Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Superficial Back Muscles: The top layer of the back muscles whose function is to move the SCAPULA. This group of muscles consists of the trapezius, latissimus dorsi, rhomboid major, rhomboid minor and levator scapulae.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Lenses, Intraocular: Artificial implanted lenses.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Injections, Intralesional: Injections introduced directly into localized lesions.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Injections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.BrazilInjections, Epidural: The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.IndiaIntravitreal Injections: The administration of substances into the VITREOUS BODY of the eye with a hypodermic syringe.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Injections, Jet: The injection of solutions into the skin by compressed air devices so that only the solution pierces the skin.Injections, Intraocular: The administration of substances into the eye with a hypodermic syringe.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Flow Injection Analysis: The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic: An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Syringes: Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Mice, Inbred C57BLNeedles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Vitreous Body: The transparent, semigelatinous substance that fills the cavity behind the CRYSTALLINE LENS of the EYE and in front of the RETINA. It is contained in a thin hyaloid membrane and forms about four fifths of the optic globe.Triamcinolone Acetonide: An esterified form of TRIAMCINOLONE. It is an anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. Intralesional, intramuscular, and intra-articular injections are also administered under certain conditions.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Triamcinolone: A glucocorticoid given, as the free alcohol or in esterified form, orally, intramuscularly, by local injection, by inhalation, or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p739)Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Mice, Inbred BALB CNeuromuscular Agents: Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.Botulinum Toxins, Type A: A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Needle Sharing: Usage of a single needle among two or more people for injecting drugs. Needle sharing is a high-risk behavior for contracting infectious disease.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Drug Administration Routes: The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Anti-Dyskinesia Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders. Most of these act centrally on dopaminergic or cholinergic systems. Among the most important clinically are those used for the treatment of Parkinson disease (ANTIPARKINSON AGENTS) and those for the tardive dyskinesias.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Drug Users: People who take drugs for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. The drugs may be legal or illegal, but their use often results in adverse medical, legal, or social consequences for the users.Mice, Inbred ICRLipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Disposable Equipment: Apparatus, devices, or supplies intended for one-time or temporary use.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Freund's Adjuvant: An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Viscosupplements: Viscoelastic solutions that are injected into JOINTS in order to alleviate symptoms of joint-related disorders such as OSTEOARTHRITIS.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Rats, Inbred LewAnalysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Needle-Exchange Programs: Organized services for exchange of sterile needles and syringes used for injections as a potential means of reducing the transmission of infectious diseases.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Sclerosing Solutions: Chemical agents injected into blood vessels and lymphatic sinuses to shrink or cause localized THROMBOSIS; FIBROSIS, and obliteration of the vessels. This treatment is applied in a number of conditions such as VARICOSE VEINS; HEMORRHOIDS; GASTRIC VARICES; ESOPHAGEAL VARICES; PEPTIC ULCER HEMORRHAGE.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Carrageenan: A water-soluble extractive mixture of sulfated polysaccharides from RED ALGAE. Chief sources are the Irish moss CHONDRUS CRISPUS (Carrageen), and Gigartina stellata. It is used as a stabilizer, for suspending COCOA in chocolate manufacture, and to clarify BEVERAGES.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Injections, Intralymphatic: Injections into the lymph nodes or the lymphatic system.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Dependovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Cisterna Magna: One of three principal openings in the SUBARACHNOID SPACE. They are also known as cerebellomedullary cistern, and collectively as cisterns.Equipment Reuse: Further or repeated use of equipment, instruments, devices, or materials. It includes additional use regardless of the original intent of the producer as to disposability or durability. It does not include the repeated use of fluids or solutions.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Mice, Inbred C3HHypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Methylprednisolone: A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.Rats, Inbred F344Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Technetium: The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Fluoroscopy: Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Adrenal Cortex HormonesMice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Botulinum Toxins: Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.Radiculopathy: Disease involving a spinal nerve root (see SPINAL NERVE ROOTS) which may result from compression related to INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; SPINAL CORD INJURIES; SPINAL DISEASES; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include radicular pain, weakness, and sensory loss referable to structures innervated by the involved nerve root.Naloxone: A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Hyaluronic Acid: A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Medical Waste Disposal: Management, removal, and elimination of biologic, infectious, pathologic, and dental waste. The concept includes blood, mucus, tissue removed at surgery or autopsy, soiled surgical dressings, and other materials requiring special control and handling. Disposal may take place where the waste is generated or elsewhere.Organotechnetium Compounds: Organic compounds that contain technetium as an integral part of the molecule. These compounds are often used as radionuclide imaging agents.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Angiogenesis Inhibitors: Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Cosmetic Techniques: Procedures for the improvement or enhancement of the appearance of the visible parts of the body.Indium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.Horseradish Peroxidase: An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
The nonoperative treatment consists of bracing; medications; and intra-articular injections, such as hyaluronate acid. In ...
