Artificial Cells: Chemically synthesized structures which functionally resemble natural cells.Bionics: The study of systems, particularly electronic systems, which function after the manner of, in a manner characteristic of, or resembling living systems. Also, the science of applying biological techniques and principles to the design of electronic systems.Biomimetics: An interdisciplinary field in materials science, ENGINEERING, and BIOLOGY, studying the use of biological principles for synthesis or fabrication of BIOMIMETIC MATERIALS.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Artificial Organs: Devices intended to replace non-functioning organs. They may be temporary or permanent. Since they are intended always to function as the natural organs they are replacing, they should be differentiated from PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS and specific types of prostheses which, though also replacements for body parts, are frequently cosmetic (EYE, ARTIFICIAL) as well as functional (ARTIFICIAL LIMBS).Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Chimerism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from different individuals. This contrasts with MOSAICISM in which the different cell populations are derived from a single individual.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Biogenesis: The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.Life: The state that distinguishes organisms from inorganic matter, manifested by growth, metabolism, reproduction, and adaptation. It includes the course of existence, the sum of experiences, the mode of existing, or the fact of being. Over the centuries inquiries into the nature of life have crossed the boundaries from philosophy to biology, forensic medicine, anthropology, etc., in creative as well as scientific literature. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)BostonBioengineering: The application of engineering principles and methods to living organisms or biological systems.Hydrogels: Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Microfluidic Analytical Techniques: Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.Hydrogel: A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.Biomedical Engineering: Application of principles and practices of engineering science to biomedical research and health care.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.FiresLipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Synthetic Biology: A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.Synaptic Vesicles: Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.GermanySciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.SwedenPeripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Sleep Deprivation: The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.Nanomedicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the application of NANOTECHNOLOGY to the prevention and treatment of disease. It involves the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and NANOSTRUCTURES. (From Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, vol 1, 1999).Regenerative Medicine: A field of medicine concerned with developing and using strategies aimed at repair or replacement of damaged, diseased, or metabolically deficient organs, tissues, and cells via TISSUE ENGINEERING; CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and ARTIFICIAL ORGANS and BIOARTIFICIAL ORGANS and tissues.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Liver, Artificial: Devices for simulating the activities of the liver. They often consist of a hybrid between both biological and artificial materials.Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Liver Failure: Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Pentastomida: A subclass of CRUSTACEA comprising the tongue worms which are obligatory parasites of reptiles, birds, and mammals including humans.Interferometry: Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).Feeder Cells: Cells used in COCULTURE TECHNIQUES which support the growth of the other cells in the culture. Feeder cells provide auxillary substances including attachment substrates, nutrients, or other factors that are needed for growth in culture.

The origins of cellular life. (1/46)

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Artificial antigen-presenting cells for use in adoptive immunotherapy. (2/46)

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Cooperation and Hamilton's rule in a simple synthetic microbial system. (3/46)

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Synthetic toxicology: where engineering meets biology and toxicology. (4/46)

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Development of an artificial cell, from self-organization to computation and self-reproduction. (5/46)

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Synthetic protocells interact with viral nanomachinery and inactivate pathogenic human virus. (6/46)

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A modified artificial immune system based pattern recognition approach--an application to clinical diagnostics. (7/46)

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Artificial astrocytes improve neural network performance. (8/46)

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*Artificial Cells, Blood Substitutes, and Biotechnology

... homepage of Artificial Cells Blood Substitutes and Biotechnology. ... is the Editor-in-Chief of Artificial Cells, Blood Substitutes, and Biotechnology. Artificial Cells, Blood Substitutes, and ... Tissues and organs Artificial cells Molecules Blood substitutes Tissue engineering Stem cells Gene therapy Drug delivery Thomas ... Artificial Cells, Blood Substitutes, and Biotechnology is an academic journal that publishes review articles on the development ...

*Artificial antigen presenting cells

"Nanoscale artificial antigen presenting cells for T cell immunotherapy." Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine 10 ... "Particle shape dependence of CD8+ T cell activation by artificial antigen presenting cells." Biomaterials 35, no. 1 (2014): 269 ... MHC class I are found on all cells and stimulate cytotoxic T cells (CD8 cells), and MHC class II are found on APCs and ... The peptide-loaded MHC engages with the cognate T cell receptor (TCR) found on the T cells. T cells need another signal to ...

*Abiogenesis

... and Cell/Stem Cell Therapy. Regenerative Medicine, Artificial Cells and Nanomedicine. 1. Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific. ISBN ... Anthropic principle Artificial cell Artificial life Astrochemistry Biological immortality Carbon Mineral Challenge Common ... Chang, Thomas Ming Swi (2007). Artificial Cells: Biotechnology, Nanomedicine, Regenerative Medicine, Blood Substitutes, ... The data suggest that viruses originated from ancient cells that co-existed with the ancestors of modern cells. These ancient ...

*Respirocyte

1998). "Exploratory Design in Medical Nanotechnology: A Mechanical Artificial Red Cell". Artificial Cells, Blood Substitutes, ... Respirocytes were proposed by Robert A. Freitas Jr in his 1998 paper "A Mechanical Artificial Red Blood Cell: Exploratory ... Respirocytes are hypothetical, microscopic, artificial red blood cells that are intended to emulate the function of their ... each respirocyte could store and transport 236 times more oxygen than a natural red blood cell, and could release it in a more ...

*Perfluorodecalin

Artificial cells, blood substitutes, and immobilization biotechnology. 33 (1): 37-46. PMID 15768564. King, A. T.; Mulligan, B. ... Due to its gas-carrying capacity, perfluorodecalin has been used to enhance oxygen delivery during cell culture. ... an artificial blood product developed by Green Cross Corporation in the 1980s. It is also being studied for use in liquid ... J.; Lowe, K. C. (1989). "Perfluorochemicals and Cell Culture". Nature Biotechnology. 7: 1037-1042. doi:10.1038/nbt1089-1037. ...

*Liposome

... s are used as models for artificial cells. Liposomes can also be designed to deliver drugs in other ways. Liposomes ... Artificial cells, blood substitutes, and immobilization biotechnology. 32 (1): 67-75. doi:10.1081/BIO-120028669. PMID 15027802 ... To deliver the molecules to a site of action, the lipid bilayer can fuse with other bilayers such as the cell membrane, thus ... Kimball's Biology Pages, "Cell Membranes." Cevc, G (1993). "Rational design of new product candidates: the next generation of ...

*Aptamer

Cohen BA, Colas P, Brent R (Nov 1998). "An artificial cell-cycle inhibitor isolated from a combinatorial library". Proceedings ... cell visualization, and tracking cells in vivo. They can also be used to modulate activities of cell receptors and deliver ... Peptide aptamers are artificial proteins selected or engineered to bind specific target molecules. These proteins consist of ... AptaBiD is based on multi-round generation of an aptamer or a pool of aptamers for differential molecular targets on the cells ...

*Selaginella apoda

Adjacent to the axil, sporangia are created from artificial cells. While stomata can be found following the leaf margin on the ...

*Albert J. Libchaber

"A vesicle bioreactor as a step toward an artificial cell assembly". Proceedings of the National Academy of the USA, V. 101, ... Using microbolometers engraved in the convective cell he was able to observe temperature fluctuations without perturbing the ...

*Blood substitute

Artificial Cells, Blood Substitutes, and Biotechnology (journal) Blood transfusion Bloodless surgery Theatrical blood Blood ... describes a large-scale ex-vivo production of mature human blood cells using hematopoietic stem cells. The cultured cells ... The authors contend that the cells had a near-normal lifespan, when compared to natural red blood cells. Scientists from the ... Rousseau GF, Giarratana MC, Douay L (Jan 2014). "Large-scale production of red blood cells from stem cells: what are the ...

*Moritz Traube

... and Traube's artificial cells served as models of living plant cells. When the young Robert Koch in 1876 presented his ... The artificial cells were created by putting droplets of glue in tannic acid; these grew under infusion of water. (Other ... Further, he was the first to propose a relation between immune system to infections and active oxygen in the blood cells. In ... In the 1870s Karl Marx met Traube in Karlsbad to learn more about inorganic cells because Friedrich Engels was working on the ...

*Traube cell

A Traube cell is an "artificial cell" created by Moritz Traube in order to study the processes of living cells, including ... The Traube cell is not a true artificial cell, as it is not living and does not have true biological processes of its own. ... The artificial cell would expand and bud like living cells. Surgeon and professor Wilhelm Pfeffer used this model to study and ... The ability of the Traube cell membrane to allow water to flow in while retaining the cell solute is comparable to living cells ...

*Thomas Chang

Artificial Cells, Blood Substitutes & Nanomedicine at the Artificial Cells & Organs Research Centre Thomas Chang, Professor of ... In the late 1960s he discovered enzymes carried by artificial cells could correct some metabolic disorders and also developed ... Chang's career continued as founder and Director of the Artificial Cells and Organs Research Centre and Professor of Physiology ... In 1957, while an undergraduate at McGill University he invented the world's first artificial cell. Working with improvised ...

*Mycobacterium leprae

The organism has never been successfully grown on an artificial cell culture medium. Instead, it has been grown in mouse foot ... The suppressor T-cells that are induced are numerous, however the epithelioid and giant cells are rare or absent. With cell- ... The microbe then induces T-helper lymphocytes, epitheloid cells, and giant cell infiltration of the skin, causing infected ... This suggests many symptoms of leprosy must be due in part to the presence of dead cells. The incubation period of M. leprae ...

*Vesicle fusion

SNARE Presynaptic active zone Liposomes used as models for artificial cells in membrane fusion studies. Page 237 in: Costanzo, ... Vesicle fusion is the merging of a vesicle with other vesicles or a part of a cell membrane. In the latter case, it is the end ... Once the vesicle is in position it must wait until Ca2+ enters the cell by the propagation of an action potential to the ... Vesicles can also fuse with other target cell compartments, such as a lysosome. Vesicle fusion may depend on SNARE proteins in ...

*Neuron (software)

Artificial cells essentially function as point processes, implemented into the network. Artificial cells require only a point ... Cells can be managed. The user creates the basic grid of network cells, taking previously completed network cells as archetypes ... Connections can be defined between source cells and target synapses on other cells. The cell containing the target synapse ... All point processes, including those standing for cells or synapses of artificial neurons, and all graphs reflect the duration ...

*Nanofoundry

The idea of creating an artificial cell along with working nanofoundries is highlighted in the phenomena of bioconvergence; ... Nanofoundries and artificial cells are creating a world where health care, the very definition of "medicine", along with life ... The closest thing that nature has to a nanofoundry is the simple biological cell. In silico biology attempts to duplicate ... nature by creating a virtual cell with the complete cycle of metabolism. ...

*Petkau effect

... the radiation dose that would rupture a simulated artificial cell membrane. He found that 3500 rads delivered in ​2 1⁄4 hours ( ... Petkau also discovered that superoxide dismutase was elevated in the leukocytes (white blood cells) in a sub-population of ... Petkau conducted further experiments with simulated cells in 1976 and found that the enzyme superoxide dismutase protected the ... Thus, Petkau's original 1972 experiment apparently revealed the potential effects of ionizing radiation on cells without ...

