Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
An enzyme that catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
Ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. They are essential cofactors in cell-matrix adhesion processes, in cell-cell recognition systems, and in receptor-growth factor interactions. (From Cancer Metastasis Rev 1996; 15(2): 177-86; Hepatology 1996; 24(3): 524-32)
Coloring matter from the insect Coccus cacti L. It is used in foods, pharmaceuticals, toiletries, etc., as a dye, and also has use as a microscopic stain and biological marker.
A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
A BRAIN-specific hyalectin that may play a role in terminally differentiating NEURONS. It is found highly overexpressed in primary BRAIN TUMORS and in experimental models of GLIOMA.
A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.
HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of a variety of tissues and organs. Several versican isoforms exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the versican MESSENGER RNA.
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC 4.2.2.4 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC 4.2.2.5 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.
The posterior process on the ramus of the mandible composed of two parts: a superior part, the articular portion, and an inferior part, the condylar neck.
A subclass of receptor-like protein tryosine phosphatases that contain an extracellular fibronectin III-like domain along with a carbonic anhydrase-like domain.
Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
A naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan found mostly in the skin and in connective tissue. It differs from CHONDROITIN SULFATE A (see CHONDROITIN SULFATES) by containing IDURONIC ACID in place of glucuronic acid, its epimer, at carbon atom 5. (from Merck, 12th ed)
A hyalectin family member that is expressed in neuronal tissue and plays a role in neuronal CELL ADHESION.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.
Cell surface receptors that bind to ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE.
A sulfated mucopolysaccharide initially isolated from bovine cornea. At least two types are known. Type I, found mostly in the cornea, contains D-galactose and D-glucosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit; type II, found in skeletal tissues, contains D-galactose and D-galactosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
A family of transmembrane glycoproteins that contain a short cytoplasmic domain, a single-span transmembrane domain, and an extracellular domain with heparin sulfate and CHONDROITIN SULFATE chains. Syndecans interact with a variety of heparin-binding INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS and may play a role in modulating cellular signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT, tumorigenesis, and angiogenesis.
A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.
Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)
An enzyme of the isomerase class that catalyzes the eliminative cleavage of polysaccharides containing 1,4-linked D-glucuronate or L-iduronate residues and 1,4-alpha-linked 2-sulfoamino-2-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucose residues to give oligosaccharides with terminal 4-deoxy-alpha-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.2.2.7.
Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
The fibrous tissue that replaces normal tissue during the process of WOUND HEALING.
A small leucine-rich proteoglycan that interacts with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and modifies the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX structure of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. Decorin has also been shown to play additional roles in the regulation of cellular responses to GROWTH FACTORS. The protein contains a single glycosaminoglycan chain and is similar in structure to BIGLYCAN.
A ubiquitously expressed syndecan that is found in all stages of embryonic development and in most adult tissues. Syndecan-4 is found localized to focal adhesion sites in fibronectin-adherent cells and may play a role the process of CELL MIGRATION and CELL PROLIFERATION.
A small leucine-rich proteoglycan found in a variety of tissues including CAPILLARY ENDOTHELIUM; SKELETAL MUSCLE; CARTILAGE; BONE; and TENDONS. The protein contains two glycosaminoglycan chains and is similar in structure to DECORIN.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
A syndecan that interacts with EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS and plays a role CELL PROLIFERATION and CELL MIGRATION.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Inorganic salts of chloric acid that contain the ClO3- ion.
A syndecan that is predominantly expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It may play a role in mediating cellular interactions with the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and may modulate the signaling activity of certain INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
A family of GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL-anchored, cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans that may play a role in CELL GROWTH PROCESSES and CELL DIFFERENTIATION by modulating ligand-receptor interactions.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
A syndecan found at high levels in the developing LIMB BUDS. It may play a role in the regulation of MUSCULOSKELETAL DEVELOPMENT by modulating the effects of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Nitrous acid (HNO2). A weak acid that exists only in solution. It can form water-soluble nitrites and stable esters. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A slowly growing malignant neoplasm derived from cartilage cells, occurring most frequently in pelvic bones or near the ends of long bones, in middle-aged and old people. Most chondrosarcomas arise de novo, but some may develop in a preexisting benign cartilaginous lesion or in patients with ENCHONDROMATOSIS. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylgalactosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Component of dermatan sulfate. Differs in configuration from glucuronic acid only at the C-5 position.
3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate. Key intermediate in the formation by living cells of sulfate esters of phenols, alcohols, steroids, sulfated polysaccharides, and simple esters, such as choline sulfate. It is formed from sulfate ion and ATP in a two-step process. This compound also is an important step in the process of sulfur fixation in plants and microorganisms.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
A class of Echinodermata characterized by long, slender bodies.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Long-chain polymer of glucose containing 17-20% sulfur. It has been used as an anticoagulant and also has been shown to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is commonly used as both an experimental and clinical laboratory reagent and has been investigated for use as an antiviral agent, in the treatment of hypolipidemia, and for the prevention of free radical damage, among other applications.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.
A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The nine cartilages of the larynx, including the cricoid, thyroid and epiglottic, and two each of arytenoid, corniculate and cuneiform.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
Stable sulfur atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sulfur, but differ in atomic weight. S-33, 34, and 36 are stable sulfur isotopes.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
More particularly, on the articular tissue, Ronca et al. reported that chondroitin sulfate is not rapidly absorbed in the ... Chondroitin and glucosamine are also used in veterinary medicine for osteoarthritis. Proteoglycan Heparin sulfate - a ... "Chondroitin sulfate B" is an old name for dermatan sulfate, and it is no longer classified as a form of chondroitin sulfate. ... Although the name "chondroitin sulfate" suggests a salt with a sulfate counter-anion, this is not the case, as sulfate is ...
... is capable of cleaving all the large chondroitin sulfate hyaluronan-binding proteoglycans (CSPGs), including aggrecan, ... ADAMTS4 (and ADAMTS5) are the major proteinases responsible for the degradation of proteoglycans in articular cartilage in ... Like ADAMTS5, it can be effectively inhibited by tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP3) and this inhibition can be ... It can degrade aggrecan, a major proteoglycan of cartilage, brevican, a brain-specific extracellular matrix protein, neurocan ...
"Dermatan sulphate proteoglycans of human articular cartilage. The properties of dermatan sulphate proteoglycans I and II". ... 6-O-sulphation in chondroitin/dermatan sulphate from decorin and biglycan of various bovine tissues". Glycobiology. 4 (5): 685- ... chains consisting of either chondroitin sulfate (CS) or dermatan sulfate (DS), with DS being more abundant in most connective ... Biglycan is a small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan (SLRP) which is found in a variety of extracellular matrix tissues, ...
The most common GAGs are chondroitin sulfate and keratin sulfate. Proteoglycans attach to a central chain, usually hyaluronic ... Natural articular cartilage is an inhomogeneous, anisotropic, and viscoelastic tissue. The structure, described above 1.1.2. ... Proteoglycans: Proteoglycans are the second most abundant macromolecule in the ECM of cartilage. Proteoglycans consist of a ... Armiento AR, Stoddart MJ, Alini M, Eglin D (January 2018). "Biomaterials for articular cartilage tissue engineering: Learning ...
They attach themselves to up to 100 Chondroitin sulfate molecules and up to 50 keratan sulfate glycoaminoglycan chains. These ... Proteoglycans resist the compression generally put upon cartilage and generate the swelling pressure responsible for stress ... This is a thin layer of connective tissue which protects cartilage and is where chondroblasts help to expand cartilage size ... It is important to note that perichondrium, and thus chondroblasts, are not found on the articular cartilage surfaces of joints ...
The two main proteoglycans that are used in this process are heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) and chondroitin sulfate ... The exception occurs at tissue boundaries, for example the articular surfaces of joints, in which chondrocytes may be flattened ... Cell culture studies of excess Vitamin A inhibits the synthesis of chondroitin sulfate by chondrocytes and causes the ... Once the chondrocytes have fully matured at the desired rate, the cartilage tissue will harden into bone. This process is ...
... (ACAN), also known as cartilage-specific proteoglycan core protein (CSPCP) or chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 1, is a ... Articular cartilage contains up to 10% proteoglycan by weight, most of which is aggrecan, and its loss is an early sign of the ... The encoded protein is an integral part of the extracellular matrix in cartilagenous tissue and it withstands compression in ... Kirschfink M, Blase L, Engelmann S, Schwartz-Albiez R (1997). "Secreted chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan of human B cell lines ...
Polyglycan is a combination of sodium hyaluronate, sodium chondroitin sulfate, and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. It is labeled as a ... and damage to articular cartilage. Proteoglycans within the joint are depleted, especially in younger animals, even when the ... On average, bone heals better than soft tissue. It requires less time to heal and, unlike soft tissue which is always weaker ... Load carriage, adult articular cartilage. In: Freeman MAR, ed. Adult articular car- tilage, 1st ed. New York: Grune & Stratton ...
... which are proteins with side chains made of glycosaminoglycans such as keratan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate attached to ... It enters all tissues, reaching cartilage within two hours. When PSGAG reaches the synovial fluid, it is then taken up by the ... The enzymes that are inhibited include serine proteases, which play a role in the IL-1 degradation of proteoglycans and ... Side effects from intra-articular administration can include joint pain, swelling, lameness, and, rarely, infection of the ...
... with mucopolysaccharides immunoreactive against chondroitin sulfate antibodies. There are homologous tissues to the ... one of the most affected tissues is the articular cartilage. The cartilage covering bones (articular cartilage-a subset of ... The ECM consists mainly of proteoglycan and collagens. The main proteoglycan in cartilage is aggrecan, which, as its name ... Chondroitin sulfate or glucosamine sulfate supplements, have been claimed to reduce the symptoms of osteoarthritis, but there ...
... matrix is primarily made of type II collagen and chondroitin sulphate, both of which are also found in ... "Effects of Chondroitinase ABC-Mediated Proteoglycan Digestion on Decellularization and Recellularization of Articular Cartilage ... cavities are actually artificial gaps formed from the shrinking of the cells during the staining and setting of the tissue for ... Cartilage Hyaline Articular cartilage injuries Articular cartilage damage Articular cartilage repair Adele, Knibbs (2003). "The ...
... mannose-linked sialylated tetrasaccharide and keratan sulfate oligosaccharides in the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan of brain ... The designations KSI and KSII were originally assigned on the basis of the tissue type from which the keratan sulfate was ... "The structure of the keratan sulphate chains attached to fibromodulin from human articular cartilage". Glycoconj J. 14 (5): 651 ... Chondroitin_and_keratin_sulfate at the Duke University Health System's Orthopedics program Keratan+sulfate at the US National ...
A three-month trial of an oral dosage regime of a commercial preparation of glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate and ... to build new tissue. Glucosamine sulfate uptake in synovial fluid may be as much as 20%, or it could be negligible, indicating ... synovial fluid levels obtained with the sulfate derivative were still too low to have a relevant biological effect on articular ... proteoglycans, and glycolipids. As the formation of glucosamine-6-phosphate is the first step for the synthesis of these ...
The chondroitin sulfate functions as a component of proteoglycans, which helps to form the extracellular matrix. Integra can be ... Hu JC, Athanasiou KA (April 2006). "A self-assembling process in articular cartilage tissue engineering". Tissue Engineering. ... Tissue engineering often involves the use of cells placed on tissue scaffolds in the formation of new viable tissue for a ... Integra, originally used to only treat burns, consists of a collagen matrix and chondroitin sulfate that can be used as a skin ...