Intra-articular injection. *Transscleral. Central nervous system. *Intracerebral. *Intrathecal. *Epidural. Circulatory,. ...
Intra-articular injection. *Transscleral. Central nervous system. *Intracerebral. *Intrathecal. *Epidural. Circulatory, ...
Intra-articular injection. *Transscleral. Central nervous system. *Intracerebral. *Intrathecal. *Epidural. Circulatory,. ...
Intra-articular injection. *Transscleral. Central nervous system. *Intracerebral. *Intrathecal. *Epidural. Circulatory, ... The injection may be repeated every 5 to 15 minutes if there is insufficient response.[3] A second dose is needed in 16-35% of ... "EPINEPHRINE injection [Greenstone LLC]". FDA via DailyMed. 16 May 2010. Archived from the original on 2010-05-16. Marketing ... "KALÉO ANNOUNCES U.S. AVAILABILITY AND PRICING TO PATIENTS OF AUVI-Q® (Epinephrine Injection, USP) AUTO-INJECTOR". Multivu. ...
Intra-articular injection. *Transscleral. Central nervous system. *Intracerebral. *Intrathecal. *Epidural. Circulatory, ...
Intra-articular injection. *Transscleral. Central nervous system. *Intracerebral. *Intrathecal. *Epidural. Circulatory, ... The wedge injection causes the two flat ribbons to expand into the die pockets, giving rise to the three-dimensional finished ...
Intra-articular injection. *Transscleral. Central nervous system. *Intracerebral. *Intrathecal. *Epidural. Circulatory, ... a second fluid injection is sometimes used, a "flush", following the injection to push the medicine into the bloodstream more ... Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous). The ... An injection inherently causes pain when the skin is broken and is medically invasive. In cases in which a choice between ...
Intra-articular injection. *Transscleral. Central nervous system. *Intracerebral. *Intrathecal. *Epidural. Circulatory, ... often also suitable for preparation of injections, Hydrostat (hydromorphone) and a number of brands of morphine tablets and ... have to be administered by injection. Recently, new technologies have allowed sublingual administration of such molecules. ...
Intra-articular injection. *Transscleral. Central nervous system. *Intracerebral. *Intrathecal. *Epidural. Circulatory, ...
Intra-articular injection. *Transscleral. Central nervous system. *Intracerebral. *Intrathecal. *Epidural. Circulatory, ...
Intra-articular injection. *Transscleral. Central nervous system. *Intracerebral. *Intrathecal. *Epidural. Circulatory, ...
Intra-articular injection. *Transscleral. Central nervous system. *Intracerebral. *Intrathecal. *Epidural. Circulatory, ... Epidural steroid injection[edit]. Main article: Epidural steroid injection. Epidural steroid injection may be used to treat ... Epidural techniques frequently involve injection of drugs through a catheter placed into the epidural space. The injection can ... "Epidural Steroid Injections". Pain Management Specialists.. *^ Norman D (2003). "Epidural analgesia using loss of resistance ...
"HAZARDS AND COMPLICATIONS OF INTRA-ARTICULAR INJECTIONS IN THE KNEE". Revue medicale du Moyen-Orient. 21: 67-70. PMID 14133004 ...
Ohirta, T (1986). "Hydroxyapatite deposition in articular cartilage by intra-articular injections of methylprednisolone. A ... thus avoiding clogging of the injection location with metal phosphate minerals. The high concentration of ligands near the cell ...