*Hemoperfusion

... the blood cells) brush past the artificial cells just as they brush past each other. In this way, the microporous material's ... the blood perfuses a filter composed of artificial cells filled with activated carbon or another microporous material. Small ... filtering ability can be used without destroying the blood cells. First introduced in the 1940s, hemoperfusion was refined ...

*Australian Stem Cell Centre

"Scientists test potential of artificial stem cells". The Australian. Archived from the original on 13 June 2008. "Aussies ... In 2000, Trounson led the team of scientists which first reported nerve stem cells derived from embryonic stem cells, which led ... In June 2008, the Centre announced that it had begun working on induced pluripotent (iPS) cells (human embryonic stem cells, ... Official website Australian Stem Cell Centre at Stem Cell Channel. ...

*Artificial immune system

... and share properties with artificial neural networks. Dendritic Cell Algorithms: The Dendritic Cell Algorithm (DCA) is an ... Greensmith, J.; Aickelin, U. (2009). "Artificial Dendritic Cells: Multi-faceted Perspectives" (PDF). Human-Centric Information ... In artificial intelligence, artificial immune systems (AIS) are a class of computationally intelligent, rule-based machine ... Negative selection refers to the identification and deletion (apoptosis) of self-reacting cells, that is T cells that may ...

*Alfonso L. Herrera

To this end he conducted experiments to create artificial cells ("protocells") using substances such as Olive Oil, Sodium ... Structure and Model of the First Cell. Alfonso Luis Herrera ("Red Escolar") Alfonso Luis Herrera (Radio Centro).. ...

*Norman Packard

The ECLT received its first funding from PACE (Programmable Artificial Cell Evolution), a project coordinated by John S. ... Company Profile European Center for Living Technology Programmable Artificial Cell Evolution Lucky Sort Inc. An Introduction to ... Artificial Life VII, with Mark A. Bedau, John S. McCaskill, Steen Rasmussen. 2000 Protocells, with Steen Rasmussen, Mark Bedau ...

*Cell encapsulation

... "artificial cells" to define this concept of bioencapsulation. He suggested that these artificial cells produced by a drop ... autologous cells), from another donor (allogeneic cells) or from other species (xenogeneic cells). The use of autologous cells ... The cell type chosen for this technique depends on the desired application of the cell microcapsules. The cells put into the ... of extensive research is the use of stem cells such as mesenchymal stem cells for long term cell microencapsulation and cell ...

*Shinya Yamanaka

... for the artificial generation of stem cells". German Cancer Research Center. November 23, 2007. "Meyenburg ... fibroblast cells to myoblast cells, fibroblast cells to cardiomyocyte cells, fibroblast cells to neurons 5. Cell replacement ... In 2006, he and his team generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) from adult mouse fibroblasts. iPS cells closely ... Therefore, non-differentiated egg/early embryo cells can only develop into specialized cells. However, stem cells with limited ...

*Phage display

Gao C, Mao S, Lo CH, Wirsching P, Lerner RA, Janda KD (May 1999). "Making artificial antibodies: a format for phage display of ... The use of a helper phage can be eliminated by using 'bacterial packaging cell line' technology. Elution can be done combining ... An example is Weiss and Sidhu's inverted artificial coat protein (ACP) which allows the display of large proteins at the C- ... Then the expression of single chain Fv's (scFv), and single chain T cell receptors (scTCR) were expressed both with and without ...
Microgels as Artificial Cells. AIM. Design and optimize microgels with cell-like properties to advance 3D cell culture studies.. INTRODUCTION. Culturing cells in aggregates is a very efficient approach to study their interactions in a natural 3D environment. However, complete understanding of cell-cell interactions in cellular co-cultures has not yet been achieved. We hypothesize that artificial cells made from small hydrogel beads (i.e., microgels) could play a significant role in gaining deeper understanding of cellular interactions. Specifically, we aim to engineer microgels with the size and certain functions of natural cells. Custom modifications of these artificial cells would enables the controlled study of specific interactions within 3D cell aggregates.. Recently, our group has developed a microfluidic platform for the production of cell adhesive microgels that can be incorporated in cell aggregates.[1] We have demonstrated that these cell/gel microcultures can be cultured for several ...
Liposomes have been used as artificial cell models to understand cell shape, membrane protein function, and lipid−protein interaction, among other biological functions (1⇓-3). In addition, liposomes have been used as a platform for biosensing and as drug delivery systems (DDS) because of their excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability (4). However, liposomes collapse easily against environmental shifts and mechanical forces because of their low bending modulus. The fragility of liposomes causes uncontrolled leakage of the entrapped compounds and thus inhibits their use in biomedical applications and artificial cells experiments.. In contrast, cell membranes are tolerant against environmental shifts and mechanical forces. The stability of cell membrane arises from the cytoskeleton underneath the membrane. The major component of cytoskeletons is actin (5). Actin gels show high elasticity (6), which ensures the stability of cell membranes against various forces. For liposomes, the use of ...
The success of life on earth is based on the amazing ability of living cells to divide themselves into two daughter cells. During such a division process, the outer cell membrane has to undergo a series of morphological transformations that ultimately lead to membrane fission. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Potsdam, and at the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Mainz, have now achieved unprecedented control over these shape transformations and the resulting division process by anchoring low densities of proteins to the artificial cell membranes. [Nature Communications 11, 905 (2020) DOI 10.1038/s41467-020-14696-0]. All living organisms on earth are built up from individual cells. Furthermore, the proliferation and growth of these organisms is based on the ability of each cell to divide into two daughter cells. During the division process, the cell membrane, which provides the outer boundary of the cell, has to undergo a series of morphological ...
Chemists have taken an important step in making artificial life forms from scratch. Using a novel chemical reaction, they have created self-assembling cell membranes, the structural envelopes that contain and support the reactions required for life.. Neal Devaraj, assistant professor of chemistry at the University of California, San Diego, and Itay Budin, a graduate student at Harvard University, report their success in the Journal of the American Chemical Society.. "One of our long term, very ambitious goals is to try to make an artificial cell, a synthetic living unit from the bottom up - to make a living organism from non-living molecules that have never been through or touched a living organism," Devaraj said. "Presumably this occurred at some point in the past. Otherwise life wouldnt exist.". By assembling an essential component of earthly life with no biological precursors, they hope to illuminate lifes origins.. "We dont understand this really fundamental step in our existence, which ...
... by Thomas Ming Swi Chang http://ecx.images-amazon.com/images/I/518seS0jR3L.jpg Pages: 600 Publisher: -- Edition: 2013 Language: English ISBN: 9814472859
Newly formed protocell. Image 2 of 5. Artwork showing cellular components inside a basic cell membrane. This protocell (artificial cell) was formed from a synthetic primeval soup containing PNA (peptide nucleic acid, orange), fatty acids (blue) and lysosomes (enzyme-producing organelles, yellow). The primeval soup was a mix of carbon based molecules that chemically evolved to form simple cells, at the beginning of life. Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, USA, attempted to recreate this in 2006 by making protocells. Here, the loose components have arranged themselves into an ordered structure resembling a simple cell. See G200/112-G200/116 for a series of images showing the creation of a protocell. - Stock Image G200/0113
If stochastic simulation of minimal cell models intrigues you, see may be interested in:

Carletti T, Filisetti A.
The stochastic evolution of a protocell: the gillespie algorithm in a dynamically varying volume.
Comput Math Methods Med. 2012;2012:423627.

Lazzerini-Ospri L, Stano P, Luisi P, Marangoni R.
Characterization of the emergent properties of a synthetic quasi-cellular system.
BMC Bioinformatics. 2012 Mar 28;13 Suppl 4:S9.

Zachar I, Fedor A, Szathmáry E.
Two different template replicators coexisting in the same protocell: stochastic simulation of an extended chemoton model.
PLoS One. 2011;6(7):e21380. Epub 2011 Jul 19.