"Dermatan sulphate proteoglycans of human articular cartilage. The properties of dermatan sulphate proteoglycans I and II". The ... chain consisting of either chondroitin sulfate (CS) or dermatan sulfate (DS). Decorin is a small cellular or pericellular ... shows homology with proteoglycan II (decorin) and several nonconnective tissue proteins in a variety of species". The Journal ... Decorin is a proteoglycan that is on average 90 - 140 kilodaltons (kDa) in molecular weight. It belongs to the small leucine- ...
... being a homogenous liquid called ground substance consisting of proteoglycans such as hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate, ... Bone tissue (osseous tissue) is a hard tissue, a type of specialized connective tissue. It has a honeycomb-like matrix ... and the formation of articular cartilage and the epiphyseal plates. Endochondral ossification begins with points in the ... Bone tissue is a mineralized tissue of two types, cortical bone and cancellous bone. Other types of tissue found in bones ...
... recommends glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate for knee osteoarthritis. Its use as a therapy for osteoarthritis is ... do not need to take immunosuppressants as bone and cartilage tissues have limited immune responses. Autologous articular ... This increase occurs because whilst there is an overall loss of proteoglycans (and thus a decreased osmotic pull), it is ... Chondroitin Sulfate Concentration and Chain Length, Water, and Ash Content". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 45 (7): ...
Granulation tissue is the perfused, fibrous connective tissue that replaces a fibrin clot in healing wounds. It typically grows ... Sulfated, extracellular. *Chondroitin *Chondroitin sulfate. *Dermatan sulfate. *Heparan sulfate. *Keratan sulfate. Sulfated, ... Hyaluronic acid has been FDA-approved to treat osteoarthritis of the knee via intra-articular injection.[27] A 2012 review ... and assembly of pericellular matrices from HA and proteoglycan. Two significant roles of CD44 in skin were proposed.[26] The ...
The mechanisms of aggrecan degradation in adult human articular, adult bovine nasal and fetal bovine epiphyseal cartilage in ... Cartilage, Articular / metabolism * Cattle * Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans / metabolism * Epiphyses / metabolism * Epitopes ... The mechanism of aggrecan release from cartilage differs with tissue origin and the agent used to stimulate catabolism Biochem ... In the retinoic acid-treated tissue, however, no evidence for the cleavage of aggrecan in the interglobular region was apparent ...
Versican is chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. It has four functional-modules: the N-terminal domain the C-terminal domain and ... 2007) and the knockdown of versican leads to malformation of the interzone tissues that form the articular cartilage and ... chondroitin sulfate attachment regions. The N-terminal domain is also known as the G1 domain and the C-terminal domain is also ... has been reduced and the G1 domain has been over-expressed to observe how these changes in the developing joint tissue effect ...
... including proteoglycans, and mucopolysaccharides), and polysaccharides such as hyaluronic acid (hyaluronan). The biochemical ... Chondroitin sulfates belong to the family of mucopolysaccharides, more specifically glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans. In ... When the articular cartilage becomescompromised; the chondrocytes excrete degenerative enzymes in order to remove the affected ... Glucosamine esters were first identified as an important tissue modifier within the body in the late 1950s. This naturally ...
The chemical chondroitin sulfate makes up much of the proteoglycan.. The tissue surrounding the joint is called the joint ... Normal articular cartilage covers the bone on both sides of a joint and provides nearly friction-free motion of the joint. It ... The soft tissue lining of the joint (synovium) is the first tissue in many animals to be affected in the disease and the ... Normal articular cartilage is made up of cartilage cells (chondrocytes), an extracellular matrix and water. The chondrocytes ...
There are several different proteoglycan molecules in the joint cartilage including chondroitin sulfate and keratan sulfate. ... The end of each bone is covered with articular cartilage which acts as a shock absorber to protect the bone. The cartilage is ... made of cells (chondrocytes) and the surrounding tissue matrix. The major components of this cartilage matrix are collagen, ... Chondroitin sulfate. Chondroitin sulfate is the major glycosaminoglycan found in cartilage. It helps inhibit enzymes that are ...
... is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) composed of a chain of alternating sugars (N-acetylgalactosamine ... More particularly, on the articular tissue, Ronca et al [18] reported that chondroitin sulfate is rapidly absorbed in the ... new roles continue to be discovered for the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. In the nervous system, chondroitin sulfate ... chondroitin-4,6-sulfate "Chondroitin sulfate B" is an old name for dermatan sulfate, and is no longer classified as a form of ...
... tissue or cells for use in filling a cartilage defect. The matrix and synovial tissue or cell preparations may also contain a ... where they produce new cartilage tissue and repair the defect. Alternatively, partially transformed synovial-derived tissue may ... The compositions of the invention include synovial tissue, synovial cells and matrices containing synovial (or cambium) ... various proteoglycans (e.g., chondroitinsulfate-, keratansulfate-, and dermatansulfate proteoglycans), other proteins, and ...
In one embodiment, the replacement body part is a skeletal joint and the new plural distinct tissues include bone and articular ... and devices for manufacture in vivo of autogenous replacement body parts comprising plural distinct tissues. ... chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate, and dermatan sulfate proteoglycans), other proteins, and water. Articular cartilage ... chondroitin 6-sulfate, chondroitin 4-sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and keratin sulfate. Other GAGs also can be used for forming ...
p,,b,Product Beneï¬ts,/b,,/p,,br /,,ul, ,br /, ,li,Doctors Best Glucosamine/Chondroitin/MSM featuring OptiMSM® supports ... Articular cartilage is a connective tissue composed of specialized cells (chondrocytes) embedded in a matrix of protein fibers ... Glucosamine is a fundamental building block for proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans. Glucosamine sulfate (GS) helps to ... Chondroitin sulfate is a chemical in cartilage around joints in the body. Chondroitin sulfate is manufactured from bovine ...
Chondroitin sulfate: Stimulates production of hyaluronic acid and proteoglycans; inhibits enzymes that break down cartilage.. ... chondroitin sulfate, and hyaluronic acid (HA) to offer daily support for healthy joint fluid and tissues. In fact, an eight- ... Healthy articular cartilage provides a smooth, slippery surface that allows free movement and contributes to the shock- ... year study† demonstrated that the use of an oral glucosamine/chondroitin sulfate supplement resulted in the decreased need for ...
Aggrecan has a "bottle-brush" structure that includes -100 negatively charged chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan (CS-GAG) ... molecular and cellular levels give insight into the intricate roles that proteoglycans and collagen play in governing tissue- ... properties of articular cartilage are associated with the extracellular matrix network of type II collagen and the proteoglycan ... Variations in the structure of aggrecan and its GAG constituents are known to exist as a function of tissue age, disease, and ...
... and chondroitin sulfate (CS). Articular cartilage ECM plays a crucial role in regulating chondrocyte metabolism and functions, ... "Type II collagen-chondroitin sulfate-hyaluronan scaffold cross-linked by genipin for cartilage tissue engineering," Journal of ... The ECM is composed of large proteoglycans (PGs) that contain glycosaminoglycan (GAG), hyaluronic acid (HA), fibers, and other ... The pericellular matrix (PCM) is a narrow tissue region surrounding chondrocytes in articular cartilage, which together with ...
... and proteoglycans with varying glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains, including chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid. This ... Aside from its antioxidant roles, Vitamin C is included to support healthy articular cartilage and other connective tissue ... but also other healthy cartilage components such as chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid, and proteoglycans such as glucosamine ... Chondroitin sulfate (CS) has been studied extensively in humans, displaying a notable record of safety and effectiveness in ...
It is a potent combination of three proven, purified ingredients that help the body manufacture proteoglycans in healthy joints ... Doctors Best Glucosamine/Chondroitin/MSM featuring OptiMSM(R) supports joint structure, function and comfort. ... Articular cartilage is a connective tissue composed of specialized cells (chondrocytes) embedded in a matrix of protein fibers ... Chondroitin sulphate is a chemical in cartilage around joints in the body. Chondroitin sulphate is manufactured from bovine ...
The two attached glycosaminoglycan chains can be either chondroitin sulfate or dermatan sulfate. ... Tissue specificity. Found in several connective tissues, especially in articular cartilages.. * Sequence similarities. Belongs ... to the small leucine-rich proteoglycan (SLRP) family. SLRP class I subfamily.. Contains 12 LRR (leucine-rich) repeats. ... Cell and tissue imaging tools. Cellular and biochemical assays. By product type. Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. ...
Hyaline articular cartilage was generated, demonstrating the presence of type II collagen and SZP, and the absence of type I ... Identification of optimal exogenous stimuli will allow abundant and robust hyaline articular cartilage to be formed from this ... Employing biochemical, biophysical, and mechanical stimuli generated robust hyaline articular cartilage with a tensile modulus ... Kato Y, Gospodarowicz D: Sulfated proteoglycan synthesis by confluent cultures of rabbit costal chondrocytes grown in the ...
The C-type lectin domains of lecticans, a family of aggregating chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, bind tenascin-R by protein- ... tissue that gives rise to articular cartilages and joint cavity. In ovo microinjection of adenoviral shRNA constructs into the ... cDNA cloning of PG-M, a large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan expressed during chondrogenesis in chick limb buds. Alternative ... Previous studies have shown that the matrix chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, versican, exhibits a similar pattern of ...
ADAMTS4 is capable of cleaving all the large chondroitin sulfate hyaluronan-binding proteoglycans (CSPGs), including aggrecan, ... ADAMTS4 (and ADAMTS5) are the major proteinases responsible for the degradation of proteoglycans in articular cartilage in ... Like ADAMTS5, it can be effectively inhibited by tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP3) and this inhibition can be ... It can degrade aggrecan, a major proteoglycan of cartilage, brevican, a brain-specific extracellular matrix protein, neurocan ...
Chondroitin sulfate specifically is the big sugar in articular cartilage proteoglycans. It is a type of protein fiber found ... Connective tissue consists of a material known as a matrix, with cells embedded within. In other sorts of connective tissue, ... The protein thats created has a particular job to do or a particular tissue (like muscle tissue) to create. Virtually every ... Hence it is likewise referred to as surface tissue. However, theyre all sorts of connective tissues. ...
More particularly, on the articular tissue, Ronca et al. reported that chondroitin sulfate is not rapidly absorbed in the ... Chondroitin and glucosamine are also used in veterinary medicine for osteoarthritis. Proteoglycan Heparin sulfate - a ... "Chondroitin sulfate B" is an old name for dermatan sulfate, and it is no longer classified as a form of chondroitin sulfate. ... Although the name "chondroitin sulfate" suggests a salt with a sulfate counter-anion, this is not the case, as sulfate is ...
Keywords: Osmotic pressure, proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans, articular cartilage, intervertebral disc and chondroitin ... Swelling pressures of proteoglycans at the concentrations found in cartilaginous tissues Authors: Urban, J.P.G. , Maroudas, A. ... and of chondroitin sulphate was measured by equilibrium dialysis against solutions of polyethylene glycol in 0.15M NaCl and 1.5 ... The osmotic pressure of the proteoglycans at concentrations found in these cartilaginous tissues, viz. 0.08-0.35 meq/gH2 O, was ...
Sunlight osmotic pressure given by chondroitin and keratan sulfate stores (Urban condition. Two particular for STA-9090 ... and NP tissue (Bastiaansen-Jenniskens matrix adjustment (Responte (Nerurkar to sustain a tissue-specific, functional population ... was also present at high amounts in regular articular chondrocytes as an antiangiogenic aspect (Mi the CEP or through the ... indicating a tissue-specific stem cell may provide a distinctive microenvironment to get a lineage-specific tissues ...
