed using the MAGI cell assay, where integration of viral DNA results in the eventual appearance of easily visible multinucleated blue syncytia. The efficiency of dWF-IN (double copy of WF domain) complementation is not improved markedly by incorporation of a HIV-1 protease cleavage site (PR) between the dWF domain and IN (dWF-PR-IN), unlike that observed with Vpr fusions to IN. Furthermore, the ability of Vpr-PR-IN and dWF-PR-IN to complement IN-defective proviral clones, both of which bear an intervening protease cleavage site, appear comparable. Western blotting analyses using virions isolated through sucrose cushions demonstrate clearly the incorporation of the dWF-IN fusion protein into Vpr containing HIV-1 particles but not in Vpr-deficient virions. Additional Western blotting analyses indicate that all Vpr-IN and dWF-IN chimeras, with or without a PR site, are packaged into virions. The efficiency of virion incorporation of Vpr-IN and dWF-IN chimeras appears approximately comparable by Western blotting analysis. The ability of dWF-IN to complement IN-defective proviruses with efficiency similar to that of Vpr-PR-IN and dWF-PR-IN indicates that dWF-IN retains the full complement of functions necessary for integration of proviral DNA and is likely due to the benign nature of this small domain at the amino-terminus of IN.  (+info)

Insertion analysis of putative functional elements in the promoter region of the Aspergillus oryzae Taka-amylase A gene (amyB) using a heterologous Aspergillus nidulans amdS-lacZ fusion gene system. (4/884)

Expression of the Taka-amylase A gene (amyB) of Aspergillus oryzae is induced by starch or maltose. The A. oryzae amyB gene promoter contains three highly conserved sequences, designated Regions I, II, and III, compared with promoter regions of the A. oryzae glaA encoding glucoamylase and the agdA encoding alpha-glucosidase. To identify the function of these sequences within the amyB promoter, various fragments containing conserved sequences in the amyB promoter were introduced into the upstream region of the heterologous A. nidulans amdS gene (encoding acetamidase) fused to the Escherichia coli lacZ gene as a reporter. Introduction of the sequence between -290 to -233 (the number indicates the distance in base pairs from the translation initiation point (+1)) containing Region III significantly increased the expression of the lacZ reporter gene in the presence of maltose. The sequence between -377 to -290 containing Region I also increased the lacZ activity, but its maltose inducibility was less than that of Region III. The sequence between -233 to -181 containing Region II had no effect on the expression. These results indicated that Region III is most likely involved in the maltose induction of the amyB gene expression.  (+info)

Catabolic repression of secB expression is positively controlled by cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein-cAMP complexes at the transcriptional level. (5/884)

SecB, a protein export-specific chaperone, enhances the export of a subset of proteins across cytoplasmic membranes of Escherichia coli. Previous studies showed that the synthesis of SecB is repressed by the presence of glucose in the medium. The derepression of SecB requires the products of both the cya and crp genes, indicating that secB expression is under the control of catabolic repression. In this study, two secB-specific promoters were identified. In addition, 5' transcription initiation sites from these two promoters were determined by means of secB-lacZ fusions and primer extension. The distal P1 promoter appeared to be independent of carbon sources, whereas the proximal P2 promoter was shown to be subject to control by the cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP)-cAMP complexes. Gel-mobility shift studies showed that this regulation results from direct interaction between the secB P2 promoter region and the CRP-cAMP complex. Moreover, the CRP binding site on the secB gene was determined by DNase I footprinting and further substantiated by mutational analysis. The identified secB CRP binding region is centered at the -61.5 region of the secB gene and differed from the putative binding sites predicted by computer analysis.  (+info)

Pax6 and Pdx1 form a functional complex on the rat somatostatin gene upstream enhancer. (6/884)

The somatostatin upstream enhancer (SMS-UE) is a highly complex enhancer element. The distal A-element contains overlapping Pdx1 and Pbx binding sites. However, a point mutation in the A-element that abolishes both Pdxl and Pbx binding does not impair promoter activity. In contrast, a point mutation that selectively eliminates Pdx1 binding to a proximal B-element reduces the promoter activity. The B-element completely overlaps with a Pax6 binding site, the C-element. A point mutation in the C-element demonstrates that Pax6 binding is essential for promoter activity. Interestingly, a block mutation in the A-element reduces both Pax6 binding and promoter activity. In heterologous cells, Pdx1 potentiated Pax6 mediated activation of a somatostatin reporter. We conclude that the beta/delta-cell-specific activity of the SMS-UE is achieved through simultaneous binding of Pdx1 and Pax6 to the B- and C-elements, respectively. Furthermore, the A-element appears to stabilise Pax6 binding.  (+info)

Target joining of duplicated insertion sequence IS21 is assisted by IstB protein in vitro. (7/884)

Tandemly repeated insertion sequence IS21, located on a suicide plasmid, promoted replicon fusion with bacteriophage lambda in vitro in the presence of ATP. This reaction was catalyzed in a cell extract containing the 45-kDa IstA protein (cointegrase) and the 30-kDa IstB helper protein of IS21 after both proteins had been overproduced in Escherichia coli. Without IstB, replicon fusion was inefficient and did not produce the 4-bp target duplications typical of IS21.  (+info)

Host genes that affect the target-site distribution of the yeast retrotransposon Ty1. (8/884)

We report here a simple genetic system for investigating factors affecting Ty1 target-site preference within an RNAP II transcribed gene. The target in this system is a functional fusion of the regulatable MET3 promoter with the URA3 gene. We found that the simultaneous inactivation of Hir3 (a histone transcription regulator) and Cac3 (a subunit of the chromatin assembly factor I), which was previously shown by us to increase the Ty1 transposition rate, eliminated the normally observed bias for Ty1 elements to insert into the 5' vs. 3' regions of the MET3-URA3 and CAN1 genes. The double cac3 hir3 mutation also caused the production of a short transcript from the MET3-URA3 fusion under both repressed and derepressed conditions. In a hir3Delta single-mutant strain, the Ty1 target-site distribution into MET3-URA3 was altered only when transposition occurred while the MET3-URA3 fusion was actively transcribed. In contrast, transcription of the MET3-URA3 fusion did not alter the Ty1 target-site distribution in wild-type or other mutant strains. Deletion of RAD6 was shown to alter the Ty1 target-site preference in the MET3-URA3 fusion and the LYS2 gene. These data, together with previous studies of Ty1 integration positions at CAN1 and SUP4, indicate that the rad6 effect on Ty1 target-site selection is not gene specific.  (+info)

Synthetic genes are artificially created DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules that do not exist in nature. They are designed and constructed through genetic engineering techniques to encode specific functionalities or properties that do not occur in the original organism's genome. These synthetic genes can be used for various purposes, such as introducing new traits into organisms, producing novel enzymes or proteins, or developing new biotechnological applications.

The creation of synthetic genes involves designing and synthesizing DNA sequences that code for desired proteins or regulatory elements. This is achieved through chemical synthesis methods or using automated DNA synthesizers that can produce short DNA fragments, which are then assembled into longer sequences to form the complete synthetic gene. Once created, these synthetic genes can be introduced into living cells through various techniques like transfection or transformation, enabling the expression of the desired protein or functional trait.