Van Segbroeck S, Nowé A, Lenaerts T.
Stochastic simulation of the chemoton.
Artif Life. 2009 Spring;15(2):213-26. | Origin of Life: Emergence, Self-organization and Evolution
Caltech Engineering and Applied Science faculty work at the edges of fundamental science to invent the technologies of the future.
In recent years there has been an increasing interest in using lipid vesicles and related membrane structures as (i) artificial cells that mimic biological processes and (ii) bio-inspired micro-machines that serve functional purposes. To date, vesicles have largely been single-compartment structures with homogenous interiors, which has impeded the fulfilment of these goals. This thesis details the development of technologies to address this. We develop droplet-based methods to controllably generate multi-compartment vesicles (MCVs) for the first time. The potential of these novel structures as artificial cells capable of hosting a range of biological and bio-mimetic processes is explored. Most notably, we introduce spatial segregation of function, thus mimicking eukaryotic organelles, and incorporate an artificial enzymatic signalling cascade to transmit chemical signals between distinct vesicle regions. We also construct microfluidic devices to generate related structures known as multisomes. ...
Beginning with an artificial membrane composed of a bilayer of phopholipids (similar to the lipid bilayers that form the membranes of living cells), the team created "shuttle" molecules that were soluble inside the lipid layer of the membrane, but not in the water inside and outside the "cell." These molecules, through the addition or removal of electrons, bind calcium ions at the outside surface of the liposome (these ions are water soluble and not ordinarily able to enter the oily lipid environment of the membrane), take them across the membrane, and release them at the membrane s inner surface. The ions, which cannot remain in the lipid environment, go to the water solution inside the cell, raising its concentration of calcium ions ...
Plants that can move inspire new adaptive structures: Researchers at U-M and Penn State University are studying how plants like the Mimosa can change shape, and theyre working to replicate the mechanisms in artificial cells. Today, their artificial cells are palm-size and larger. But theyre trying to shrink them by building them with microstructures and nanofibers. Theyre also exploring how to replicate the mechanisms by which plants heal themselves ...
How did life originate? And can scientists create life? These questions not only occupy the minds of scientists interested in the origin of life, but also researchers working with technology of the future.. If we can create artificial living systems, we may not only understand the origin of life - we can also revolutionize the future of technology.. Protocells are the simplest, most primitive living systems, you can think of. The oldest ancestor of life on Earth was a protocell, and when we see, what it eventually managed to evolve into, we understand why science is so fascinated with protocells. If science can create an artificial protocell, we get a very basic ingredient for creating more advanced artificial life.. However, creating an artificial protocell is far from simple, and so far no one has managed to do that. One of the challenges is to create the information strings that can be inherited by cell offspring, including protocells. Such information strings are like modern DNA or RNA ...
J. von Neumann first showed that machine self-reproduction is possible using the framework of cellular automaton (CA). In his CA, self-reproducing objects have universality in both computing and...
Historical Introduction - Foundations of Synthetic Biology- Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Gene expression and gene regulation, Signaling, Metabolism, Nonlinear dynamics, Stochastic gene expression - Technology for Synthetic Biology: Biochemical tools Cloning, Recombineering, Genome engineering & editing, Sequencing, Rational design vs. Evolution, Microfluidic techniques - In vitro and cell-free synthetic biology: Bionanoscience, Cell-free biotechnology, Artificial cells, Artificial life - Minimal cells: Reduced genomes, orthogonal chemistries, expanding the genetic code - Synthetic regulatory circuits: Bacterial computation, Memory, Bacterial communication, pattern formation, etc., RNA synthetic biology Engineering issues, metabolic engineering and applications will follow in part ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Collaboration between primitive cell membranes and soluble catalysts. AU - Adamala, Katarzyna P.. AU - Engelhart, Aaron E.. AU - Szostak, Jack W.. PY - 2016/3/21. Y1 - 2016/3/21. N2 - One widely held model of early life suggests primitive cells consisted of simple RNA-based catalysts within lipid compartments. One possible selective advantage conferred by an encapsulated catalyst is stabilization of the compartment, resulting from catalyst-promoted synthesis of key membrane components. Here we show model protocell vesicles containing an encapsulated enzyme that promotes the synthesis of simple fatty acid derivatives become stabilized to Mg 2+, which is required for ribozyme activity and RNA synthesis. Thus, protocells capable of such catalytic transformations would have enjoyed a selective advantage over other protocells in high Mg 2+ environments. The synthetic transformation requires both the catalyst and vesicles that solubilize the water-insoluble precursor lipid. We suggest ...
Proto-cells are much less complex than natural cells. One important element in natural cells that scientists have not yet been able to integrate in their synthetic counterparts is the so-called glycocalyx, which consists mainly of polysaccharides. It protects the cell membrane and also plays an important role in the interaction between cells, among other things. Lectins, which are proteins that can bind sugar, are also important for cellular interaction.. Some pathogens, like viruses and bacteria, use sugar-protein interaction to enter human cells. Sugar-protein interaction can also cause the formation of proto-organelles and proto-tissues. That is why Römers team is investigating not only the integration of components in giant vesicles, but also interaction within the proto-cell with the help of fluorescence and atomic force microscopes. The teams goal is to build proto-organelles and proto-tissues.. The ERASynBio project provides funding for synthetic biology by structuring and coordinating ...
Its marvelous what theyve done," says Emory chemistry chair David Lynn. "Theyve taken a major step in defining a minimal set of chemical instructions for what we call living. This understanding, and the underlying technology, will certainly be extended and amplified into a synthetic biology. Their accomplishment also moves us that critical step closer to the definition of and a recipe for life. And that is profound ...
For cellular organisms, the transport of specific molecules across compartmentalizing membrane barriers is essential in order to exchange content with their environment and with other individuals. For example, content exchange between individuals enables horizontal gene transfer, an important factor in the evolution of cellular life.[30] While modern cells can rely on complicated protein machineries to catalyze these crucial processes, protocells must have accomplished this using more simple mechanisms. Protocells composed of fatty acids[31] would have been able to easily exchange small molecules and ions with their environment.[1] Membranes consisting of fatty acids have a relatively high permeability to molecules such as nucleoside monophosphate (NMP), nucleoside diphosphate (NDP), and nucleoside triphosphate (NTP), and may withstand millimolar concentrations of Mg2+.[32] Osmotic pressure can also play a significant role regarding this passive membrane transport.[1] Environmental effects have ...
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Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a debilitating condition that affects young adults between the ages of 16 and 30, which leads to lifelong medical and financial burdens. SCI still results in a decreased quality-of-life and lower life expectancy for patients. This is due in part to the lack of a regenerative-based therapeutic approach to treating SCI in the clinic.
ஐயா., உங்களுடைய பிறப்பின் மதம் மட்டுமல்ல., உலகில் பிறக்கும் அனைத்து மனிதர்களின் பிறவி மார்க்கமும் இஸ்லாம் தான்,தங்களை கடவுள் மறுப்பாளார்கள் என கூறுவோர்கள் உட்பட.பெற்றோர்களின் வளர்ப்பின் அடிப்படையிலேயே ஒருவன் யூதனாகவோ,கிறித்துவராகவோ,இந்துவாகவோ, அல்லது வேறு மத மற்றும் மதம் சாரா கொள்கைகளில் உருவாக்கப்படுகிறார்கள்.எனவே உங்களைப்போன்றோர்களின் மத மாற்றத்தால் ...
Page contains details about transposase oligomers-encapsulated lipid-based nanoparticle-like protocells . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
We consider a generic protocell model consisting of any conservative chemical reaction network embedded within a membrane. The membrane results from the self-assembly of a membrane precursor and is se
Our droplet hydrogel bilayer system is an artificial bilayer system for interrogating membrane proteins, but it also allows us to explore new forms of synthetic biology where we can add individual protein function to a droplet, such as touch sensitivity or light sensitivity.. Using a novel DNA origami structure we can protect and controllably release our blocking DNA structures, known as DNA caltrops, to regulate the insertion of membrane proteins into these droplets. This allows us to trigger each functionality, on demand, using a small DNA ligand which removes the DNA caltrop from the proteoliposome.. We are looking for Honours or PhD students who have an interest in DNA origami design, synthetic biology, and artificial cells to learn across the interface of engineering and biology.. ...
The lipid vesicles that this produces are mechanically and chemically stable, allowing us to inject proteins into them, as in natural cells," says Joachim Spatz from the Max Planck Institute for Medical Research in Heidelberg. Using a picoinjection system specially developed for this purpose, the researchers could inject precisely controlled quantities of cellular proteins into the polymer-lipid vesicles. "Using this technique, we are able to populate up to 1000 vesicles per second with proteins - cytoskeletal proteins like actin and tubulin or the transmembrane protein integrin. This means we can quickly obtain enough vesicles for biological or medical analysis," explains Spatz. The scientists then remove the surfactant shell and transfer the lipid vesicles to an aqueous solution. The vesicles can, for example, then be made to interact with natural cells.. The new technique is not just limited to helping develop artificial cells, as is the goal of synthetic biology and in Germany the MaxSynBio ...
Vincent Noireaux got his B.Sc. in applied physics at the University of Tours (France) in 1994. In 1995 he moved to Paris for graduate school at the University Paris 11 (Orsay), in physics. He did his PhD at the Curie Institute (Paris, 1996-2000) in the laboratory of Jacques Prost on the motion of the bacterium Listeria. He studied the actin cytoskeleton mechanism involved in cell motility. He learned the biology related to this project in the laboratory of Daniel Louvard. In 2000 he joined the laboratory of Albert Libchaber at the Rockefeller University in New York City where he spent five years as a postdoc. He used cell-free expression systems to construct elementary gene networks and artificial cell systems. In 2005, he moved to the University of Minnesota where he is pursuing his work in synthetic biology using cell-free expression to construct and to characterize complex biochemical systems in vitro ...
Grant Number: JPMJER1101. The biologics including proteins, nucleic acids and extracellular vesicles (exosomes) have been attracted attention as innovative pharmaceutical products in advanced nanomedicine. In this project, new bio-nanotransporters (bio-inspired nanoparticles) have been developed for new drug delivery systems(DDS) especially for such biologics to apply cancer immuno-therapies, vaccines and tissue engineering. We proposed nanogel tectonics using self-assembled nanogels as building blocks to construct multi functional well-controlled gel biomaterials, e.g. artificial cellular matrix and tissue scaffold. Proteoliposomes were efficiently prepared by cell-free membrane protein synthesis with liposome chaperone (artificial cell method) for bio-analysis and DDS. New strategy for functionalization of exosomes has been developed by fusion with nanogel engineering and liposome engineering. Functions of T cell derived exosomes for cancer microenvironment were newly found and the exosomes ...
All living cells use membranes to define physical boundaries and control the movement of biomolecules. Movement of molecules through membranes is a primary means of sending signals to and from cells.. Neal Devaraj, a chemistry and biochemistry professor at UC San Diego, leads a research team that develops and explores new reactions that can trigger the formation of membranes, particularly the spheres that characterize membranes that enclose vesicles and cells.. The new process they have just described is specific and non-toxic, and can be used in the presence of biomolecules one might want to study within artificial cells. The technique could also be used to assemble packets for drug delivery.. Natural cells use enzymes to catalyze the biochemical reactions that manufacture their membranes from thioester precursors, but in this case Devarajs team was able to get membranes to assemble spontaneously, without enzymes, through a process called native chemical ligation.. "This is the first report to ...
The focus of this session is to reflect the latest advances in biocatalysis and protein engineering for biocatalysis applications. Suggested topics include, but are not limited to: (1) Biocatalyst development via protein modification, immobilization, and genetic engineering; (2) Biocatalytic reaction engineering, such as reaction kinetics and nonaqueous biocatalysis; (3) Multienzyme systems and cofactor regeneration; (4) Enzymatic bioprocessing for chemical production, biodegradation, biochemical separation/purification, fuel processing, etc.; (5) Other areas where biocatalysis plays an essential role, such as studies of energy generation systems, biosensors, and artificial cells ...
