Disorders of the quality of speech characterized by the substitution, omission, distortion, and addition of phonemes.
Tests of accuracy in pronouncing speech sounds, e.g., Iowa Pressure Articulation Test, Deep Test of Articulation, Templin-Darley Tests of Articulation, Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation, Screening Speech Articulation Test, Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale.
Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.
The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Failure of the SOFT PALATE to reach the posterior pharyngeal wall to close the opening between the oral and nasal cavities. Incomplete velopharyngeal closure is primarily related to surgeries (ADENOIDECTOMY; CLEFT PALATE) or an incompetent PALATOPHARYNGEAL SPHINCTER. It is characterized by hypernasal speech.
The acoustic aspects of speech in terms of frequency, intensity, and time.
Measurement of parameters of the speech product such as vocal tone, loudness, pitch, voice quality, articulation, resonance, phonation, phonetic structure and prosody.
Disorders of speech articulation caused by imperfect coordination of pharynx, larynx, tongue, or face muscles. This may result from CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; CEREBELLAR DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; BRAIN STEM diseases; or diseases of the corticobulbar tracts (see PYRAMIDAL TRACTS). The cortical language centers are intact in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p489)
Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.
Common name for one of five species of small PARROTS, containing long tails.
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.
The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).
Ability to make speech sounds that are recognizable.
A disturbance in the normal fluency and time patterning of speech that is inappropriate for the individual's age. This disturbance is characterized by frequent repetitions or prolongations of sounds or syllables. Various other types of speech dysfluencies may also be involved including interjections, broken words, audible or silent blocking, circumlocutions, words produced with an excess of physical tension, and monosyllabic whole word repetitions. Stuttering may occur as a developmental condition in childhood or as an acquired disorder which may be associated with BRAIN INFARCTIONS and other BRAIN DISEASES. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.
Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.
A vinyl polymer made from ethylene. It can be branched or linear. Branched or low-density polyethylene is tough and pliable but not to the same degree as linear polyethylene. Linear or high-density polyethylene has a greater hardness and tensile strength. Polyethylene is used in a variety of products, including implants and prostheses.
Appliances that close a cleft or fissure of the palate.
The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.
That component of SPEECH which gives the primary distinction to a given speaker's VOICE when pitch and loudness are excluded. It involves both phonatory and resonatory characteristics. Some of the descriptions of voice quality are harshness, breathiness and nasality.
Treatment for individuals with speech defects and disorders that involves counseling and use of various exercises and aids to help the development of new speech habits.
Replacement for a hip joint.
The process of producing vocal sounds by means of VOCAL CORDS vibrating in an expiratory blast of air.
The process by which an observer comprehends speech by watching the movements of the speaker's lips without hearing the speaker's voice.
Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.
Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.
The point of articulation between the OCCIPITAL BONE and the CERVICAL ATLAS.
The sounds produced by humans by the passage of air through the LARYNX and over the VOCAL CORDS, and then modified by the resonance organs, the NASOPHARYNX, and the MOUTH.
Equipment that provides mentally or physically disabled persons with a means of communication. The aids include display boards, typewriters, cathode ray tubes, computers, and speech synthesizers. The output of such aids includes written words, artificial speech, language signs, Morse code, and pictures.
A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.
The application of LUBRICANTS to diminish FRICTION between two surfaces.
Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)
Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.
Acquired responses regularly manifested by tongue movement or positioning.
The period from about 5 to 7 years to adolescence when there is an apparent cessation of psychosexual development.
A moon-shaped carpal bone which is located between the SCAPHOID BONE and TRIQUETRUM BONE.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)

Cerebral mechanisms involved in word reading in dyslexic children: a magnetic source imaging approach. (1/101)

The purpose of the present investigation was to describe spatiotemporal brain activation profiles during word reading using magnetic source imaging (MSI). Ten right-handed dyslexic children with severe phonological decoding problems and eight age-matched non-impaired readers were tested in two recognition tasks, one involving spoken and the other printed words. Dyslexic children's activation profiles during the printed word recognition task consistently featured activation of the left basal temporal cortices followed by activation of the right temporoparietal areas (including the angular gyrus). Non-impaired readers showed predominant activation of left basal followed by left temporoparietal activation. In addition, we were able to rule out the hypothesis that hypoactivation of left temporoparietal areas in dyslexics was due to a more general cerebral dysfunction in these areas. Rather, it seems likely that reading difficulties in developmental dyslexia are associated with an aberrant pattern of functional connectivity between brain areas normally involved in reading, namely ventral visual association cortex and temporoparietal areas in the left hemisphere. The interindividual consistency of activation profiles characteristic of children with dyslexia underlines the potential utility of this technique for examining neurophysiological changes in response to specific educational intervention approaches.  (+info)

The neurological basis of developmental dyslexia: an overview and working hypothesis. (2/101)

Five to ten per cent of school-age children fail to learn to read in spite of normal intelligence, adequate environment and educational opportunities. Thus defined, developmental dyslexia (hereafter referred to as dyslexia) is usually considered of constitutional origin, but its actual mechanisms are still mysterious and currently remain the subject of intense research endeavour in various neuroscientific areas and along several theoretical frameworks. This article reviews evidence accumulated to date that favours a dysfunction of neural systems known to participate in the normal acquisition and achievement of reading and other related cognitive functions. Historically, the first arguments for a neurological basis of dyslexia came from neuropathological studies of brains from dyslexic individuals. These early studies, although open to criticism, for the first time drew attention towards a possible abnormality in specific stages of prenatal maturation of the cerebral cortex and suggested a role of atypical development of brain asymmetries. This has prompted a large amount of subsequent work using in vivo imaging methods in the same vein. These latter studies, however, have yielded less clear-cut results than expected, but have globally confirmed some subtle differences in brain anatomy whose exact significance is still under investigation. Neuropsychological studies have provided considerable evidence that the main mechanism leading to these children's learning difficulties is phonological in nature, namely a basic defect in segmenting and manipulating the phoneme constituents of speech. A case has also been made for impairment in brain visual mechanisms of reading as a possible contributing factor. This approach has led to an important conceptual advance with the suggestion of a specific involvement of one subsystem of vision pathways (the so-called magnosystem hypothesis). Both phonological and visual hypotheses have received valuable contribution from modern functional imaging techniques. Results of recent PET and functional MRI studies are reported here in some detail. Finally, one attractive interpretation of available evidence points to dyslexia as a multi-system deficit possibly based on a fundamental incapacity of the brain in performing tasks requiring processing of brief stimuli in rapid temporal succession. It is proposed that this so-called 'temporal processing impairment' theory of dyslexia could also account for at least some of the perceptual, motor and cognitive symptoms very often associated with the learning disorder, a coincidence that has remained unexplained so far.  (+info)

Down syndrome and the phonological loop: the evidence for, and importance of, a specific verbal short-term memory deficit. (3/101)

Individuals with Down syndrome are thought to perform poorly on tests of verbal short-term memory, such as measures of word span or digit span. This review critically examines the evidence for a specific deficit in verbal short-term memory in Down syndrome, and outlines a range of possible explanations for such a deficit. The potential implications of a verbal short-term memory impairment for broader aspects of development are outlined, in particular with respect to vocabulary development. Possible intervention strategies, which might improve verbal short-term memory performance in Down syndrome are also considered. However, we argue that further research is needed to fully clarify the nature of a verbal short-term memory deficit in Down syndrome, before the merits of these various intervention approaches can be properly evaluated.  (+info)

Functional MRI of phonological and semantic processing in temporal lobe epilepsy. (4/101)

Phonological and semantic aspects of language were examined in patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and healthy controls using functional MRI. We expected to replicate previous findings in healthy individuals showing relatively greater activation in frontal regions for phonological compared with semantic processing, and greater activation in temporal regions for semantic compared with phonological processing. We hypothesized that differences between patients with left TLE and healthy controls would be found in the pattern of left temporal cortical activation associated specifically with semantic processing. Patients with right TLE were included as a seizure control group. All TLE patients previously showed left hemisphere language dominance on intracarotid sodium amytal studies. Greater blood oxygen level dependent activation was found during phonological processing compared with semantic processing in frontal regions for healthy participants but, contrary to expectation, semantic processing did not lead to increased temporal lobe activity relative to phonological processing. Furthermore, no differences between left temporal patients and controls were found specifically in left temporal cortex. Rather, patients with left temporal seizure foci showed significantly greater left dorsolateral prefrontal activity compared with controls, as well as increased signal change in left inferior frontal and right middle temporal gyrus. Surprisingly, patients with right, but not left, TLE showed poorer performance on the linguistic tasks compared with controls, as well as a decrease in right superior temporal activation. The results converge with studies of dyslexic patients showing increased left frontal activity in the presence of left temporal dysfunction and are suggestive of both inter- and intra-hemispheric functional reorganization of language representation in left TLE.  (+info)