Artificial gene fusion refers to the creation of a new gene by joining together parts or whole sequences from two or more different genes. This is achieved through genetic engineering techniques, where the DNA segments are cut and pasted using enzymes called restriction endonucleases and ligases. The resulting artificial gene may encode for a novel protein with unique functions that neither of the parental genes possess. This approach has been widely used in biomedical research to study gene function, create new diagnostic tools, and develop gene therapies.

A gene fusion, also known as a chromosomal translocation or fusion gene, is an abnormal genetic event where parts of two different genes combine to create a single, hybrid gene. This can occur due to various mechanisms such as chromosomal rearrangements, deletions, or inversions, leading to the formation of a chimeric gene with new and often altered functions.

Gene fusions can result in the production of abnormal fusion proteins that may contribute to cancer development and progression by promoting cell growth, inhibiting apoptosis (programmed cell death), or activating oncogenic signaling pathways. In some cases, gene fusions are specific to certain types of cancer and serve as valuable diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets for personalized medicine.

Membrane fusion is a fundamental biological process that involves the merging of two initially separate lipid bilayers, such as those surrounding cells or organelles, to form a single continuous membrane. This process plays a crucial role in various physiological events including neurotransmitter release, hormone secretion, fertilization, viral infection, and intracellular trafficking of proteins and lipids. Membrane fusion is tightly regulated and requires the participation of specific proteins called SNAREs (Soluble NSF Attachment Protein REceptors) and other accessory factors that facilitate the recognition, approximation, and merger of the membranes. The energy required to overcome the repulsive forces between the negatively charged lipid headgroups is provided by these proteins, which undergo conformational changes during the fusion process. Membrane fusion is a highly specific and coordinated event, ensuring that the correct membranes fuse at the right time and place within the cell.

An oncogene fusion, also known as oncogenic fusion or chimeric oncogene, is a result of a genetic rearrangement where parts of two different genes combine to form a hybrid gene. This fusion can lead to the production of an abnormal protein that contributes to cancer development and progression. In many cases, one of the fused genes is a proto-oncogene, a normal gene that regulates cell growth and division. When this gene is altered through fusion, it can acquire increased activity or new functions, promoting uncontrolled cell growth and eventually leading to tumor formation. Oncogene fusions are often associated with specific types of cancer and can be used as diagnostic markers or therapeutic targets for cancer treatment.

Cell fusion is the process by which two or more cells combine to form a single cell with a single nucleus, containing the genetic material from all of the original cells. This can occur naturally in certain biological processes, such as fertilization (when a sperm and egg cell fuse to form a zygote), muscle development (where multiple muscle precursor cells fuse together to create multinucleated muscle fibers), and during the formation of bone (where osteoclasts, the cells responsible for breaking down bone tissue, are multinucleated).

Cell fusion can also be induced artificially in laboratory settings through various methods, including chemical treatments, electrical stimulation, or viral vectors. Induced cell fusion is often used in research to create hybrid cells with unique properties, such as cybrid cells (cytoplasmic hybrids) and heterokaryons (nuclear hybrids). These hybrid cells can help scientists study various aspects of cell biology, genetics, and disease mechanisms.

In summary, cell fusion is the merging of two or more cells into one, resulting in a single cell with combined genetic material. This process occurs naturally during certain biological processes and can be induced artificially for research purposes.

Recombinant fusion proteins are artificially created biomolecules that combine the functional domains or properties of two or more different proteins into a single protein entity. They are generated through recombinant DNA technology, where the genes encoding the desired protein domains are linked together and expressed as a single, chimeric gene in a host organism, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells.

The resulting fusion protein retains the functional properties of its individual constituent proteins, allowing for novel applications in research, diagnostics, and therapeutics. For instance, recombinant fusion proteins can be designed to enhance protein stability, solubility, or immunogenicity, making them valuable tools for studying protein-protein interactions, developing targeted therapies, or generating vaccines against infectious diseases or cancer.

Examples of recombinant fusion proteins include:

1. Etaglunatide (ABT-523): A soluble Fc fusion protein that combines the heavy chain fragment crystallizable region (Fc) of an immunoglobulin with the extracellular domain of the human interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R). This fusion protein functions as a decoy receptor, neutralizing IL-6 and its downstream signaling pathways in rheumatoid arthritis.
2. Etanercept (Enbrel): A soluble TNF receptor p75 Fc fusion protein that binds to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and inhibits its proinflammatory activity, making it a valuable therapeutic option for treating autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriasis.
3. Abatacept (Orencia): A fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) linked to the Fc region of an immunoglobulin, which downregulates T-cell activation and proliferation in autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Belimumab (Benlysta): A monoclonal antibody that targets B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) protein, preventing its interaction with the B-cell surface receptor and inhibiting B-cell activation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
5. Romiplostim (Nplate): A fusion protein consisting of a thrombopoietin receptor agonist peptide linked to an immunoglobulin Fc region, which stimulates platelet production in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).
6. Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp): A hyperglycosylated erythropoiesis-stimulating protein that functions as a longer-acting form of recombinant human erythropoietin, used to treat anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease or cancer.
7. Palivizumab (Synagis): A monoclonal antibody directed against the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which prevents RSV infection and is administered prophylactically to high-risk infants during the RSV season.
8. Ranibizumab (Lucentis): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody fragment that binds and inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), used in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and other ocular disorders.
9. Cetuximab (Erbitux): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), used in the treatment of colorectal cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
10. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully humanized monoclonal antibody that targets tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn's disease.
11. Bevacizumab (Avastin): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to VEGF-A, used in the treatment of various cancers, including colorectal, lung, breast, and kidney cancer.
12. Trastuzumab (Herceptin): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets HER2/neu receptor, used in the treatment of breast cancer.
13. Rituximab (Rituxan): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to CD20 antigen on B cells, used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rheumatoid arthritis.
14. Palivizumab (Synagis): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus, used in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants.
15. Infliximab (Remicade): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
16. Natalizumab (Tysabri): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to α4β1 integrin, used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease.
17. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis.
18. Golimumab (Simponi): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and ulcerative colitis.
19. Certolizumab pegol (Cimzia): A PEGylated Fab' fragment of a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and Crohn's disease.
20. Ustekinumab (Stelara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-12 and IL-23, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and Crohn's disease.
21. Secukinumab (Cosentyx): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
22. Ixekizumab (Taltz): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.
23. Brodalumab (Siliq): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17 receptor A, used in the treatment of psoriasis.
24. Sarilumab (Kevzara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
25. Tocilizumab (Actemra): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, giant cell arteritis, and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell-induced cytokine release syndrome.
26. Siltuximab (Sylvant): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment of multicentric Castleman disease.
27. Satralizumab (Enspryng): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6 receptor alpha, used in the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.
28. Sirukumab (Plivensia): A human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment

An oncogene protein fusion is a result of a genetic alteration in which parts of two different genes combine to create a hybrid gene that can contribute to the development of cancer. This fusion can lead to the production of an abnormal protein that promotes uncontrolled cell growth and division, ultimately resulting in a malignant tumor. Oncogene protein fusions are often caused by chromosomal rearrangements such as translocations, inversions, or deletions and are commonly found in various types of cancer, including leukemia and sarcoma. These genetic alterations can serve as potential targets for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Spinal fusion is a surgical procedure where two or more vertebrae in the spine are fused together to create a solid bone. The purpose of this procedure is to restrict movement between the fused vertebrae, which can help reduce pain and stabilize the spine. This is typically done using bone grafts or bone graft substitutes, along with hardware such as rods, screws, or cages to hold the vertebrae in place while they heal together. The procedure may be recommended for various spinal conditions, including degenerative disc disease, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, scoliosis, or fractures.