Affiliation (Current):国立研究開発法人海洋研究開発機構,超先鋭研究開発部門(超先鋭研究プログラム),研究員|東京工業大学,地球生命研究所,その他, Research Field:Science and Engineering,Complex systems,System genome science,Chemical biology, Keywords:人工細胞,生命の起源,合成生物学,ソフトマター,プロトセル,自己複製,生物物理,脂質合成,無細胞タンパク質合成系,脂質, # of Research Projects:8, # of Research Products:45, Ongoing Project:Experimental studdy for primordial cell by constrution of self-reproducing artificial cell(Fostering Joint International Research)
As the researchers report in an advance online publication by the journal Nature Nanotechnology, these findings may help explain how cells have adapted to the phenomenon of molecular crowding, which has been preserved through evolution. And this understanding may guide synthetic biologists as they develop artificial cells that might someday be used for drug delivery, biofuel production and biosensors.. Cheemeng Tan, a Lane Postdoctoral Fellow and a Branco Weiss Fellow in the Lane Center for Computational Biology, said crowding in a cell isnt so different from a crowd of people. If only a few people are in a room, its easy for people to mingle or even to become isolated. But in a crowded room where its hard to move around, individuals often will tend to stay close to each other for extended periods. Tan, who led the study, said the same thing happens in a cell. If the intracellular space is crowded, binding between molecules increases. ...
The slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum is an excellent microorganism that allows, as a model system, to study many biological problems, such as chemotaxis, gene expression, adhesion, cell differentiation, cell sorting, multicellular development from single cells, intercellular communication, phagocytosis, motility, programmed cell death and signal transduction. However, the microorganism is also investigated by physicists because of its non-linear dynamic behaviour and pattern formation. These single-celled soil inhabitants are an ideal example for the researchers seeking models of artificial cells and chemical robots or researchers in the swarm robotics field ...
Startling discoveries in the areas of genomics, biotechnology, and nanotechnology are occurring every day. The rewards of this research, some of it as spectacular as what was once thought of as science fiction, are practically in our grasp. Already it is possible to analyze our individual genetic makeups and evaluate our predisposition for breast cancer or other deadly diseases on a case-by-case basis. And once weve isolated these genes, the ability to repress or enhance them through biotechnology is just around the corner. Soon, for example, it will be feasible for 10% of our red blood cells to be replaced by artificial cells, radically extending our life expectancy and enhancing our physical and even mental abilities beyond what is humanly possible today. In Fantastic Voyage, Ray Kurzweil and Terry Grossman will show us how amazingly advanced we are in our medical technology, and how incredibly far each of us can go toward living as long as we dare imagine ...
Picture 3: Prof. Haneins nano- electrodes. Prof. Avi Shroder (Technion) spoke about artificial cells as advanced delivery systems.. Prof. Francesco De Angelis (Italian Institute of Technology) talked about interfacing current electronic and optical nanodevices with biological tissues.. Prof. Micha Spira (Hebrew University of Jerusalem) presented his research on neuron-electronic hybrid systems.. Prof. Tzahi Cohen-Karni (Carnegie Mellon University) presented the interfaces of nanomaterials with electroactive cells and tissue.. Prof. Steven Schwendeman (University of Michigan) lectured about current progress in poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) controlled release systems.. Prof. Paolo Decuzzi (Italian Institute of Technology) talked about double action of therapy and diagnosis of polymeric nano-constructs: from in silico modeling to pre-clinical studies.. Prof. Dan Peer (Tel Aviv University) talked about harnessing nanomedicines for precision medicines in particular for treatment of diseases ...
A simple common seaweed may provide the key to unlocking the mystery how life evolved on Planet Water and how to develop artificial cells and life forms.
A large percentage of pharmaceutical drugs target ion channels, which are proteins found in a cells membrane, that play a pivotal role in these serious disorders and that are used to test the effectiveness of new drugs.. Ion channels create tiny openings in the membrane for specific ions (atoms that are positively or negatively charged) to pass through. Currently researchers use electrophysiology, which measures an electric current through ion channel proteins, to evaluate the effectiveness of drugs on ion channels.. However, this can be a slow and expensive process as it is typically carried out using ion channels in living cell membranes and producing too many channels can actually kill the cells.. Now, Southampton researchers have been able to produce an ion channel without using cells, which is possible with so-called cell-free expression mixtures, and to insert the channels in a stable artificial cell membrane which should enable faster, less expensive drug testing. The key is that the ...
Dimitar Sasselov, professor of astronomy at Harvard University and the founder and director of the Harvard Origins of Life Initiative, talks about his new book The Life of Super-Earths: How the Hunt for Alien Worlds and Artificial Cells Will Revolutionize Life on Our Planet
Bioencapsulation of cells is one of the many areas of artificial cells being extensively investigated by centers around the world. This includes the bioencapsulation of hepatocytes. A number of methods have been developed to maintain the specific function and phenotype of the bioencapsulated hepatocytes for in vitro and in vivo applications. These include supplementation of factors in the culture medium; use of appropriate substrates and the co-cultivation of hepatocytes with other type of cells, the so called feeder cells. These feeder cells can be of liver origin or non-liver origin. We have recently studied the role of bone marrow cells in the maintenance of hepatocytes viability and phenotype by using the coculture of hepatocytes with bone marrow cells (nucleated cells including stem cells), and the coencapsulation of hepatocytes with bone marrow stem cells. This way, the hepatocytes viability and specific function can be maintained significantly longer. In vivo studies of both syngeneic and
I am a first year graduate student in the lab of Prof. Wilhelm Huck at the Radboud University Nijmegen. I am working on a project to create an artificial cell. This involves implementing complex genetic networks in cell-free systems which are far from equilibrium. My project involves designing, quantifying, modeling such networks. I am a molecular biologist by training and have basic modeling skills. I am looking to expand my skill-set to include microscopy, microfluidics and a little bit of ...
I am a first year graduate student in the lab of Prof. Wilhelm Huck at the Radboud University Nijmegen. I am working on a project to create an artificial cell. This involves implementing complex genetic networks in cell-free systems which are far from equilibrium. My project involves designing, quantifying, modeling such networks. I am a molecular biologist by training and have basic modeling skills. I am looking to expand my skill-set to include microscopy, microfluidics and a little bit of ...
I am a first year graduate student in the lab of Prof. Wilhelm Huck at the Radboud University Nijmegen. I am working on a project to create an artificial cell. This involves implementing complex genetic networks in cell-free systems which are far from equilibrium. My project involves designing, quantifying, modeling such networks. I am a molecular biologist by training and have basic modeling skills. I am looking to expand my skill-set to include microscopy, microfluidics and a little bit of ...
Scientists have created an artificial cell that replicates the color changing systems in squid and zebrafish. This new technology could lead to smart, camoflauging fabrics.
We may not be talking megawatts (let alone watts) of potential energy here, but a new artificial cell created by researchers from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Yale University could be used to power the next generation of
Along with collaborators we developed polymersomes or biomimetic vesicles composed of diblock copolymers or recombinant proteins. These have the potential to serve as drug-delivery, imaging devices and synthetic cells (also known as protocells). We have engineered these vesicles to carry molecules in their interior and on their surface and have shown their potential to adhere to specific cell adhesion molecules. Furthermore, by embedding specific molecules within the membrane on polymersome we can now cause them to photo-destruct. The ability to assemble capsules from recombinant proteins allows facile incorporation of functional adhesion receptor and responsive motifs, such a protease cleavable domains ...
A team of researchers at Harvard University have modeled in the laboratory a primitive cell, or protocell, that is capable of building, copying and containing DNA.
Recent experimental work in the field of synthetic protocell biology has shown that prebiotic vesicles are able to steal lipids from each other. This phenomenon is driven purely by asymmetries in the physical state or composition of the vesicle membranes, and, when lipid resource is limited, translates directly into competition amongst the vesicles. Such a scenario is interesting from an origins of life perspective because a rudimentary form of cell-level selection emerges. To sharpen intuition about possible mechanisms underlying this behaviour, experimental work must be complemented with theoretical modelling. The aim of this paper is to provide a coarse-grain mathematical model of protocell lipid competition. Our model is capable of reproducing, often quantitatively, results from core experimental papers that reported distinct types vesicle competition. Additionally, we make some predictions untested in the lab, and develop a general numerical method for quickly solving the equilibrium ...
A recurring theme at synbio conferences is the diversity of approaches. There are three main types, first is extending engineering capacity in the building blocks of nature that are already synbio workhorses such as E. coli and yeast. Second is canvassing nature for additional functionality, including cataloging the natural world and the entire human metabalome, peptidome, virome, bloodome, etc. Third is de novo engineering from scratch to build necessary functionality in minimal cells/minimal genomes, including the possibility of supplementing nature-provided parts with newly created amino acids and nucleotide base pairs. An example that considers the trade-offs between approaches is engineering up from minimal cells versus engineering down from organisms that already have some of the needed functionality, for example up from E. coli or down from rhizobia, soil bacteria that have nitrogen fixation (biosynthesis) capability ...
InThe Medea Hypothesis, Peter Ward lists about a dozen examples from the deep past where the biosphere has precipitated Medean events that greatly reduced the diversity of life on Earth and greatly reduced its carrying capacity. The first such event was the take over of life by DNA. In Self-Replicating Information, I described Freeman Dysons two-stage theory for the origin of life on Earth. In Dysons theory, metabolic protocells arise first and are later parasitized, first by RNA, and then by DNA. So essentially a very diverse biosphere of metabolic protocells went through the most significant mass extinction in Earths history, to be totally replaced by a single form of DNA-based life. Peter Ward considers the total extinction of all other forms of life by DNA about 4.0 billion years ago to be the most significant event supporting the Medea hypothesis. The next major Medean event came about 2.8 billion years ago with the arrival of cyanobacteria on the scene. The cyanobacteria could ...
Products from methanol by synthetic cell factories, EU FP7, Applying Synthetic Biology principles towards the cell factory notion in biotechnology
Arguably the grandest goal in cellular biophysics is the uncovering of design principles that govern all aspects of cellular function. Efforts in systems and synthetic cell biology have focused mainly on the design principles of gene expression and signaling systems. A quantitative understanding of eukaryotic cellular organization in space, however, would afford biophysicists and bioengineers with a powerful opportunity to predict how the physical architecture of the cell constrains and regulates fundamental life processes. To unleash this potential, it is imperative to understand one of the defining features of the eukaryotic cell: its organization into spatial compartments known as organelles. Coordinating organelle abundance and activity with developmental and environmental cues is one of the chief ways the cell can match its biochemical capabilities with its physiological demands. How does the cell orchestrate flows of matter and energy to produce exquisitely defined organelles at the ...
Weiss, M.; Frohnmayer, J. P.; Benk, L. T.; Haller, B.; Janiesch, J.-W.; Heitkamp, T.; Börsch, M.; Lira, R. B.; Dimova, R.; Lipowsky, R. et al.; Bodenschatz, E.; Baret, J.-C.; Vidaković-Koch, T.; Sundmacher, K.; Platzman, I.; Spatz, J. P.: Sequential bottom-up assembly of mechanically stabilized synthetic cells by microfluidics. Nature Materials 17, pp. 89 - 96 (2018 ...
DNA can be thought of as the recipe book to make an organism. In your DNA, there is all the information necessary to make every single part of your body. Strangely enough, DNA is only made out of four units: A, C, T and G (remember the movie "Gattaca"? Thats a play on a DNA sequence). The sequence of these units determines your genes (small chunks of DNA), your chromosomes (larger chunks of DNA comprised of many genes), and your genome (the sum of all your DNA). To create the synthetic cell, the researchers started with the genome of one bacteria (lets call it "donor"). They mapped out the genome of the donor into a computer file, and then edited the code, adding a few specific chunks here and there. These added chunks (the "watermarks") would later serve as markers to confirm that the resulting organism only hosts the synthetic code. Once the researchers had a DNA sequence they were happy with, they fed the code into a machine that spurts out the As, Cs, Ts and Gs in the correct order and ...
