Mandibular Condyle: The posterior process on the ramus of the mandible composed of two parts: a superior part, the articular portion, and an inferior part, the condylar neck.Temporomandibular Joint: An articulation between the condyle of the mandible and the articular tubercle of the temporal bone.Mandibular Fractures: Fractures of the lower jaw.Jaw Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the jaw.Facial Asymmetry: Congenital or acquired asymmetry of the face.Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)Radiography, Panoramic: Extraoral body-section radiography depicting an entire maxilla, or both maxilla and mandible, on a single film.Jaw Fixation Techniques: The stable placement of surgically induced fractures of the mandible or maxilla through the use of elastics, wire ligatures, arch bars, or other splints. It is used often in the cosmetic surgery of retrognathism and prognathism. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p636)Mandibular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MANDIBLE.Mandibular DiseasesPterygoid Muscles: Two of the masticatory muscles: the internal, or medial, pterygoid muscle and external, or lateral, pterygoid muscle. Action of the former is closing the jaws and that of the latter is opening the jaws, protruding the mandible, and moving the mandible from side to side.Fractures, Comminuted: A fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed. (Dorland, 27th ed)Osteochondroma: A cartilage-capped benign tumor that often appears as a stalk on the surface of bone. It is probably a developmental malformation rather than a true neoplasm and is usually found in the metaphysis of the distal femur, proximal tibia, or proximal humerus. Osteochondroma is the most common of benign bone tumors.Temporomandibular Joint Disc: A plate of fibrous tissue that divides the temporomandibular joint into an upper and lower cavity. The disc is attached to the articular capsule and moves forward with the condyle in free opening and protrusion. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p92)Temporal Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.Mastication: The act and process of chewing and grinding food in the mouth.Bite Force: The force applied by the masticatory muscles in dental occlusion.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Tomography, Spiral Computed: Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.DislocationsCartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Cephalometry: The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Occipital Bone: Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.Facial Pain: Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction Syndrome: A symptom complex consisting of pain, muscle tenderness, clicking in the joint, and limitation or alteration of mandibular movement. The symptoms are subjective and manifested primarily in the masticatory muscles rather than the temporomandibular joint itself. Etiologic factors are uncertain but include occlusal dysharmony and psychophysiologic factors.Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Mucopolysaccharidosis I: Systemic lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of alpha-L-iduronidase (IDURONIDASE) and characterized by progressive physical deterioration with urinary excretion of DERMATAN SULFATE and HEPARAN SULFATE. There are three recognized phenotypes representing a spectrum of clinical severity from severe to mild: Hurler syndrome, Hurler-Scheie syndrome and Scheie syndrome (formerly mucopolysaccharidosis V). Symptoms may include DWARFISM; hepatosplenomegaly; thick, coarse facial features with low nasal bridge; corneal clouding; cardiac complications; and noisy breathing.Mucopolysaccharidoses: Group of lysosomal storage diseases each caused by an inherited deficiency of an enzyme involved in the degradation of glycosaminoglycans (mucopolysaccharides). The diseases are progressive and often display a wide spectrum of clinical severity within one enzyme deficiency.Iduronidase: An enzyme that hydrolyzes iduronosidic linkages in desulfated dermatan. Deficiency of this enzyme produces Hurler's syndrome. EC 3.2.1.76.Uronic Acids: Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Bruxism: A disorder characterized by grinding and clenching of the teeth.Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Borneo: An island in the Malay Archipelago, east of Sumatra, north of Java, and west of Celebes. It is the third largest island in the world. Its name is a Portuguese alteration of BRUNEI, located on it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p163; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p73)Caves: Geological formations consisting of underground enclosures with access from the surface.Asia, Southeastern: The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Oceania: The islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia. (Random House Dictionary, 2d ed)Oceanic Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.