Viral fusion proteins are specialized surface proteins found on the envelope of enveloped viruses. These proteins play a crucial role in the viral infection process by mediating the fusion of the viral membrane with the target cell membrane, allowing the viral genetic material to enter the host cell and initiate replication.

The fusion protein is often synthesized as an inactive precursor, which undergoes a series of conformational changes upon interaction with specific receptors on the host cell surface. This results in the exposure of hydrophobic fusion peptides or domains that insert into the target cell membrane, bringing the two membranes into close proximity and facilitating their merger.

A well-known example of a viral fusion protein is the gp120/gp41 complex found on the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The gp120 subunit binds to CD4 receptors and chemokine coreceptors on the host cell surface, triggering conformational changes in the gp41 subunit that expose the fusion peptide and enable membrane fusion. Understanding the structure and function of viral fusion proteins is important for developing antiviral strategies and vaccines.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Beta-galactosidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of beta-galactosides into monosaccharides. It is found in various organisms, including bacteria, yeast, and mammals. In humans, it plays a role in the breakdown and absorption of certain complex carbohydrates, such as lactose, in the small intestine. Deficiency of this enzyme in humans can lead to a disorder called lactose intolerance. In scientific research, beta-galactosidase is often used as a marker for gene expression and protein localization studies.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

The lac operon is a genetic regulatory system found in the bacteria Escherichia coli that controls the expression of genes responsible for the metabolism of lactose as a source of energy. It consists of three structural genes (lacZ, lacY, and lacA) that code for enzymes involved in lactose metabolism, as well as two regulatory elements: the lac promoter and the lac operator.

The lac repressor protein, produced by the lacI gene, binds to the lac operator sequence when lactose is not present, preventing RNA polymerase from transcribing the structural genes. When lactose is available, it is converted into allolactose, which acts as an inducer and binds to the lac repressor protein, causing a conformational change that prevents it from binding to the operator sequence. This allows RNA polymerase to bind to the promoter and transcribe the structural genes, leading to the production of enzymes necessary for lactose metabolism.

In summary, the lac operon is a genetic regulatory system in E. coli that controls the expression of genes involved in lactose metabolism based on the availability of lactose as a substrate.

Translocation, genetic, refers to a type of chromosomal abnormality in which a segment of a chromosome is transferred from one chromosome to another, resulting in an altered genome. This can occur between two non-homologous chromosomes (non-reciprocal translocation) or between two homologous chromosomes (reciprocal translocation). Genetic translocations can lead to various clinical consequences, depending on the genes involved and the location of the translocation. Some translocations may result in no apparent effects, while others can cause developmental abnormalities, cancer, or other genetic disorders. In some cases, translocations can also increase the risk of having offspring with genetic conditions.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

Galactosidases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of galactose-containing sugars, specifically at the beta-glycosidic bond. There are several types of galactosidases, including:

1. Beta-galactosidase: This is the most well-known type of galactosidase and it catalyzes the hydrolysis of lactose into glucose and galactose. It has important roles in various biological processes, such as lactose metabolism in animals and cell wall biosynthesis in plants.
2. Alpha-galactosidase: This enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-galactosides, which are found in certain plant-derived foods like legumes. A deficiency in this enzyme can lead to a genetic disorder called Fabry disease.
3. N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase: This enzyme is also known as hexosaminidase and it catalyzes the hydrolysis of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine residues from glycoproteins, glycolipids, and other complex carbohydrates.

Galactosidases are widely used in various industrial applications, such as food processing, biotechnology, and biofuel production. They also have potential therapeutic uses, such as in the treatment of lysosomal storage disorders like Fabry disease.

A chromosome breakpoint is a specific location on a chromosome where a chromosomal rearrangement, such as a translocation or inversion, has occurred. A breakpoint is the point at which the chromosome has broken and then rejoined, often with another chromosome, resulting in a changed genetic sequence. These changes can have various consequences, including altered gene expression, loss of genetic material, or gain of new genetic material, which can lead to genetic disorders or predisposition to certain diseases. The identification and characterization of breakpoints are important for understanding the molecular basis of genomic rearrangements and their associated phenotypes.

An operon is a genetic unit in prokaryotic organisms (like bacteria) consisting of a cluster of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule, which then undergoes translation to produce multiple proteins. This genetic organization allows for the coordinated regulation of genes that are involved in the same metabolic pathway or functional process. The unit typically includes promoter and operator regions that control the transcription of the operon, as well as structural genes encoding the proteins. Operons were first discovered in bacteria, but similar genetic organizations have been found in some eukaryotic organisms, such as yeast.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