The contents of proteoglycan elution were determined by spectrophotometer at 530 nm, and HIF-1α and type II collagen mRNA ... The percentage of cell death was decreased, and proteoglycan elution was gradually reduced with the increasing of osmolarity. ... and contents of proteoglycan elution were also significantly decreased (P = 0.045) in the balanced salt. HIF-1α (P = 0.017) and ... reducing inhibition of metabolism and proteoglycan elution, ultimately preventing cartilage degeneration and promoting ...
Articular cartilage is constructed with hyaline cartilage tissue. It is composed of chondrocytes located in lacunae and in the ... The chondral matrix contains water, collagen, proteoglycans, non-collagenous matrix proteins and lipids. Articular cartilage is ... chondroitin sulfate 1,000 mg (GC) and 57 with glucosamine 1,000 mg + chondroitin sulfate 1,000 mg + native COLLII partially ... glucosamine-chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine-chondroitin sulfate-native COLLII partially hydrolyzed) in a cohort of Italian ...
1994) Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan distribution in the primate optic nerve head. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 35:838-845. ... In articular cartilage, which contains GAGs as 15% of its total tissue dry weight, the large aggregating proteoglycan, aggrecan ... in length and diameter of cuprolinic blue positive chondroitin/dermatan sulphate and also heparan sulphate proteoglycan ... In neighbouring wells, 20 μl of each glycosaminoglycan standard (dermatan sulphate or chondroitin sulphate, Sigma), ranging ...
Perlecan is a modular heparan sulphate and/or chondroitin sulphate substituted proteoglycan of basement membrane, vascular ... Perlecan acts as a low affinity co-receptor for fibroblast growth factors 1, 2, 7, 9, binds connective tissue growth factor and ... The aim of the present study was to immunolocalise perlecan in the articular and epiphyseal growth plate cartilages of stifle ... Perlecan displays variable spatial and temporal immunolocalisation patterns in the articular and growth plate cartilages of the ...
... inflammation in connective tissues in humans and animals and the modulation of markers of such inflammation, including COX-2, ... Chonciroitin sulfate is a preferred GAG. Chondroitin sulfate is the most abundant glycosaminoglycan in articular cartilage and ... that inhibit tissue metalloproteinases which degrade extracellularmatrix components including collagen and proteoglycans yet ... sodium chondroitin sulfate, calcium chondroitin sulfate, potassium chondroitin sulfate, etc. Inaddition, the compositions of ...
abstract = "Aggrecan, a chondroitin/keratan sulfate-containing proteoglycan, is a major component of cartilaginous tissues. ... Analyses of the proteoglycan fractions from the extracts of bovine articular surface indicated that perlecan in this tissue ... N2 - Aggrecan, a chondroitin/keratan sulfate-containing proteoglycan, is a major component of cartilaginous tissues. ... AB - Aggrecan, a chondroitin/keratan sulfate-containing proteoglycan, is a major component of cartilaginous tissues. ...
In contrast to HSPGs, the function of CSPGs (which are often the more abundant proteoglycans in tissues) in development is not ... Total RNA was extracted from wild-type and bm day 6 articular cartilage using TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen) according to the ... Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are two major classes of proteoglycans, ... In contrast to the functional role of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), the importance of chondroitin sulfate ...
... proteoglycans (= mucoproteins) chondroitin-4-sulfate chondroitin-6-sulphate dermatan sulphate heparan sulphate heparin sulphate ... articular cartilage: = joint (articular) surface;. diaphysis: Gk. to grow between (shaft of dumbbell). surface: osteocytes and ... Lecture 3. Connective Tissue (CT) Proper, and Special Connective Tissue, Cartilage, Bone, and Adipose Tissue. Classical ... chondroitin sulfate and keratan sulfate [GAG]) with hyaluronic acid (nonsulfated GAG) as central backbone of complex, and ...
  • The proteoglycan molecule is made of a central protein core with side chains of glycosaminoglycans (GAGS. (animalwellnessmagazine.com)
  • Understanding the functions of such diversity in chondroitin sulfate and related glycosaminoglycans is a major goal of glycobiology . (bionity.com)
  • These side chains, chiefly chondroitin sulfate and keratin sulfate, are long polysaccharide molecules called glycosaminoglycans. (pharmaca.com)
  • Chondroitin sulfate and the other glycosaminoglycans strongly attract water due to the negative charges of their sulfate groups. (pharmaca.com)
  • Glucosamine is a fundamental building block for proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans. (pharmaca.com)
  • Glucosamine sulfate (GS) helps to maintain joint health through its ability to both act as a component of and stimulate formation of cartilage glycosaminoglycans and the hyaluronic acid backbone essential for the formation of cartilage proteoglycans. (pharmaca.com)
  • Proteoglycans (PGs) and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) structurally diverse carbohydrates of the extracellular matrix and cell surfaces - have emerged as novel biomarkers and molecular players both within tumor cells and their microenvironment, as they integrate signals from growth factors, chemokines and integrins, and cell-cell as well as matrix adhesion. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chondroitin sulfates (CS) "4&6 are glycosaminoglycans which participate in the matrix structure of cartilage. (theherbprof.com)
  • Articular cartilage undergoes severe loss of proteoglycan and its constituent glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in osteoarthritis. (aston.ac.uk)
  • It attracts water into the glycosaminoglycans, increasing tissue elasticity and joint cushioning, and it protects cartilage by inhibiting the action of destructive enzymes. (abundanthealthcenter.com)
  • Like glucosamine, chondroitin stimulates production of glycosaminoglycans. (abundanthealthcenter.com)
  • Glucosamine contributes to the formation of glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans and glycolipids within chondrocytes 4,5 . (integricare.ca)
  • Sulfated glycosaminoglycans control the extracellular trafficking and the activity of the metalloprotease inhibitor TIMP-3. (ox.ac.uk)
  • TIMP-3 binds to sulfated ECM glycosaminoglycans or is endocytosed by cells via low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1). (ox.ac.uk)
  • The matrix (ground substance) of cartilage is composed of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans. (histology-world.com)
  • Proteoglycans are composed of a protein core and attached glycosaminoglycans. (histology-world.com)
  • Chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate, and hyaluronic acid are all glycosaminoglycans. (histology-world.com)
  • Glucosamine is an amino monosaccharide found in chitin, glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans (formerly known as mucopolysaccharides) such as hyaluronic acid and heparan sulfate. (tjclark.co.nz)
  • Chondroitin sulfate belongs to a family of heteropolysaccharides called glycosaminoglycans or GAGs. (tjclark.co.nz)
  • It is believed that chondroitin sulfate's efficacy in osteoarthritis derives from the fact that it is one of the two most abundant glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in articular cartilage. (tjclark.co.nz)
  • The so-called "nucleus pulposis", a bubble of gelatine made up of substances called "glycosaminoglycans", made from the substrate glucosamine sulphate. (chiropractic-help.com)
  • It is utilized by chondrocytes to form glycosaminoglycans (GSG) and proteoglycans (PG). (grainbininc.com)
  • Chondroitin sulphate (CS) is a heterogenous group of glycosaminoglycans. (back2health4you.com)
  • In the present study, we analyzed small proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans present in different cartilages of the chicken wing after extraction with guanidine hydrochloride or papain. (bvsalud.org)
  • Quantitative analysis of glycosaminoglycans showed a larger amount in humeral cartilage (around 200 mg/g tissue) than in articular cartilage of the radius and ulna, with 138 and 80 mg/g tissue, respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • Articular cartilage is the cushioning substance on the ends of bones and consists of glycosaminoglycans. (nutritionpark.com)
  • Glucosamine is a major building block of proteoglycans and is needed to make glycosaminoglycans: proteins that bind water in the cartilage matrix. (nutritionpark.com)
  • These proteoglycans consist of a central protein core to which 1 or more glycosaminoglycans (GAG) side chains are attached. (vitaflex.com)
  • Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is one of six related substances called glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which are also referred to as mucopolysaccharides. (springtimeinc.com)
  • The glycosaminoglycans are immobilised within a highly cross-linked collagen framework, which is responsible for the integrity of the tissue and its mechanical strength. (docme.ru)
  • The water content of cartilage lies in the range 65-80% of the wet weight of tissue, collagen in the range 20-25% and glycosaminoglycans in the range 1· 5-6% [3-7J. (docme.ru)
  • The proteoglycans are made up of a core strand of hyaluronic acid with branches of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). (totalequinevets.com)
  • The effect of chondroitin sulfate in people with osteoarthritis is likely the result of a number of reactions including its anti-inflammatory activity, the stimulation of the synthesis of proteoglycans and hyaluronic acid, and the decrease in catabolic activity of chondrocytes, inhibiting the synthesis of proteolytic enzymes, nitric oxide, and other substances that contribute to damage the cartilage matrix and cause death of articular chondrocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) is composed primarily of the network type II collagen (COLII) and an interlocking mesh of fibrous proteins and proteoglycans (PGs), hyaluronic acid (HA), and chondroitin sulfate (CS). (hindawi.com)
  • The ECM is composed of large proteoglycans (PGs) that contain glycosaminoglycan (GAG), hyaluronic acid (HA), fibers, and other molecular components about fibronectin and laminin. (hindawi.com)
  • Articular cartilage in our synovial joints is composed of specialized cells called chondrocytes bound together by a matrix of collagen fibers (mainly type II collagen ) and proteoglycans with varying glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains, including chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid . (purityproducts.com)
  • Ultimate H.A. ® Formula contains BioCell Collagen ® , a patented ingredient that not only provides 600 mg of hydrolyzed type II collagen proteins, but also other healthy cartilage components such as chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid, and proteoglycans such as glucosamine. (purityproducts.com)
  • Whether the process actually does anything is a matter of debate among dermatologists, although I do know that snail mucus contains ingredients like hyaluronic acid and proteoglycans , which are already used in cosmetics and are known to promote tissue flexibility and skin healing. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Structurally these components resemble a bottle brush with a long unbranched hyaluronic acid and several protein core molecules attached that have chondroitin sulfate groups radiating out and electrostatically binding to the collagen fibrils. (brainscape.com)
  • Orally administered chondroitin sulphate leads to an increase in the production of hyaluronic acid and the viscosity of synovial fluid. (kordels.co)
  • Supports the production of proteoglycans, hyaluronic acid, sulfated GAGs and collagen. (atozvetsupply.com)
  • Glucosamine's impact on chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid production was first studied over forty years ago. (atozvetsupply.com)
  • Cartilage is an avascular tissue that consists of cells (chondroblasts, chondrocytes), which are embedded in an extensive extracellular matrix (ECM) primarily composed of collagen (e.g., collagen types II, IX and XI), proteoglycans (e.g., chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate, hyaluronic acid and dermatan sulfate proteoglycans) and other proteins. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Hyaluronic acid works in the body as a cushion and lubricant in the joints and other tissues. (nutrakeyhealth.com)
  • Supplementing with Glucosamine, Chondroitin, MSM, & Hyaluronic Acid can provide the nutritional building blocks for healthy joints. (nutrakeyhealth.com)
  • Anabolic effects include ability to stimulate the synthesis of protein, collagen, proteoglycans, and hyaluronic acid in various cells and tissues. (medi-vet.com)
  • Oral administration of chondroitin also prompts a significant increase in hyaluronic acid, a major component of synovial fluid: the lubricating fluid in joints. (nutritionpark.com)
  • Early research shows that drinking a specific liquid containing chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid can decrease abdominal pain in people with gastritis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Six kinds of GAGs have been found in the tissues and fluids of vertebrates: chondroitin sulfates, keratin sulfates, dermatin sulfates, hyaluronic acid, heparin, and heparin sulfate. (springtimeinc.com)
  • Collagen fibrils are bathed in a ground substance of chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid, and core proteins to form proteoglycans. (athletesbuzz.com)