Cases of Serratia arthritis have been reported in outpatients receiving intra-articular injections. Several methods can be used ...
Baum J, Ziff M (March 1967). "Use of the hypospray jet injector for intra-articular injection". Ann. Rheum. Dis. 26 (2): 143-5 ... It is claimed by its manufacturer that it can deliver intramuscular injections and subcutaneous injections up to 1 milliliter. ... After each injection the cap would be discarded and replaced with a sterile one. These devices were known as protector cap ... "After injections, they [CDC] observed fluid remaining on the Ped-O-Jet nozzle being sucked back into the device upon its ...
Baum J, Ziff M (March 1967). "Use of the hypospray jet injector for intra-articular injection". Ann. Rheum. Dis. 26 (2): 143-5 ... Use of the hypospray jet injector for intra-articular injection (1967). ... The patient doesn't even feel the injection." The characters in the story were told that it was such a new device that the " ... Presumably when used in the neck it delivers the medication intravenously or intra-arterially and when used on the arm it ...
Most children are treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and intra-articular corticosteroid injections. Methotrexate ... Another emphasis of treatment is to control inflammation and extra-articular symptoms quickly. Doing so should help to reduce ...
Additionally, intra-articular corticosteroid injections (injection into the joint space) are another popular, conservative ... Some side effects for the procedure include pneumothorax, intravascular injection, and nerve damage. Although this technique ...
Steroids and other medications are sometimes injected directly into the joint (See Intra-articular injections). Physiotherapy ( ... and the articular fossa (or glenoid fossa) of the temporal bone above. Between these articular surfaces is the articular disc ( ... The function of the lower head is to steady the articular disc as it moves back with the condyle into the articular fossa. It ... which constitutes the front border of the articular fossa. The function of the articular eminence is to limit the forwards ...
In 1986, sodium hyaluronate was used as an intra-articular injection to treat osteoarthritis of the knee with the product ... "Therapeutic trajectory following intra-articular hyaluronic acid injection in knee osteoarthritis - meta-analysis". ... Kotz, R.; Kolarz, G. (1999). "Intra-articular hyaluronic acid: Duration of effect and results of repeated treatment cycles". ... CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Puhl, W.; Scharf, P. (1997). "Intra-articular hyaluronan treatment for osteoarthritis ...
The source of the infection has often been traced to a penile or intra-articular injection of a corticosteroid. The course of ... "Phialemonium curvatum arthritis of the knee following intra-articular injection of a corticosteroid". Medical mycology : ... Endocarditis is an infection of the heart valves and P. curvatum has been linked to this infection through penile injections or ... Reported sources of infection can include self intracavernous injections to treat erectile dysfunction as well as ...
intra-articular, into a joint space. It is generally performed by joint injection. It is mainly used for symptomatic relief in ... intracavernous injection, an injection into the base of the penis. *intradermal, (into the skin itself) is used for skin ... "injection". Cambridge dictionary. Retrieved 2017-07-30.. *^ "MDMA (ecstasy) metabolites and neurotoxicity: No occurrence of ... intra-arterial (into an artery), e.g. vasodilator drugs in the treatment of vasospasm and thrombolytic drugs for treatment of ...
There may be added benefit in arthrocentesis or arthroscopy if intra-articular injections are combined with these procedures. ... Menisectomy, also termed discectomy refers to surgical removal of the articular disc. This is rarely carried out in TMD, it may ... As with arthrocentesis, the procedure may be combined with sodium hyaluronate injection into the joint at the end of the ... Arthrocentesis may be combined with injection of sodium hyaluronate into the joint at the end of the lavage with the aim to ...
Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle. In medicine, it is one of several alternative methods for the administration of medications (see route of administration). Muscles have larger and more blood vessels than subcutaneous tissue and injections here usually have faster rates of absorption than subcutaneous injections or intradermal injections. Depending on the injection site, an administration is limited to between 2 and 5 milliliters of fluid. Examples of medications that are sometimes administered intramuscularly are: Haloperidol (Haldol) Aripiprazole (Abilify) Paliperidone (Invega) Chlorpromazine (Thorazine) Lorazepam (Ativan) Fulvestrant (Faslodex) Codeine Morphine Methotrexate Metoclopramide Olanzapine Streptomycin Diazepam Prednisone Penicillin Interferon beta-1a Sex hormones, such as testosterone, estradiol valerate, and medroxyprogesterone ...