Dysarthria as the isolated clinical symptom of borreliosis--a case report. (5/101)

This report presents a case of dysarthria due to hypoglossal nerve mono-neuropathy as the only consequence of neuroborreliosis. The 65-year-old man with a seven-months history of articulation disturbances was examined. The speech of the patient was slow and laboured. A slight weakness of the muscles of the tongue (left-side) was observed. The patient suffered from meningitis due to Borrelia burgdorferi infection in 1999 and initially underwent a successful antibiotic treatment. Detailed radiological investigation and psychological tests were performed and co-existing neurological diseases were excluded. To describe profile of speech abnormalities the dysarthria scale was designed based on S. J. Robertson Dysarthria Profile. There were a few disturbances found in self-assessment of speech, intelligibility, articulation, and prosody but especially in the morphology of the articulation muscles, diadochokinesis, the reflexes (in the mouth, larynx and pharynx). Needle EMG examination confirmed the diagnosis of mono-neuropathy of left hypoglossal nerve. The study confirms the fact that neuroborreliosis may evoke chronic consequences.  (+info)

Refractory dyslexia: evidence of multiple task-specific phonological output stores. (6/101)

We investigated the case of a patient whose reading was characterized by multiple phonemic paraphasic errors. An error analysis of a large corpus of reading responses (758 words, 86 non-words) highlighted the preponderance of phonological errors which did not occur in his naming, repetition or spontaneous speech. His comprehension of the written word was relatively preserved, even for words he was unable to read aloud. We suggest that his impairment lies at the level of the phonological output store. We also demonstrate that his reading performance was facilitated by increasing the response-stimulus delay. The strong influence of temporal factors is shown to be task-specific. Two main points are drawn from our results. First, we argue that our patient can be characterized as having a refractory access type of deficit; to our knowledge, no previous case of a refractory deficit affecting word reading has been reported. Secondly, the task specificity of both the phonological error pattern and the sensitivity to temporal factors is difficult to reconcile with the idea of a unitary phonological output store. Contrary to orthodox neuropsychological models, we propose that there are independent stores specific for reading and spoken output.  (+info)

Neuropsychological and phonological evaluation in the Apert's syndrome: study of two cases. (7/101)

This study evaluated two cases of Apert's syndrome, through phonological, cognitive, and neuropsychological instruments and correlated the results to complementary exams. In short, this study reveals the necessity of application of neuropsychological, cognitive and phonological evaluation and correlation of the results with complementary testings because significant differences can be present in the Apert's syndrome.  (+info)

Amplitude envelope onsets and developmental dyslexia: A new hypothesis. (8/101)

A core difficulty in developmental dyslexia is the accurate specification and neural representation of speech. We argue that a likely perceptual cause of this difficulty is a deficit in the perceptual experience of rhythmic timing. Speech rhythm is one of the earliest cues used by infants to discriminate syllables and is determined principally by the acoustic structure of amplitude modulation at relatively low rates in the signal. We show significant differences between dyslexic and normally reading children, and between young early readers and normal developers, in amplitude envelope onset detection. We further show that individual differences in sensitivity to the shape of amplitude modulation account for 25% of the variance in reading and spelling acquisition even after controlling for individual differences in age, nonverbal IQ, and vocabulary. A possible causal explanation dependent on perceptual-center detection and the onset-rime representation of syllables is discussed.  (+info)

Articulation disorders are speech sound disorders that involve difficulties producing sounds correctly and forming clear, understandable speech. These disorders can affect the way sounds are produced, the order in which they're pronounced, or both. Articulation disorders can be developmental, occurring as a child learns to speak, or acquired, resulting from injury, illness, or disease.

People with articulation disorders may have trouble pronouncing specific sounds (e.g., lisping), omitting sounds, substituting one sound for another, or distorting sounds. These issues can make it difficult for others to understand their speech and can lead to frustration, social difficulties, and communication challenges in daily life.

Speech-language pathologists typically diagnose and treat articulation disorders using various techniques, including auditory discrimination exercises, phonetic placement activities, and oral-motor exercises to improve muscle strength and control. Early intervention is essential for optimal treatment outcomes and to minimize the potential impact on a child's academic, social, and emotional development.

Speech articulation tests are diagnostic assessments used to determine the presence, nature, and severity of speech sound disorders in individuals. These tests typically involve the assessment of an individual's ability to produce specific speech sounds in words, sentences, and conversational speech. The tests may include measures of sound production, phonological processes, oral-motor function, and speech intelligibility.

The results of a speech articulation test can help identify areas of weakness or error in an individual's speech sound system and inform the development of appropriate intervention strategies to improve speech clarity and accuracy. Speech articulation tests are commonly used by speech-language pathologists to evaluate children and adults with speech sound disorders, including those related to developmental delays, hearing impairment, structural anomalies, neurological conditions, or other factors that may affect speech production.

Speech is the vocalized form of communication using sounds and words to express thoughts, ideas, and feelings. It involves the articulation of sounds through the movement of muscles in the mouth, tongue, and throat, which are controlled by nerves. Speech also requires respiratory support, phonation (vocal cord vibration), and prosody (rhythm, stress, and intonation).

Speech is a complex process that develops over time in children, typically beginning with cooing and babbling sounds in infancy and progressing to the use of words and sentences by around 18-24 months. Speech disorders can affect any aspect of this process, including articulation, fluency, voice, and language.

In a medical context, speech is often evaluated and treated by speech-language pathologists who specialize in diagnosing and managing communication disorders.

Phonetics is not typically considered a medical term, but rather a branch of linguistics that deals with the sounds of human speech. It involves the study of how these sounds are produced, transmitted, and received, as well as how they are used to convey meaning in different languages. However, there can be some overlap between phonetics and certain areas of medical research, such as speech-language pathology or audiology, which may study the production, perception, and disorders of speech sounds for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.

Velopharyngeal Insufficiency (VPI) is a medical condition that affects the proper functioning of the velopharyngeal valve, which is responsible for closing off the nasal cavity from the mouth during speech. This valve is made up of the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth), the pharynx (the back of the throat), and the muscles that control their movement.

In VPI, the velopharyngeal valve does not close completely or properly during speech, causing air to escape through the nose and resulting in hypernasality, nasal emission, and/or articulation errors. This can lead to difficulties with speech clarity and understanding, as well as social and emotional challenges.

VPI can be present from birth (congenital) or acquired later in life due to factors such as cleft palate, neurological disorders, trauma, or surgery. Treatment for VPI may include speech therapy, surgical intervention, or a combination of both.

Speech acoustics is a subfield of acoustic phonetics that deals with the physical properties of speech sounds, such as frequency, amplitude, and duration. It involves the study of how these properties are produced by the vocal tract and perceived by the human ear. Speech acousticians use various techniques to analyze and measure the acoustic signals produced during speech, including spectral analysis, formant tracking, and pitch extraction. This information is used in a variety of applications, such as speech recognition, speaker identification, and hearing aid design.

Speech production measurement is the quantitative analysis and assessment of various parameters and characteristics of spoken language, such as speech rate, intensity, duration, pitch, and articulation. These measurements can be used to diagnose and monitor speech disorders, evaluate the effectiveness of treatment, and conduct research in fields such as linguistics, psychology, and communication disorders. Speech production measurement tools may include specialized software, hardware, and techniques for recording, analyzing, and visualizing speech data.

Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder that results from damage to the nervous system, particularly the brainstem or cerebellum. It affects the muscles used for speaking, causing slurred, slow, or difficult speech. The specific symptoms can vary depending on the underlying cause and the extent of nerve damage. Treatment typically involves speech therapy to improve communication abilities.

Speech disorders refer to a group of conditions in which a person has difficulty producing or articulating sounds, words, or sentences in a way that is understandable to others. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as developmental delays, neurological conditions, hearing loss, structural abnormalities, or emotional issues.