Im not a geneticist, but I know enough about science to understand that by meddling around with DNA you run the risk of creating super-viruses, flesh eating bacteria and possibly even tyrannosaurs. The perfection seen in nature is the result of thousands of years of evolution, and that evolution has brought everything into harmony. By creating synthetic cells you run the risk of altering the course of evolution; you could inadvertently upset the natural harmonies that exists between things like parasitoid wasps and their host caterpillars, you could unintentionally change petroleums natural adhesion to the Gulf of Mexico, or you could even disrupt the natural balance that exists between humans and the HIV virus - Dr. Venter dont upset the natural balance ...
Guasch J, Diemer J, Riahinezhad H, Neubauer S, Kessler H, Spatz JP (2016). Synthesis of binary nanopatterns on hydrogels for initiating cellular responses. Chemistry of Materials 28:1806-1815. Guasch J, Conings B, Neubauer S, Rechenmacher F, Ende K, Rolli CG, Kappel C, Schaufler V, Micoulet A, Kessler H, Boyen H-G, Cavalcanti-Adam EA, Spatz JP (2015). Segregation versus colocalization: Orthogonally functionalized binary micropatterned substrates regulate the molecular distribution in focal adhesions. Advanced Materials 27:3737-3747. Frohnmayer JP, Brüggemann D, Eberhard C, Neubauer S, Mollenhauer C, Boehm H, Kessler H, Geiger B, Spatz JP (2015). Minimal synthetic cells to study integrin-mediated adhesion. Ang Chemie Int Ed. 54:12472-12478. Das T, Safferling K, Rausch S, Grabe N, Boehm H, Spatz JP (2015). A molecular mechanotransduction pathway regulates collective migration of epithelial cells. Nat Cell Biol. 17:76-87. Janiesch JW, Weiss M, Kannenberg G, Hannabuss J, Surrey T, Platzman I, Spatz ...
Minimum Essential Medium (MEM) was developed by Harry Eagle, and is one of the most widely used of all synthetic cell culture media. It is designed for a wide range of species and cells.. ...
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A tandem combinatorial reaction of four acyclic, colorless compounds (two α-aminoketones and two diones; one polar and one nonpolar for each) in aqueous solution (30 mM each, 60 °C, pH 7, 24 h) containing lipid vesicles and with or without quinones and solar illumination affords a distribution of up to 538 p
In conclusion, much elegant work has been done starting from activated mono-nucleotides. However, the prebiotic synthesis of a specific macromolecular sequence does not seem to be at hand, giving us the same problem we have with polypeptide sequences. Since there is no ascertained prebiotic pathway to their synthesis, it may be useful to try to conceive some working hypothesis. In order to do that, I would first like to consider a preliminary question about the proteins we have on our Earth: "Why these proteins … and not other ones?". Discussing this question can in fact give us some clue as to how orderly sequences might have originated. […] A grain of sand in the Sahara - This is indeed a central question in our world of proteins. How have they been selected out? There is a well-known arithmetic at the basis of this question, (see for example De Duve, 2002) which says that for a polypeptide chain with 100 residues, 20^100 different chains are in principle possible: a number so large that ...
Vitorino Ramos, Ajith Abraham, ANTIDS: Self-Organized Ant-based Clustering Model for Intrusion Detection System, in Swarm Intelligence and Patterns special session at WSTST-05 - 4th IEEE Int. Conf. on Soft Computing as Transdisciplinary Science and Technology - Japan, LNCS series, Springer-Verlag, Germany, pp. 977-986, May 2005.. Security of computers and the networks that connect them is increasingly becoming of great significance. Computer security is defined as the protection of computing systems against threats to confidentiality, integrity, and availability. There are two types of intruders: the external intruders who are unauthorized users of the machines they attack, and internal intruders, who have permission to access the system with some restrictions. Due to the fact that it is more and more improbable to a system administrator to recognize and manually intervene to stop an attack, there is an increasing recognition that ID systems should have a lot to earn on following its basic ...
In this episode: Artificial DNA and the first life, corrections on the ichthyosaurs and responding to mailbag questions. This is Genesis Week! Random References: World-first artificial enzymes suggest life doesnt need DNA or RNA - doesn-t-need-dna-or-rna Synthetic enzymes hint at life without DNA or RNA - life-without-dna-or-rna.html Catalysts from synthetic genetic polymers Taylor, et. al., Nature, Letters, 1 December 2014 Growth and Evolution of Asteroids Eric Ausphaug, Annual Review of Eart
Since 1995, Dr. Venter and his teams have been trying to develop a minimal cell both to understand the fundamentals of biology and to begin the process of building a new cell and organism with optimized functions.
2nd International Summit on Integrative Biology August 04-05, 2014 Chicago, USA. Scientific Talk On: In silico minimal cell model systems. Click here for Abstract and Biography: https://www.omicsonline.org/speaker/fabio-mavelli-university-aldo-moro-italy. Conference Series LLC (3000+ Global Events): www.conferenceseries. ...
Contains chapters on "Bacterial Genome Annotation", "Complex Network Analysis in Microbial Systems: Theory and Examples" (Zavareh and Almaas), "Development of Constraint-Based System-Level Models of Microbial Metabolism", "Modeling a Minimal Cell" and "Mass Spectrometry-Based Microbial Metabolomics ...
From the abstract: "The human heart is capable of functioning for decades despite minimal cell turnover or regeneration, suggesting that molecular alterations help sustain heart function with age. However, identification of compensatory remodeling events in the aging heart remains elusive. We present the cardiac proteomes of young and old rhesus monkeys and rats, from which we show that certain age-associated remodeling events within the cardiomyocyte cytoskeleton are highly conserved and beneficial rather than deleterious. Targeted transcriptomic analysis in Drosophila confirmed conservation and implicated vinculin as a unique molecular regulator of cardiac function during aging. ... Moreover, cardiac-specific vinculin overexpression increased median life span by more than 150% in flies. ... These findings suggest that the heart has molecular mechanisms to sustain performance and promote longevity, which may be assisted by therapeutic intervention to ameliorate the decline of function in aging ...
Trypan Red Plus™ is similar to Trypan Blue in cell permeability. It is not permeable to live cells. Compared to Trypan Blue, Trypan Red Plus is less toxic to cells, in particular, having minimal effect on cell surface receptors such as G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Another advantage is that the cells can be clearly observed under microscope when Trypan Red Plus is used while Trypan Blue makes it quite difficult to see cells under microscope. Our Trypan Red Plus sodium salt is highly purified, and can be used up to 0.6 mM with minimal cell cytotoxicity ...
Cells must have preceded by simpler chemical systems (protocells) that had the capacity of a spontaneous self-assembly process and the ability to confine chemical reaction networks together with a form of information. The presence of lipid molecules in the early Earth conditions is sufficient to ensure the occurrence of spontaneous self-assembly processes, not defined by genetic information, but related to their chemical amphiphilic nature. Ribozymes are plausible molecules for early life, being the first small polynucleotides made up of random oligomers or formed by non-enzymatic template copying. Compartmentalization represents a strategy for the evolution of ribozymes; the attachment of ribozymes to surfaces, such as formed by lipid micellar aggregates may be particular relevant if the surface itself catalyzes RNA polymerization.It is conceivable that the transition from pre-biotic molecular aggregates to cellular life required the coevolution of the RNA world, capable of synthesizing ...
Dr. Barry Gillespie discovered the Craniosacral Fascial System, which consists of a slight motion of the brain and spinal cord pumping cerebrospinal fluid into the fascial web that connects every structural cell of the body. When physical and/or emotional traumas adversely tighten this freely moving system, tremendous pressure can be exerted on associated nerves, muscles, organs, blood vessels, lymph vessels and bones. Profound effects on body function may result as a major cause of the conditions listed above. Read more about Gillespie Approach-Craniosacral Fascial Therapy and Dr. Barry Gillespie. ...
Dr. Barry Gillespie discovered the Craniosacral Fascial System, which consists of a slight motion of the brain and spinal cord pumping cerebrospinal fluid into the fascial web that connects every structural cell of the body. When physical and/or emotional traumas adversely tighten this freely moving system, tremendous pressure can be exerted on associated nerves, muscles, organs, blood vessels, lymph vessels and bones. Profound effects on body function may result as a major cause of the conditions listed above. Read more about Gillespie Approach-Craniosacral Fascial Therapy and Dr. Barry Gillespie. ...
Presentation November 2008 on Systems Architecture, the methodological and conceptual background to Living Architecture & Protocell Architecture
Get up to date with the latest news and stories about the person Judith Gillespie at The Irish Times. Breaking News at IrishTimes.com.
Transcript of the May 3, 2009 broadcast of NBCs Meet the Press, featuring Kathleen Sebelius, Janet Napolitano, Richard Besser, Arlen Specter, Joe Scarborough and Ed Gillespie.
Less Can Be More: RNA-Adapters May Enhance Coding Capacity of Replicators. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Part 2: Once youve evaluated performance, refer to the four most frequently used leveling methods. by Jim Strafford, CEDC, MCS-P In
Lego block artificial cells that can kill bacteria have been created by researchers at the University of California, Davis Department of Biomedical Engineering. The work is reported Aug. 29 in the journal ACS Applied Materials ...
Results Our artificial antigen-presenting cells expanded both polyclonal T cells and MART-1-specific CD8+ T cells in a more efficient manner than the other systems. Stimulation with artificial antigen-presenting cells allows for the generation of viable T cells displaying an immunophenotype consistent with in vivo potential for persistence, without increasing the frequency of regulatory T cells. The starting specificity of anti MART-1 CD8+ T cells was preserved after stimulation with artificial antigen-presenting cells and it was statistically greater when compared to the activity of the same cells expanded with the other systems. Finally, our artificial antigen-presenting cells proved to be suitable for large-scale application, minimizing the volume and the costs of T-cell expansion. ...
The Vatican had praise Saturday for this weeks announcement that scientists had created the worlds first synthetic cell, calling it an interesting result that could help cure disease.
A proposed solution to this problem is the idea of "Encapsulated Cell Therapy" (Galletti, 1995). It basically works as follows: The cells used can be either human or other animal cells. These cells are genetically altered to produce whatever it is that is needed in the body (insulin, other needed proteins, hormones, etc.). The cells are then protected from the immune system in a very clever "capsule" system made of a polymer material. This polymer has specially designed pores that are large enough to allow the desired excretion of therapeutic substances, but small enough to keep out the bodys immune system. In effect, we have a cybernetic system here, in which an isolated "colony" of foreign cells lives, protected, inside the humans system. This colony feeds off of the humans blood, and excretes its wastes and its specially designed products into the humans circulatory system.. There are other applications for this type of technology such as pain control systems and treatment of otherwise ...
The mouthpiece of the gaming generation, The Escapist aims to capture and celebrate the contemporary video gaming lifestyle and the diverse global video game culture by way of in-depth features, thought provoking articles and relevant columns authored by leading video game authorities, as well as cutting-edge video shorts, engaging forums and robust social media elements that incorporate the video gaming experience.
This study investigated the effect of the biochemical and biophysical properties of the plasma membrane as well as membrane morphology on the susceptibility of human red blood cells to the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin pneumolysin, a key virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae, using single cell studies. We show a correlation between the physical properties of the membrane (bending rigidity, surface and dipole electrostatic potentials) and the susceptibility of red blood cells to pneumolysin-induced haemolysis. We demonstrate that biochemical modifications of the membrane induced by oxidative stress, lipid scrambling and artificial cell aging modulate the cell response to the toxin. We provide evidence that the diversity of response to pneumolysin in diabetic red blood cells correlates with levels of glycated haemoglobin (Hba1c) and that the mechanical properties of the red blood cell plasma membrane are altered in diabetes. Finally, we show that diabetic red blood cells are more ...