  • Derived from healthy acellular porcine hyaline cartilage, TissueSpec® cartilage matrix is rich in type II collagen with fibrous proteins, proteoglycans, hyaluronic acid (HA), and chondroitin sulfate that together regulate chondrogenesis, chondrocyte differentiation, response to mechanical stimulation, matrix remodeling, metabolism, and survival and provide biomechanical signals through cell-matrix interactions. (xylyxbio.com)
  • Hyaluronic Acid (HA) is a main part of the make-up of synovial fluid and articular cartilage. (totalequinevets.com)
  • The cartilage is made of cells (chondrocytes) and the surrounding tissue matrix. (animalwellnessmagazine.com)
  • Articular cartilage is a connective tissue composed of specialized cells (chondrocytes) embedded in a matrix of protein fibers (mostly collagen) and clusters of complex proteoglycan molecules that consist of a protein core with numerous side chains. (pharmaca.com)
  • CS acts on chondrocytes to produce yet more proteoglycans, influencing levels of articular cartilage. (purityproducts.com)
  • Versican knockdown also lowered collagen II expression in presumptive articular chondrocytes indicating possible delay in chondrogenesis. (docme.ru)
  • 1987). Articular cartilages may be derived from cells of the intermediate zone as the outer layers differentiate into chondrocytes and add to the growing cartilage template (Archer et al. (docme.ru)
  • Avocado/soya unsaponifiables enhance the expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 and beta 2 in cultureed articular chondrocytes," Arthritis Rheum. (patentgenius.com)
  • The results show that chondrocytes synthesize precursor proteins to both proteoglycans, but that only the aggrecan precursor protein is secreted as a proteoglycan. (elsevier.com)
  • The purpose was to determine the influence of irrigation solution osmolarity on articular chondrocytes survival and metabolic state following mechanical injury. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Proteoglycans were the major content of the fibrocartilage zone and existed in the chondrocytes (Shimpuku et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, Advanced Joint Complex contains concentrated bovine tracheal cartilage which is naturally high in collagen, proteoglycans, chondrocytes (including, but not limited to, chondroitin sulfates), glucosamine, and other factors which each have specific functions for joints and other connective tissue [1]. (theherbprof.com)
  • In general, glucosamine and chondroitin have been observed for their 'chondroprotective' effects, meaning they contribute to the integrity of chondrocytes. (integricare.ca)
  • Chondrocytes are involved in the formation of collagen and proteoglycans which are molecules necessary in the formation of cartilage 3 . (integricare.ca)
  • On the other hand, chondroitin primarily acts by inhibiting the proteolytic degradation of chondrocytes 6 . (integricare.ca)
  • Stimulation of proteoglycan production by glucosamine sulfate in chondrocytes isolated from human osteoarthritic articular cartilage in vitro. (integricare.ca)
  • A homogenate of bovine articular cartilage chondrocytes was employed as a source of GFAT. (elsevier.com)
  • It is composed of specialized cells called chondrocytes that produce a large amount of extracellular matrix composed of collagen fibers, abundant ground substance rich in proteoglycan, and elastin fibers. (doctorbhatia.com)
  • The chondrocytes are fed by diffusion, helped by the pumping action generated by compression of the articular cartilage or flexion of the elastic cartilage. (doctorbhatia.com)
  • Chondrification (also known as chondrogenesis) is the process by which cartilage is formed from condensed mesenchyme tissue, which differentiates into chondrocytes and begins secreting the molecules that form the extracellular matrix. (doctorbhatia.com)
  • The main events marking the formation of the embryonic skeleton are cell proliferation and condensation of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells, followed by differentiation into chondroblasts and chondrocytes that can undergo hypertrophy and contribute to tissue calcification, and eventually endochondral bone formation. (mdpi.com)
  • Glucosamine is produced naturally in the body by chondrocytes in cartilage to help maintain and build healthy joint tissue. (back2health4you.com)
  • The GAGs are the main component of proteoglycans (PGs), which along with chondrocytes and collagen, make up cartilage. (back2health4you.com)
  • They are the building blocks for proteoglycans and appear to stimulate chondrocytes to make new collagen and proteoglycans. (infotechfarm.com)
  • Hyaline cartilage is made up of approximately 75% water, 15% type II collagen, 10% proteoglycans, and 2% chondrocytes. (vitaflex.com)
  • Chondrocytes are the cells found within articular cartilage. (vitaflex.com)
  • The main proteoglycan found in cartilage is called aggrecan, and chondrocytes produce aggrecan by binding the GAGs to a central protein core of proteoglycans in a specific order. (vitaflex.com)
  • Articular cartilage is a form of connective tissue composed exclusively of cartilage cells (chondrocytes) and a highly specialized organic matrix. (athletesbuzz.com)
  • in other tissues, forms a network of microfibrils important for maintaining the integrity and viability of the articular chondrocytes, especially during compres- sive loading (5). (simmme.com.br)
  • The articular cartilage is made up of chondrocytes (cartilage cells) that reside with a matrix. (totalequinevets.com)
  • Chondroitin sulfate is the major glycosaminoglycan found in cartilage. (animalwellnessmagazine.com)
  • Chondroitin sulfate is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) composed of a chain of alternating sugars (N-acetylgalactosamine and glucuronic acid ). (bionity.com)
  • Aggrecan has a "bottle-brush" structure that includes -100 negatively charged chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan (CS-GAG) chains attached covalently to a core protein. (mit.edu)
  • The two attached glycosaminoglycan chains can be either chondroitin sulfate or dermatan sulfate. (abcam.com)
  • Biochemical analysis of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content in bm cartilage via sulfate labeling and fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis revealed preferential undersulfation of chondroitin chains (CS) and normal sulfation of heparan sulfate chains. (biologists.org)
  • Any of various glycoproteins that have glycosaminoglycan chains attached by covalent bonds to the protein, usually found in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Proteoglycans are glycoproteins that have a core protein with one or more covalently attached glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains such as chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • As the major glycosaminoglycan associated with articular cartilage, chondroitin sulfate (CS) is designed to draw water into the joint tissues and hydrate them, allowing for compression when pressure is put on the joint and to rehydrate when the pressure is released. (orthomolecularproducts.com)
  • Chondroitin sulfate is a polysulfated glycosaminoglycan (PSGAG), a long branching sulfated disaccharide that is the predominant GAG in articular cartilage. (glcdirect.com)
  • Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) structure influences physiological function and is likely to be important in the long-term stability of the repair tissue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The matrix is mainly composed of proteoglycans, which are large molecules with a protein backbone and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Some of the effects of NSAIDs on the articular cartilage in OA include inhibition of chondrocyte proliferation, synthesis of cellular matrix components, glycosaminoglycan synthesis, collagen synthesis and proteoglycan synthesis. (journalofprolotherapy.com)
  • Chondroitin is classified as a glycosaminoglycan (GAG). (grainbininc.com)
  • Aggrecan is a proteoglycan, and in common with all proteoglycans it possesses a core protein with covalently attached sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. (springeropen.com)
  • It is a molecule much larger than glucosamine (about 16,900 Daltons), belonging to the glycosaminoglycan GAG group, and is one of several types of proteoglycans. (icefirephysiotherapy.com.au)
  • The term proteoglycan is given to the macromolecule composed of a central protein core to which are attached glycosaminoglycan chains. (docme.ru)
  • Long-term use of steroids can decrease the ability of wounds to heal, increase the chance of infection, suppress the body's immune system, and destroy arthritic joints by decreasing collagen and proteoglycan synthesis. (animalwellnessmagazine.com)
  • Degenerative joint disease (DJD), or arthritis, affects the smooth articular cartilage of the joint, which is the covering of bone in the joints that is responsible for the smooth, non-painful motion of joints. (petplace.com)
  • Chondroitin sulfate is a chemical in cartilage around joints in the body. (pharmaca.com)
  • Chondroitin is a component of cartilage tissue that attracts water to the tissue, which helps the cartilage stay elastic and function as a shock absorber for joints. (pharmaca.com)
  • It is a potent combination of three proven, purified ingredients that help the body manufacture proteoglycans in healthy joints. (healthmonthly.co.uk)
  • Glucosamine helps stimulate the manufacture of proteoglycans in healthy joints. (healthmonthly.co.uk)
  • In this study, versican's importance in developing joints was investigated by specific inhibition of its expression in the early joint interzone, tissue that gives rise to articular cartilages and joint cavity. (docme.ru)
  • Visually normal articular cartilage samples taken from the same joints are known to display varying quantities of their microconstituents, namely, collagen, proteoglycans and cells [ 7 ], where proteoglycans and cell are extractable from the matrix by enzymatic and biochemical manipulations. (omicsonline.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to immunolocalise perlecan in the articular and epiphyseal growth plate cartilages of stifle joints in 2-day to 8-year-old pedigree merino sheep. (edu.au)
  • In most products, glucosamine sulfate is extracted from marine exoskeletons (shellfish) and is so over refined that other natural factors that can be helpful for joints are missing [1,2]. (theherbprof.com)
  • Articular Cartilage - Hyaline cartilage, a thin layer of tissue covering the articular surfaces of bones in joints. (hipandkneedoc.com)
  • While most other therapies simply block the pain of joint discomfort, the ingredients in Chondro-Flx address the root cause of joint discomfort and provide the precursors that enhance cartilage synthesis for healthy joints and connective tissue. (orthomolecularproducts.com)
  • Glucosamine chondroitin aids with manufacturing cartilage, which is the protein part of a fibrous substance that holds your joints together. (pointshop.com)
  • Glucosamine chondroitin also provides relief for pain associated with athletic injuries to the joints. (pointshop.com)
  • As well as giving relief glucosamine chondroitin and chondroitin sulfate help to repair and rebuild damaged joints. (pointshop.com)
  • o Collagen is the major structural component of articular cartilage in joints. (abundanthealthcenter.com)
  • There is an intra-articular preparation of Adequan that can be safely used in joints, and provides building blocks for laying down of fibrocartilage in the joint, as well as lubricating the joint and blocking enzymes that damage the joint. (aaep.org)
  • Effects of oral glucosamine/chondroitin (Glu/Chon) sulfates supplementation on the frequency of intra-articular injection of the distal intertarsal joints (distal intertarsal [DIT] and tarsometatarsal [TMT]) were evaluated in 10 horses used as competitive hunter/jumpers. (glcdirect.com)
  • Hyaline cartilage is found lining bones in joints (articular cartilage or, commonly, gristle) and is also present inside bones, serving as a center of ossification, or bone growth. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • [0003] Cartilage is a specialized type of dense connective tissue and is present at several sites in the body for example ears, respiratory tract, intervertebral discs and lining of the end surfaces of bones in joints. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Cartilage, composed of proteoglycans, is mainly located on bones, near the joints and consists primarily of collagen protein with side chains called chondroitin sulfate. (nutrakeyhealth.com)
  • Connective tissue is subject to serious degenerative changes in joints because it has no blood supply. (chiropractic-help.com)
  • As articular cartilage, hyaline is found covering the articular surfaces of bones in synovial joints. (chiropractic-help.com)
  • Glucosamine & Chondroitin Now Foods dietary supplement containing glucosamine, chondroitin and MSM - combines the three most popular and effective nutrients to support healthy joints and tendons. (bodyshock.pro)
  • It is clear from the scientific literature that NSAIDs from in vitro and in vivo studies in both animals and humans have a significantly negative effect on cartilage matrix which causes an acceleration of the deterioration of articular cartilage in osteoarthritic joints. (journalofprolotherapy.com)
  • It covers the end of bone(s) to form the smooth articular surface of joints. (doctorbhatia.com)
  • Glucosamine has a role in producing the fluids and tissues that cushion joints and is necessary for the formation of skin, eyes, bones, tendons, nails, ligaments and parts of the heart. (back2health4you.com)
