Articulation Disorders: Disorders of the quality of speech characterized by the substitution, omission, distortion, and addition of phonemes.Speech Articulation Tests: Tests of accuracy in pronouncing speech sounds, e.g., Iowa Pressure Articulation Test, Deep Test of Articulation, Templin-Darley Tests of Articulation, Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation, Screening Speech Articulation Test, Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale.Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.Phonetics: The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Velopharyngeal Insufficiency: Failure of the SOFT PALATE to reach the posterior pharyngeal wall to close the opening between the oral and nasal cavities. Incomplete velopharyngeal closure is primarily related to surgeries (ADENOIDECTOMY; CLEFT PALATE) or an incompetent PALATOPHARYNGEAL SPHINCTER. It is characterized by hypernasal speech.Speech Acoustics: The acoustic aspects of speech in terms of frequency, intensity, and time.Speech Production Measurement: Measurement of parameters of the speech product such as vocal tone, loudness, pitch, voice quality, articulation, resonance, phonation, phonetic structure and prosody.Dysarthria: Disorders of speech articulation caused by imperfect coordination of pharynx, larynx, tongue, or face muscles. This may result from CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; CEREBELLAR DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; BRAIN STEM diseases; or diseases of the corticobulbar tracts (see PYRAMIDAL TRACTS). The cortical language centers are intact in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p489)Speech Disorders: Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.Parakeets: Common name for one of five species of small PARROTS, containing long tails.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Sound Spectrography: The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.Speech Perception: The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).Speech Intelligibility: Ability to make speech sounds that are recognizable.Stuttering: A disturbance in the normal fluency and time patterning of speech that is inappropriate for the individual's age. This disturbance is characterized by frequent repetitions or prolongations of sounds or syllables. Various other types of speech dysfluencies may also be involved including interjections, broken words, audible or silent blocking, circumlocutions, words produced with an excess of physical tension, and monosyllabic whole word repetitions. Stuttering may occur as a developmental condition in childhood or as an acquired disorder which may be associated with BRAIN INFARCTIONS and other BRAIN DISEASES. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Polyethylene: A vinyl polymer made from ethylene. It can be branched or linear. Branched or low-density polyethylene is tough and pliable but not to the same degree as linear polyethylene. Linear or high-density polyethylene has a greater hardness and tensile strength. Polyethylene is used in a variety of products, including implants and prostheses.Palatal Obturators: Appliances that close a cleft or fissure of the palate.Child Language: The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.Voice Quality: That component of SPEECH which gives the primary distinction to a given speaker's VOICE when pitch and loudness are excluded. It involves both phonatory and resonatory characteristics. Some of the descriptions of voice quality are harshness, breathiness and nasality.Speech Therapy: Treatment for individuals with speech defects and disorders that involves counseling and use of various exercises and aids to help the development of new speech habits.Hip Prosthesis: Replacement for a hip joint.Phonation: The process of producing vocal sounds by means of VOCAL CORDS vibrating in an expiratory blast of air.Lipreading: The process by which an observer comprehends speech by watching the movements of the speaker's lips without hearing the speaker's voice.Language Disorders: Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.Prosthesis Failure: Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.Atlanto-Occipital Joint: The point of articulation between the OCCIPITAL BONE and the CERVICAL ATLAS.Voice: The sounds produced by humans by the passage of air through the LARYNX and over the VOCAL CORDS, and then modified by the resonance organs, the NASOPHARYNX, and the MOUTH.Communication Aids for Disabled: Equipment that provides mentally or physically disabled persons with a means of communication. The aids include display boards, typewriters, cathode ray tubes, computers, and speech synthesizers. The output of such aids includes written words, artificial speech, language signs, Morse code, and pictures.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Lubrication: The application of LUBRICANTS to diminish FRICTION between two surfaces.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Tongue Habits: Acquired responses regularly manifested by tongue movement or positioning.Carpal Bones: The eight bones of the wrist: SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; TRIQUETRUM BONE; PISIFORM BONE; TRAPEZIUM BONE; TRAPEZOID BONE; CAPITATE BONE; and HAMATE BONE.Latency Period (Psychology): The period from about 5 to 7 years to adolescence when there is an apparent cessation of psychosexual development.Lunate Bone: A moon-shaped carpal bone which is located between the SCAPHOID BONE and TRIQUETRUM BONE.Apraxias: A group of cognitive disorders characterized by the inability to perform previously learned skills that cannot be attributed to deficits of motor or sensory function. The two major subtypes of this condition are ideomotor (see APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR) and ideational apraxia, which refers to loss of the ability to mentally formulate the processes involved with performing an action. For example, dressing apraxia may result from an inability to mentally formulate the act of placing clothes on the body. Apraxias are generally associated with lesions of the dominant PARIETAL LOBE and supramarginal gyrus. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp56-7)Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Language Development Disorders: Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Unconsciousness: Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)Neurobiology: The study of the structure, growth, activities, and functions of NEURONS and the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neuropharmacology: The branch of pharmacology dealing especially with the action of drugs upon various parts of the nervous system.New York CityInsanity Defense: A legal concept that an accused is not criminally responsible if, at the time of committing the act, the person was laboring under such a defect of reason from disease of the mind as not to know the nature and quality of the act done or if the act was known, to not have known that what was done was wrong. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed)Nootropic Agents: Drugs used to specifically facilitate learning or memory, particularly to prevent the cognitive deficits associated with dementias. These drugs act by a variety of mechanisms. While no potent nootropic drugs have yet been accepted for general use, several are being actively investigated.New York