Speech disorders may include difficulties with:

* Articulation: the ability to produce sounds correctly and clearly.
* Phonology: the sound system of language, including the rules that govern how sounds are combined and used in words.
* Fluency: the smoothness and flow of speech, including issues such as stuttering or cluttering.
* Voice: the quality, pitch, and volume of the spoken voice.
* Resonance: the way sound is produced and carried through the vocal tract, which can affect the clarity and quality of speech.

Speech disorders can impact a person's ability to communicate effectively, leading to difficulties in social situations, academic performance, and even employment opportunities. Speech-language pathologists are trained to evaluate and treat speech disorders using various evidence-based techniques and interventions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "parakeets" is not a medical term. It is a common name used to refer to certain types of small to medium-sized parrots, particularly those with long tail feathers. The term is not associated with medical terminology or healthcare. If you have any questions related to animals or pets, I would be happy to try to help with those!

Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a mental health condition that causes extreme mood swings that include emotional highs (mania or hypomania) and lows (depression). When you become depressed, you may feel sad or hopeless and lose interest or pleasure in most activities. When your mood shifts to mania or hypomania (a less severe form of mania), you may feel euphoric, full of energy, or unusually irritable. These mood swings can significantly affect your job, school, relationships, and overall quality of life.

Bipolar disorder is typically characterized by the presence of one or more manic or hypomanic episodes, often accompanied by depressive episodes. The episodes may be separated by periods of normal mood, but in some cases, a person may experience rapid cycling between mania and depression.

There are several types of bipolar disorder, including:

* Bipolar I Disorder: This type is characterized by the occurrence of at least one manic episode, which may be preceded or followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes.
* Bipolar II Disorder: This type involves the presence of at least one major depressive episode and at least one hypomanic episode, but no manic episodes.
* Cyclothymic Disorder: This type is characterized by numerous periods of hypomania and depression that are not severe enough to meet the criteria for a full manic or depressive episode.
* Other Specified and Unspecified Bipolar and Related Disorders: These categories include bipolar disorders that do not fit the criteria for any of the other types.

The exact cause of bipolar disorder is unknown, but it appears to be related to a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurochemical factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy, and lifestyle changes to help manage symptoms and prevent relapses.

Sound spectrography, also known as voice spectrography, is a diagnostic procedure in which a person's speech sounds are analyzed and displayed as a visual pattern called a spectrogram. This test is used to evaluate voice disorders, speech disorders, and hearing problems. It can help identify patterns of sound production and reveal any abnormalities in the vocal tract or hearing mechanism.

During the test, a person is asked to produce specific sounds or sentences, which are then recorded and analyzed by a computer program. The program breaks down the sound waves into their individual frequencies and amplitudes, and displays them as a series of horizontal lines on a graph. The resulting spectrogram shows how the frequencies and amplitudes change over time, providing valuable information about the person's speech patterns and any underlying problems.

Sound spectrography is a useful tool for diagnosing and treating voice and speech disorders, as well as for researching the acoustic properties of human speech. It can also be used to evaluate hearing aids and other assistive listening devices, and to assess the effectiveness of various treatments for hearing loss and other auditory disorders.

Speech perception is the process by which the brain interprets and understands spoken language. It involves recognizing and discriminating speech sounds (phonemes), organizing them into words, and attaching meaning to those words in order to comprehend spoken language. This process requires the integration of auditory information with prior knowledge and context. Factors such as hearing ability, cognitive function, and language experience can all impact speech perception.

Speech intelligibility is a term used in audiology and speech-language pathology to describe the ability of a listener to correctly understand spoken language. It is a measure of how well speech can be understood by others, and is often assessed through standardized tests that involve the presentation of recorded or live speech at varying levels of loudness and/or background noise.

Speech intelligibility can be affected by various factors, including hearing loss, cognitive impairment, developmental disorders, neurological conditions, and structural abnormalities of the speech production mechanism. Factors related to the speaker, such as speaking rate, clarity, and articulation, as well as factors related to the listener, such as attention, motivation, and familiarity with the speaker or accent, can also influence speech intelligibility.

Poor speech intelligibility can have significant impacts on communication, socialization, education, and employment opportunities, making it an important area of assessment and intervention in clinical practice.

Stuttering is a speech disorder characterized by the repetition or prolongation of sounds, syllables, or words, as well as involuntary silent pauses or blocks during fluent speech. These disruptions in the normal flow of speech can lead to varying degrees of difficulty in communicating effectively and efficiently. It's important to note that stuttering is not a result of emotional or psychological issues but rather a neurological disorder involving speech motor control systems. The exact cause of stuttering remains unclear, although research suggests it may involve genetic, neurophysiological, and environmental factors. Treatment typically includes various forms of speech therapy to improve fluency and communication strategies to manage the challenges associated with stuttering.

A mental disorder is a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior. It's associated with distress and/or impaired functioning in social, occupational, or other important areas of life, often leading to a decrease in quality of life. These disorders are typically persistent and can be severe and disabling. They may be related to factors such as genetics, early childhood experiences, or trauma. Examples include depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and personality disorders. It's important to note that a diagnosis should be made by a qualified mental health professional.

Anxiety disorders are a category of mental health disorders characterized by feelings of excessive and persistent worry, fear, or anxiety that interfere with daily activities. They include several different types of disorders, such as:

1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): This is characterized by chronic and exaggerated worry and tension, even when there is little or nothing to provoke it.
2. Panic Disorder: This is characterized by recurring unexpected panic attacks and fear of experiencing more panic attacks.
3. Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD): Also known as social phobia, this is characterized by excessive fear, anxiety, or avoidance of social situations due to feelings of embarrassment, self-consciousness, and concern about being judged or viewed negatively by others.
4. Phobias: These are intense, irrational fears of certain objects, places, or situations. When a person with a phobia encounters the object or situation they fear, they may experience panic attacks or other severe anxiety responses.
5. Agoraphobia: This is a fear of being in places where it may be difficult to escape or get help if one has a panic attack or other embarrassing or incapacitating symptoms.
6. Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD): This is characterized by excessive anxiety about separation from home or from people to whom the individual has a strong emotional attachment (such as a parent, sibling, or partner).
7. Selective Mutism: This is a disorder where a child becomes mute in certain situations, such as at school, but can speak normally at home or with close family members.

These disorders are treatable with a combination of medication and psychotherapy (cognitive-behavioral therapy, exposure therapy). It's important to seek professional help if you suspect that you or someone you know may have an anxiety disorder.

Mood disorders are a category of mental health disorders characterized by significant and persistent changes in mood, affect, and emotional state. These disorders can cause disturbances in normal functioning and significantly impair an individual's ability to carry out their daily activities. The two primary types of mood disorders are depressive disorders (such as major depressive disorder or persistent depressive disorder) and bipolar disorders (which include bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, and cyclothymic disorder).

Depressive disorders involve prolonged periods of low mood, sadness, hopelessness, and a lack of interest in activities. Individuals with these disorders may also experience changes in sleep patterns, appetite, energy levels, concentration, and self-esteem. In severe cases, they might have thoughts of death or suicide.

Bipolar disorders involve alternating episodes of mania (or hypomania) and depression. During a manic episode, individuals may feel extremely elated, energetic, or irritable, with racing thoughts, rapid speech, and impulsive behavior. They might engage in risky activities, have decreased sleep needs, and display poor judgment. In contrast, depressive episodes involve the same symptoms as depressive disorders.

Mood disorders can be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Proper diagnosis and treatment, which may include psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both, are essential for managing these conditions and improving quality of life.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyethylene" is not a medical term. It is a type of synthetic plastic that is commonly used in various industrial and consumer products. Medical definitions typically refer to substances or conditions related to human health, treatment, or disease processes. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help!

A palatal obturator is a type of dental prosthesis that is used to close or block a hole or opening in the roof of the mouth, also known as the hard palate. This condition can occur due to various reasons such as cleft palate, cancer, trauma, or surgery. The obturator is designed to fit securely in the patient's mouth and restore normal speech, swallowing, and chewing functions.

The palatal obturator typically consists of a custom-made plate made of acrylic resin or other materials that are compatible with the oral tissues. The plate has an extension that fills the opening in the palate and creates a barrier between the oral and nasal cavities. This helps to prevent food and liquids from entering the nasal cavity during eating and speaking, which can cause discomfort, irritation, and infection.

Palatal obturators may be temporary or permanent, depending on the patient's needs and condition. They are usually fabricated based on an impression of the patient's mouth and fitted by a dental professional to ensure proper function and comfort. Proper care and maintenance of the obturator, including regular cleaning and adjustments, are essential to maintain its effectiveness and prevent complications.