  • Chondroitin sulfate acts by attracting fluid into the proteoglycan molecules and stimulates collagen production, an ingredient that forms part of the cushioning structure at the ends of the joints. (nutritionpark.com)
  • Articular cartilage is the white, smooth, lustrous connective tissue that covers the surfaces of bones where they meet in diarthrodial joints. (springeropen.com)
  • Joint Health Chewables support healthy hips and joints with the popular ingredients MSM, glucosamine HCl, and chondroitin sulfate. (springtimeinc.com)
  • When healthy, these smooth elastic tissues allow connecting joints to move freely, without pain or discomfort. (needs.com)
  • Cartilage is a connective tissue found in various parts adult skeleton including all joints between bones and structures which is deformable as well as strong e.g. mesenchymal cells. (simmme.com.br)
  • Chondroitin Sulfate has been shown to decrease swelling in joints. (totalequinevets.com)
  • 2007) and the knockdown of versican leads to malformation of the interzone tissues that form the articular cartilage and synovial cavity (Nagchowdhuri et al. (uncg.edu)
  • Glucosamine is rapidly taken up by cartilage cells and it helps stimulate the synthesis of synovial fluid and cartilage and also helps inhibit the destructive enzymes that can destroy cartilage and proteoglycans. (animalwellnessmagazine.com)
  • reported that chondroitin sulfate is not rapidly absorbed in the gastro-intestinal tract and a high content of labeled chondroitin sulfate is found in the synovial fluid and cartilage. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4. The device of claim 1 or 2 wherein said non-mineralized skeletal joint tissue is selected from the group consisting of articular cartilage, ligament, tendon, intervertebral discs, joint capsule and synovial membrane tissue. (google.com)
  • THE ANATOMICAL RECORD 295:397-409 (2012) Versican Knockdown Reduces Interzone Area During Early Stages of Chick Synovial Joint Development PARTHA S. NAGCHOWDHURI, KRISTEN N. ANDREWS, SAVANNAH ROBART, AND ANTHONY A. CAPEHART* Department of Biology, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina ABSTRACT Much has been learned regarding factors that specify joint placement, but less is known regarding how these molecular instructions are translated into functional joint tissues. (docme.ru)
  • 2005). Synovial joint morphogenesis hinges strongly on the process of cavitation or the partitioning of the interzone tissue bridging joint-forming skeletal structures (Pacifici et al. (docme.ru)
  • Glucosamine is the building block of connective tissue, contributes to the maintenance of the normal condition of articular cartilage and is involved in the renewal of synovial fluid supply. (bodyshock.pro)
  • Osteoarthritis (OA) is a noninflammatory degenerative joint disease marked by degeneration of the articular cartilage, hypertrophy of bone at the margins, and changes in the synovial membrane, accompanied by pain and stiffness (14). (medicpdf.com)
  • The intra-articular administration of MSC directly in the synovial fluid has been the predominant cell-based approach, with already demonstrated clinical effectiveness, with probed regenerative and immunosuppressant activities [ 9 , 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • These chewable joint supplements for dogs provide building blocks for synovial fluid, cartilage, and connective tissues. (springtimeinc.com)
  • The equine joint is made up of the articular cartilage, the synovial fluid (joint fluid) and the soft tissue structures that hold the joint together (capsule and ligaments). (totalequinevets.com)
  • These supplements contain ingredients that are part of the make-up of either the articular cartilage or the synovial fluid. (totalequinevets.com)
  • It is a precursor in the production of proteoglycans in the cartilage matrix and synovial fluid. (totalequinevets.com)
  • The mechanisms of aggrecan degradation in adult human articular, adult bovine nasal and fetal bovine epiphyseal cartilage in response to either interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) or retinoic acid were compared using an explant culture system. (nih.gov)
  • For both factors, aggrecan proteolysis occurred predominantly at the 'aggrecanase' site, with no evidence for the action of matrix metalloproteinases, and resulted in the appearance of the corresponding G1 fragment in tissue extracts and in culture media. (nih.gov)
  • In the retinoic acid-treated tissue, however, no evidence for the cleavage of aggrecan in the interglobular region was apparent. (nih.gov)
  • Taken together, these data demonstrate that the pathways utilized for aggrecan catabolism may vary between different cartilages for a given stimulatory agent, and that, for a given tissue, different factors may elicit aggrecan release via different pathways. (nih.gov)
  • This function is typical of the large aggregating proteoglycans: aggrecan, versican , brevican, and neurocan. (bionity.com)
  • As part of aggrecan, chondroitin sulfate is a major component of cartilage . (bionity.com)
  • The mechanical properties of articular cartilage are associated with the extracellular matrix network of type II collagen and the proteoglycan, aggrecan, which in combination provide the tensile, shear, and compressive stiffness of the tissue. (mit.edu)
  • Variations in the structure of aggrecan and its GAG constituents are known to exist as a function of tissue age, disease, and species. (mit.edu)
  • It can degrade aggrecan, a major proteoglycan of cartilage, brevican, a brain-specific extracellular matrix protein, neurocan and versican. (wikipedia.org)
  • ADAMTS4 is capable of cleaving all the large chondroitin sulfate hyaluronan-binding proteoglycans (CSPGs), including aggrecan, brevican, neurocan and versican. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like ADAMTS5, it can be effectively inhibited by tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP3) and this inhibition can be enhanced in the presence of aggrecan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aggrecan, a chondroitin/keratan sulfate-containing proteoglycan, is a major component of cartilaginous tissues. (elsevier.com)
  • Aggrecan was part pericellular, but predominantly an extracellular proteoglycan. (edu.au)
  • Maintenance of aggrecan content is therefore critical to the function of the tissue and aggrecan degradation is an important factor in the erosion of articular cartilage in arthritic diseases. (mybiosource.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry: 25ug/ml detects aggrecan in paraffin-embedded human cartilage tissue sections. (mybiosource.com)
  • The most common types of GAGs in cartilage are chondroitin sulfate and keratan sulfate, both of which are found in aggrecan. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Glucosamine stimulates the biosynthesis of proteoglycans, fundamental components of aggrecan, which is found in articular cartilage. (kordels.co)
  • Chondroitin sulphate, a vital component of aggrecan, helps to maintain th structural integrity of cartilage tissue. (kordels.co)
  • Aggrecan, a macromolecule consisting of chondroitin and keratan-sulphate chains, is highly hydrophilic and of low viscosity--perfectly 'suited for its function of load dispersal. (davidson.edu)
  • Lemons ML, Sandy JD, Anderson DK, Howland DR. Intact aggrecan and chondroitin sulfate-depleted aggrecan core glycoprotein inhibit axon growth in the adult rat spinal cord. (umassmed.edu)
  • Glucosamine has also reportedly been shown to increase the production of proteoglycans, including the aggrecan core protein, which augments cartilage's ability to repair. (vitaflex.com)
  • Aggrecan is a large proteoglycan bearing numerous chondroitin sulfate and keratan sulfate chains that endow articular cartilage with its ability to withstand compressive loads. (springeropen.com)
  • It is present in the extracellular matrix in the form of proteoglycan aggregates, in which many aggrecan molecules interact with hyaluronan and a link protein stabilizes each interaction. (springeropen.com)
  • Thus aggrecan participates in both the demise and survival of articular cartilage. (springeropen.com)
  • This review describes the role of aggrecan in the function of articular cartilage and how this role is perturbed in the osteoarthritic (OA) joint. (springeropen.com)
  • The first of these functions is not usually associated with aggrecan, but relates to the unique collagen fiber organization at the articular surface and the presence of lubricin and hyaluronan (HA)/phospholipid complexes that aid in joint lubrication (Gleghorn et al . (springeropen.com)
  • The ability to resist compression is intimately associated with the high abundance of aggrecan throughout the extracellular matrix of articular cartilage beneath its superficial zone. (springeropen.com)
  • Both the charge and size properties are essential for normal aggrecan function and hence articular cartilage function. (springeropen.com)
  • The proteoglycan aggregate is depicted as a central hyaluronan (HA) filament with aggrecan and link proteins (LP) attached to it. (springeropen.com)
  • Aggrecan is essential for the normal function of articular cartilage and intervertebral disc, where it provides the ability for the tissues to withstand compressive loading. (springer.com)
  • Degradation of aggrecan via the action of proteases takes place throughout life and the degradation products accumulate in the tissue and impair its function. (springer.com)
  • By using immunoblotting techniques, it is possible to determine the extent of aggrecan degradation and to identify the degradation products that have accumulated in the tissue, and immunohistochemistry allows the location of the aggrecan degradation to be established. (springer.com)
  • Characterization and Localization of Citrullinated Proteoglycan Aggrecan in Human Articular Cartilage. (nih.gov)
  • MSM is a natural sulfur to help form antioxidants and serve as a key structural nutrient in healthy connective tissues to give shape, strength and support to other tissues within the body. (pharmaca.com)
  • Found in several connective tissues, especially in articular cartilages. (abcam.com)
  • Connective tissues contain a mixture of cells, proteins, complex polysaccharides and inorganic constituents. (springeropen.com)
  • Vitamin C helps neutralize free radicals to stop their damage and helps build connective tissues such as collagen [6]. (theherbprof.com)
  • The presence of so many varieties of tissues, connective tissues, and cartilage, all providing different functions and working together harmoniously-and with some cartilage needed by embryos to even give rise to bones in adults-reflects the intricacy and complex coordination in living organisms. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Only the glucosamine that survives this "first pass" can go on to nourish connective tissues. (atozvetsupply.com)
  • What is critical about cartilage is that, unlike other connective tissues like bone, it has no blood supply. (chiropractic-help.com)
  • Unlike other connective tissues, cartilage does not contain blood vessels. (doctorbhatia.com)
  • Thus, compared to other connective tissues, cartilage grows and repairs more slowly. (doctorbhatia.com)
  • the formation of healthy connective tissues, joint function, proper enzyme activity and hormone balance, along with the proper function of the immune system. (nutritionpark.com)
  • At a very basic level, this can provide us with some control over how fast (or slow) our connective tissues decline. (needs.com)
  • There are several different proteoglycan molecules in the joint cartilage including chondroitin sulfate and keratan sulfate. (animalwellnessmagazine.com)
  • Glucosamine sulfate is extracted from chitin, a long-chain polymer consisting of many glucosamine molecules linked together. (pharmaca.com)
  • We grouped the remaining molecules, which were felt to have relevant biologic roles, into markers of cellular stress, cytoskeleton molecules, and small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cartilage is composed of collagen fibers that impart tensile strength, and proteoglycan molecules (especially chondroitin) that serve as a cushion for joint impact. (orthomolecularproducts.com)
  • The chondroitin sulfate in Chondro-Flx is enzymatically processed providing consistently small, highly absorbed chondroitin molecules ensuring the best results. (orthomolecularproducts.com)
  • However, the discovery of Nogo and chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) in the injured nervous system in late 1980s has shifted some of the focus to inhibitory molecules. (devourdeals.com)
  • Like glucosamine, chondroitin is a building block of proteoglycans: large protein molecules that give cartilage elasticity. (nutritionpark.com)
  • The chondroitin sulfate in Chondro-Flx is enzymatically processed to provide consistently small, highly absorbed chondroitin molecules. (healthyhabitsliving.com)
  • Both these molecules contain acidic groups (carboxyl and/or SUlphate) which confer on cartilage a net negative fixed charge. (docme.ru)
  • Chondroitin sulfate is a major component of extracellular matrix, and is important in maintaining the structural integrity of the tissue. (bionity.com)
  • In biology, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is the extracellular part of multicellular structure (e.g., organisms, tissues, and biofilms) that typically provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • COLLII, like elastine and proteoglycans, is located in the extracellular matrix and is produced by fibroblasts. (springeropen.com)