These fusion linkers code for a 15 amino acid glycine and serine polypeptide, which is an ideal linker peptide for fusion ... Artificial gene synthesis, or simply gene synthesis, refers to a group of methods that are used in synthetic biology to ... Increasingly, genes are ordered in sets including functionally related genes or multiple sequence variants on a single gene. ... Because artificial gene synthesis does not require template DNA, it is theoretically possible to make a completely synthetic ...
... artificial gene fusion MeSH E05.393.220.870 - two-hybrid system techniques MeSH E05.393.281.526 - genetic complementation test ... artificial, heterologous MeSH E05.820.800.937.525 - insemination, artificial, homologous MeSH E05.820.800.968 - oocyte donation ... cell fusion MeSH E05.200.500.363 - cell separation MeSH E05.200.500.363.285 - cytapheresis MeSH E05.200.500.363.285.570 - ... gene therapy MeSH E05.393.420.451 - genetic enhancement MeSH E05.393.420.601 - protein engineering MeSH E05.393.420.601.035 - ...
In the cell or animal, the artificial gene turns on in the same tissues and the same time as the normal gene, making a fusion ... The genetic engineering technique fuses the gene of interest to the GFP gene. The fused DNA is then put into a cell, to ... and Pax genes and their implied evidence for shared primordial (ancestral) genes in eye evolution. Box jellyfish eyes are said ... Kaplan, Eugene H.; Kaplan, Susan L.; Peterson, Roger Tory (August 1999). A Field Guide to Coral Reefs: Caribbean and Florida. ...
ChIA-PET is similar to finding fusion genes through RNA-PET in that the paired tags map to different regions in the genome. ... However, ChIA-PET involves artificial ligations between different DNA fragments located at different genomic regions, rather ... RNA-PET could also be used to detect fusion genes and trans-splicing, but further experiment is needed to distinguish between ... RNA-PET: This application is used for studying the transcriptome: transcripts, gene structures, and gene expressions. The PET ...
The yeast two-hybrid and bacterial two-hybrid screen investigate the interaction between artificial fusion proteins. They do ... The cells are designed in a way that an interaction activates the transcription of a reporter gene or a reporter enzyme. Most ... Applied in vivo, FRET has been used to detect the location and interactions of genes and cellular structures including ...
For gene fusions that occur through natural processes, see chimeric genes and fusion genes. A chimera can occur as a single ... "The first mRNA transcript isolated for..." the human gene C2orf3 "...was part of an artificial chimera..." CYP2C17 was thought ... chimeric gene fusion gene "Chimeras". Retrieved 2022-10-27. Edgar, Robert C. (2016-09-12). "UCHIME2: improved ... In a different context, the deliberate creation of artificial chimeras can also be a useful tool in molecular biology. For ...
"Gene prioritization by compressive data fusion and chaining". PLoS Computational Biology 11(10):e1004552, 2015. Martin Stražar ... Blaž Zupan teaches artificial intelligence, machine learning, data mining and bioinformatics at the University of Ljubljana and ... His research focuses on constructive induction, epistasis approaches for reconstructing gene networks, large-scale data fusion ... "Data fusion by matrix factorization". IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 37(1):41-53, 2015. Marinka ...
These fusion proteins serve as readily targetable "DNA scissors" for gene editing applications that enable to perform targeted ... TALENs are artificial restriction enzymes designed by fusing the DNA cutting domain of a nuclease to TALE domains, which can be ... Targeted gene mutation Gene therapy Creating chromosome rearrangement Study gene function with stem cells Transgenic animals ... If a vital gene is knocked out it can prove lethal to the organism. In order to study the function of these genes site specific ...
... some gene fusions may cause regulatory changes that alter when and where these genes act. For partial gene fusions, the ... can be manufactured through genetic engineering by fusion to the original proteins of peptide domains that induce artificial ... Examples include: Gag-onc fusion protein Bcr-abl fusion protein Tpr-met fusion protein Antibodies are fusion proteins produced ... A recombinant fusion protein is a protein created through genetic engineering of a fusion gene. This typically involves ...
... flanked by an artificial 5' untranslated region (UTR) and a 3' UTR derived from the human alpha globin gene (HBA1), ... designed to stabilize the pre-fusion conformation. The sequence is further optimized by: all uridines (U) substituted with N1- ...
The proteins themselves are fusion transcription factors, which can target particular genes. She hopes to increase the use of ... her experience with chromatin dynamics and synthetic biology to create artificial transcription factors which activated genes ... "A Sensitive Switch for Visualizing Natural Gene Silencing in Single Cells". ACS Synthetic Biology. 1 (3): 99-106. doi:10.1021/ ... grant to study the use of modular peptide motifs to build synthetic chromatin proteins that activate dormant therapeutic genes ...
It was also by means of cell fusion that Harris and Goss devised the first systematic method for determining the order of genes ... Loyd-Luke, London (pub). ISBN 978-0-85324-054-9 Hybrid Cells Derived from Mouse and Man : Artificial Heterokaryons of Mammalian ... These genes are now known as tumour suppressor genes and work on them has become a world-wide industry. Harris's research was ... With John Watkins he developed the technique of cell fusion for the study of the physiology and genetics of higher cells. They ...
BiTE is a registered trademark of Micromet AG (fully owned subsidiary of Amgen Inc). BiTEs are fusion proteins consisting of ... Bi-specific T-cell engagers (BiTEs) are a class of artificial bispecific monoclonal antibodies that are investigated for use as ... two single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) of different antibodies, or amino acid sequences from four different genes, on a ...
Jefferson RA, Kavanagh TA, Bevan MW (December 1987). "GUS fusions: beta-glucuronidase as a sensitive and versatile gene fusion ... "Artificial Genes". Time. 15 November 1982. Archived from the original on 27 October 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2010. Horn ME, ... Some genes are only expressed in certain tissues, so reporter genes, like GUS, can be attached to the gene of interest allowing ... Gene therapy uses genetically modified viruses to deliver genes which can cure disease in humans. Although gene therapy is ...
... have been developed using the molecular biology technique of gene fusion, a process that links the expression of the ... For example, one strategy often in use is the artificial production of proteins, based on the genetic code (DNA). These ... it creates an artificial phase difference of about a quarter wavelength. As the physical properties of this direct light have ...
Thus, CRISP-Disp enables control of gene expression with deployment of both artificial scaffolds as well as natural lncRNA ... and recruitment of tagged fusion proteins. One example of artificial ncRNA functionalization is incorporating RNA domains ... To determine if artificial lncRNA scaffolds can be used with CRISPR-Display, dCas9 complexes were assembled with artificial RNA ... as well as specific regulation of certain genes for investigation of gene function. Due to the modularity of the sgRNA, several ...
Genes on human chromosome 8, Protein domains, All stub articles, Human chromosome 8 gene stubs). ... Recombinant SP-C is used in Venticute, an artificial lung surfactant. A process to mass-produce an analogue called rSP-C33Le by ... fusion with spidroin has been described. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000168484 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl ... In humans this is encoded by the SFTPC gene. It is a membrane protein. SFTPC is a 197-residue protein made up of two halves: a ...
In standard synthetic biology, artificial gene networks are introduced into cells, inputs (e.g. chemicals, light) are applied ... cell fusion, cell locomotion, chemotaxis, haptotaxis, cell wedging). Broadly similar lists exist for tissues of plants, fungi ... idea by adding output modules that alter the shape or social behaviour of cells in response to the state of the artificial gene ... For example, instead of just making a fluorescent protein, a gene network may switch on an adhesion molecule so that cells ...
Eugene Boland is the Chief Scientist at Techshot, a company located in Greenville, Indiana. They intend to send small canisters ... It would be located at the Mars Lagrange orbit L1 at about 320 R♂, creating a partial and distant artificial magnetosphere. The ... National Institute for Fusion Science (Japan). Archived (PDF) from the original on September 10, 2016. Retrieved June 7, 2016 ... Some scientists hypothesize that creating a planet-wide artificial magnetosphere would be helpful in resolving this issue. ...