Cerebral mechanisms involved in word reading in dyslexic children: a magnetic source imaging approach. (1/101)

The purpose of the present investigation was to describe spatiotemporal brain activation profiles during word reading using magnetic source imaging (MSI). Ten right-handed dyslexic children with severe phonological decoding problems and eight age-matched non-impaired readers were tested in two recognition tasks, one involving spoken and the other printed words. Dyslexic children's activation profiles during the printed word recognition task consistently featured activation of the left basal temporal cortices followed by activation of the right temporoparietal areas (including the angular gyrus). Non-impaired readers showed predominant activation of left basal followed by left temporoparietal activation. In addition, we were able to rule out the hypothesis that hypoactivation of left temporoparietal areas in dyslexics was due to a more general cerebral dysfunction in these areas. Rather, it seems likely that reading difficulties in developmental dyslexia are associated with an aberrant pattern of functional connectivity between brain areas normally involved in reading, namely ventral visual association cortex and temporoparietal areas in the left hemisphere. The interindividual consistency of activation profiles characteristic of children with dyslexia underlines the potential utility of this technique for examining neurophysiological changes in response to specific educational intervention approaches.  (+info)

The neurological basis of developmental dyslexia: an overview and working hypothesis. (2/101)

Five to ten per cent of school-age children fail to learn to read in spite of normal intelligence, adequate environment and educational opportunities. Thus defined, developmental dyslexia (hereafter referred to as dyslexia) is usually considered of constitutional origin, but its actual mechanisms are still mysterious and currently remain the subject of intense research endeavour in various neuroscientific areas and along several theoretical frameworks. This article reviews evidence accumulated to date that favours a dysfunction of neural systems known to participate in the normal acquisition and achievement of reading and other related cognitive functions. Historically, the first arguments for a neurological basis of dyslexia came from neuropathological studies of brains from dyslexic individuals. These early studies, although open to criticism, for the first time drew attention towards a possible abnormality in specific stages of prenatal maturation of the cerebral cortex and suggested a role of atypical development of brain asymmetries. This has prompted a large amount of subsequent work using in vivo imaging methods in the same vein. These latter studies, however, have yielded less clear-cut results than expected, but have globally confirmed some subtle differences in brain anatomy whose exact significance is still under investigation. Neuropsychological studies have provided considerable evidence that the main mechanism leading to these children's learning difficulties is phonological in nature, namely a basic defect in segmenting and manipulating the phoneme constituents of speech. A case has also been made for impairment in brain visual mechanisms of reading as a possible contributing factor. This approach has led to an important conceptual advance with the suggestion of a specific involvement of one subsystem of vision pathways (the so-called magnosystem hypothesis). Both phonological and visual hypotheses have received valuable contribution from modern functional imaging techniques. Results of recent PET and functional MRI studies are reported here in some detail. Finally, one attractive interpretation of available evidence points to dyslexia as a multi-system deficit possibly based on a fundamental incapacity of the brain in performing tasks requiring processing of brief stimuli in rapid temporal succession. It is proposed that this so-called 'temporal processing impairment' theory of dyslexia could also account for at least some of the perceptual, motor and cognitive symptoms very often associated with the learning disorder, a coincidence that has remained unexplained so far.  (+info)