  • This molecule fills all the spaces between the collagen fibers and holds water, thus plumping out the extracellular matrix and giving articular cartilage its resistance to compression and its resilience (ability to spring back into shape after load). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP-3) is an important regulator of extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover. (ox.ac.uk)
  • GAGs in the form of proteoglycans comprise the ground substance in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue. (tjclark.co.nz)
  • The extracellular matrix is a mesh-like web that consists of glycoproteins, proteoglycans, and other proteins. (devourdeals.com)
  • The extracellular matrix consists of any material produced by cells and secreted into the surrounding medium, but this term generally applies to the non-cellular components of animal tissues. (devourdeals.com)
  • And altering the way breast cancer cells interact with some proteins in the extracellular matrix coaxes cancer cells to â ¦ Extracellular matrix is the extracellular, complex mixture of various biomolecules and fibers secreted by cells in the tissues of multicellular organisms. (devourdeals.com)
  • The extracellular matrix is a generic term encompassing mixtures of polysaccharides and proteins, including collagens, bronectins, laminins, and proteoglycans, all secreted by the cell. (devourdeals.com)
  • Solution for The extracellular matrix of blood tissue consists of red blood cells. (devourdeals.com)
  • Chondroitin sulfate, a monomer of the polysaccharide portion of proteoglycan, has been shown to reduce the symptoms of osteoarthritis, possibly by increasing the synthesis of the extracellular matrix. (doctorbhatia.com)
  • The extracellular matrix is made up of collagen (predominantly type II) and proteoglycans, with a smaller percentage of glycoproteins. (vitaflex.com)
  • The role of proteoglycans is to attract water into the extracellular matrix to provide the cushioning for the joint. (vitaflex.com)
  • Extracellular vesicles (EVs) secreted by stem cells are potential factors mediating tissue regeneration. (diva-portal.org)
  • Xylyx Bio also specializes in isolating extracellular matrix from additional tissues or specific regions within tissues of interest as well as from other sources (e.g., human). (xylyxbio.com)
  • Hyaline articular cartilage was generated, demonstrating the presence of type II collagen and SZP, and the absence of type I collagen. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The contents of proteoglycan elution were determined by spectrophotometer at 530 nm, and HIF-1α and type II collagen mRNA yields were quantified with real-time PCR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The purpose of the present study was to determine relationship between disease activity, systemic markers of cartilage degradation, urinary C-terminal cross-linking telopeptides of type II collagen (uCTX-II), and bone degradation, urinary C-terminal cross-linking telopeptides of type I collagen (uCTX-I), structural progression of osteoarthritis (OA) and potential therapeutic efficacy of type II collagen (COLLII) in combination with glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate (GC). (springeropen.com)
  • The dominant collagen of this tissue is type II collagen (COLLII), together with smaller quantities of other collagens (IX, XII). (springeropen.com)
  • Type II collagen from chicken sternal cartilage contains the highest amount of anti-inflammatory and joint-related proteoglycans, including glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate and cartilage matrix glycoprotein. (abundanthealthcenter.com)
  • The type II collagen arranged in fibrils is responsible for the strength of articular cartilage. (vitaflex.com)
  • This extremely dense, opaque connective tissue is composed of type II collagen, water, and proteoglycans, such as chondroitin sulfate. (needs.com)
  • It is usually found attached to proteins as part of a proteoglycan . (bionity.com)
  • Chondroitin sulfate chains are linked to hydroxyl groups on serine residues of certain proteins. (bionity.com)
  • In the ECM, especially the basement membrane, the multidomain proteins perlecan, agrin, and COLXVIII are the main proteins to which heparan sulfate attaches [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In contrast to the functional role of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), the importance of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) in modulating signaling pathways involving hedgehog proteins, wingless-related proteins and fibroblast growth factors remains unclear. (biologists.org)
  • Collagens are a big family of proteins, the main one forming connective tissue in all higher animals. (springeropen.com)
  • Previous studies suggested their movements are blocked when the protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma (PTP sigma), an enzyme found in axons, interacts with chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans , a class of sugary proteins that fill the scars. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Immunoblotting of these proteins was positive for the small proteoglycans fibromodulin and decorin, respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • MSM is a source of biological sulfur, which is a major component in many of the body's proteins, tissues, hormones and enzymes. (nutritionpark.com)
  • Remember that articular cartilage is made up of cartilage cells in a jelly-like matrix containing a fibrous network of collagen proteins and proteoglycans. (needs.com)
  • Coat any cell culture surface with NativeCoat™ ECM to give your cells the full milieu of proteins and growth factors present in the native tissue of interest. (xylyxbio.com)
  • The end of each bone is covered with articular cartilage which acts as a shock absorber to protect the bone. (animalwellnessmagazine.com)
  • Electrostatic interactions between these GAGs contribute to the compressive and shear stiffness of the tissue. (mit.edu)
  • This combination of water-binding GAGs within a collagen network provides the tensile properties of articular cartilage, which peaks in humans around age 30. (purityproducts.com)
  • Our results support the hypothesis that articular cartilage GAGs are antiadhesive to endothelial cells and suggest that chondroitin sulfate and/or hyaluronan are responsible. (aston.ac.uk)
  • Chondroitin sulphate (CS), keratan sulphate (KS), and HA are three classes of GAGs found in articular cartilage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Approximately 80% of GAGs in adult articular cartilage are CS chains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chondroitin Sulfates Chondroitin sulfates (CS) are part of the family of natural body lubricants called GAGs. (atozvetsupply.com)
  • Immunolocalization studies, using antibodies directed to perlecan, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan first detected in basement membranes, and laminin (another major component of basement membranes), indicate that perlecan and laminin are also present in the matrices of hyaline cartilage in the nasal septum, the articular surface of the bone and the growth plate of the developing bone. (elsevier.com)
  • Articular cartilage is constructed with hyaline cartilage tissue. (springeropen.com)
  • There are three main types of cartilage, (i) hyaline cartilage or articular cartilage, (ii) fibrocartilage, (iii) elastic cartilage. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Hyaline cartilage forms the articular surface on bones. (histology-world.com)
  • Hyaline cartilage is a rather hard, translucent material rich in collagen and proteoglycan. (doctorbhatia.com)
  • It contains more collagen and less proteoglycan than hyaline cartilage. (doctorbhatia.com)
  • Immunohistochemical and electron microscopy studies of connective tissue components in normal, 6 7 ageing, 8 9 and glaucomatous eyes 10-15 have identified various collagen types, elastin, proteoglycans, and glycoproteins in the lamina cribrosa. (bmj.com)
  • As a precursor to the primary building blocks of joint tissue (glycolipids, glycoproteins, hyaluronate, and proteoglycans) it is an important starting point for cartilage synthesis. (orthomolecularproducts.com)
  • Glycoproteins, known as proteoglycans, form the ground substance in the extra-cellular matrix of connective tissue and are necessary for proper joint function and cartilage repair. (tjclark.co.nz)
  • Other glycoproteins cross-link the collagen fibrils providing strength to the overall tissue. (athletesbuzz.com)
  • Chondroitin sulfate B" is an old name for dermatan sulfate, and is no longer classified as a form of chondroitin sulfate. (bionity.com)
  • the resulting disaccharide is then referred to as dermatan sulfate. (bionity.com)
  • Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). (umassmed.edu)
  • 1989). In previous studies versican protein expression has been reduced and the G1 domain has been over-expressed to observe how these changes in the developing joint tissue effect gene expression. (uncg.edu)
  • 7. The method of claim 6, wherein the target protein fraction includes one or more of glucosamine HCl, glucosamine NaCl, glucosamine 2KCl, and chondroitin sulfate. (patentgenius.com)
  • It is processed to remove residues of protein and impurities, yielding pure glucosamine sulfate as the final material. (pharmaca.com)
  • The protein that's created has a particular job to do or a particular tissue (like muscle tissue) to create. (alvsjohook.se)
  • To this extent we propose to determine whether or not there is a relationship between the data from image analysis and a standard protein (proteoglycan) quantification method. (omicsonline.org)
  • o Chondroitin sulfate works cooperatively in the support and stabilization of collagen, the chief fibrous protein component of connective tissue. (abundanthealthcenter.com)
  • The gelatinous ground substance of cartilage is make up largely of chondroitin sulphate, into which are embedded collagen and elastic fibres made of protein: hence you will see that chondroitin often comes with glucosamine, the precursor of proteoglycans, substances found in cartilage. (chiropractic-help.com)
  • In HC the protein collagen fibers that are embedded in the chondroitin matrix are very uniform giving cartilage its hard, uniform and slippery-white appearance. (chiropractic-help.com)
  • Chondroitin sulfate is part of a large protein molecule (proteoglycan) that gives cartilage elasticity. (nutritionpark.com)
  • Fosang, A. J. and Hardingham, T. E. (1989) Isolation of the N-terminal globular protein domains from cartilage proteoglycans. (springer.com)
  • Increased activity/exercise, damages to the body and degenerative diseases may overcome the rate at which they are produced and used affecting the production of proteoglycans. (nutritionpark.com)
  • In one embodiment, the replacement body part is a skeletal joint and the new plural distinct tissues include bone and articular cartilage. (google.com)
  • 3. The device of claim 1 wherein said plural distinct tissues comprise articular cartilage and bone. (google.com)
  • To elucidate the importance of sulfated CSPGs in signaling paradigms required for endochondral bone formation, the brachymorphic (bm) mouse was used as a model for undersulfated CSPGs. (biologists.org)
  • Type I collagen is the principal organic portion of the ECM in bone and can play a big role in bone tissue engineering. (alvsjohook.se)
  • Bone banks - Centers for acquiring, characterizing and storing bones or bone tissue for future use. (hipandkneedoc.com)
  • Bone marrow - The soft, spongy tissue found in the center of most large bones that produces cellular components of blood: white cells, red cells and platelets (haemopoiesis). (hipandkneedoc.com)
  • Bone - The hard, calcified tissue of the skeleton of vertebrae animals. (hipandkneedoc.com)
  • it coats the articular surfaces (bone ends). (hipandkneedoc.com)
  • As a component of various tissues in the body, including tendons, bone, intervertebral disk, cornea and heart valve, glucosamine chondroitin has many important functions. (pointshop.com)
  • The critical squish boundary that prevents bone contact during normal movement is made of water, trapped by the proteoglycans (PGs) complexes of the articular cartilage. (atozvetsupply.com)
  • Among the applications presented are in situ hybridization of bone and cartilage, radiological examination of calcified tissue with emphasis on bone, and dealing with histology artifacts in hard tissue research. (b-ok.org)
  • Chondroitin sulfate is found in humans in cartilage, bone, cornea, skin and the arterial wall. (tjclark.co.nz)
  • Its mechanical properties are intermediate between bone and dense connective tissue like tendon. (doctorbhatia.com)
  • Osteoarthritis: The cartilage covering bones (articular cartilage) is thinned, eventually completely worn out, resulting in a "bone against bone" joint, reduced motion and pain. (doctorbhatia.com)
  • Regenerating cartilage Although articular cartilage is not capable of regrowing or healing itself, the bone tissue underneath it can. (infotechfarm.com)
  • When the articular cartilage is viewed with the naked eye, changes or degeneration of articular cartilage appear as small cracks, referred to as fibrillation, which can progress to form crevices, or vertical clefts, that can reach all the way down to the bone. (vitaflex.com)
  • 1,2,3 Studies using radiolabeled glucosamine HCl indicate the tagged carbon of glucosamine rapidly appeared in most tissues and organs, but with a special affinity for the articular tissues and bone. (vitaflex.com)
  • What is known, however, is that the disease process is characterized by a predominance of degradation vs. repair of cartilage proteoglycans and of subchondral bone. (medicpdf.com)
  • They travel from bone marrow stem cells into damaged tissues, suggesting that they can repair tissue injuries without directly replacing parenchymal cells. (diva-portal.org)