Child language refers to the development of linguistic abilities in children, including both receptive and expressive communication. This includes the acquisition of various components of language such as phonology (sound system), morphology (word structure), syntax (sentence structure), semantics (meaning), and pragmatics (social use of language).

Child language development typically follows a predictable sequence, beginning with cooing and babbling in infancy, followed by the use of single words and simple phrases in early childhood. Over time, children acquire more complex linguistic structures and expand their vocabulary to communicate more effectively. However, individual differences in the rate and pace of language development are common.

Clinical professionals such as speech-language pathologists may assess and diagnose children with language disorders or delays in order to provide appropriate interventions and support for typical language development.

Voice quality, in the context of medicine and particularly in otolaryngology (ear, nose, and throat medicine), refers to the characteristic sound of an individual's voice that can be influenced by various factors. These factors include the vocal fold vibration, respiratory support, articulation, and any underlying medical conditions.

A change in voice quality might indicate a problem with the vocal folds or surrounding structures, neurological issues affecting the nerves that control vocal fold movement, or other medical conditions. Examples of terms used to describe voice quality include breathy, hoarse, rough, strained, or tense. A detailed analysis of voice quality is often part of a speech-language pathologist's assessment and can help in diagnosing and managing various voice disorders.

Speech Therapy, also known as Speech-Language Pathology, is a medical field that focuses on the assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of communication and swallowing disorders in children and adults. These disorders may include speech sound production difficulties (articulation disorders or phonological processes disorders), language disorders (expressive and/or receptive language impairments), voice disorders, fluency disorders (stuttering), cognitive-communication disorders, and swallowing difficulties (dysphagia).

Speech therapists, who are also called speech-language pathologists (SLPs), work with clients to improve their communication abilities through various therapeutic techniques and exercises. They may also provide counseling and education to families and caregivers to help them support the client's communication development and management of the disorder.

Speech therapy services can be provided in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, schools, private practices, and long-term care facilities. The specific goals and methods used in speech therapy will depend on the individual needs and abilities of each client.

A hip prosthesis, also known as a total hip replacement, is a surgical implant designed to replace the damaged or diseased components of the human hip joint. The procedure involves replacing the femoral head (the ball at the top of the thigh bone) and the acetabulum (the socket in the pelvis) with artificial parts, typically made from materials such as metal, ceramic, or plastic.

The goal of a hip prosthesis is to relieve pain, improve joint mobility, and restore function, allowing patients to return to their normal activities and enjoy an improved quality of life. The procedure is most commonly performed in individuals with advanced osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or other degenerative conditions that have caused significant damage to the hip joint.

There are several different types of hip prostheses available, each with its own unique design and set of benefits and risks. The choice of prosthesis will depend on a variety of factors, including the patient's age, activity level, overall health, and specific medical needs. In general, however, all hip prostheses are designed to provide a durable, long-lasting solution for patients suffering from debilitating joint pain and stiffness.

Phonation is the process of sound production in speech, singing, or crying. It involves the vibration of the vocal folds (also known as the vocal cords) in the larynx, which is located in the neck. When air from the lungs passes through the vibrating vocal folds, it causes them to vibrate and produce sound waves. These sound waves are then shaped into speech sounds by the articulatory structures of the mouth, nose, and throat.

Phonation is a critical component of human communication and is used in various forms of verbal expression, such as speaking, singing, and shouting. It requires precise control of the muscles that regulate the tension, mass, and length of the vocal folds, as well as the air pressure and flow from the lungs. Dysfunction in phonation can result in voice disorders, such as hoarseness, breathiness, or loss of voice.

Lipreading, also known as speechreading, is not a medical term per se, but it is a communication strategy often used by individuals with hearing loss. It involves paying close attention to the movements of the lips, facial expressions, and body language of the person who is speaking to help understand spoken words.

While lipreading can be helpful, it should be noted that it is not an entirely accurate way to comprehend speech, as many sounds look similar on the lips, and factors such as lighting and the speaker's articulation can affect its effectiveness. Therefore, lipreading is often used in conjunction with other communication strategies, such as hearing aids, cochlear implants, or American Sign Language (ASL).

Language disorders, also known as communication disorders, refer to a group of conditions that affect an individual's ability to understand or produce spoken, written, or other symbolic language. These disorders can be receptive (difficulty understanding language), expressive (difficulty producing language), or mixed (a combination of both).

Language disorders can manifest as difficulties with grammar, vocabulary, sentence structure, and coherence in communication. They can also affect social communication skills such as taking turns in conversation, understanding nonverbal cues, and interpreting tone of voice.

Language disorders can be developmental, meaning they are present from birth or early childhood, or acquired, meaning they develop later in life due to injury, illness, or trauma. Examples of acquired language disorders include aphasia, which can result from stroke or brain injury, and dysarthria, which can result from neurological conditions affecting speech muscles.

Language disorders can have significant impacts on an individual's academic, social, and vocational functioning, making it important to diagnose and treat them as early as possible. Treatment typically involves speech-language therapy to help individuals develop and improve their language skills.

Prosthesis failure is a term used to describe a situation where a prosthetic device, such as an artificial joint or limb, has stopped functioning or failed to meet its intended purpose. This can be due to various reasons, including mechanical failure, infection, loosening of the device, or a reaction to the materials used in the prosthesis.

Mechanical failure can occur due to wear and tear, manufacturing defects, or improper use of the prosthetic device. Infection can also lead to prosthesis failure, particularly in cases where the prosthesis is implanted inside the body. The immune system may react to the presence of the foreign material, leading to inflammation and infection.

Loosening of the prosthesis can also cause it to fail over time, as the device becomes less stable and eventually stops working properly. Additionally, some people may have a reaction to the materials used in the prosthesis, leading to tissue damage or other complications that can result in prosthesis failure.

In general, prosthesis failure can lead to decreased mobility, pain, and the need for additional surgeries or treatments to correct the problem. It is important for individuals with prosthetic devices to follow their healthcare provider's instructions carefully to minimize the risk of prosthesis failure and ensure that the device continues to function properly over time.

The Atlanto-Occipital Joint, also known as the AO joint or the craniocervical joint, is the articulation between the occiput (the base of the skull) and the atlas (the first cervical vertebra). This joint allows for movements such as nodding your head "yes" and tilting your head from side to side. It is a crucial joint in maintaining the alignment and stability of the head and neck.

In medical terms, the term "voice" refers to the sound produced by vibration of the vocal cords caused by air passing out from the lungs during speech, singing, or breathing. It is a complex process that involves coordination between respiratory, phonatory, and articulatory systems. Any damage or disorder in these systems can affect the quality, pitch, loudness, and flexibility of the voice.

The medical field dealing with voice disorders is called Phoniatrics or Voice Medicine. Voice disorders can present as hoarseness, breathiness, roughness, strain, weakness, or a complete loss of voice, which can significantly impact communication, social interaction, and quality of life.

Communication aids for disabled are devices or tools that help individuals with disabilities to communicate effectively. These aids can be low-tech, such as communication boards with pictures and words, or high-tech, such as computer-based systems with synthesized speech output. The goal of these aids is to enhance the individual's ability to express their needs, wants, thoughts, and feelings, thereby improving their quality of life and promoting greater independence.

Some examples of communication aids for disabled include:

1. Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) devices - These are electronic devices that produce speech or text output based on user selection. They can be operated through touch screens, eye-tracking technology, or switches.
2. Speech-generating devices - Similar to AAC devices, these tools generate spoken language for individuals who have difficulty speaking.
3. Adaptive keyboards and mice - These are specialized input devices that allow users with motor impairments to type and navigate computer interfaces more easily.
4. Communication software - Computer programs designed to facilitate communication for individuals with disabilities, such as text-to-speech software or visual scene displays.
5. Picture communication symbols - Graphic representations of objects, actions, or concepts that can be used to create communication boards or books.
6. Eye-tracking technology - Devices that track eye movements to enable users to control a computer or communicate through selection of on-screen options.

These aids are often customized to meet the unique needs and abilities of each individual, allowing them to participate more fully in social interactions, education, and employment opportunities.