As with many musculoskeletal conditions, the management of de Quervain's disease is determined more by convention than scientific data. From the original description of the illness in 1895 until the first description of corticosteroid injection by Jarrod Ismond in 1955,[12] it appears that the only treatment offered was surgery.[12][13][14] Since approximately 1972, the prevailing opinion has been that of McKenzie (1972) who suggested that corticosteroid injection was the first line of treatment and surgery should be reserved for unsuccessful injections.[15] A systematic review and meta-analysis published in 2013 found that corticosteroid injection seems to be an effective form of conservative management of de Quervain's syndrome in approximately 50% of patients, although more research is needed regarding the extent of any clinical benefits.[16] Efficacy data are relatively sparse and it is not clear whether benefits affect the overall natural history of the illness.[medical citation ...
... is a controversial condition which is believed to result from compression of the sciatic nerve around the piriformis muscle. Symptoms may include pain and numbness in the buttocks and down the leg. Often symptoms are worsened with sitting or running. Causes may include trauma to the gluteal muscle, spasms of the piriformis muscle, anatomical variation, or an overuse injury. Few cases in athletics, however, have been described. Diagnosis is difficult as there is no definitive test. A number of physical exam maneuvers can be supportive. Medical imaging is typically normal. Other conditions that may present similarly include a herniated disc. Treatment may include avoiding activities that cause symptoms, stretching, physiotherapy, and medication such as NSAIDs. Steroid or botulinum toxin injections may be used in those who do not improve. Surgery is not typically recommended. The frequency of the condition is unknown, with different groups arguing it is more or less common. In ...
... is the injection of a substance into the dermis, just below the epidermis. This route has the longest absorption time as compared to subcutaneous injections and intramuscular injections. As a result, it is used for sensitivity tests, like tuberculin and allergy tests, and for local anesthesia. Additionally, the body's reaction to substances is more easily visible since it is closer to the surface. Common injection sites include the inner surface of the forearm and the upper back, under the scapula. Equipment include syringes calibrated in tenths and hundredths of a milliliter. The dosage given is usually less than 0.5 mL, less than given subcutaneously or intramuscularly. A 1/4" to 1/2" long and 26 or 27 gauge thick needle is used. The angle of administration is 5 to 15 degrees angle, almost against the skin. With bevel (opening) side up, insert about 1/8" with entire bevel inside and inject while watching for a small wheal or blister ...
... (ICVI) is an invasive injection technique of substances directly into the cerebrospinal fluid in cerebral ventricles in order to bypass the blood brain barrier. Although this barrier effectively protects the brain, it can prevent important medications to enter the CNS. The technique is widely used in biomedical research to introduce drugs, therapeutic RNAs, plasmid DNAs, and viral vectors into the CNS of diseased mice models. It can also be used in human in cases of neurodegenerative disorders like spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), or administering chemotherapy in gliomas as well as delivering neurotrophic factors to CNS. Ommaya reservoir is a catheter system invented by Ayub Ommaya, a Pakistani neurosurgeon in 1963. The reservoir is implanted under the scalp and attached to a catheter which is intracerebroventricularly inserted into the lateral ventricle. Lee, Mary; Desai, Archana (2007). Gibaldi's Drug Delivery Systems in Pharmaceutical Care. ASHP. p. 107. ISBN ...
Most automobiles use four-stroke Otto cycle engines with multiple cylinders attached to a single inlet manifold. During the induction stroke, the piston descends in the cylinder and the intake valve is open. As the piston descends it effectively increases the volume in the cylinder above it, setting up low pressure. Atmospheric pressure pushes air through the manifold and carburetor or fuel injection system, where it is mixed with fuel. Because multiple cylinders operate at different times in the engine cycle, there is almost constant pressure difference through the inlet manifold from carburetor to engine. To control the amount of fuel/air mix entering the engine, a simple butterfly valve (throttle plate) is generally fitted at the start of the intake manifold (just below the carburetor in carbureted engines). The butterfly valve is simply a circular disc fitted on a spindle, fitting inside the pipe work. It is connected to the accelerator pedal of the car, and is set to be fully open when the ...