"Artificial intelligence helps accelerate progress toward efficient fusion reactions". 15 December 2017. Retrieved 24 ... "Gene prompts cells to store fat, fueling obesity". Science Daily. 13 November 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017. "Fat Cell Gene ... "Artificial intelligence helps accelerate progress toward efficient fusion reactions". Princeton University. 15 December 2017. ... "Fusion heating gets a boost". MIT. 21 August 2017. Retrieved 29 August 2017. "MIT Achieves Breakthrough in Nuclear Fusion". ...
TALEN fusions show activity in a yeast-based assay, at endogenous yeast genes, in a plant reporter assay, at an endogenous ... have been used to create artificial transcription factors that can be used to target and activate or repress endogenous genes ... plant gene, at endogenous zebrafish genes, at an endogenous rat gene, and at endogenous human genes. The human HPRT1 gene has ... gene family. These genes are essential for the development of the disease. In rice two genes, Os-8N3 and Os-11N3, are induced ...
Eugene Farkas was main engineer on the Fordson tractor. Sándor Just invented the tungsten electric bulb (1904). Imre Bródy ... Albert Szent-Györgyi discovered Vitamin C and created the first artificial vitamin. (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in ... Edward Teller hypothesized thermonuclear fusion and the theory of the hydrogen bomb. John Kemeny developed the BASIC ... Eugene Wigner, Theodore von Kármán and Edward Teller, emigrated to the United States and made valuable contributions there. ( ...
Zoology (1991-96), Trends in Cell Biology (1991-97), Molecular and Cellular Biology (1992-98), Genes to Cells (1994-98). In ... which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes." Zakian's lab " uses a ... "were the first to construct and characterize a linear artificial chromosome." in 1983. This work, along with another related ... 1990 Cell) "discovered telomere position effect, TPE, the transcriptional repression of genes near telomeres in budding yeast ...
... as well as candidate gene-fusion events. Trinity first divides the sequence data into a number of de Bruijn graphs, each ... Velvet can produce contigs up to 50-kb N50 length using prokaryotic data and 3-kb N50 in mammalian bacterial artificial ... It is also possible that they represent different genes within the same gene family, or even genes that share only a conserved ... To perform this step, tools that model the expected gene space based of conserved genes, such as BUSCO, can be used. For ...
The late Eugene Mallove, cold fusion advocate. The late Jim Marrs, author mostly known for "Crossfire", a discussion of the ... Kevin Warwick, professor of cybernetics who discusses his research with implants, artificial intelligence and robotics - ...
... a synthetically built genome whose formation involves either genetic modification on pre-existing life forms or artificial gene ... Although recombinant DNA technology is more commonly used in the construction of fusion proteins and plasmids, several ... "Single-step assembly of a gene and entire plasmid from large numbers of oligodeoxyribonucleotides". Gene. 164 (1): 49-53. doi: ... the field of genetics began using these molecular tools to assemble artificial sequences from smaller fragments of synthetic or ...
Applications of artificial intelligence Artificial life Artificial neural network Behavior based robotics Bioinformatics ... The most basic computer system, such as storage and computational fusion, pulse discharge mechanism, the connection mechanism ... science Connectionism Digital morphogenesis Digital organism Evolutionary algorithm Evolutionary computation Fuzzy logic Gene ... In traditional artificial intelligence, intelligence is often programmed from above: the programmer is the creator, and makes ...
"Gene Designer: A synthetic biology tool for constructing artificial DNA segments". BMC Bioinformatics. 7: 285. doi:10.1186/1471 ... Remove or add restriction sites or other sequence motifs Recode open reading frames Check translation frames and fusion ... Gene Designer enables molecular biologists to manage the full gene design process in one application, using a range of design ... Gene Designer is a computer software package for bioinformatics. It is used by molecular biologists from academia, government, ...
... associate director of MIT's Plasma Fusion Center, challenging the feasibility of fusion power (which at the time was often ... Immune engineering Precise gene editing in plants Conversational interfaces Reusable rockets Robots that teach each other DNA ... 3-D metal printing Artificial embryos Sensing city AI for everybody Dueling neural networks Babel-fish earbuds Zero-carbon ... The cover of a 1983 issue stated, "Even if the fusion program produces a reactor, no one will want it," and contained an ...
Gene McFalls of the USAF has said that sensor fusion will feed into inventory databases to precisely identify aircraft at a ... Sukhoi calls their expert system for sensor fusion the artificial intelligence of the Su-57. Flight tests of their integrated ... Sensor fusion and automatic target tracking are projected to give the fifth-generation jet fighter pilot a view of the ... If you fly into heavy IADS with a great radar and sensor fusion, but no stealth, you will have complete situational awareness ...
Artificial Gene Fusion * Biotechnology / methods * Gene Expression* * Genes, Reporter * Green Fluorescent Proteins / analysis ... As an example of application for these promoters in metabolic engineering, the genes involved in xylan degradation and ...
These fusion linkers code for a 15 amino acid glycine and serine polypeptide, which is an ideal linker peptide for fusion ... Artificial gene synthesis, or simply gene synthesis, refers to a group of methods that are used in synthetic biology to ... Increasingly, genes are ordered in sets including functionally related genes or multiple sequence variants on a single gene. ... Because artificial gene synthesis does not require template DNA, it is theoretically possible to make a completely synthetic ...
Advent of gene transfer through recombinant DNA techniques. Use of embryo rescue and protoplast fusion in plant breeding and ... artificial insemination in animal reproduction. 1980s. Insulin as first commercial product from gene transfer. Tissue culture ... Identification of genes that detach and move (transposons). Modern. 1970s. ...
keywords = "Animals, Antigens, Bacterial, Antigens, Surface, Artificial Gene Fusion, BCG Vaccine, Bacterial Proteins, Enzyme- ... Artificial Gene Fusion, BCG Vaccine, Bacterial Proteins, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Female, Interferon-gamma, Mice, ... To deliver the candidate antigen on the surface, we fused the mpt64 gene to the sequence encoding the PE domain of the PE_ ... To deliver the candidate antigen on the surface, we fused the mpt64 gene to the sequence encoding the PE domain of the PE_ ...
Gene Fusion. Artificial Gene Fusion. E07 - Equipment and Supplies. Power Sources. Electric Power Supplies. ...
Gene Fusion. Artificial Gene Fusion. E07 - Equipment and Supplies. Power Sources. Electric Power Supplies. ...
Gene Fusion. Artificial Gene Fusion. E07 - Equipment and Supplies. Power Sources. Electric Power Supplies. ...
Gene Fusion. Artificial Gene Fusion. E07 - Equipment and Supplies. Power Sources. Electric Power Supplies. ...
Gene Fusion. Artificial Gene Fusion. E07 - Equipment and Supplies. Power Sources. Electric Power Supplies. ...
Gene Fusion. Artificial Gene Fusion. E07 - Equipment and Supplies. Power Sources. Electric Power Supplies. ...
Gene Fusion. Artificial Gene Fusion. E07 - Equipment and Supplies. Power Sources. Electric Power Supplies. ...
Gene Fusion. Artificial Gene Fusion. E07 - Equipment and Supplies. Power Sources. Electric Power Supplies. ...
Gene Fusion. Artificial Gene Fusion. E07 - Equipment and Supplies. Power Sources. Electric Power Supplies. ...
Gene Fusion. Artificial Gene Fusion. E07 - Equipment and Supplies. Power Sources. Electric Power Supplies. ...
Gene Fusion. Artificial Gene Fusion. E07 - Equipment and Supplies. Power Sources. Electric Power Supplies. ...
To rule out potential artificial chimera, the fusion gene must be corroborated by at least two different cells. After ... Fusion gene expression in single-cell level. Gene fusion is one of the hallmarks of human cancers. To identify fusion gene ... 21 fusion genes were identified, and 3 fusion genes were selected to validate experimentally. Among these fusion genes, ACTR2- ... Novel fusion transcripts were detected. The combination of gene expressions, fusion gene transcripts, and mutation gene ...
By artificial gene-fusion a unique lignocellulolytic enzymes with multiple activities can be created. Note that this is just a ... Evaluation of HER2 gene status in breast cancer samples with indeterminate fluorescence in situ hybridization by quantitative ... which encodes or programs the essential genes for reproduction and other cellular functions. When two closely spaced wavelenths ...