In medical terms, the tongue is a muscular organ in the oral cavity that plays a crucial role in various functions such as taste, swallowing, and speech. It's covered with a mucous membrane and contains papillae, which are tiny projections that contain taste buds to help us perceive different tastes - sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. The tongue also assists in the initial process of digestion by moving food around in the mouth for chewing and mixing with saliva. Additionally, it helps in forming words and speaking clearly by shaping the sounds produced in the mouth.

In medical terms, lubrication refers to the application of a slippery substance or fluid to reduce friction and facilitate smooth movement between two surfaces. This is particularly relevant in the context of human anatomy, where lubrication plays a crucial role in various bodily functions. For instance, the mucous membranes that line body cavities such as the mouth, vagina, and rectum secrete fluids to provide lubrication for easy movement of tissues and foreign substances (like food or during sexual intercourse). Similarly, synovial fluid, a viscous substance found in joints, provides lubrication that enables smooth articulation between bones. Artificial lubricants may also be used in medical procedures to facilitate the insertion and movement of medical devices such as catheters or endoscopes.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a publication of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) that provides diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. It is widely used by mental health professionals in the United States and around the world to diagnose and classify mental health conditions.

The DSM includes detailed descriptions of symptoms, clinical examples, and specific criteria for each disorder, which are intended to facilitate accurate diagnosis and improve communication among mental health professionals. The manual is regularly updated to reflect current research and clinical practice, with the most recent edition being the DSM-5, published in 2013.

It's important to note that while the DSM is a valuable tool for mental health professionals, it is not without controversy. Some critics argue that the manual medicalizes normal human experiences and that its categories may be too broad or overlapping. Nonetheless, it remains an essential resource for clinicians, researchers, and policymakers in the field of mental health.

In the context of medical and clinical psychology, particularly in the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA), "verbal behavior" is a term used to describe the various functions or purposes of spoken language. It was first introduced by the psychologist B.F. Skinner in his 1957 book "Verbal Behavior."

Skinner proposed that verbal behavior could be classified into several categories based on its function, including:

1. Mand: A verbal operant in which a person requests or demands something from another person. For example, saying "I would like a glass of water" is a mand.
2. Tact: A verbal operant in which a person describes or labels something in their environment. For example, saying "That's a red apple" is a tact.
3. Echoic: A verbal operant in which a person repeats or imitates what they have heard. For example, saying "Hello" after someone says hello to you is an echoic.
4. Intraverbal: A verbal operant in which a person responds to another person's verbal behavior with their own verbal behavior, without simply repeating or imitating what they have heard. For example, answering a question like "What's the capital of France?" is an intraverbal.
5. Textual: A verbal operant in which a person reads or writes text. For example, reading a book or writing a letter are textual.

Understanding the function of verbal behavior can be helpful in assessing and treating communication disorders, such as those seen in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). By identifying the specific functions of a child's verbal behavior, therapists can develop targeted interventions to help them communicate more effectively.

Tongue habits refer to the specific and repetitive ways in which an individual's tongue moves or rests inside their mouth. These habits can include things like tongue thrusting, where the tongue presses against the front teeth during speech or swallowing; tongue sucking, where the tongue is placed against the roof of the mouth; or improper tongue positioning during rest, where the tongue may be positioned too far forward in the mouth or rest against the bottom teeth.

Tongue habits can have an impact on dental and oral health, as well as speech development and clarity. For example, persistent tongue thrusting can lead to an open bite, where the front teeth do not come together when the mouth is closed. Improper tongue positioning during rest can also contribute to the development of a deep overbite or an anterior open bite.

In some cases, tongue habits may be related to underlying conditions such as muscle weakness or sensory integration disorders. Speech-language pathologists and orthodontists may work together to assess and address tongue habits in order to improve oral function and overall health.

Carpal bones are the eight small bones that make up the wrist joint in humans and other primates. These bones are arranged in two rows, with four bones in each row. The proximal row includes the scaphoid, lunate, triquetral, and pisiform bones, while the distal row includes the trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate bones.

The carpal bones play an essential role in the function of the wrist joint by providing stability, support, and mobility. They allow for a wide range of movements, including flexion, extension, radial deviation, ulnar deviation, and circumduction. The complex structure of the carpal bones also helps to absorb shock and distribute forces evenly across the wrist during activities such as gripping or lifting objects.

Injuries to the carpal bones, such as fractures or dislocations, can be painful and may require medical treatment to ensure proper healing and prevent long-term complications. Additionally, degenerative conditions such as arthritis can affect the carpal bones, leading to pain, stiffness, and decreased mobility in the wrist joint.