The global synthetic biology market is projected to grow at a CAGR of 19.9%. in the next five years"The synthetic biology market is expected to reach USD 8.84 billion by 2022 from an estimated USD 3.57 billion in 2017, at a CAGR of 19.9%. The key factors driving the growth of this market include the wide range of applications of synthetic biology, rising R&D funding and initiatives, increasing demand for synthetic genes and synthetic cells, and increasing investments in synthetic biology companies. On the other hand, possible environmental and security issues related to synthetic biology are likely to restrain the growth of this market to a certain extent.. "The chassis organisms segment is expected to grow at the highest rate during the forecast period (2017-2022 ...
You know the world is truly advanced when someone has invented a synthetic cell. And this happened five years ago. Enter the field of synthetic biology, defined as the use of molecular biology tools and techniques to construct genetic systems that produce a desired behavior. With the decreasing price of DNA sequencing and synthesis, the ease of genetic…
While these patents have yet to be granted, the claim shows the extent to which some synthetic biologists are testing the limits in the battle to control the fundamental building blocks of life and actual living organisms. While it is likely this specific patent applications scope will be limited to cover only bacterial cells, such a patent would still grant Venter and company an exclusive license to create synthetic fuel-producing bacteria and the tools to create such organisms. Conveniently, Venters company, Synthetic Genomics, has contracts with both Exxon Mobile and BP to produce "next-generation" biofuels from synthetic cells (or at least genetically engineered cells that contain synthetic DNA sequences ...
Worlds first synthetic cells: J Craig Venter Institute (JCVI) via BBC News. Later Venters lab distinguished itself by building a small bacteriums genome with man-made DNA fragments, piece by piece - another milestone. It was both milestone achievements that, combined, led the team to the synthetic cell disclosed today. The researchers started out by combining two small species of Mycoplasma with a chemically synthesized goat germ genome, and finally transplanted that into a living cell from a different Mycoplasma species. The team encountered an obstacle here and they eventually had to spell check (!) the DNA fragments of the synthetic genome to make sure there were no errors. The delay in the achievement of their goal was about three months, but finally, they learned the spell checker found a typo in the genetic code!. Once it was fixed, the synthetic DNA and its cytoplasm, having been tagged to distinguish it from the DNA of the natural Mycoplasma, started to produce its own proteins. ...
So Craig Venter has created the first synthetic cell, but should he be able to patent it? The short answer is yes. But his patent applications are too broad.
The final goal is the construction of a vesicular system that contain the minimal and sufficient number of genes and other components to be defined as living (self-sustaining + self-reproduction + evolvability). The main researchers in this filed are Pasquale Stano and Giovanni Murtas, as well as Yutetsu Kumura from the Tokyo University (from the group of prof. Ueda, with whom we are collaborating).. ...
Cascadian Therapeutics, Inc., formerly Oncothyreon Inc., is a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company. The Company focuses on the development of therapeutic products for the treatment of cancer. The Companys clinical-stage product candidate includes ONT-380, an orally active and selective small-molecule human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) 2 inhibitor. The Companys ONT-10 is a therapeutic vaccine targeting the Mucin 1 peptide antigen (MUC1). The Company is engaged in developing preclinical product candidates in oncology using its Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) kinase inhibitor and protocell technology. The Company completed the evaluation of approximately two dosing cohorts in its Phase Ib trial of ONT-10 in combination with the anti-CD27 T-cell agonist antibody varlilumab in collaboration with other company. The Company has completed Phase I trial of ONT-380, with both dose-escalation and expansion components. The Company has initiated Phase Ib trials of ONT-380.
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Cosmetech was co-founded in 2006 by Lena Gillespie and Mr Ashok Songra when a gap was identified in the market for non-surgical anti-ageing procedures.
Level of Blood Flow  The normal blood flow to the brain is about 50 mL/100g of brain tissue/min.  Ischemic penumbra is a blood flow of 25 mL/100g of brain tissue/min. This level is dangerously low and can lead to loss of brain cells.  A blood flow of 8 mL/100g of brain tissue/min leads to an almost complete loss of functional neurons.  Consciousness is lost within 10 seconds of cessation of blood supply to the brain. Dr. Michael P. Gillespie 3
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Over 99 per cent of organisms remain unknown to science - so could some of them sit outside the classic three domains of cellular life?
Nephrology Times interviewed Deborah Grider, president & CEO of AAPC, on the impact of ICD-10 and how it will affect practices. Grider shared the impor
Timothy M. Dall, Wenya Yang, Karin Gillespie, Michelle Mocarski, Erin Byrne, Inna Cintina, Kaleigh Beronja, April P. Semilla, William Iacobucci, Paul F. Hogan ...
Synthetic biology is a highly interdisciplinary field, which combines biology, chemistry and physics with engineering. Its goal is to design molecular factories and synthetic cells with novel properties or functions for applications in healthcare, industry, or biological and medical research. Such artificial systems are in the nanometer scale and are built by combining and assembling existing, synthetic or engineered building blocks (e.g., proteins). Molecular systems have wide application ranges, e.g., for chemical compound synthesis, waste disposal, energy supply and medical diagnosis or treatment.. In this context, the NCCR Molecular Systems Engineering brings Swiss scientists from different disciplines together to stimulate innovation, and address existing and future challenges. The University of Bern is represented by the Fotiadis laboratory in the NCCR MSE.. Nanomachines for energy conversion. Energy-providing building blocks are essential to power molecular systems. Light-driven proton ...
The production of artificial life is supposedly just around the corner. But ever since the famous 1953 Miller and Urey experiment failed to spark life in the laboratory just from chemicals, that corner has proven painstakingly long to get around.. In August, biologist Craig Venter of the J. Craig Venter Institute in Maryland was reported as predicting that artificial life is just months away.1 His team had cloned, added to, and modified the DNA of a "simple" bacterium called Mycoplasma mycoides (a prokaryote).. The complex procedure they used involved taking plasmid sequences from yeast (eukaryote) and adding them to the Mycoplasma chromosome. This engineered chromosome was swapped for the yeast genome, making a reproducing, yeast-like bacterium. This series of steps promises to expedite the transfer of an artificially synthesized genome into a cell. Researcher Sanjay Vashee said that his team had achieved "a major advance in our effort to create a synthetic cell."1. A number of questions, ...
A large selection of MEM formulations. Minimum Essential Medium (MEM), developed by Harry Eagle, is one of the most widely used of all synthetic cell culture media.
Mycoplasma genitalium is an emerging sexually transmitted pathogen. This wall-less microorganism is among the smallest, self-replicating cell known. Its streamlined genome is an appealing model of a minimal cell. Behind this apparent simplicity, its cell membrane hides a complex cytoskeleton that shapes and polarizes the cell. In this way, cells show a differentiated tip structure, known as terminal organelle (TO), which is involved in key processes of its parasitic way of life. Moreover, TO is involved in gliding motility. This unique motility mechanism is related in many aspects of the biology of this microorganism, with especial relevance in pathogenesis. Nevertheless, the mechanics behind it is still poorly characterized. The general aim of the present work is to deepen the understanding of this mechanism by studying the specific contribution of different domains of proteins previously related with the TO or motility. TO is organized around an internal cytoskeletal structure. MG218 protein ...
Nanoscale topographies and chemical patterns can be used as synthetic cell interfaces with a range of applications including study and control of cellular processes. Herein, we describe the fabrication of high aspect ratio nanostructures using electron beam lithography in the epoxy-based polymer SU-8. We show how nanostructure geometry, position and fluorescent properties can be tuned, allowing flexible device design. Further, thiol-epoxide reactions were developed to give effective and specific modification of SU-8 surface chemistry. SU-8 nanostructures were made directly on glass cover slips, enabling the use of high resolution optical techniques such as live-cell confocal, total internal reflection and 3D structured illumination microscopy to investigate cell interactions with the nanostructures. Details of cell adherence and spreading, plasma membrane conformation and actin organization in response to high aspect ratio nanopillars and nanolines were investigated. The versatile structural and ...
MCLS doctoral students must fulfill the minimum requirements outlined by the university. In addition, students must obtain a high level of proficiency in the core foundations of the molecular and cellular life sciences through required courses in biochemistry/molecular biology, scientific literature analysis proficiency, and the MCLS cornerstone course. Because of the broad range of research interests pursued by MCLS faculty and students, considerable flexibility will be exercised regarding the specific nature of the graduate-level elective courses that students may take.. Students must successfully complete four eight-week rotations in MCLS laboratories of their choice during the first year.. Students must pass a comprehensive assessment exam at the end of the first year. Towards the end of the second year, students will undertake a qualifying examination in order to be formally admitted to graduate degree candidacy. This exam will have both written and oral components and will cover areas of ...
This thesis describes the isolation and molecular identification of a novel paramyxovirus found in Australian snakes. The virus is named Sunshine virus after the geographical origin of the first isolate: the Sunshine Coast of Queensland, Australia. For decades, Australian veterinarians have been presented with snakes displaying neurorespiratory signs. The clinical signs, pathological findings and the results of overseas diagnostic testing, have suggested that at least some of these snakes were infected with paramyxoviruses, most likely ferlaviruses. Australian veterinarians provided 463 samples to be screened for the presence of viruses and nine were found from five snakes from two collections. For all isolates, cytopathic effects consisted of extensive syncytial cell formation with minimal cell lysis. Further characterisation was performed on one of these isolates, BHP1-Lung (from a lung homogenate of a black-headed python [BHP], Aspidites melanocephalus with mild respiratory signs and ...
Liquid-liquid phase separation is common in aqueous macromolecule solutions, leading to formation of droplets that are greatly enriched in macromolecules. This presentation will describe studies of liquid-liquid phase separation in relatively simple polymer solutions, both as models for membraneless organelles in eukaryotic cells and as potential prebiotic compartments (membraneless protocells). Solutes such as ions, small molecules, and biopolymers can become compartmentalized by partitioning due to the different solvent environment and/or affinity interactions (e.g. ion pairing, hydrogen bonding). We are studying mechanisms for, and consequences of, this type of compartmentalization using a variety of simple model systems composed of phase-separating aqueous polymer solutions. Through these types of studies, we hope to uncover underlying physiochemical mechanisms in cellular organization and to identify new avenues for biomimetic systems for applications in biotechnology and materials science. ...
In this study we provide a phenotypic and functional characterization of NK cells located in secondary lymphoid organs, and demonstrate that they can acquire cytolytic functions as well as the complete NK cell receptor repertoire only upon activation.. We have analyzed human spleens, lymph nodes, and tonsils in comparison with peripheral blood and described four distinct NK subsets resident in secondary lymphoid organs. Three of them, CD56brightNKG2A−NCR−, CD56brightNKG2A+NCR−, and CD56dimCD16−NCR− NK cells, have not previously been found, and one, CD56brightNKp44+ NK cells, had not been isolated ex vivo. In addition, we detected an overall enrichment of CD56brightCD16− NK cells in spleen, lymph nodes, and tonsils.. We showed that tonsil and lymph node NK cells that acquire a complete KIR phenotype in the presence of IL-2 undergo minimal cell divisions, while a large part, but not all, of KIR− NK cells proliferated strongly. This further confirmed that different subsets of NK cells ...
The commission found many efforts to shape policy, governance, and regulation related to synthetic biology, but few examples of a broad-based ethical framework upon which to base such proposals. We identified five ethical principles relevant to the social implications of synthetic biology and other emerging technologies and used these to guide our evaluation of the current state of synthetic biology and its potential risks and benefits, as well as our policy recommendations.. The guiding principles are: (1) public beneficence, (2) responsible stewardship, (3) intellectual freedom and responsibility, (4) democratic deliberation, and (5) justice and fairness. These principles are intended to serve as provisional guideposts subject to refinement, revision, and comment.. Public beneficence. The ideal of public beneficence is to act to maximize public benefits and minimize public harm. This principle encompasses the duty of a society and its government to promote individual activities and ...