By artificial gene-fusion a unique lignocellulolytic enzymes with multiple activities can be created. Understanding what they ... Key Terms hemizygous : Having battlefield hwid spoofer single copies of genes in an otherwise diploid cell or organism. Get ...
... we annotated the gene fusions using published databases for gene fusions in cancer. To relate the occurrence of gene fusions to ... Our analyses identified two potential novel gene fusions, MBTTPS2,L0XNC01::SMS and AMACR::AMACR. These fusions were detected in ... With the fusion calling software Arriba, we computationally predicted gene fusions. Following detection, ... Our gene fusion characterization workflow revealed two potential novel fusions specific for PCa. We found evidence that the ...
The panel also enables identification of gene fusions. Genes dont normally fuse, and this unhealthy merger is another way ... "We also started with a single gene in a single tumor but went one step further and decided to look at a group of genes in a ... Here we are looking at 170 genes and all the amino acids and all the fusions at one time." ... It also enables Watson to read all amino acids in the genes since its the amino acid changes that mutate the genes. Its ...
... gene editing, and the creation of artificial genomes. ... As part of Beijings military-civil fusion policy, Chinese ... The logo of Chinese gene firm BGI Group at its building in Beijing on March 25, 2021. (Carlos Garcia Rawlins/Reuters). ... companies involved in gene sequencing. In each of these arrangements, BGI gains access to genetic data. Under Chinas National ... can be fed into Chinas massive artificial intelligence and genome projects. ...
The results showed that nine ZmCAMTA genes showed highly diversified gene structures and tissue-specific expression patterns. ... The results showed that nine ZmCAMTA genes showed highly diversified gene structures and tissue-specific expression patterns. ... Many ZmCAMTA genes displayed high expression levels in the roots. We then surveyed the distribution of stress-related cis- ... Many ZmCAMTA genes displayed high expression levels in the roots. We then surveyed the distribution of stress-related cis- ...
Here, an effectual deep learning-centered fusion algorithm called Naive Bayes-Artificial Neural Networks (NB-ANN) is proposed ... Computational forecast of disease genes are inexpensive and also easier compared to biological experiments. ... for the prediction of eye disease that are brought about by the human disease genes. Utilizing this technique, completely 10 ... aimed at disease gene identification. Additionally, this paper proposes an effectual classifier, namely Levy Flight Krill herd ...
Spine Fusion *Artificial Disc Replacement. *Gene Therapy and Tissue Engineering. *Genetically Engineered Stem Cells ...
Gene Tracy is one of the authors of a collection of techniques, methods and equations that can be used in more complex ray- ... To understand plasma goes a long way toward understanding how we might produce fusion energy. Fusion is the nuclear energy that ... In a sense, a tokamak is an artificial star. Hydrogen gas is heated to temperatures greater than the sun and contained in ... Fusion energy has always been 30 years away, because everything always turns out to be more difficult than you think." ...
In this work, a novel fusion enzyme (GDH-R3-LeuDH) for the efficient biosynthesis of l-tle was constructed by the fusion of ... The fusion structure also accelerated the cofactor regeneration rate and maintained the enzyme activity, so the productivity ... These results demonstrated the great potential of the GDH-R3-LeuDH fusion enzyme for the efficient biosynthesis of l-tle. ... It is the first report about the fusion of GDH and LeuDH as the multi-enzyme complex to synthesize l-tle and reach the highest ...
... genes, and genetic variants including single nucleotide changes, indels, and structural alterations like fusion genes and copy ... 50K disease-gene associations. In this webinar, Dr. Kiel will demonstrate how Genomenons approach to Big Data and Artificial ... genes, and genetic variants including single nucleotide changes, indels, and structural alterations like fusion genes and copy ... 2. How GLP can improve the efficiency and accuracy of evidence search for structural variants like CNVs and fusion genes ...
... were used with a CMV/β-actin/EGFP fusion gene to form LPD complex. Spermatozoa obtained from rat epididymis were incubated with ... LPD complex and used for artificial insemination, and the expression of EGFP in the morula-stage embryos was observed. Pr ... Fusion of PBI into the oocyte declined with oocyte aging (from 52% to 22%). When fusion occurred, PBI chromatin was ... Zygotic gene activation (ZGA) is initiated at the late 1-cell stage in the mouse. At this time a number of nuclear proteins ...
The Fourth Industrial Revolution "is characterized by a fusion of technologies - such as artificial intelligence, gene editing ... Artificial Intelligence in the Industry 4.0 will create impact on Poverty, Innovation, Infrastructure Development and the ... All human beings have to adapt changes with Artificial Intelligence. But this situations can give the anxiety and fear to human ... People are no longer interested in physical nature of the things as Artificial Intelligence (AI), Machine Learning (ML), ...
Artificial Gene Fusion. *Two-Hybrid System Techniques. *Molecular Probe Techniques. *Biosensing Techniques ... Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate ...
  • More recently, artificial gene synthesis methods have been developed that will allow the assembly of entire chromosomes and genomes. (
  • Randomly generated DNA fragments from bacterial artificial chromosomes containing two clusters of Hox genes were inserted into a vector upstream of a minimal promoter and lacZ reporter gene. (
  • Related to this publication, we developed an improved recombineering toolset for plants to tag or edit plant genes in the context of bacterial artificial chromosomes that can be introduced back into the plant genome. (
  • Localization of 587 yeast artificial chromosomes with 238 mapped markers. (
  • This study requires a combination of chromosome painting and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with yeast artificial chromosomes (YAC) and cosmids. (
  • The authors pair single-cell sequencing technology with the LoopSeq synthetic long-read method to examine samples of hepatocellular carcinoma and benign liver, with the goal of identifying mutations and fusion transcripts specific to cancer cells. (
  • While protein expression is dictated by the level of gene expression, the structure and function of the protein is largely determined by the isoforms of the mRNA of a given gene and are impacted by mutations or other structural alterations to the amino acids ( Faustino and Cooper, 2003 ). (
  • Now researchers are hoping this icon of artificial intelligence will help people with cancer win as well by providing a rapid, comprehensive report of the genetic mutations at the root of their specific disease and the therapies that target them. (
  • The panel contains known mutations on 170 genes commonly altered in cancers - mutations that, like those with BRAF, can transform previously inactive genes into oncogenes in eight common cancers, including lung, colon, breast, prostate as well as melanoma. (
  • One gene has virtually hundreds and hundreds of different combinations of amino acids and each amino acid in each combination can have mutations that are cancer causing. (
  • By sequencing the tumor's DNA, RNA, and proteins, researchers and clinicians can identify specific genetic mutations, gene fusions, or alterations in signaling pathways that contribute to tumor growth and progression. (
  • Mutations in the genes BRCA1, BRCA2 or PIK3CA have important implications in the cellular DNA repair mechanisms, and are associated with sensitivity and improved response to platinum-based chemotherapy and PAPR inhibitors. (
  • To deliver the candidate antigen on the surface, we fused the mpt64 gene to the sequence encoding the PE domain of the PE_PGRS33 protein of M. tuberculosis (to create strain (H)PE-ΔMPT64-BCG), which we have previously shown to transport proteins to the bacterial surface. (
  • Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. (
  • Notably, a large number of stress-related elements present in the promoter regions of some ZmCAMTA genes, indicating a genetic basis of stress expression regulation of these genes. (
  • The genetic study showed promising results in "silencing" the genes that translate into tau protein, the primary component behind dementia. (
  • Our Core Cancer panels consist of essential gene sets that provide necessary information for genetic tumor biomarker profiling at the molecular level. (