The lunate bone is a carpal bone located in the wrist, more specifically in the proximal row of carpals. It is shaped like a crescent moon, hence the name "lunate" which is derived from the Latin word "luna" meaning moon. The lunate bone articulates with the radius bone in the forearm and forms part of the wrist joint. It also articulates with the triquetral bone proximally, and the scaphoid and capitate bones distally. The blood supply to the lunate bone is mainly derived from the dorsal carpal branch of the radial artery, making it susceptible to avascular necrosis (Kienböck's disease) in case of trauma or reduced blood flow.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Articulation, often associated with speech production, is how people physically produce speech sounds. For people who speak ... E (2011). Speech Disorders : Causes, Treatments, and Social Effects. New York: Nova Science Publishers. ISBN 9781608762132. ... e) a phonetic stage where instructions are prepared to be sent to the muscles of articulation. Also, models must allow for ... The third stage of speech production is articulation, which is the execution of the articulatory score by the lungs, glottis, ...
Most articulation disorders are of an unknown cause. Though many can be attributed to other disorders such as autism or hearing ... Articulation, or speech sound disorders occur when a person has difficulty producing a sound correctly. Sounds may be left off ... "Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes". Asha.org. Retrieved 2012-08-26. "What sounds should my child ... Speech Buddies are a series of speech therapy tools to remediate articulation and speech sound disorders using the teaching ...
Locke, J. L. (1968). Questionable assumptions underlying articulation research. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 33, ... Journal of Communication Disorders, 12, pages 125-131. Locke, J. L. (1990). Structure and stimulation in the ontogeny of spoken ... Locke, J. L. (1994). Gradual emergence of developmental language disorders. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 37, pages ... Locke, J. L., & Goldstein, J. (1973). Children's attention and articulation. Language and Speech, 16, pages 156-168. Locke, J. ...
The word is also used as a tool in treating children with articulation and phonological disorders. Dennis M. Ruscello writes in ... ISBN 978-0-86656-119-8. Dennis M. Ruscello (2008). Treating Articulation and Phonological Disorders in Children. Elsevier ... the book Treating Articulation and Phonological Disorders in Children (2008): The clinician should encourage vocalizations that ...
Imaging of Common Disorders, and Injury Classification". Radiographics. 43 (1): e220109. doi:10.1148/rg.220109. PMID 36399415. ... The distal radioulnar articulation is formed by the head of ulna, and the ulnar notch of the distal radius. The joint features ... The distal radioulnar articulation (also known as the distal radioulnar joint, or inferior radioulnar joint) is a synovial ... The articulation is reinforced by the palmar radioulnar ligament, and dorsal radioulnar ligament. The function of the ...
Bleile, Ken (2004). Manual of articulation and phonological disorders : infancy through adulthood. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson/ ...
Love, Tracy; Brumm, Kathleen (2012-12-31), "Language processing disorders", Cognition and Acquired Language Disorders, pp. 202- ... Intonation and articulation will also be maintained. Speech often contains some paraphasic errors: phonemes and syllables will ... An acquired language disorder, it is characterised by intact auditory comprehension, coherent (yet paraphasic) speech ... As aphasia's and other language disorders are frequently due to stroke, their symptoms can change and evolve over time, or ...
2003). Manual of articulation and phonological disorders: infancy through adulthood. Cengage Learning ISBN 978-0-7693-0256-0 ... Such speech has limited success in making sounds in some places of articulation, and especially sounds in some manners of ... articulation, and voicing phonetic distinctions. There are also difficulties in creating consonant clusters and polysyllabic ... Larynx disorders, Human voice, Phonation, Vocal skills). ...
... and are subdivided into articulation disorders (also called phonetic disorders) and phonemic disorders. Articulation disorders ... British Stammering Association FOXP2 SCN3A KE family Language disorder Manner of articulation Motor speech disorders Revoicer ... Speech disorders refer to problems in producing the sounds of speech or with the quality of voice, where language disorders are ... Speech disorders or speech impairments are a type of communication disorder in which normal speech is disrupted. This can mean ...
He is a Distinguished Professor at the Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders at the University of Iowa and has ... Denver CO: Denver Center for the Performing Arts (1985). Titze, I.R. & Scherer, R.C. (Eds.). Phonation Place of articulation ... "Ingo Titze , Department of Communication Sciences & Disorders , College of Liberal Arts & Sciences , The University of Iowa". ... to study voice health and voice disorders. His research on the voice is prolific, with over 160 research articles listed at the ...
Traumatic brain injury can result in severe motor speech disorders; dysarthria is the most common such disorder, accounting for ... Manual signs have been shown to decrease errors in articulation. Aided AAC systems typically include communication boards and ... and Swallowing Disorders. Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-0-7693-0017-7. Tjaden, K. (2008). "Speech and swallowing disorders in ... Augmentative and Alternative Communication Disorders for Adults with Acquired Neurologic Disorders. Baltimore: P. H. Brookes ...
ADHD Aphasia Articulation disorder Child development Language disorder Learning disability Yaruss, J.Scott; Newman, Robyn M; ... The following disorders can be diagnosed following the years in which speech pattern disruptions could be the result of ... Children with a family history of stuttering are more likely to develop the disorder than those without. ex.: "Mommy, I am, I ... Stuttering is the most common dysfluency disorder and is generally prevalent in childhood. It is an interruption in the flow of ...
Communication disorders may impact articulation, fluency (stuttering) and other specified and unspecified communication ... developmental disorders, or neurological disorders. A specific physical disability or communication disorder can be more easily ... Absence of speech in children may involve communication disorders or language delays. Communication disorders or developmental ... "Autism Spectrum Disorder: Communication Problems in Children". NIDCD. 2015-08-18. Retrieved 2020-04-19. McLaughlin, M. R. (May ...
14 children exhibited articulation disorder, 10 exhibited language delays, and five children exhibited speech delays. The ...
Lisping (e.g., saying "thun" for sun) Imprecise articulation of speech sounds Open-mouth posture Open bite Abnormal eruption of ... Orofacial Myofunctional Disorders (OMD) (sometimes called "oral myofunctional disorder", and "tongue thrust") are muscle ... The incidence is as high as 81% in children exhibiting speech/articulation problems (Kellum, 1992). OMD refers to the abnormal ... Tongue thrusting is a type of orofacial myofunctional disorder, which is defined as habitual resting or thrusting the tongue ...
... articulation disorders (also called phonetic disorders) and phonemic disorders (also called phonological disorders). However, ... Articulation disorders (also called phonetic disorders, or simply "artic disorders" for short) are based on difficulty learning ... If the disorder has anything to do with any of these articulators, then it is an articulation disorder. There are usually fewer ... Articulation disorders should not be confused with motor speech disorders, such as dysarthria (in which there is actual ...
Congenital disorders Demyelinating disorders Infectious/Inflammatory Degenerative disorders Metabolic Neoplastic Traumatic ... Or, there may be air release through the nose that is audible, as in an attempt to say "s". Articulation: Damage to the cranial ... Neurological disorders, Communication disorders, Symptoms and signs: Speech and voice). ... Flaccid dysarthria is a motor speech disorder resulting from damage to peripheral nervous system (cranial or spinal nerves) or ...
... a disorder involving difficulty of articulation despite having intact language skills and muscular function. The disorder is ... Articulation also becomes more difficult when a word or phrase requires an articulation adjustment, in which the lips and ... Other disorders and injuries of the brain that can lead to AOS include (traumatic) dementia, progressive neurological disorders ... For a long time, this disorder was not distinguished from other motor speech disorders such as dysarthria and in particular ...
... articulation (the production of sounds) or phonological processes (sound patterns). An articulation disorder may take the form ... Voice disorders range from aphonia (loss of phonation) to dysphonia, which may be phonatory and/or resonance disorders. ... Auditory processing disorder Broca's area Communication disorder Dyslexia FOXP2 Language delay Origin of speech Speech and ... Another source has estimated that communication disorders-a larger category, which also includes hearing disorders-affect one ...
Sum, Ngai-Ling (2001-07-01). "An Integral Approach to the Asian 'Crisis': The (Dis)Articulation of the Production and Financial ... Dis-)Orders". Capital & Class. 25 (2): 141-166. doi:10.1177/030981680107400107. ISSN 0309-8168. Ngai-Ling Sum's homepage at ...
An example of a disease, where troubles with speech negatively affect writing skill is speech articulation disorder. Its ... Graphomania Hypergraphia Lists of language disorders Logorrhea Schizophasia Schizophrenia Thought disorder Word salad Colman, ... It is a disorder resulting in produced speech beings incoherent to listeners; is inability to communicate through speech is the ... Aphasia is a disorder diminishing the ability to understanding and formulating language, which includes a difficulty in ...
One popular method of correcting articulation or lisp disorders is to isolate sounds and work on correcting the sound in ... A student with an articulation or lisp disorder has a deficiency in one or more of these areas. To correct the deficiency, ... Gay male speech Speech sound disorder Bowen, Caroline. "Lisping - when /s/ and /z/ are hard to say". Archived from the original ... The symbols for these lateralised sounds in the extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for disordered speech are [ʪ ...
... these articulations are indistinguishable in sound and so are rarely identified in non-disordered speech. Sounds restricted to ... Parentheses are used to indicate mouthing (silent articulation), as in the common silent sign to hush (ʃːː). Parentheses are ... Many sounds found only in disordered speech are indicated with diacritics, though an increasing number of dedicated letters are ... Chart of extended IPA symbols for disordered speech (PDF, revised to 2015) Pronunciation videos of consonants in the main ...
Angela Fawcett and Rod Nicolson later proposed that the cerebellum contributes to motor control during the articulation of ... Dyslexia is a reading disorder wherein an individual experiences trouble with reading. Individuals with dyslexia have normal ... However, some experts believe that the distinction of dyslexia as a separate reading disorder and therefore recognized ... Another cerebellar proposal indicated that articulation problems can contribute to the phonological deficits that can cause ...