... is a method of introducing a drug into the bloodstream via a hollow hypodermic needle and a syringe, which is pierced through the skin into the body (usually intravenous, but also intramuscular or subcutaneous). It often applies to substance dependence and recreational drug use. Typically, the powdered drug is mixed with water to create a solution, and then the solution is injected. This act is often colloquially referred to as "slamming", "shooting [up]", "banging", "pinning", or "jacking-up", often depending on the specific drug subculture in which the term is used (i.e. heroin, cocaine, or methamphetamine). Although there are various methods of taking drugs, injection is favoured by some users as the full effects of the drug are experienced very quickly, typically in five to ten seconds. It also bypasses first-pass metabolism in the liver, resulting in higher bioavailability and efficiency for many drugs (such as morphine or diacetylmorphine/heroin; roughly ...
... (PSGAG), sold under the brand name Adequan, is an injectable drug for dogs and horses that is used to improve the lameness, lowered range of motion, and pain that comes with arthritis, and is one of the most widely prescribed joint supplements for horses. It is made of repeat disaccharide units of hexosamine and hexuronic acid, and is similar to glycosaminoglycans already present in the cartilage, and thus easily taken up. In vitro studies have shown it to work by inhibiting the enzymes that cause the cartilage and bone to degrade, as well as inhibiting inflammation and stimulating the synthesis of replacement cartilage. While it can cause an increased risk of bleeding, its relatively safe and has a high LD50. While it is widely prescribed, some studies still show conflicting results in terms of efficacy, causing some to claim that PSGAG is not solely responsible for the significant mitigation of arthritis seen in success cases. PSGAG is mostly used in dogs and ...
Mesin TDI menggunakan [[injeksi bahan bakar#injeksi langsung,injeksi langsung,[1][2] dimana injektor bahan bakar menyemprotkan bahan bakar langsung ke dalam ruang bakar di setiap silinder,[1][2] berbeda dengan mesin diesel generasi sebelumnya yang menggunakan ruang pra-pembakaran (disebut injeksi tak langsung/indirect injection). Mesin ini juga menggunakan induksi tenaga dengan adanya turbocharger[1][2] untuk meningkatkan jumlah udara yang dapat dimasukkan dalam silinder mesin.[2] Hampir semua mesin TDI juga dilengkapi intercooler untuk menurunkan temperatur (sehingga bisa menaikkan udara terkompresi dari turbo, maka meningkatkan jumlah bahan bakar yang dapat diinjeksikan dan dibakar.[1] Akibatnya, efisiensi mesin meningkat dan tenaga yang dihasilkan pun lebih besar,[2] ditambah emisi berkurang dengan torsi yang lebih besar[2] daripada mesin bensin non-turbo dan non-injeksi milik Volkswagen.. Mesin diesel Volkswagen yang menggunakan injeksi langsung namun tanpa turbocharger diberi label Suction ...
Na jeseň roku 1989 bol ako prvý TDI motor predstavený päťvalcový 2.5 TDI s výkonom 88 kW (120 koní), ktorý sa montoval do vozidla strednej triedy Audi 100 Avant. Motor mal plynulý ťah a zrýchlenie už z nízkych otáčok, vozidlo s ním dosahovalo maximálnu rýchlosť skoro 200 km/h pri spotrebe 5,7 litra nafty na 100 km. Od tej doby toto konštrukčné riešenie motorov spôsobilo doslova revolúciu vo svete vznetových motorov. ...