  • To characterize genetic variation of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) transmitted in the Beijing area during the epidemic outbreak of 2003, we sequenced 29 full-length S genes of SARS-CoV from 20 hospitalized SARS patients on our unit, the Beijing 302 Hospital. (
  • To characterize genetic variation among SARS-CoV transmitted in the Beijing area, we sequenced 29 full-length S genes of SARS-CoV from 20 hospitalized SARS patients, since S glycoprotein plays a key role in virus-host interaction and is predicted to be the main target of immune response ( 14 ). (
  • As cell and gene therapies ascend for the one-shot curing of life-threatening genetic diseases, there is an excellent opportunity to merge the in silico and in vitro world with a common goal of developing safe, more effective, and highly manufacturable therapeutics. (
  • Beyond issues of privacy, genetic data and critical technologies such as artificial intelligence, quantum computing, and semiconductors are part of a complicated new frontier that could shape the economies of the future. (
  • Genetic testing of a sample of the child's blood may be done to look for chromosome and gene abnormalities. (
  • Synthesis of the first peptide- and protein-coding genes was performed in the laboratories of Herbert Boyer and Alexander Markham, respectively. (
  • The protein diversity of mammalian cells is determined by arrays of isoforms from genes. (
  • Today, for example, a pathologist would use polymerase chain reaction, or PCR, to analyze a melanoma biopsy for a single variation of the BRAF gene, which is present in about 50 percent of melanomas and results in production of an altered protein that helps the cancer grow. (
  • Avalon recently announced a new research study applying artificial intelligence (AI) enhanced protein design "QTY Code" technology - which is expected to accelerate the development of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies to treat cancer. (
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) -associated protein which is thought to negatively regulate CDK2 activity by sequestering monomeric CDK2, and targeting CDK2 for proteolysis. (
  • What does this gene/protein do? (
  • This gene is a member of the protein-tyrosine kinase oncogene family. (
  • What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in? (
  • Synthesis of the first complete gene, a yeast tRNA, was demonstrated by Har Gobind Khorana and coworkers in 1972. (
  • We also started with a single gene in a single tumor but went one step further and decided to look at a group of genes in a single tumor," Kolhe says. (
  • There might be some melanomas that also have PTEN, a gene that is normally a tumor suppressor but when altered can become a player in many cancer types. (
  • We know that there is often more than one gene involved, even when we find BRAF," he says. (
  • Watson has the ability to not only rapidly identify multiple variations in BRAF, but variations in hundreds of other genes known to contribute to the most deadly skin cancer, as well as the therapies to target them, Kolhe says. (
  • We utilized this technology to generate translational reporter fusions for a large set of auxin-related genes. (
  • People are no longer interested in physical nature of the things as Artificial Intelligence (AI), Machine Learning (ML), Advance Robotics, Internet of Things (IoT), Big data Analytics, Quantum Computing and Industrial are changing industry rapidly. (
  • TFTpsp (TFT Problem Solving Parameters) are a set of parameters that can be used to configure artificial intelligence (AI) systems to identify innovative solutions to a wide range of problems facing humanity, including those related to technology, the economy, health, science, and the natural environment. (
  • Artificial intelligence (AI) plays a significant role in processing and analyzing vast amounts of patient data, supporting personalized healthcare approaches. (
  • The Panshi will develop in alien space in the future, buy viagra online Superdrug and the assistance of artificial intelligence is indispensable. (
  • Several recent studies examined how machine automation and artificial intelligence (AI) will change the future of work. (
  • So that understanding of cultural norms, or social norms or ethical norms, that's not something that's easy - at least so far we haven't found that easy to program into artificial intelligence. (
  • The conference proceedings will be published by Springer Verlag, including Lecture Notes in Computer Sciences (LNCS)/ Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence (LNAI)/ Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics (LNBI)/ Communications in Computer and Information Science (CCIS). (
  • Focus on advanced technologies, such as artificial intelligence, network management software, and new forms of energy including geothermal energy, nuclear fusion, and offshore wind, along with life sciences discoveries including new forms of gene editing and CRISPR technology (including newly developed "base modification" techniques) among other areas. (
  • New technologies such as mRNA enable quick response from genomic data, all of which are a combination of biology, chemistry, and artificial intelligence software tools. (
  • The expedition of artificial intelligence (AI) into the biomedical space has been facilitated by the rapid push to digitize "wet lab" research and the explosion of data from multiomics experiments. (
  • Artificial Intelligence Gives Paralyzed Woman Voice Back A brain-computer interface translates neural signals of a woman who is unable to speak, not only into text on a screen but into audible speech using a digital avatar. (
  • This DNA was sequenced using next-generation techniques, and the results were analyzed using bioinformatics and artificial intelligence. (
  • This article focuses specifically on BRCA2, while sidelining its sister gene BRCA1, as evidence for a broad cancer spectrum is much stronger for the former. (
  • The combination of gene expressions, fusion gene transcripts, and mutation gene expressions significantly improved the classification of liver cancer cells versus benign hepatocytes. (
  • The results showed evolutionary patterns of single molecule mutational gene expression from benign hepatocytes to liver cancer cells. (
  • Following detection, we annotated the gene fusions using published databases for gene fusions in cancer. (
  • Many of these genes are a player in multiple cancer types, including those not currently on the list. (
  • Genes don't normally fuse, and this unhealthy merger is another way cancer happens. (
  • You can tell by looking that you have a cancer, but we don't know the oncogenesis or the way the malignancy happened," he adds, particularly when you are looking one gene at a time. (
  • Then we thought there might be some melanomas that are going to have BRAC1, a common breast cancer gene. (
  • Our data have provided evidence for a comparable prediction of clinical outcome in CMF-treated breast cancer patients using conventional clinical variables and gene expression based markers. (
  • However, none of the prognostic models incorporates parameters reflecting the status of chromosomal rearrangements and transcriptional disorganization in a patient sample, even though gene fusions are known to drive PCa development and progression [ 8 ]. (
  • In probably 90 percent of tumors you will find one or a combination of these 170 genes involved," Kolhe says. (
  • Why not collect all the genes in all the tumors and design one panel and see if we can find something that is more comprehensive? (
  • To relate the occurrence of gene fusions to Gleason Grading Groups and disease prognosis, we performed survival analyses using the Kaplan-Meier estimator, log-rank test, and Cox regression. (
  • We found evidence that the number of gene fusions was associated with the prognosis of PCa. (
  • The project will build on other areas of cooperation between Serbia and the Chinese gene giant, including the Center for Genome Sequencing and Bioinformatics that opened in December 2021. (
  • Basically the promoter from one gene that is normally always turned "on" decides to also turn on another gene that is normally silent, as most of our genes are, Kolhe says. (
  • We then surveyed the distribution of stress-related cis -regulatory elements in the −1.5 kb promoter regions of ZmCAMTA genes. (
  • CAMTAs participate in gene expression regulation by binding to the cis -elements in the promoter regions of numerous target genes. (
  • Part II discusses ARTs biological elements and procedures, defines gametes, zygotes, embryos, the fetus and briefly describes the procedures of artificial insemination and in vitro fertilization. (
  • Additionally, this paper proposes an effectual classifier, namely Levy Flight Krill herd (LFKH) based Adaptive Neuros-Fuzzy Inferences System (ANFIS), for the prediction of eye disease that are brought about by the human disease genes. (