  • In a side view, it is possible to observe the morphology of the anterior surface (AS) (convex) and posterior surface (PS) (flat) of the mandibular head. (intechopen.com)
  • During the opening motion of the mouth, the mechanism of action between the articular disc is to traverse in the anterior direction across the surface of the glenoid fossa, while the mandibular condyle is rotating under the concave surface of the disc [ 1 ]. (springer.com)
  • The period of the anterior-most position of the disk was coincident with the period during which the EMG burst activities of the masseter muscle ipsilateral to the condyle studied was present. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Conclusion: After the Le Fort I osteotomy and mandibular self-rotation, the condyle remained stable occupying a new anterior-superior position in the glenoid fossa and patient's TMJ remained asymptomatic after 9 months of postoperative follow-up. (bvsalud.org)
  • 2) The presence of functional overload or individual susceptibility generates hypoxia and compression of the articular tissues, resulting in apoptosis of chondrocytes and fibroblasts of the fibrocartilage, and DAMP's release, such as ATP, ROS, TIMPs, fragments of collagen and low molecular weight hyaluronic acid. (intechopen.com)
  • Made up of chondrocytes and chondroblasts distributed throughout the articular cartilage. (scribd.com)
  • The results of this study provide evidence that the loss of the shock absorber function of the disc, and the exposure of the condyles to overloading may cause the injured chondrocytes to secrete degenerative cytokines as indicated by the loss of proteoglycans, binding collagens and LP. These molecular changes are expressed a t the subcellular and cellular levels as osteoarthritis or degenerative joint disease. (openrepository.com)
  • The composition may comprise mandibular condyle-derived chondrocytes in the form of a chondrocyte film, per se, or in combination with a scaffold. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 62. A flexible chondrocyte film for the treatment of an orthopedic disorder,wherein the chondrocyte film comprises from one to about ten layers of mammalian perinatal mandibular condyle derived chondrocytes (MCDC), wherein the MCDC are surrounded by an insoluble matrix comprising type II collagen. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 74. A method for treating an orthopedic disorder in a subject in need thereof, the method comprising the step of administering to a site requiring chondrocytes in the subject a flexible chondrocyte film, the chondrocyte film comprising from one to about ten layers of mammalian mandibular condyle derived chondrocytes (MCDC), wherein the MCDC are surrounded by an insoluble matrix, wherein the insoluble matrix comprises type II collagen. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Both the mandibular and mental foramen was located at about the same level. (ijcmas.com)
  • The morphological variations of the mental foramen (MF) and mandibular foramen (MBF) have been studied for several years, and the prevalence and morphometric characteristics of double and triple foramina have been reported. (bvsalud.org)
  • Las variaciones morfológicas del foramen mental (FM) y mandibular (FMB) han sido estudiadas durante varios años, reportándose su prevalencia y las características morfométricas de forámenes dobles y triples. (bvsalud.org)
  • Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to clarify the effects of using powdered feed to raise rats whose maxillary molars have been extracted during the growth period on the growth of the mandibular condyle. (scirp.org)
  • In the lower portion of the mandibular head at its point of junction with the condylar neck (CN), the pterygoid fossa can be seen (PF), where the lateral pterygoid muscle is inserted. (intechopen.com)
  • Occlusal problems overwork especially the lateral pterygoid muscle in its effort to center the teeth against the forceful occlusion produced by the mandibular elevator muscles. (tao-garden.com)
  • These included J-shaped sellas, a mottled appearance and increased vascular markings of the calvaria, abnormally configured mandibular condyles, hypoplastic articular eminences, small zygomatic arches, prominent parotid glands, and optic nerve kinking. (ajnr.org)
  • Each of these movements are performed by a number of muscles working together to perform the movement while controlling the position of the condyle within the mandibular fossa. (physio-pedia.com)
  • Tomography studies were performed to evaluate the initial and final position of the condyle. (bvsalud.org)
  • Some devices which restrict mandibular protrusion to a midline linear plane to register the maxillomandibular relationship for an intraoral sleep appliance do not take into account the predominance of intercondylar asymmetry in humans. (sleepdt.com)
  • A medical records review of the patients was done to determine if the patients' improvement was related to pain intensity, the length of time between the injury and removal of the implant or the depth of penetration of the implant into the mandibular canal as determined by cone-beam computed tomography. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • When patients open and close their mouth with the junction of the maxillary and mandibular central incisors (normally in the midline) lined up against a vertical straight edge, the mandibular midline typically deviates toward the painful side. (merckmanuals.com)
  • This study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of a developed clinical pathway (CP) to determine the sequence of dental treatment in patients who are edentulous and use maxillary and mandibular complete dentures. (go.jp)
  • Sixty-two edentulous patients with maxillary and mandibular complete dentures were randomly allocated either to with (31 subjects) or without (31 subjects) a CP. (go.jp)
  • RESULTS: There were no significant gender differences in crown completion stages of central incisor and first molar, of which P values were 0.143 (for maxillary central incisor), 0.122 (for maxillary first molar), 0.191 (for mandibular central incisor) and 0.558 (for mandibular first molar), while girls were found to be ahead of boys for crown completion stages of other teeth. (bvsalud.org)
  • The patient was subjected to previous orthodontic treatment for the alignment and leveling of the arches, correction of the left crossbite and extraction of maxillary and mandibular third molars to aid in the orthognathic surgery. (bvsalud.org)
  • Touch, pain and temperature are tested over the temple, cheek and jaw, corresponding to the phthalmic, maxillary and mandibular divisions of the trigeminal nerve ( figure 19a-c ). (ravedev.co.uk)
  • The purpose of this paper was to investigate the possible association between various factors expected to affect neurosensory discomfort and recovery in patients with mandibular nerve injury after dental implant surgery. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Methods: Eighty-nine post-dental implant surgery patients with mandibular nerve injury were enrolled in this retrospective analysis. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • The typical TMJ disorders are specifically defined as: pain dysfunction syndrome, arthritis, dysfunction due to trauma, or internal derangement involving the articular disk. (wikidot.com)
  • The effects of childhood masticatory function loss and soft foods on the mandibular condyle have been the subject of much research. (scirp.org)
  • Enlargement of the tongue and mandibular protrusion often cause masticatory disturbances, dysphagia, speech difficulties, and/or aesthetic problems, resulting in a marked decrease in the patient's quality of life. (hindawi.com)
  • The purpose of the present study is to analyze the movements of the articular disk of the mandibular condyle of rabbits during fictive mastication induced by repetitive electrical stimulation of the masticatory cortical area (CMA). (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Hiraba Katsunari: 'Movements of the articular disk of the rabbit recorded by video-imaging and masticatory muscle activities'Japanese J.of Oral Biology. (nii.ac.jp)