The number of dorsal vertebrae to which it is attached varies from four to eight; the number of costal attachments varies; muscle fibers may or may not reach the crest of the ilium. A muscular slip, the axillary arch, varying from 7 to 10 cm in length, and from 5 to 15 mm in breadth, occasionally springs from the upper edge of the latissimus dorsi about the middle of the posterior fold of the axilla, and crosses the axilla in front of the axillary vessels and nerves, to join the under surface of the tendon of the pectoralis major, the coracobrachialis, or the fascia over the biceps brachii. This axillary arch crosses the axillary artery, just above the spot usually selected for the application of a ligature, and may mislead a surgeon. It is present in about 7% of the population and may be easily recognized by the transverse direction of its fibers. Guy et al. extensively described this muscular variant using MRI data and positively correlated its presence with symptoms of neurological ...
The superior or upper (or descending) fibers of the trapezius originate from the spinous process of C7, the external occipital protuberance, the medial third of the superior nuchal line of the occipital bone (both in the back of the head), and the ligamentum nuchae. From this origin they proceed downward and laterally to be inserted into the posterior border of the lateral third of the clavicle. The middle fibers, or transverse of the trapezius arise from the spinous process of the seventh cervical (both in the back of the neck), and the spinous processes of the first, second, and third thoracic vertebrae. They are inserted into the medial margin of the acromion, and into the superior lip of the posterior border of the spine of the scapula. The inferior or lower (or ascending) fibers of the trapezius arise from the spinous processes of the remaining thoracic vertebrae (T4-T12). From this origin they proceed upward and laterally to converge near the scapula and end in an aponeurosis, which glides ...
Ever since the development of GDP, multiple observers have pointed out limitations of using GDP as the overarching measure of economic and social progress. Many environmentalists argue that GDP is a poor measure of social progress because it does not take into account harm to the environment.[31][32] Although a high or rising level of GDP is often associated with increased economic and social progress within a country, a number of scholars have pointed out that this does not necessarily play out in many instances. For example, Jean Drèze and Amartya Sen have pointed out that an increase in GDP or in GDP growth does not necessarily lead to a higher standard of living, particularly in areas such as healthcare and education.[33] Another important area that does not necessarily improve along with GDP is political liberty, which is most notable in China, where GDP growth is strong yet political liberties are heavily restricted.[34] GDP does not account for the distribution of ...
As intra-articular corticosteroid injections (CSIs) are a common treatment for osteoarthritis, physicians must well understand ... N2 - As intra-articular corticosteroid injections (CSIs) are a common treatment for osteoarthritis, physicians must well ... AB - As intra-articular corticosteroid injections (CSIs) are a common treatment for osteoarthritis, physicians must well ... abstract = "As intra-articular corticosteroid injections (CSIs) are a common treatment for osteoarthritis, physicians must well ...
Objectives: To evaluate the effect of intra-articular injection of tramadol on postoperative pain after arthroscopy in horses ... Objectives: To evaluate the effect of intra-articular injection of tramadol on postoperative pain after arthroscopy in horses ... Background: Intra-articular administration of analgesics is performed to ensure good perioperative pain management avoiding ... Background: Intra-articular administration of analgesics is performed to ensure good perioperative pain management avoiding ...
The Effect of Intra-articular Injection of Autologous Microfragmented Fat Tissue on Proteogly can Synthesis in Patients with ... Intra-articular injection of mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: A proof-of-concept ... The Effect of Intra-articular Injection of Autologous Microfragmented Fat Tissue on Proteogly can Synthesis in Patients with ... The Effect of Intra-articular Injection of Autologous Microfragmented Fat Tissue on Proteoglycan Synthesis in Patients with ...
Attempting To Bill Bilateral Synvisc Injections. Medicare Has Paid For 20610 50, But Cannot Get The Synvisc Paid. Have Billed ... Intra-Articular Injection w/Ultrasound. By [email protected] in forum Billing/Reimbursement ... CT guided intra-articular injection for MR shoulder arthrography. By jewelrad in forum Interventional Radiology ... CPT for intra-articular injection. By Leegrant24 in forum Medical Coding General Discussion ...
Importance of placement of intra-articular steroid injections. BMJ 1993; 307 :1329 ... Importance of placement of intra-articular steroid injections.. BMJ 1993; 307 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.307.6915.1329 ( ...