Down syndrome and the phonological loop: the evidence for, and importance of, a specific verbal short-term memory deficit. (3/101)

Individuals with Down syndrome are thought to perform poorly on tests of verbal short-term memory, such as measures of word span or digit span. This review critically examines the evidence for a specific deficit in verbal short-term memory in Down syndrome, and outlines a range of possible explanations for such a deficit. The potential implications of a verbal short-term memory impairment for broader aspects of development are outlined, in particular with respect to vocabulary development. Possible intervention strategies, which might improve verbal short-term memory performance in Down syndrome are also considered. However, we argue that further research is needed to fully clarify the nature of a verbal short-term memory deficit in Down syndrome, before the merits of these various intervention approaches can be properly evaluated.  (+info)

Functional MRI of phonological and semantic processing in temporal lobe epilepsy. (4/101)

Phonological and semantic aspects of language were examined in patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and healthy controls using functional MRI. We expected to replicate previous findings in healthy individuals showing relatively greater activation in frontal regions for phonological compared with semantic processing, and greater activation in temporal regions for semantic compared with phonological processing. We hypothesized that differences between patients with left TLE and healthy controls would be found in the pattern of left temporal cortical activation associated specifically with semantic processing. Patients with right TLE were included as a seizure control group. All TLE patients previously showed left hemisphere language dominance on intracarotid sodium amytal studies. Greater blood oxygen level dependent activation was found during phonological processing compared with semantic processing in frontal regions for healthy participants but, contrary to expectation, semantic processing did not lead to increased temporal lobe activity relative to phonological processing. Furthermore, no differences between left temporal patients and controls were found specifically in left temporal cortex. Rather, patients with left temporal seizure foci showed significantly greater left dorsolateral prefrontal activity compared with controls, as well as increased signal change in left inferior frontal and right middle temporal gyrus. Surprisingly, patients with right, but not left, TLE showed poorer performance on the linguistic tasks compared with controls, as well as a decrease in right superior temporal activation. The results converge with studies of dyslexic patients showing increased left frontal activity in the presence of left temporal dysfunction and are suggestive of both inter- and intra-hemispheric functional reorganization of language representation in left TLE.  (+info)

Dysarthria as the isolated clinical symptom of borreliosis--a case report. (5/101)

This report presents a case of dysarthria due to hypoglossal nerve mono-neuropathy as the only consequence of neuroborreliosis. The 65-year-old man with a seven-months history of articulation disturbances was examined. The speech of the patient was slow and laboured. A slight weakness of the muscles of the tongue (left-side) was observed. The patient suffered from meningitis due to Borrelia burgdorferi infection in 1999 and initially underwent a successful antibiotic treatment. Detailed radiological investigation and psychological tests were performed and co-existing neurological diseases were excluded. To describe profile of speech abnormalities the dysarthria scale was designed based on S. J. Robertson Dysarthria Profile. There were a few disturbances found in self-assessment of speech, intelligibility, articulation, and prosody but especially in the morphology of the articulation muscles, diadochokinesis, the reflexes (in the mouth, larynx and pharynx). Needle EMG examination confirmed the diagnosis of mono-neuropathy of left hypoglossal nerve. The study confirms the fact that neuroborreliosis may evoke chronic consequences.  (+info)