  • Samar Jyoti Saikia and S. R. Nirmala, "An NB-ANN based Fusion Approach for Disease Genes Prediction and LFKH-ANFIS Classifier for Eye Diseases Identification" International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications(IJACSA), 12(10), 2021. (
  • The long-term goals of the fusion program are to generate electricity," Tracy said. (
  • The TFT problem solving parameters are the tools that artificial intelligences use to solve complex problems and generate innovative ideas in a systematic and creative way. (
  • The most commonly synthesized genes range in size from 600 to 1,200 bp although much longer genes have been made by connecting previously assembled fragments of under 1,000 bp. (
  • As an example of application for these promoters in metabolic engineering, the genes involved in xylan degradation and zeaxanthin biosynthesis were subsequently cloned under the control of promoters with medium to high strength and assembled into a single pathway. (
  • Diagram showing amplification of six overlapping fragments covering full-length spike gene sequence of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus by nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. (
  • A total of 64 RNA samples from 28 SARS-CoV-positive patients (detected by using BNI primers recommended by the World Health Organization [ 15 ]) were initially used in S-gene amplification, but only those that generated all six overlapping fragments covering the full-length S-gene sequence (see Nested RT-PCR below and Figure 1 ) were included in the sequence analysis. (
  • The panel also enables identification of gene fusions. (
  • Abstract: A key step to apprehend the mechanisms of cells related to a particular disease is the disease gene identification. (
  • Here, an effectual deep learning-centered fusion algorithm called Naive Bayes-Artificial Neural Networks (NB-ANN) is proposed aimed at disease gene identification. (
  • To understand the role of each cell in an organism, broad spectrum mRNA isoform and mutational gene expression analyses at the single-cell level is necessary. (
  • One hundred thirteen sequence variations with nine recurrent variant sites were identified in analyzed S-gene sequences compared with the BJ01 strain of SARS-CoV. (
  • These fusions were detected in all four studied cohorts, providing compelling evidence for the validity of these fusions and their relevance in PCa. (
  • Examples of great innovations that may lead to lifesaving efforts and global commercialization include CRISPR, other gene and DNA editing techniques, mRNA, and other production technologies. (
  • Computational forecast of disease genes are inexpensive and also easier compared to biological experiments. (
  • Unlike DNA synthesis in living cells, artificial gene synthesis does not require template DNA, allowing virtually any DNA sequence to be synthesized in the laboratory. (
  • Because artificial gene synthesis does not require template DNA, it is theoretically possible to make a completely synthetic DNA molecule with no limits on the nucleotide sequence or size. (
  • In this size range it is necessary to test several candidate clones confirming the sequence of the cloned synthetic gene by automated sequencing methods. (
  • Moreover, because the assembly of the full-length gene product relies on the efficient and specific alignment of long single stranded oligonucleotides, critical parameters for synthesis success include extended sequence regions comprising secondary structures caused by inverted repeats, extraordinary high or low GC-content, or repetitive structures. (
  • The datasets included transcriptome-wide expression and matched clinical follow-up data to detect and characterize gene fusions in PCa. (
  • As a leading global developer of innovative cell-based technologies and therapeutics and laboratory testing provider, Avalon GloboCare Corp. (Nasdaq: ALBT) announced it has deployed a breakthrough fusion gene map technology to be used for the goal of developing companion diagnostic kits and devices to enhance personalized clinical management of leukemia patients. (
  • Viral RNA templates for the S-gene amplification were directly extracted from raw clinical samples, including plasma, throat swab, sputum, and stool, during the course of the epidemic in the Beijing area. (
  • This is the first clinical application of optogenetics, in which light is used to control gene expression and neuron firing. (
  • The results showed that nine ZmCAMTA genes showed highly diversified gene structures and tissue-specific expression patterns. (
  • Craniosynostosis is the premature and abnormal fusion of one of the six suture lines that form the living skull (see the images below), resulting in an abnormal head shape from aberrant bone growth patterns. (
  • Fluorescence in situ hybridization can only examine one gene at a time and may not be able to determine which specific genes fused and so how best to target them. (
  • Artificial intelligences such as GPT-4, Bing Chat (Sydney, Prometheus), Ernie, Bard, and others can effectively re-elaborate the TFTpsp (TFT problem solving parameters of the Rigene Project's Technological Fields Theory) to adapt them to the needs of the specific question or problem being analyzed. (
  • These results demonstrated the great potential of the GDH-R3-LeuDH fusion enzyme for the efficient biosynthesis of l -tle. (
  • The fusion structure also accelerated the cofactor regeneration rate and maintained the enzyme activity, so the productivity and yield of l -tle by GDH-R3-LeuDH was all enhanced by twofold. (
  • It is the first report about the fusion of GDH and LeuDH as the multi-enzyme complex to synthesize l -tle and reach the highest space-time yield up to now. (
  • Alternatively, after performing gene synthesis with oligos of lower quality, more effort must be made in downstream quality assurance during clone analysis, which is usually done by time-consuming standard cloning and sequencing procedures. (
  • In recent months, researchers have, for example, created iridescent chocolate, built an artificial sun and studied the effects of mixing Coke and Mentos on top of a mountain. (
  • Researchers partially restored a man's eyesight for the first time using experimental gene therapy, 40 years after he lost most of his vision. (
  • Usually these segments of a particular gene can only be synthesized by splitting the procedure into several consecutive steps and a final assembly of shorter sub-sequences, which in turn leads to a significant increase in time and labor needed for its production. (
  • Our findings demonstrate the coexistence of S-gene sequences with and without substitutions (referred to BJ01) in samples analyzed from some patients. (
  • We compared these sequences with all previously documented S-gene sequences of SARS-CoV. (
  • How Reliable Are Gene Expression-Based and Immunohistochemical Biomarkers Assessed on a Core-Needle Biopsy? (
  • Artificial gene synthesis, or simply gene synthesis, refers to a group of methods that are used in synthetic biology to construct and assemble genes from nucleotides de novo. (
  • The logo of Chinese gene firm BGI Group at its building in Beijing on March 25, 2021. (
  • Boss, the group except life extension genes, controllable nuclear fusion Apart from the project, where to get VigRX Plus in Kenya other areas are facing strong challenges. (
  • A group of children who underwent fusion surgery for spondylolisthesis in the lumbar spine 30 years ago showed a clear reduction in back pain when followed up seven years later. (
  • As the metopic suture separates the frontal bones, its fusion restricts the transverse growth of the frontal bones and results in narrowing of the anterior cranial fossa (see the images below). (
  • Brachycephaly results when premature fusion of both coronal suture lines occurs, restricting the anteroposterior growth of the anterior cranial fossa (see the images below). (
  • Furthermore, the expression pattern of ZmCAMTA genes under RBSDV infection was analyzed to investigate their potential roles in responses of different maize cultivated varieties to RBSDV. (
  • Fusion offers great potential as an energy source, potential that is a long way from being realized. (
  • AIs learn from data, experiences and interactions with other agents (human or artificial) that use TFTpsp to solve problems. (
  • AI systems learn from data, experiences, and interactions with other agents, both human and artificial, who also utilize TFTpsp to solve problems. (
  • Discover how the fusion of wet lab data and AI is propelling life science and gene therapy research forward. (
  • Fusion is the nuclear energy that powers the sun and is different from fission-the nuclear process used in the nuclear power plants of today. (
  • Whether it is breakthroughs via hydrogen-based energy, intelligent alternative energy networking, energy storage, fusion, or innovative fission-based nuclear energy, many solutions deserve an understanding - even if there is no initial commercial dimension to their success. (
  • Meanwhile, a large number of oligos can be synthesized in parallel on gene chips. (