Bluefield State College biomedical engineeringBluefield State College biomedical engineering

Stem cell research offers new hope in the areas of cancer treatment as well as life extension. The regulation of genetic ... By copying the efficiency of nature, the study of biomechanics aids in creating prosthetic limbs and artificial organs for ... Self-assembly of these structures may lead to new breakthroughs in artificial tissue generation. Micron-scale mechanical ... you may consider Cleveland State University fuel cell design as a complementary elective to your primary course of study. ...
more infohttp://www.bluefieldstatecollege.org/Bluefield-State-College-biomedical-engineering.php

Pratt Community College biomedical engineeringPratt Community College biomedical engineering

Stem cell research offers new hope in the areas of cancer treatment as well as life extension. The regulation of genetic ... By copying the efficiency of nature, the study of biomechanics aids in creating prosthetic limbs and artificial organs for ... Self-assembly of these structures may lead to new breakthroughs in artificial tissue generation. Micron-scale mechanical ...
more infohttp://www.prattcommunitycollege.org/Pratt-Community-College-biomedical-engineering.php

Thomas Nelson Community College biomedical engineeringThomas Nelson Community College biomedical engineering

Stem cell research offers new hope in the areas of cancer treatment as well as life extension. The regulation of genetic ... By copying the efficiency of nature, the study of biomechanics aids in creating prosthetic limbs and artificial organs for ... Self-assembly of these structures may lead to new breakthroughs in artificial tissue generation. Micron-scale mechanical ...
more infohttp://www.thomasnelsoncommunitycollege.org/Thomas-Nelson-Community-College-biomedical-engineering.php

St Petersburg Community College biomedical engineeringSt Petersburg Community College biomedical engineering

Stem cell research offers new hope in the areas of cancer treatment as well as life extension. The regulation of genetic ... By copying the efficiency of nature, the study of biomechanics aids in creating prosthetic limbs and artificial organs for ... Self-assembly of these structures may lead to new breakthroughs in artificial tissue generation. Micron-scale mechanical ...
more infohttp://www.stpetersburgcommunitycollege.org/St-Petersburg-Community-College-biomedical-engineering.php

Beal College biomedical engineeringBeal College biomedical engineering

Stem cell research offers new hope in the areas of cancer treatment as well as life extension. The regulation of genetic ... By copying the efficiency of nature, the study of biomechanics aids in creating prosthetic limbs and artificial organs for ... Self-assembly of these structures may lead to new breakthroughs in artificial tissue generation. Micron-scale mechanical ...
more infohttp://www.bealcollege.org/Beal-College-biomedical-engineering.php

Panola College biomedical engineeringPanola College biomedical engineering

Stem cell research offers new hope in the areas of cancer treatment as well as life extension. The regulation of genetic ... By copying the efficiency of nature, the study of biomechanics aids in creating prosthetic limbs and artificial organs for ... Self-assembly of these structures may lead to new breakthroughs in artificial tissue generation. Micron-scale mechanical ...
more infohttp://www.panolacollege.org/Panola-College-biomedical-engineering.php

Fairmont State biomedical engineeringFairmont State biomedical engineering

Stem cell research offers new hope in the areas of cancer treatment as well as life extension. The regulation of genetic ... By copying the efficiency of nature, the study of biomechanics aids in creating prosthetic limbs and artificial organs for ... Self-assembly of these structures may lead to new breakthroughs in artificial tissue generation. Micron-scale mechanical ...
more infohttp://www.fairmontstate.org/Fairmont-State-biomedical-engineering.php

Langston University biomedical engineeringLangston University biomedical engineering

Stem cell research offers new hope in the areas of cancer treatment as well as life extension. The regulation of genetic ... By copying the efficiency of nature, the study of biomechanics aids in creating prosthetic limbs and artificial organs for ... Self-assembly of these structures may lead to new breakthroughs in artificial tissue generation. Micron-scale mechanical ...
more infohttp://www.langstonuniversity.org/Langston-University-biomedical-engineering.php

Frank Phillips College biomedical engineeringFrank Phillips College biomedical engineering

Stem cell research offers new hope in the areas of cancer treatment as well as life extension. The regulation of genetic ... By copying the efficiency of nature, the study of biomechanics aids in creating prosthetic limbs and artificial organs for ... Self-assembly of these structures may lead to new breakthroughs in artificial tissue generation. Micron-scale mechanical ...
more infohttp://www.frankphillipscollege.org/Frank-Phillips-College-biomedical-engineering.php

Honolulu Community College biomedical engineeringHonolulu Community College biomedical engineering

Stem cell research offers new hope in the areas of cancer treatment as well as life extension. The regulation of genetic ... By copying the efficiency of nature, the study of biomechanics aids in creating prosthetic limbs and artificial organs for ... Self-assembly of these structures may lead to new breakthroughs in artificial tissue generation. Micron-scale mechanical ...
more infohttp://www.honolulucommunitycollege.org/Honolulu-Community-College-biomedical-engineering.php?cat=E9018E94

Suffolk University biomedical engineeringSuffolk University biomedical engineering

... cells are composed of carbon-rich polymers and can be tailored to enhance a specific function of the solar cell, such as ... By copying the efficiency of nature, the study of biomechanics aids in creating prosthetic limbs and artificial organs for ... Solar Cell Technology Program. The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) leads public research in innovative ... Stem cell research offers new hope in the areas of cancer treatment as well as life extension. The regulation of genetic ...
more infohttp://www.suffolkuniversity.org/Suffolk-University-biomedical-engineering.php?cat=BCF251ED

Schenectady County Community College biomedical engineeringSchenectady County Community College biomedical engineering

Stem cell research offers new hope in the areas of cancer treatment as well as life extension. The regulation of genetic ... By copying the efficiency of nature, the study of biomechanics aids in creating prosthetic limbs and artificial organs for ... Self-assembly of these structures may lead to new breakthroughs in artificial tissue generation. Micron-scale mechanical ...
more infohttp://www.schenectadycountycommunitycollege.org/Schenectady-County-Community-College-biomedical-engineering.php

Wesleyan University biomedical engineeringWesleyan University biomedical engineering

Stem cell research offers new hope in the areas of cancer treatment as well as life extension. The regulation of genetic ... By copying the efficiency of nature, the study of biomechanics aids in creating prosthetic limbs and artificial organs for ... Self-assembly of these structures may lead to new breakthroughs in artificial tissue generation. Micron-scale mechanical ...
more infohttp://www.wesleyanuniversity.org/Wesleyan-University-biomedical-engineering.php

Franklin Pierce University biomedical engineeringFranklin Pierce University biomedical engineering

Stem cell research offers new hope in the areas of cancer treatment as well as life extension. The regulation of genetic ... By copying the efficiency of nature, the study of biomechanics aids in creating prosthetic limbs and artificial organs for ... Self-assembly of these structures may lead to new breakthroughs in artificial tissue generation. Micron-scale mechanical ...
more infohttp://www.franklinpierce.org/Franklin-Pierce-University-biomedical-engineering.php

Kansas Wesleyan University biomedical engineeringKansas Wesleyan University biomedical engineering

Stem cell research offers new hope in the areas of cancer treatment as well as life extension. The regulation of genetic ... By copying the efficiency of nature, the study of biomechanics aids in creating prosthetic limbs and artificial organs for ... Self-assembly of these structures may lead to new breakthroughs in artificial tissue generation. Micron-scale mechanical ...
more infohttp://www.kansaswesleyan.com/Kansas-Wesleyan-University-biomedical-engineering.php

Morrisville State College biomedical engineeringMorrisville State College biomedical engineering

... cells are composed of carbon-rich polymers and can be tailored to enhance a specific function of the solar cell, such as ... By copying the efficiency of nature, the study of biomechanics aids in creating prosthetic limbs and artificial organs for ... Solar Cell Technology Program. The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) leads public research in innovative ... Stem cell research offers new hope in the areas of cancer treatment as well as life extension. The regulation of genetic ...
more infohttp://www.morrisvillestate.org/Morrisville-State-College-biomedical-engineering.php

Biomedical Engineering | 2017-2018 Catalog | Drexel UniversityBiomedical Engineering | 2017-2018 Catalog | Drexel University

Cell type-specific genetic engineering, whole-cell patch clamp in behaving animals, modeling, and detailed behavioral analysis ... artificial organs research; prediction and quantification of blood trauma and thrombosis in medical devices; design of ... Cell-biomaterial interactions, biomaterial design, and international engineering education.. Marek Swoboda, PhD (Drexel ... Tissue engineering, cell engineering, orthopedics, bone remodeling, wound healing, mechanotransduction, signal transduction, ...
more infohttp://catalog.drexel.edu/undergraduate/schoolofbioengscienceandhealthsystems/biomedicalengineering/

Biomedical Engineering | 2017-2018 Catalog | Drexel UniversityBiomedical Engineering | 2017-2018 Catalog | Drexel University

Cell type-specific genetic engineering, whole-cell patch clamp in behaving animals, modeling, and detailed behavioral analysis ... artificial organs research; prediction and quantification of blood trauma and thrombosis in medical devices; design of ... Cell-biomaterial interactions, biomaterial design, and international engineering education.. Marek Swoboda, PhD (Drexel ... Tissue engineering, cell engineering, orthopedics, bone remodeling, wound healing, mechanotransduction, signal transduction, ...
more infohttp://catalog.drexel.edu/graduate/schoolofbiomedicalengineeringscienceandhealthsystems/biomedicalengineering/

What is biomedical engineering?What is biomedical engineering?

... finding cures to Alzheimers and stem cell research. It also involves making drugs for lifelong diseases and chronic illnesses ... developing chemical medical products and designing equipments like artificial limbs. They even take care of different ...
more infohttp://justengineeringschools.com/what-is-biomedical-engineering/

Alma College biomedical engineeringAlma College biomedical engineering

How does a Fuel Cell work ?. 134,447 views. The following video lecture will give you an introduction to fuel cell technology. ... By copying the efficiency of nature, the study of biomechanics aids in creating prosthetic limbs and artificial organs for ... Stem cell research offers new hope in the areas of cancer treatment as well as life extension. The regulation of genetic ... Self-assembly of these structures may lead to new breakthroughs in artificial tissue generation. Micron-scale mechanical ...
more infohttp://www.almacollege.org/Alma-College-biomedical-engineering.php

DNA cytoskeleton for stabilizing artificial cells | PNASDNA cytoskeleton for stabilizing artificial cells | PNAS

Micropipette Aspiration of Artificial Cells.. To investigate how the DNA gel, underneath the artificial cell membrane, affects ... Liposomes have been used as artificial cell models to understand cell shape, membrane protein function, and lipid−protein ... DNA cytoskeleton for stabilizing artificial cells. Chikako Kurokawa, Kei Fujiwara, Masamune Morita, Ibuki Kawamata, Yui ... DNA cytoskeleton for stabilizing artificial cells. Chikako Kurokawa, Kei Fujiwara, Masamune Morita, Ibuki Kawamata, Yui ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/114/28/7228

Artificial Organs: Artificial CellsArtificial Organs: Artificial Cells

Artificial Organs. Artificial Cells One interesting form of prosthesis is the prosthetic cell. At first, this may seem like a ... Who cares about one measly little cell? The idea, however, is not to give someone one cell, but a whole bunch of cells which ... The cells used can be either human or other animal cells. These cells are genetically altered to produce whatever it is that is ... One might suggest that a way to solve this type of problem would be to take "normal" cells from someone else and transplant ...
more infohttp://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/cpace/prosthesis/stein/cells.html

Envelope for an Artificial CellEnvelope for an Artificial Cell

... only its genome was artificial. The rest was a hijacked bacterial cell. Fully artificial life will require the union of both an ... Envelope for an Artificial Cell. Neal Devaraj watches as undergraduate student Weilong Li works on a next step in their quest ... "One of our long term, very ambitious goals is to try to make an artificial cell, a synthetic living unit from the bottom up - ... Molecules that make up cell membranes have heads that mix easily with water and tails that repel it. In water, they form a ...
more infohttp://ucsdnews.ucsd.edu/pressrelease/envelope_for_an_artificial_cell/