... the effects of their repeated use on articular cartilage remains controversial. The aim of our study was to determine the ... Although intraarticular (IA) corticosteroids are frequently used to treat joint disease, ... Repeated intraarticular injections of triamcinolone acetonide alter cartilage matrix metabolism measured by biomarkers in ... Céleste, C., Ionescu, M., Robin Poole, A., & Laverty, S. (2005). Repeated intraarticular injections of triamcinolone acetonide ...
Find user ratings and reviews for Aristospan Intra-Articular injection on WebMD including side effects and drug interactions, ... Read user comments about the side effects, benefits, and effectiveness of Aristospan Intra-Articular injection. ... I HAVE HAD 2 EPIPRUAL STERIOD INJECTIONS AND, I AM SCHUDELED TO HAVE ANOTHER SHOT IN 4 MORE DAYS AND THE LAST ONE WAS GIVEN 6/ ... I HAVE HAD 2 EPIPRUAL STERIOD INJECTIONS AND, I AM SCHUDELED TO HAVE ANOTHER SHOT IN 4 MORE DAYS AND THE LAST ONE WAS GIVEN 6/ ...
Bacterial infection following intra-articular injection. A brief review.. von Essen R1, Savolainen HA. ...
Intra-Articular. *Proinflammatory properties of resistin were evaluated in animal model by intra-articular injection of ... Intra-articular injection of bupivacaine in knee-replacement operations. Results of use for analgesia and for preemptive ... An evaluation of repeat intra-articular injections of yttrium-90 colloids in persistent synovitis of the knee. Winfield, J., ... A randomised controlled trial of intra-articular corticosteroid injection of the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb in ...
To determine the accuracy of unguided versus ultrasound (US) guided knee joint injections in obese patients with no clinically ...
Procedure: Intra-articular injection Intra-articular injection into the affected facet joint(s) with 0.5 ml of a 50:50 solution ... Experimental: Intra-articular injection Intra-articular injection into the affected facet joint(s) with 0.5 ml of a 50:50 ... Procedure: Intra-articular injection Procedure: Medial branch block Procedure: Saline injection Not Applicable ... Intra-articular Injections: Randomized, Controlled Study. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ...
This study will compare the efficacy of intra-articular betamethasone injection to intra-articular ketorolac injection for ... Comparing Intra-articular Corticosteroid to Intra-articular Ketorolac Knee Injections. The safety and scientific validity of ... Equivalence Study Comparing Intra-articular Corticosteroid to Intra-articular Ketorolac Knee Injections. ... Oztuna V, Eskandari M, Bugdayci R, Kuyurtar F. Intra-articular injection of tenoxicam in osteoarthritic knee joints with ...
Intramuscular Injection - Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) by Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceuticals limited ... Intra-Articular Injection: For intra-articular administration or injection into tendon sheaths and bursae, the dose of Kenalog ... Intra-Articular Injection: Following local injection, relief of pain and swelling and greater freedom of movement are usually ... Intra-articular injection should not be carried out in the presence of active infection in or near joints. The preparation ...
This topic will review specific aspects of intraarticular and soft tissue glucocorticoid injections, including the dose and ... Intra-articular steroid injection for osteoarthritis of the hip prior to total hip arthroplasty : is it safe? a systematic ... Safety of intra-articular injection of etanercept in small-joint arthritis: an uncontrolled, pilot-study with independent ... Godwin M, Dawes M. Intra-articular steroid injections for painful knees. Systematic review with meta-analysis. Can Fam ...
... intra-muscular injections of botulinum toxin and intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid. Release or decrease of pain was ... Intra-articular injection of Botulinum toxin analgesic effect. 3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Orthopedics & ... 10/10 prior to injection. VAS between 2 and 4/10 in 17 patients (30%). 13 patients (24%) showing no quantifiable improvement. ... working exclusively on Botulinum toxin injections. She has 12 publications on her name.. ...
Papacrhistou G, Anagnostou S, Katsorhis T (1997) The effect of intra-articular hydrocortisone injections on the articular ... Sánchez M, Anitua E, Azofra J, Aguirre JJ, Andia I (2008) Intra-articular injection of an autologous preparation rich in growth ... Platelet-rich plasma: intra-articular knee injections produced favorable results on degenerative cartilage lesions. ... were treated with PRP intra-articular injections (115 knees treated). The procedure consisted of 150-ml of venous blood ...