Refractory dyslexia: evidence of multiple task-specific phonological output stores. (6/101)

We investigated the case of a patient whose reading was characterized by multiple phonemic paraphasic errors. An error analysis of a large corpus of reading responses (758 words, 86 non-words) highlighted the preponderance of phonological errors which did not occur in his naming, repetition or spontaneous speech. His comprehension of the written word was relatively preserved, even for words he was unable to read aloud. We suggest that his impairment lies at the level of the phonological output store. We also demonstrate that his reading performance was facilitated by increasing the response-stimulus delay. The strong influence of temporal factors is shown to be task-specific. Two main points are drawn from our results. First, we argue that our patient can be characterized as having a refractory access type of deficit; to our knowledge, no previous case of a refractory deficit affecting word reading has been reported. Secondly, the task specificity of both the phonological error pattern and the sensitivity to temporal factors is difficult to reconcile with the idea of a unitary phonological output store. Contrary to orthodox neuropsychological models, we propose that there are independent stores specific for reading and spoken output.  (+info)

Neuropsychological and phonological evaluation in the Apert's syndrome: study of two cases. (7/101)

This study evaluated two cases of Apert's syndrome, through phonological, cognitive, and neuropsychological instruments and correlated the results to complementary exams. In short, this study reveals the necessity of application of neuropsychological, cognitive and phonological evaluation and correlation of the results with complementary testings because significant differences can be present in the Apert's syndrome.  (+info)

Amplitude envelope onsets and developmental dyslexia: A new hypothesis. (8/101)

A core difficulty in developmental dyslexia is the accurate specification and neural representation of speech. We argue that a likely perceptual cause of this difficulty is a deficit in the perceptual experience of rhythmic timing. Speech rhythm is one of the earliest cues used by infants to discriminate syllables and is determined principally by the acoustic structure of amplitude modulation at relatively low rates in the signal. We show significant differences between dyslexic and normally reading children, and between young early readers and normal developers, in amplitude envelope onset detection. We further show that individual differences in sensitivity to the shape of amplitude modulation account for 25% of the variance in reading and spelling acquisition even after controlling for individual differences in age, nonverbal IQ, and vocabulary. A possible causal explanation dependent on perceptual-center detection and the onset-rime representation of syllables is discussed.  (+info)

  • Disorders that impact the form of speech sounds are traditionally referred to as articulation disorders and are associated with structural (e.g., cleft palate) and motor-based difficulties (e.g., apraxia). (
  • Be eligible for membership with the Communicative Disorders Assistants Association of Canada ( CDAAC ). (
  • Learn more about the Communicative Disorders Assistant program by reading the answers to Frequently Asked Questions . (
  • Graduates from this program may find work assisting speech-language pathologists or audiologists in a variety of agencies serving clients/patients with communicative disorders. (
  • Hospitals, preschool speech and language programs, children's rehabilitation centers, stroke and brain-injury rehabilitation programs, school boards and private speech and hearing clinics employ Communicative Disorders Assistants. (
  • Robert Owens is a NYS Distinguished Teaching Professor of Communicative Disorders and Sciences at SUNY Geneseo and the author of three textbooks, and a score of other books, articles and book chapters. (
  • In this study, brain lesions of 25 stroke patients with a disorder in the motor planning of articulatory movements were compared with lesions of 19 patients without such deficits. (
  • This area was completely spared in all patients without these articulation deficits. (
  • Articulation Disorders Among Speakers of Mandarin Chinese The data reported show similarities to the English phonological system, especially with respect to (a) fronting of consonants, (b) phonologic context dependence, (c) non-native language phoneme substitution (e.g., glottal replacement), and (d) omission and addition of phonemes. (