Envelope for an Artificial CellEnvelope for an Artificial Cell

Further reports about: , Artificial pump , Envelope , cell death , cell membrane , living organism , oil droplets ... Envelope for an Artificial Cell. 26.01.2012. Chemists have taken an important step in making artificial life forms from scratch ... only its genome was artificial. The rest was a hijacked bacterial cell. Fully artificial life will require the union of both an ... "One of our long term, very ambitious goals is to try to make an artificial cell, a synthetic living unit from the bottom up - ...
more infohttps://www.innovations-report.com/html/reports/life-sciences/envelope-artificial-cell-189289.html

Master Assignments | Microgels as Artificial Cells | Developmental BioEngineering (DBE)Master Assignments | Microgels as Artificial Cells | Developmental BioEngineering (DBE)

The artificial cells will be combined with natural cells in 3D co-cultures. Specifically, the effect of artificial cells that ... Combine artificial cells with natural cells in 3D co-cultures. *Steer differentiation of stem cells using growth factor binding ... Custom modifications of these artificial cells would enables the controlled study of specific interactions within 3D cell ... For example, microgels will be functionalized with cell-adhesive moieties, cell-cell adhesion mimicking peptides, and growth ...
more infohttps://www.utwente.nl/en/tnw/dbe/education/Assignments/master/Microgels%20as%20Artificial%20Cells/
  • Minimizing Context Dependency of Gene Networks Using Artificial Cells, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces (2018). (phys.org)
  • May 31, 2019 - Cell division recreated outside of a cell for the first time New AtlasCell division is one of the most fundamental biological functions, but there's still so much about it that we don't understand. (innovationtoronto.com)
  • May 29, 2019 - For the first time, scientists recreate cell division-outside a cell UChicago NewsDiscovery accelerates understanding of the physics of living matter. (innovationtoronto.com)
  • June 21, 2019 - Artificial intelligence learns to recognize nerve cells by their appearance Tech XploreIs it possible to understand the brain? (innovationtoronto.com)
  • The computer-controlled microfluidic circuits we have constructed will allow us to assemble synthetic cells not only from biologically derived lipids, but from any amphiphile and to measure important chemical and physical parameters, such as permeability and stability," said Paegel. (healthcanal.com)
  • By employing parallel arrays of these tips, different mixtures of lipids can be written in parallel, allowing for patterns of variable chemical composition with a size smaller than that of an individual cell. (kit.edu)
  • In October 2017, China's State Council laid out a plan to develop a domestic artificial intelligence (AI) industry worth $150 billion by 2030, with the aim of becoming a global leader in AI technolo. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Carnegie Mellon University's Philip LeDuc, an assistant professor of mechanical and biomedical engineering, posits the efficacy of using man-made cells to treat diseases without injecting drugs. (nanotech-now.com)
  • In a natural cell, so much is going on inside that it is extremely complex," said Sheereen Majd, assistant professor of biomedical engineering. (nanowerk.com)
  • ACT was founded to achieve this artificial cell vision by commercializing biomedical applications of our proprietary polypeptide nanostructure technology platform, starting with one of the simplest of human cells, the red blood cell. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Cells made from water in oil: Using microfluidics technology, a Franco-German research team first generates tiny droplets (top) into which the components of a simple metabolism are then injected (bottom). (mpg.de)
  • Here, their artificial cells consisted of nothing other than microscopically small water droplets, which were formed in oil. (mpg.de)
  • The authors showed that the artificial cells moved in a directed way, but only when they contained all of the enzymes and the fuel was available in the media. (eurekalert.org)
  • According to Rozhkova, the proton gradient represents only one example of an electrochemical signaling pathway that could be created using these artificial cells. (nanowerk.com)
  • In this way, minute structures can be produced, smaller than cells and even down to the nanoscale (1 nanometer corresponds to 10-9 meters). (kit.edu)
  • The student will learn several state-of-the art techniques, including droplet microfluidics, enzymatic hydrogel crosslinking, (3D) stem cell culture, immunohistochemistry, and confocal fluorescence imaging and apply this skill set in a top-level institute to perform pioneering work on artificial cells. (utwente.nl)
  • Other methods require complex devices such as microfluidics to create uniformly sized artificial cells. (nanowerk.com)
  • Immunotherapy aims to utilize the body's own defense mechanism-the immune system-to recognize mutated cancer cells and to kill them the way the immune system would recognize and kill a virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activated and stimulated T cells can be studied in this biomimetic contex and used for adoptive transfer as an immunotherapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a study from Argonne National Laboratory, scientists created cell-like hollow capsule structures through the spontaneous self-assembly of hybrid gold-silver nanorods held together by weak interactions. (nanowerk.com)
  • For those creating materials with new properties, such as greater strength or self-healing, the artificial cells ability to sense a possibly damaging event and respond shows an option for changing material structures in response to stress. (innovationtoronto.com)
  • These structures could be used to perform functions like initiating chemical reactions or moving chemicals around networks of artificial and biological cells. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • In addition to research on living cells and organisms, she will also try to remodel the structures of a cell with the help of a modular approach. (uni-protokolle.de)
  • They are also the largest and most complex structures that cells synthesize. (healthcanal.com)
  • We hypothesize that artificial cells made from small hydrogel beads (i.e., microgels) could play a significant role in gaining deeper understanding of cellular interactions. (utwente.nl)
  • With the hydrogel stamping method, it is easy to control the size of artificial cells and to generate a large number of these cells efficiently. (nanowerk.com)
  • Our vision is to combine modules of natural and artificial biomolecules step by step, to eventually attain a minimal version of the cell, the biophysicist explains. (uni-protokolle.de)
  • Using a similar pressure-regulating mechanism to that found in cells, scientists created an artificial cell that responds to a sudden and possibly catastrophic change in its surroundings. (innovationtoronto.com)
  • In subsequent work, the research scientists have also demonstrated that ion channels can be incorporated into these vesicles, allowing charged particles (ions) to be transported through the bilayer of hydrophobins in a manner identical to the way ions pass through the lipid bilayers of natural cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • Because the bacteriorhodopsin is arranged on the capsules surface in an oriented manner, the protons that are pumped out by the bacteriorhodopsin eventually form an electrochemical gradient, where regions of high proton concentration develop outside of the cell. (nanowerk.com)
  • Within the cell is a high concentration of potassium ferrocyanide with strong osmotic force. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human cell is like a bustling metropolis, and we aim to tap the energy and diversity of the processes in a human cell to help the body essentially heal itself. (nanotech-now.com)
  • In the future, I would like to use similar approaches in order to analyze and understand processes like cell division as well as the polarization and differentiation of living systems from the bottom up, illustrates Petra Schwille. (uni-protokolle.de)
  • In this way, we can illustrate biochemical processes with hitherto unrivaled precision and very little disturbance of the cells system as a whole, Petra Schwille explains. (uni-protokolle.de)
  • These lipid particles are an important step towards developing a model system for studying processes in natural cells. (mpg.de)
  • As a result, scientists have been unable to populate these artificial cells with the molecules required for cellular processes to take place. (mpg.de)
  • A Traube cell is an "artificial cell" created by Moritz Traube in order to study the processes of living cells, including growth and osmosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Traube cell is not a true artificial cell, as it is not living and does not have true biological processes of its own. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nanowerk News ) By replicating biological machinery with non-biological components, scientists have found ways to create artificial cells that accomplish a key biological function of converting light into chemical energy. (nanowerk.com)
  • We can now start to scale up basic cell technologies into larger tissue-scale networks, with precise control over the kind of architecture we create. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • A great way to bring some uniqueness to your business space, our outdoor silk Cell Tower Pine Trees will help you create a pleasing environment. (commercialsilk.com)
  • Nanoparticles are able to be transported through the porous extracellular matrix much easier and reach the lymph nodes where the T cells reside. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, iron oxide nanoparticles have been used to take advantage of the superparamagnetic properties and to cluster both Signals to enhance T cell stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Magnetic field-induced T cell receptor clustering by nanoparticles enhances T cell activation and stimulates antitumor activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • One must either get cells from someone with a very close genetic make-up (siblings) or one must take powerful drugs which suppress the immune system (a dangerous process, as all types of infections can occur more easily). (cyberartsweb.org)
  • In the genetic material of cells, however, there are many things that are redundant or even unnecessary", Ivanov explains, with reference to the problem of using top-down approaches. (mpg.de)
  • For individual cells, too - regardless of whether they are single-cell organisms or are organized within a larger organism - metabolic function is essential for the ability to live and survive. (mpg.de)
  • This highly sensitive optical method enables scientists to detect interactions between single biomolecules directly in living cells or organisms such as the nematode C.elegans or the zebrafish. (uni-protokolle.de)
  • In this project, the student will design and investigate various artificial cells. (utwente.nl)
  • This technology will likely make feasible to investigate the response of Schwann cells to patterned electrical impulses in the future. (nih.gov)
  • We demonstrated that artificial cells can sense, react and interact with bacteria, as well as function as systems that both detect and kill bacteria with little dependence on their environment," Tan said. (phys.org)
  • The vesicles can, for example, then be made to interact with natural cells. (mpg.de)
  • The scientists then asked whether the artificial cells actually communicate and interact with one another like real cells. (nanotech-now.com)
  • With the aid of a trick, the Max Planck scientists and their colleagues created lipid vesicles that could in future form the basis for artificial cells. (mpg.de)
  • The team created an artificial cell that has smaller cells ('vesicles') inside. (gate2biotech.com)
  • Artificial beta cell, made of a lipid bubble (purple) carrying smaller, insulin-filled vesicles (green). (nih.gov)
  • They packed it full of small vesicles containing the same type of lab-made insulin currently used to treat diabetes, mimicking the insulin-storage granules found inside mature beta cells. (nih.gov)
  • For example, microgels will be functionalized with cell-adhesive moieties, cell-cell adhesion mimicking peptides, and growth factor binding compounds. (utwente.nl)
  • Cell-based aAPCs have been produced by transfecting murine fibroblasts to express specific peptide-loaded HLA molecules with co-stimulatory signal B7.1, and cell adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and LFA-3. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells are then protected from the immune system in a very clever "capsule" system made of a polymer material. (cyberartsweb.org)
  • aAPCs are synthetic versions of these sentinel cells and are made by attaching the specific T-cell stimulating signals to various macro and micro biocompatible surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, the effect of artificial cells that bind specific growth factors on stem cell differentiation will be studied. (utwente.nl)
  • In this exclusive interview, Fintan Walton talks to Peter Mountford, formerly CEO of Stem Cell Sciences, about the current state of stem cell technologies and their potential healthcare and research a. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Design and optimize microgels with cell-like properties to advance 3D cell culture studies. (utwente.nl)
  • The hypothesis is that the synthetic biologic biomimics some of the properties of cells, such as surfa. (bioportfolio.com)
  • According to Ivan Ivanov, engineer and researcher at the Max Planck Institute for Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems, he and his colleagues initially anyway only wanted to design a minimal system that has the basic properties of the cell. (mpg.de)
  • O ne interesting form of prosthesis is the prosthetic cell. (cyberartsweb.org)
  • In water, they form a double layer with heads out and tails in, a barrier that sequesters the contents of the cell. (ucsd.edu)
  • But the bottom line is that the AC electric field produces agitation that creates the tiny bubbles that merge to form the cells. (nanowerk.com)
  • The cells that form are between 20 and 50 microns, within the range of natural cells. (nanowerk.com)