Intra-articular corticosteroid injections can be used to reduce pain by about 20% in the short term (one to three weeks) in ... Intra-articular corticosteroid injections can be used to reduce pain by about 20% in the short term (one to three weeks) in ... 6. Habib G, Safia A. The effect of intra-articular injection of betamethasone acetate/betamethasone sodium phosphate on blood ... 5. Habib GS, Bashir M, Jabbour A. Increased blood glucose levels following intra-articular injection of methylprednisolone ...
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... were randomized to receive intra-articular injections of MSCs (n = 9) or MSCs + PRP (n = 9). Injections were performed 2-3 ... Intra-articular injections of expanded MSCs alone or in combination with PRP are safe and have a beneficial effect on symptoms ... Intra-articular injections of expanded mesenchymal stem cells with and without addition of platelet-rich plasma are safe and ... To compare the effectiveness and safety of intra-articular injections of autologous expanded mesenchymal stromal stem cells ...
If patients could recognise themselves, or anyone else could recognise a patient from your description, please obtain the patients written consent to publication and send them to the editorial office before submitting your response [Patient consent forms] ...
... to differentiate between intra- and extra-articular pathology in ... To determine the value of anesthetic injection during hip MR ... On MRI, 41 patients had only intra-articular and 5 patients only extra-articular pathology, while 29 patients had both, intra- ... immediately prior to injection. Anesthetic MRA was performed following fluoroscopically guided intra-articular injection of ... Ayeni OR, Farrokhyar F, Crouch S, Chan K, Sprague S, Bhandari M. Pre-operative intra-articular hip injection as a predictor of ...
Intra-articular steroid Injections: Receive intra-articular corticosteroid injection.Ultrasound-guided IACI with 3c.c. 1% ... Effect of Ultrasound-guided Suprascapular Nerve Block Versus Intra-articular Corticosteroid Injection for Frozen Shoulder. The ... Active Comparator: intra-articular corticosteroid injection (IACI) group IACI with physiotherapy. ... Received corticosteroids, or hyaluronic acid intra-articular injection into the affected shoulder during the preceding 4 weeks. ...
Intra-Articular Injection of Human Synovial Membrane-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Murine Collagen-Induced Arthritis: ... Minglu Yan, Xin Liu, Qiujie Dang, He Huang, Fan Yang, and Yang Li, "Intra-Articular Injection of Human Synovial Membrane- ...
The Effect of Intra-articular Bilateral Knee Injections of Zilretta on Performance Measures in Adults With Knee OA. The safety ... Predictors of response to intra-articular steroid injections in knee osteoarthritis--a systematic review. Rheumatology (Oxford ... following intra-articular (IA) injection of an extended-release microsphere-based formulation (FX006) or standard crystalline ... Bodick N, Lufkin J, Willwerth C, Kumar A, Bolognese J, Schoonmaker C, Ballal R, Hunter D, Clayman M. An intra-articular, ...
Caroline Aalbers, Danielle Gerlag, Koen Vos, Margriet Vervoordeldonk, Robert Landewé, Paul Peter Tak, Intra-articular ... Caroline Aalbers, Danielle Gerlag, Koen Vos, Margriet Vervoordeldonk, Robert Landewé, Paul Peter Tak, Injection intra- ... Matthew L. Stoll, Randy Q. Cron, Rotraud K. Saurenmann, Systemic and intra-articular anti-inflammatory therapy of ... Clinical image: Development of miliary tuberculosis following one intraarticular injection of etanercept. Authors. *. Sheng ...
  • Young, P & Homlar, KC 2016, ' Extreme Postinjection Flare in Response to Intra-Articular Triamcinolone Acetonide (Kenalog) ', American journal of orthopedics (Belle Mead, N.J.) , vol. 45, no. 3, pp. (elsevier.com)
  • Animals and methods: Twelve horses affected by osteochondrosis were randomly assigned to two groups that were treated intra-articularly at the end of surgery with tramadol (4 mg/mL) and saline, respectively. (unipg.it)
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