  • The disease is first manifested as a molecular derangement (abnormal joint tissue metabolism) followed by anatomic and/or physiologic derangements (characterized by cartilage degradation, bone remodelling, osteophyte formation, joint inflammation, and loss of normal joint function) culminating in disease [ 3 , 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Also, taking chondroitin sulfate with glucosamine sulfate can slow joint space narrowing in people with this bone disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Much of the skeletal cartilage is replaced by bone in the adult but some persists throughout life as articular, costal and nasal cartilage for instance. (docme.ru)
  • The main functions of articular cartilage are to distribute load over the subchondral bone and to provide a smooth covering with suitable lubricating properties. (docme.ru)
  • The base substance of cartilage is chondroitin sulfate, and it is less organized than bone. (simmme.com.br)
  • Supplementation with glucosamine tends to normalise cartilage metabolism by inhibiting the degradation and stimulating the synthesis of proteoglycans. (tjclark.co.nz)
  • To date, there is no evidence that NSAID treatment favorably modifies the progression of joint breakdown in humans with OA, in fact, several, but not all, NSAIDs inhibit the synthesis of proteoglycans by cartilage in vitro in a concentration-dependent fashion, and some have been shown to accelerate progression of cartilage degeneration in vivo in animal models of OA (4,13). (medicpdf.com)
  • Articular cartilage ECM plays a crucial role in regulating chondrocyte metabolism and functions, such as organized cytoskeleton through integrin-mediated signaling via cell-matrix interaction. (hindawi.com)
  • Increasing osmolarity of irrigation solutions may be chondroprotective with decreasing the chondrocyte death, reducing inhibition of metabolism and proteoglycan elution, ultimately preventing cartilage degeneration and promoting integrative repair. (biomedcentral.com)
  • talked about the influence of osmolarity changes on human articular cartilage [ 6 ], and the mechanism responsible for influence of the medium osmolarity on the survival of chondrocyte following mechanical injury remains unclear. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mechanical injury model was established with human articular cartilage and was incubated in irrigation solutions of different osmolarities for about 2 h, and then, we determined the influence of irrigation solution osmolarity on articular chondrocyte survival, proteoglycan elution, and metabolic state following mechanical injury. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In HE and TB staining results, damaged morphology, decreased chondrocyte numbers and proteoglycans were observed in OA and KBD groups compared with the control group. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • During slide preparation for viewing in a microscope , the chondrocyte often shrinks and appears smaller than the lacuna, but in live tissues they occupy the entire area. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Articular cartilage is a physiologically non-self-renewing avascular tissue with a singular cell type, the chondrocyte, which functions as the load-bearing surface of the arthrodial joint. (simmme.com.br)
  • A recent review summarizes data from relevant reports describing the biochemical basis of the effect of chondroitin sulfate on osteoarthritis articular tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemical basis of the effect of chondroitin sulphate on osteoarthritis articular tissues. (integricare.ca)
  • Rather, since the molecule has multiple negative charges at physiological pH, a cation is present in salts of chondroitin sulfate. (bionity.com)
  • This enhances proteoglycan synthesis, the molecule responsible for keeping articular joint cartilage lubricated. (vitasprings.com)
  • Chondroitin sulfate acts by attracting fluid into proteoglycan molecule and thereby flushing nutrients into the body. (pointshop.com)
  • To deepen our understanding of the molecular level effects of proteoglycan spatial arrangements on neuronal pathfinding, we designed micropatterning stamps for the precise placement of near single molecule chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) clusters into regularly spaced arrays. (naver.com)
  • Chondroitin sulfate is a naturally occurring molecule found in various tissues. (icefirephysiotherapy.com.au)
  • The research suggests that blocking the receptors called heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) may aid in treatment of theses illnesses. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Sulfation in these different positions confers specific biological activities to chondroitin GAG chains. (bionity.com)
  • Chondroitin sulfate chains are unbranched polysaccharides of variable length containing two alternating monosaccharides: D-glucuronic acid (GlcA) and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc). (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, marine chondroitin sulfate chains tend to be longer, with molecular weight of up to 70 kDa in chondroitin sulfate from shark, while in terrestrial animals molecular weight is typically below 45 kDa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Direct measurements of Ihh binding to defined GAG chains demonstrated that Ihh interacts with CS, particularly chondroitin-4-sulfate. (biologists.org)
  • Analyses of the proteoglycan fractions from the extracts of bovine articular surface indicated that perlecan in this tissue contains both chondroitin and heparan sulfate side-chains. (elsevier.com)
  • By contrast, there was an increase in hyaluronan with significantly shorter chondroitin sulphate chains and less chondroitin 6-sulphate in repair tissue than control cartilage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • KS represents 5% to 20% of the GAG chains in articular cartilage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Changes due to synthesis alter the structure of the chondroitin sulfate and keratan sulfate chains, whereas those due to degradation cause cleavage of all components of the aggregate. (springeropen.com)
  • This property depends on both the high charge density endowed by its numerous chondroitin sulfate and keratan sulfate chains and its ability to form large molecular aggregates via interaction with hyaluronan. (springer.com)
  • Investigations of the fruit have focused on proteoglycans , known as "Lycium barbarum polysaccharides," which showed antioxidative properties and some interesting pharmacological activities in the context of age related diseases such as atherosclerosis and diabetes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Roughley, P. J. and Mort, J. S. (1986) Ageing and the aggregating proteoglycans of human articular cartilage. (springer.com)
  • Research shows that injecting a solution that contains chondroitin sulfate and sodium hyaluronate into the eye protects the eye during cataract surgery. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Arthritis is progressive and permanent deterioration of articular cartilage, the specific type of cartilage that lines the ends of bones where they come together to form a joint, such as your horse's fetlock. (smartpakequine.com)
  • Glucosamine hydrochloride is also important in the formation and structure of bones, tendons, ligaments, and other connective tissue, stimulating cartilage production, natural joint repair, and reduction of joint inflammation. (abundanthealthcenter.com)
  • Articular cartilage is responsible for the almost friction-free movement of our bones against one another. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Cartilage is found in many areas in the body including the articular surface of the bones, the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes and the intervertebral discs. (doctorbhatia.com)
  • It is also used in the formation of tendons, membranes, bones and other tissues. (nutritionpark.com)
  • When cartilage is situated between two bones it is known as articular cartilage. (athletesbuzz.com)
  • Articular cartilage is the material that covers the heads of bones in a joint and prevents them from rubbing against each other. (athletesbuzz.com)
  • Employing biochemical, biophysical, and mechanical stimuli generated robust hyaline articular cartilage with a tensile modulus of 2 MPa and a compressive instantaneous modulus of 650 kPa. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Specialized connective tissue with high tensile strength which consists of cells embedded in an amorphous, gel-like substance. (brainscape.com)
  • provides tensile strength to the tissue and resist movement of interstitial water & proteoglycans from the cartilage, esp. (wheelessonline.com)
  • They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces. (umassmed.edu)
  • 5. The biocompatible, biodegradable graft of claim 3 of improved ultimate tensile strength (UTS) which comprises proteoglycans wherein the protoglycans have an average molecular weight of at least 500,000, wherein the protoglycans are incorporated into the interfibrillar spaces. (google.es)
  • Patients with severe to moderate joint pain who were given a daily dose of Glucosamine Sulphate 1500mg and Chondroitin Sulphate 1200mg reported 26.4% improvement in both pain relief and joint flexibility. (kordels.co)
  • Chondroitin sulfate is a component of proteoglycans, the main components of cartilage. (back2health4you.com)
  • Oral compounds sold as supplements for maintenance of joint health provide components of cartilage and precursors of components of cartilage, such as chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine hydrochloride. (vitaflex.com)
  • Sulfur is necessary for the formation of collagen, glucosamine, and chondroitin, all components of cartilage. (totalequinevets.com)
  • Chondroitin sulfate performs a structural role in binding with the collagen fibrils present in articular cartilage. (pointshop.com)
  • o Glucosamine sulfate is a supplemental form of glucosamine, an amino sugar made by the body and involved with forming nails, tendons, ligaments, heart valves and other tissues. (abundanthealthcenter.com)
  • Age-related changes in the chemical composition of bovine articular cartilage. (portlandpress.com)
  • The major components of this cartilage matrix are collagen, water and proteoglycans. (animalwellnessmagazine.com)
  • Nutritional supplements containing chondroprotective (cartilage-friendly) glucosamine and chondroitin replenish the raw materials that are essential for the healing and synthesis of cartilage, its matrix and joint fluid. (animalwellnessmagazine.com)
  • Disclosed are matrix materials, methods, and devices for manufacture in vivo of autogenous replacement body parts comprising plural distinct tissues. (google.com)
  • 7. The device of claim 1 or 2 wherein said matrix comprises devitalized allogenic or xenogenic tissue. (google.com)
  • They orchestrate cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesive interactions from embryonic development to mature tissue function. (hindawi.com)
  • Cartilaginous ECM is remodeled continuously by a combination of production, degradation by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and inhibition of MMPs activity by tissue inhibitors of MMPs [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Previous studies have shown that the matrix chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, versican, exhibits a similar pattern of expression in the embryonic joint rudiment of chick and mouse suggesting conserved function during joint development. (docme.ru)
  • The prominent pericellular distribution of perlecan observed indicates potential roles in cell-matrix communication in cartilage, consistent with growth factor signalling, cellular proliferation and tissue development. (edu.au)
  • Maturation of Proteoglycan Matrix in Articular Cartilage Under Increased and Decreased Joint Loading. (portlandpress.com)
  • Diseases that destroy articular cartilage do so by activating catabolic enzymes and decreasing the production of inhibitors, thereby accelerating the matrix breakdown. (theherbprof.com)
  • Glucosamine chondroitin aids with water binding in the cartilage matrix. (pointshop.com)
  • The sulfate groups impart an acid nature to the matrix and thus adult cartilage stains basophilically. (brainscape.com)
  • Therefore, our product is designed to treat pain and inflammation, repair and rebuild cartilaginous tissue, reduce friction and enhance the fluidity of the joint matrix. (integricare.ca)
  • Much like other connective tissue , cartilage is composed of cells , fibers, and a matrix. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Theoretical models of soft tissue demonstrate that behavior of such systems is strongly influenced by the relationship between the interstitial fluid pressure (P(if)) and solid matrix stress. (jove.com)
  • In the articular cartilage the drug is deposited into the cartilage matrix. (medi-vet.com)
  • Tumors arising from other tissues may also produce a cartilage-like matrix, the best known being pleomorphic adenoma of the salivary glands. (doctorbhatia.com)
  • Synthesis of matrix metalloproteinases, collagen and proteoglycan degraders, are found in high concentration in cartilage effected by osteoarthritis. (davidson.edu)
  • However, it is the very fact that the cell concentration in cartilage is low which makes it in many ways a most interesting tissue to study since its properties are determined by those of its matrix. (docme.ru)