Other expressive language disorders may impair not only voice and articulation, but also the mental formation of language, ... Aphasia Auditory processing disorder Broca's area Communication disorder Dyslexia Expressive aphasia List of language disorders ... Language disorders, Communication disorders, Neurological disorders, Speech and language pathology). ... A primary language disorder is one that cannot be attributed to an underlying disorder and is solely responsible for the ...
Speech-sound disorders (SSD) involve impairments in speech-sound production and range from mild articulation issues involving a ... autism spectrum disorders). Language disorder - the important characteristics of a language disorder are difficulties in ... autism spectrum disorders - autistic disorder, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDDNOS), and Asperger ... Phonological disorder - a speech sound disorder characterized by problems in making patterns of sound errors (e.g., "dat" for " ...
... irregular breakdown of articulation, monopitch, distorted vowels, word flow without pauses, and hypernasality. Articulation ... Dysarthria is a speech sound disorder resulting from neurological injury of the motor component of the motor-speech system and ... Just as the term "articulation" can mean either "speech" or "joint movement", so is the combining form of arthr- the same in ... It is a common diagnosis among the clinical spectrum of ataxic disorders. Since regulation of skilled movements is a primary ...
Articulation and Phonological Disorders: Speech Sound Disorders in Children. (6th edition). Boston, MA: Pearson.[page needed] ... The first is comparing the number of correct responses on a standardized articulation test with the normative data for a given ... sound should be accurately produced helps parents and professionals determine when child may have an articulation disorder. ... Speech-like vocalizations consist of a. quasi-vowels, b. primitive articulation, c. expansion stage and d. canonical babbling. ...
This disorder was to become known as the Rothmund-Thomson Syndrome; named in conjunction with British physician Matthew Sydney ... Articulation of the lower jaw) Kaiser, München 1853. (Inaugural-Abhandlung) Beiträge zur künstlichen Pupillenbildung. ( ...
... and there may or may not be abnormalities in articulation. Careful diagnosis is also important because "atypical language ... Expressive language disorder is one of the "specific developmental disorders of speech and language" recognised by the tenth ... Auditory processing disorder Speech-Language Pathology Mixed receptive-expressive language disorder "Expressive language ... "F80.1 Expressive language disorder". ICD-10 Version:2010. "Expressive language disorder - developmental". MedlinePlus Medical ...
... articulation delay, phonological processing disorder, childhood apraxia of speech) - understanding… ... I am most passionate about myofunctional therapy, motor speech disorders, early language development, fluency disorders in ... I am a licensed SLP with over 30 years of experience in speech and language disorders and specialty training in the area of ... Since 1990 I have had the pleasure of helping school aged children with speech sound disorders and language challenges. A ...
... articulation, fluency or voice disorders; delayed language; cleft palate; tongue thrust problems; stuttering; or aphasia. ... Programs that provide comprehensive diagnostic and treatment services for individuals who have language disorders or speech ... impairments including people who have neurological disorders; ...
These include language development, acquired language disorders, stuttering, and voice and articulation disorders. Disorders ... SLHS Scholars must enroll in SLHS 4600 Advanced Audiology (2 cr) or SLHS 4900 Speech Sound Disorders Assessment & Treatment (2 ... Students will observe adults and children with various speech, language and auditory disorders at SLUs Reinert Speech-Language ... Speech-language pathologists help prevent, identify, assess and provide treatment for communication and swallowing disorders to ...
Speech and language disorder - dysarthria care; Slurred speech - dysarthria; Articulation disorder - dysarthria ... In a person with dysarthria, a nerve, brain, or muscle disorder makes it difficult to use or control the muscles of the mouth, ... www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/dysarthria. Accessed August 8, 2022.. Kirshner HS. Dysarthria and apraxia of speech. In: ...
Articulation, often associated with speech production, is how people physically produce speech sounds. For people who speak ... E (2011). Speech Disorders : Causes, Treatments, and Social Effects. New York: Nova Science Publishers. ISBN 9781608762132. ... e) a phonetic stage where instructions are prepared to be sent to the muscles of articulation. Also, models must allow for ... The third stage of speech production is articulation, which is the execution of the articulatory score by the lungs, glottis, ...
... a disorder of articulation in which the syllables are inappropriately separated and equally stressed. It is caused by ... scanning speech (skan-ing) n. a disorder of articulation in which the syllables are inappropriately separated and equally ... Speech Disorders , Definition Description Children go through many stages of speech production while they are learning to ... and swallowing disorders. Th… Dysarthria , Definition Dysarthria is a group of speech impairments due to weakness, ...
Recognizing and addressing communication disorders is important; failure to do so may result in isolation, depression, and loss ... Disorders impairing a patients communication abilities may involve voice, speech, language, hearing, and/or cognition. ... AOS is a disorder of articulation that encompasses the intonation, rhythm, and stress of speech (prosody). Patients with AOS ... Language Disorders (Aphasia). Aphasia is a language disorder that results from damage to the areas of the brain responsible for ...
Manual handling of carts at workplaces are found to be associated with shoulder musculoskeletal disorders. It is currently ... Articulation; Quantitative-analysis; Biological-effects; Biomechanical-modeling; Task-performance; Force; Weight-factors; ... Musculoskeletal-system; Musculoskeletal-system-disorders; Manual-materials-handling; Materials-handling; Biomechanics; Body- ...
With expressive and/or receptive aphasia (language disorders) or verbal apraxia (a motor planning disorder) ... With dysarthria (speech articulation or fluency difficulty). *With dysphonia (any voice dysfunction such as inappropriate pitch ...
... and even swallowing disorders. Guajardo is also the Assistive Technology Specialist for the Veterans Memorial feeder pattern, ... being the expert in articulation the next, and being the expert in an AAC (augmentative and alternative communications). I ...
We have experience treating pediatric articulation disorders, language delays, expressive/receptive language disorders, ... speech-language difficulties secondary to autism or developmental disorders, and more!. KellerSpeech therapists are also ... childhood apraxia of speech, fluency disorders (stuttering), reading comprehension difficulties, ...
Includes instruction in the anatomy and physiology of speech and hearing, biomechanics of swallowing and vocal articulation, ... and behavioral domain disorders, both mental and emotional, within the context of marriage and family systems and the ... Includes instruction in the anatomy and physiology of speech and hearing, biomechanics of swallowing and vocal articulation, ... communications disorders, psychology of auditory function and cognitive communication, language assessment and diagnostic ...
They may affect both primary and permanent dentition, jaw articulation and the emotional development of a child (1). Dental ... If untreated, these may persist throughout life leading to physical growth disorder (1). ... anomalies not only cause aesthetic problems but also can lead to dental problems such as functional disorders, dental caries, ...
Muscles, Face, Growth and Development, Articulation Disorders, Musculoskeletal System Congreso "Calixto García 2010" Convención ...
... articulation disorder, language impairment, Autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disorder as well as those who have been ...
For Childrens Occupational Therapy and Speech Articulation Therapy in CT contact Baron. ... Baron Therapy Services offers Speech Articulation Therapy and language therapy in Northford CT. ... If you suspect that your child may have a speech or language disorder, trust your instincts! Schedule an evaluation with one of ... Expert Speech Articulation Therapy Services. Baron Therapy specializes in Speech Articulation Therapy and language therapy. Our ...
Articulation. Expressive and Receptive Language Impairments. Language and learning based disorders. Fluency Apraxia. Oral Motor ...
Autism Spectrum Disorders​. Receptive and Expressive Language Disorders. Articulation and Phonological Disorders ... She is a Speech-Language Pathologist who has extensive experience in assessment and treatment of speech and language disorders ... Qualifications include a Bachelor of Science Degree in Communication Sciences and Disorders from the Florida State University, ... and a Master of Arts Degree in Communication Sciences and Disorders from the University of Central Florida. ...
Speech/Language and Articulation Disorders. Why choose Dr. Malis?. *Dr. Malis was the first ENT in Brevard, Indian River, and ...
Career path - articulation and specialization. After achieving this AGH20417 NVQ Level II in Horticulture - Turf Management ... and disorders; and the planting and renovating of grassed areas. ...
Speech Articulation Disorders (Apraxia/Dysarthria/Phonological). *Aphasia (Understand or Express Language). *Social ...
Mildronate is used in neurology for the treatment of brain circulation disorders. It significantly improves patients mood. ... Mentat improves articulation and corrects speech defects.. INSTRUCTIONS. Take 1 or 2 tablets twice daily, preferably with meals ... Mentat also ameliorates attention fluctuations and behavioral disorders. Mentat exhibits significant anti-parkinsonian activity ...
The distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) is the articulation of the distal radius and ulnar head. [3] When the DRUJ is considered, it ... Each of these disorders may be associated with clicking. Acute tears result in tenderness over the radial attachment (Palmer ... Distal ulnar recession for disorders of the distal radioulnar joint. J Hand Surg Am. 1985 Jul. 10 (4):482-91. [QxMD MEDLINE ... Radionuclide imaging can be an excellent screening tool for the assessment of skeletal and joint disorders that are not evident ...
️ Read about types of kids speech and language disorders here. 👆 ... Speech Sound Disorder. Speech sound disorders may be of two varieties: articulation (the production of sounds) or phonological ... An articulation disorder may take the form of substitution, omission, addition, or distortion of normal speech sounds. ... Speech Disorders 46 Speech Delay 12 Speech Impediments 15 Speech Sound Disorders 19 ...
In the hospital, we also diagnose and treat speech disorders. We improve communication functions, language proficiency, ... stimulate speech development, and correct articulation abnormalities. We provide support for the functioning of small and large ... Children with orthopedic, surgical, neurological, neurosurgical, and rheumatological disorders are hospitalized in the form of ... Children with orthopedic, surgical, neurological, neurosurgical, rheumatological, and respiratory system disorders are admitted ...
Articulation therapy will focus on treating articulation disorders in a way that is evidence based. ... In fact, for articulation more frequent but shorter sessions are more successful than longer but less frequent ones in ... Per Stuttering Foundation, "Stuttering is a communication disorder in which the flow of speech is broken by repetitions (li-li- ... This is especially important for articulation therapy. Ms. Akselrod will let you know more about this during the free ...