  • MATRIX COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE The matrix of cartilage consists principally of collagen fibres embedded in a gel of proteoglycans and water, the latter containing a number of solutes, both inorganic and organic. (docme.ru)
  • Thus it is the proteoglycan-water gel, with its very small pores (20-50 A)[2] which determines the fine subdivision of the matrix, and not the collagen network. (docme.ru)
  • The matrix is made up of proteoglycans, collagen, and elastin. (totalequinevets.com)
  • Although the name "chondroitin sulfate" suggests a salt with a sulfate counter-anion, this is not the case, as sulfate is covalently attached to the sugar. (bionity.com)
  • The soft tissue lining of the joint (synovium) is the first tissue in many animals to be affected in the disease and the subsequent irritation of the joint lining (synovitis) liberates chemical mediators that have been shown to be responsible for cartilage degeneration. (petplace.com)
  • Healthy articular cartilage provides a smooth, slippery surface that allows free movement and contributes to the shock-absorbing properties of the joint. (smartpakequine.com)
  • MSM's use in joint stems from its organic sulfur support of the disulfide bonds that reinforce collagen fibers, a property that's believed to promote connective tissue integrity and resilience. (pharmaca.com)
  • Chondroitin sulfate (CS) has been studied extensively in humans, displaying a notable record of safety and effectiveness in promoting joint health. (purityproducts.com)
  • Proteoglycans contribute to the maintenance of sound joint structure, ultimately enhancing healthy joint function. (healthmonthly.co.uk)
  • Tissue engineering therefore presents a therapeutic approach that may address cartilage lesions, with the objective of reducing pain, restoring function, and halting joint degeneration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Unlike Advanced Joint Complex , typical extracted glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate formulas are simply to incomplete to work as well as nature intended [2]. (theherbprof.com)
  • SAMe may support joint health through transulfuration, a process that takes a certain amount of sulfur from SAMe to create glucosamine and chondroitin sulfates. (vitasprings.com)
  • Chondro-Flx combines glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, vitamin C and bromelain, all of which have a long history of use and a large body of research highlighting their role in supporting joint health. (orthomolecularproducts.com)
  • Glucosamine sulfate is a naturally occurring, joint-supporting compound. (orthomolecularproducts.com)
  • This proven ability of Glucosamine chondroitin to repair and improve joint function in addition to providing relief from pain gives glucosamine chondroitin a significant advantage compared to conventional treatments. (pointshop.com)
  • The Importance of the Knee Joint Meniscal Fibrocartilages as Stabilizing Weight Bearing Structures Providing Global Protection to Human Knee-Joint Tissues. (nih.gov)
  • If your horse's lameness is severe, or he has concurrent soft tissue injuries such as a torn meniscus, or he has a significant amount of cartilage damage in the joint, it is possible that the joint injections may not be able to make him sound. (aaep.org)
  • Consistent use of an oral glucosamine/chondroitin supplement resulted in a decreased need for distal tarsal joint injections to maintain soundness in a group of show hunters/jumpers. (glcdirect.com)
  • Loss of chondroitin sulphate from joint cartilage leads to the loss of resilience and shock-absorbing properties of cartilage. (kordels.co)
  • Combination therapy with glucosamine and chondroitin helps to protect joint cartilage from damage (chondroprotection), reduces joint pain and improves joint function and mobility. (kordels.co)
  • Glucosamine-chondroitin can restore proper joint function. (life-enhancement.com)
  • The new forms of glucosamine and chondroitin offer what we have been yearning for - the retrieval of young-adult joint functionality. (life-enhancement.com)
  • Glucosamine Sulfate helps joint health for joint lubrication, better joint movement and flexibility. (nutrakeyhealth.com)
  • T J Clark's Glucosamine / Chondroitin / MSM Formula is a scientifically advanced liquid nutritional supplement designed to support healthy joint function by featuring premium quality glucosamine hydrochloride and low molecular weight chondroitin sulfate, in addition to other nutrients that support healthy connective tissue. (tjclark.co.nz)
  • The inclusion of Polyfloramin ensures protection against free radical damage to joint tissue. (tjclark.co.nz)
  • Glucosamine appears to be selectively used by joint tissues. (tjclark.co.nz)
  • There is also an indication that chondroitin sulfate, after absorption, does enter the joint space. (tjclark.co.nz)
  • Chondroitin plays a key role in the production of cartilage proteoglycans, increases mobility and stabilizes the width of the joint gap. (bodyshock.pro)
  • Neither UDP-GD nor GFAT was inhibited by concentrations of Sal, ASA or Ibu that were achieved clinically in joint tissues (e.g., 1.0 mM Sal and ASA, 170 μM Ibu). (elsevier.com)
  • Glucosamine and chondroitin are safe, natural and effective compounds that support healthy joint function by supplying the materials needed to produce collagen and proteoglycans. (grainbininc.com)
  • Chondroitin works synergistically with glucosamine, and together, they form the basis of many of the industry s most popular joint support supplements. (grainbininc.com)
  • Glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfat e are components of the cartilage in joint tissue, supporting joint structure by aiding in the formation of connective tissue and protecting against the deterioration of cartilage from chronic joint diseases, while helping to relieve joint pain associated with osteoarthritis. (back2health4you.com)
  • Glucosamine & Chondroitin is chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine, two natural components found in the cartilage of joint tissue. (back2health4you.com)
  • Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate support joint structure and help to build connective tissue, protecting against the destruction of cartilage from injury or chronic joint disease. (back2health4you.com)
  • Glucosamine & Chondroitin provides a natural solution for pain relief and joint protection. (back2health4you.com)
  • Osteoarthritis occurs when there is significant wearing of the articular cartilage of the joint. (nutritionpark.com)
  • It is necessary for the construction and repair of connective tissue and healthy joint cartilage. (nutritionpark.com)
  • Articular cartilage absorbs stress and provides a smooth load bearing surface to permit low-friction movement of the joint. (davidson.edu)
  • Without it the tissue could not withstand the rigours of joint loading and its decreased abundance marks the onset of the tissue decline associated with the OA joint. (springeropen.com)
  • However, it is unclear if taking chondroitin sulfate alone slows joint space narrowing. (medlineplus.gov)
  • At the end of the 12 months, the group on placebo had x-ray evidence indicating joint space narrowing, whereas the group on chondroitin sulfate did not. (icefirephysiotherapy.com.au)
  • At the end of the two years it was found that there was no change in the average joint space of those taking chondroitin sulphate, whereas those taking the placebo did experience joint space narrowing. (icefirephysiotherapy.com.au)
  • The unique structure of articular cartilage provides the intrinsic functional properties that enable the knee joint to withstand and resist excessive compressive and biomechanical loads, facilitating almost frictionless knee movement. (simmme.com.br)
  • It increases the lubrication of the soft tissue structures in the joint and increases the viscosity of joint fluid, while decreasing inflammation in the joint by scavenging free radicals. (totalequinevets.com)
  • The functional property of COLLII is to give strength and flexibility to the connective tissue, resisting the tensions suffered in the direction of its fibers. (springeropen.com)
  • Its function consists in giving strength and flexibility to the connective tissue, resisting the tensions suffered in the direction of its fibers. (springeropen.com)
  • Clinical lameness evaluations (palpation and flexion tests), radiographs, and intra-articular anesthesia or injections were performed by the same clinician (author). (glcdirect.com)
  • The formula also includes bromelain to enhance the absorption of chondroitin and vitamin C, an antioxidant that reduces free radicals and is a cofactor to enzymes critical for the synthesis of new collagen. (orthomolecularproducts.com)
  • Bromelain also increases the absorption of chondroitin sulfate. (orthomolecularproducts.com)
  • o Plant enzymes are measured in activity, not mg's and are needed for absorption of minerals and vitamins in the cells and tissues of the body. (abundanthealthcenter.com)
  • Preliminary absorption studies in the horse of glucosamine hydrochloride show a 5.9% absorption rate after a single dose.69 There is both extensive tissue uptake and first-pass conversion in the liver that may account for the lower serum levels found. (glcdirect.com)
  • Earlier studies using high-molecular-weight chondroitin sulfate concluded that there was no significant absorption of this high-molecular-weight version of chondroitin sulfate. (tjclark.co.nz)
  • More recent studies demonstrate that there is significant absorption of low-molecular-weight chondroitin sulfate. (tjclark.co.nz)
  • Chondroitin helps attract fluid into proteoglycans, thereby bringing nutrients into cartilage and providing shock absorption. (grainbininc.com)
  • Biochemical assay analyses have been commonly applied to determine the proteoglycan quantity of articular cartilage in laboratory and clinical research [ 1 , 2 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • A small number of centres performing ACI have reported encouraging long-term clinical results, but there is currently a lack of quantitative and qualitative biochemical data regarding the nature of the repair tissue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Detailed biochemical analyses of the repair tissue and their comparison with native tissue are important considerations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • TissueSpec® Cartilage Hydrogels supported the chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, which formed cartilageous tissue constructs and demonstrated increased mechanical stiffness and biochemical properties resembling native articular cartilage. (xylyxbio.com)
  • TissueSpec ® ECM Scaffolds give cells the total 3D environment by providing the biochemical, architectural, and mechanical features of a specific tissue. (xylyxbio.com)
  • The many factors that are involved in the degradation of articular cartilage are in place. (vitaflex.com)
  • Because of the possible serious adverse events associated with the long-term use of some of the aforementioned medications, recent experimental efforts have been directed at identifying „chondroprotective' agents that may repair, or at the very least, slow the degradation of articular cartilage in OA. (medicpdf.com)
  • Kordel's Glucosamine plus Chondroitin treats the cause of osteoarthritis and pain relief can be seen after about a week. (medipal.my)
  • Glucosamine hydrochloride has been shown to slightly reduce the depression of cartilage proteoglycan synthesis caused by NSAID use. (tjclark.co.nz)
  • Salicylates may suppress cartilage proteoglycan synthesis by inhibiting GT. (elsevier.com)
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of enzymes involved in synthesis and modification of chondroitin sulfate (CS) in knee cartilage tissue of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Glucosamine chondroitin blocks cartilage destroying enzymes and glucosamine chondroitin also protects existing healthy cartilage. (pointshop.com)
  • Enzymes that prevent the transport of important nutrients are also blocked by glucosamine chondroitin. (pointshop.com)
  • Chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine chondroitin can work in combination to control damaging enzymes. (pointshop.com)
  • o Glucosamine, Chondroitin, MSM Plus(TM) contains properly balanced enzymes to maximize the healthful effects of these nutrients within the body. (abundanthealthcenter.com)
  • Chondroitin sulphate also inhibits the actions of enzymes involved in the degradation of cartilage. (kordels.co)
  • To examine the effects of sodium salicylate (Sal), aspirin [acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)] and ibuprofen (Ibu) (as the racemic mixture and the R- and S-enantiomers) on the activities of 2 enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of the hexose components of chondroitin sulfate (CS), i.e. (elsevier.com)
  • The most important of these chondroprotective agents are glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate (CS). (atozvetsupply.com)
  • The blend is effective in reducing inflammation and pain, as well as providing support for maintenance of healthy connective tissue. (abundanthealthcenter.com)
  • The best-characterized function of Saps can be proteolytic digestive function of sponsor tissues release a nutrients such as for example oligopeptides and amino acids6, 7. (acmbcb.org)
  • To date, all of the attention has been given to the first available nutrients of this type, glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate , which until now have been the most studied forms. (life-enhancement.com)
  • Nutrients reach cartilage by diffusion from the adjacent tissues. (histology-world.com)
  • Cartilage is avascular, there are no vessels to carry blood to cartilage tissue, they rely on diffusion to obtain nutrients. (simmme.com.br)