You will use the resources in this book on a daily basis to assess articulation/phonology, phonological awareness, language, ... This book will help you pinpoint specific problems that may be indicative of a language disorder. ... Guidelines are included for conducting assessments, distinguishing differences from disorders, and determining whether or not ... This section includes assessment tasks, record forms, and guidelines for assessing individuals with voice disorders. ...
Speech therapy massage (against articulation, speech disorder and for strengthening the speech apparatus) - Lix anti-autism ...
Speech disorders can affect any aspect of this process, including articulation, fluency, voice, and language. ... Language disorders, also known as communication disorders, refer to a group of conditions that affect an individuals ability ... A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This ... It involves the articulation of sounds through the movement of muscles in the mouth, tongue, and throat, which are controlled ...
  • [ 3 ] A second form of motor speech disorder, apraxia, occurs in the presence of significant weakness or incoordination of the muscles of speech production. (medscape.com)
  • We have experience treating pediatric articulation disorders, language delays, expressive/receptive language disorders, childhood apraxia of speech, fluency disorders (stuttering), reading comprehension difficulties, speech-language difficulties secondary to autism or developmental disorders, and more! (care.com)
  • Our speech therapists treat a variety of speech difficulties including articulation difficulties, unclear speech, phonology, apraxia and motor speech disorders. (speechtherapistvancouver.ca)
  • Another type of communication problem, dysarthria, encompasses a group of motor speech disorders caused by a disturbance in the neuromuscular control of speech. (medscape.com)
  • Now labeled primary progressive aphasia-related illness, the disorder also marked the life and art of Anne Adams. (cdc.gov)
  • Arizona Articulation and Phonology Scale 4th Revision (Arizona-4). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Speech involves the coordinated motor activity of muscles involved in respiration, phonation, resonance, and articulation. (medscape.com)
  • Speech Articulation Therapy may be the key to unlock your child's communication. (barontherapy.com)
  • Left untreated, Speech-Language delays and disorders can affect your child's ability to interact with others and his/her quality of life. (speechtherapistvancouver.ca)
  • There are a lot of hats to wear in our scope of practice, being the expert in stuttering one day, being the expert in articulation the next, and being the expert in an AAC (augmentative and alternative communications). (judsonisd.org)
  • Our Speech Articulation Therapy services are proven to help children with all kinds of developmental difficulties. (barontherapy.com)
  • Stuttering gets no respect as a disorder,' says stuttering expert Dennis Drayna, Ph.D. 'People think of it as a mild condition. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It's why Dr. Drayna feels that calling stuttering a speech disorder is an incomplete description. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We can find a mutation in one of these genes in about 20% of people who stutter," he says, which is a large amount for a disorder with a complex inheritance pattern such as stuttering. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Audiologists also evaluate hearing, prescribe and dispense hearing aids, program cochlear implants, assess balance, and provide intervention for auditory processing disorders to improve auditory skills, outcomes and quality of life for clients and their families. (slu.edu)
  • If you choose to major in speech, language and hearing sciences at Saint Louis University, you will observe adults and children with various speech, language and auditory disorders during your undergraduate years. (slu.edu)
  • Students will observe adults and children with various speech, language and auditory disorders at SLU's Reinert Speech-Language and Hearing Clinic . (slu.edu)
  • Auditory phoneme discrimination, articulation, and language disorders in patients with genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus: A case-control study. (cdc.gov)
  • A genetic window to auditory-verbal problems in bipolar disorder. (cdc.gov)
  • Extensive experience has been obtained working with the pediatric population w ith varying exceptionalities and communication disorders. (pediatricpotentialstherapy.com)
  • Therapists work with patients who have swallowing disorders that affect the mouth, throat and upper esophagus. (ochsner.org)
  • Among the providers typically provided by speech therapists embrace fluently communicating patients, articulation therapy and throat and respiration workout routines. (backf.com)
  • The complaint was linked to the articulation of speech and difficulty opening the mouth to articulate. (bvsalud.org)
  • Loss of language (difficulty with grammar, syntax, articulation, speech) and motor function (declining muscle control), main symptoms of Adams' (and Ravel's) illness, have long been known to neurologists as the result of lesions on the left frontal lobe. (cdc.gov)
  • Disorders related to literacy also have become an area of focus for speech-language pathologists. (slu.edu)
  • Dysphonia is classified as either an organic or a functional disorder of the larynx. (medscape.com)
  • Temporomandibular Dysfunction (TMD) is a set of disorders in- volving the masticatory muscles in the TMJ and associated structures. (bvsalud.org)
  • I am a licensed SLP with over 30 years of experience in speech and language disorders and specialty training in the area of orofacial myofunctional disorders. (asapp.ca)
  • Speech therapy focuses on assessing, diagnosing and treating patients with communication problems that typically result from disability, surgery or developmental disorders. (ochsner.org)
  • Speech therapy is centered around evaluating, diagnosing, and addressing communication challenges arising from conditions such as disability, surgery, or developmental disorders. (ochsner.org)
  • Manual handling of carts at workplaces are found to be associated with shoulder musculoskeletal disorders. (cdc.gov)
  • Arthritis and related musculoskeletal disorders are frequently chronic, disabling and painful. (cdc.gov)
  • Voice disorders are caused by problems when air passes from the lungs, through the vocal cords, and then through the throat, nose, mouth, and lips. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This includes the selection of words, the organization of relevant grammatical forms, and then the articulation of the resulting sounds by the motor system using the vocal apparatus. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you suspect that your child may have a speech or language disorder, trust your instincts! (barontherapy.com)
  • Recognizing which disorders the speech-language pathologist treats begins with understanding several common types. (ochsner.org)
  • Audiologists help prevent, identify, assess and treat hearing disorders. (slu.edu)
  • Speech-language pathologists treat people who have communication or swallowing disorders. (ochsner.org)
  • We're qualified to treat the entire range of speech related disorders. (barontherapy.com)
  • The production of spoken language involves three major levels of processing: conceptualization, formulation, and articulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A communication disorder involves the inability to understand or appropriately use the speech and language common to our society. (ochsner.org)
  • Speech-language pathologists help prevent, identify, assess and provide treatment for communication and swallowing disorders to improve outcomes and quality of life of the client and their families. (slu.edu)
  • Swallowing disorders stem from the same physical issues that may impact speech. (ochsner.org)
  • It is known for its role in taste, but it also assists with mastication (chewing), deglutition (swallowing), articulation (speech), and oral cleaning. (medscape.com)
  • Nexus Therapy offers speech therapy and behaviour intervention at home or daycare for children with autism spectrum disorder. (speechtherapistvancouver.ca)
  • She is a Speech-Language Pathologist who has extensive experience in assessment and treatment of speech and language disorders in private practice, as well as in the school setting. (pediatricpotentialstherapy.com)
  • A speech disorder is a condition in which a person has problems creating or forming the speech sounds needed to communicate with others. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A voice disorder exists when the voice's quality, pitch, or volume differs from that of other persons of similar age, culture, and geographic location. (medscape.com)
  • This study aimed to compare the occurrence of phonological processes altered and the phonological disorders severity index in a sample of speech and writing among students from 1st to 5th year of public and private education. (bvsalud.org)
  • Огляд розладів навчання Learning disorders are conditions that cause a discrepancy between potential and actual levels of academic performance as predicted by the person's intellectual abilities. (msdmanuals.com)
  • All students in the program experience guided observation of adults and children with various speech, language and hearing disorders. (slu.edu)
  • Evaluation of a communication disorder includes consideration of all aspects of the normal communication process. (medscape.com)
  • Those not wishing to pursue an additional degree can practice as a speech-language pathology assistant in many states with a B.A. in communication sciences and disorders. (slu.edu)
  • Qualifications include a Bachelor of Science Degree in Communication Sciences and Disorders from the Florida State University, and a Master of Arts Degree in Communication Sciences and Disorders from the University of Central Florida. (pediatricpotentialstherapy.com)
  • Dennis Drayna, Ph.D., is a scientist emeritus with NIH's National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As a senior researcher with NIH's National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, he spent more than two decades researching this puzzling condition and identifying mutations in several genes that are linked to it. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It's not like other communication or speech disorders. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Background This article describes the development of the Myanmar Articulation, Resonation, Nasal Emission, and Nasal Turbulence test for children with cleft lip and palate (CLP), and evaluation of its validity and reliability. (bvsalud.org)
  • [ 7 ] while a cognitive-communicative disorder affects the ability to communicate by impairing the pragmatics, or social rules, of language. (medscape.com)
  • Speech disorders are different from language disorders in children . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Disorders of speech and language are common in preschool age children. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Speech production can be affected by several disorders: Until the late 1960s research on speech was focused on comprehension. (wikipedia.org)
  • The third stage of speech production is articulation, which is the execution of the articulatory score by the lungs, glottis, larynx, tongue, lips, jaw and other parts of the vocal apparatus resulting in speech. (wikipedia.org)
  • Speech therapy might help those with vocal cord disorders and different circumstances. (backf.com)