Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.Cartilage Diseases: Pathological processes involving the chondral tissue (CARTILAGE).Osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Arthritis, Experimental: ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Synovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.Joints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.Matrix Metalloproteinase 13: A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that plays a physiological role in the degradation of extracellular matrix found in skeletal tissues. It is synthesized as an inactive precursor that is activated by the proteolytic cleavage of its N-terminal propeptide.Aggrecans: Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.Collagen Type II: A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)ArthritisSynovitis: Inflammation of a synovial membrane. It is usually painful, particularly on motion, and is characterized by a fluctuating swelling due to effusion within a synovial sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)Matrix Metalloproteinase 3: An extracellular endopeptidase of vertebrate tissues similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 1. It digests PROTEOGLYCAN; FIBRONECTIN; COLLAGEN types III, IV, V, and IX, and activates procollagenase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Stifle: In horses, cattle, and other quadrupeds, the joint between the femur and the tibia, corresponding to the human knee.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Matrix Metalloproteinases: A family of zinc-dependent metalloendopeptidases that is involved in the degradation of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components.Matrilin Proteins: PROTEOGLYCANS-associated proteins that are major components of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including CARTILAGE; and INTERVERTEBRAL DISC structures. They bind COLLAGEN fibers and contain protein domains that enable oligomer formation and interaction with other extracellular matrix proteins such as CARTILAGE OLIGOMERIC MATRIX PROTEIN.Injections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Synovial Fluid: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Nasal Cartilages: Hyaline cartilages in the nose. There are five major nasal cartilages including two lateral, two alar, and one septal.Collagenases: Enzymes that catalyze the degradation of collagen by acting on the peptide bonds.Menisci, Tibial: The interarticular fibrocartilages of the superior surface of the tibia.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Chondrogenesis: The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.Patella: The flat, triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the KNEE.Hyaline Cartilage: A type of CARTILAGE characterized by a homogenous amorphous matrix containing predominately TYPE II COLLAGEN and ground substance. Hyaline cartilage is found in ARTICULAR CARTILAGE; COSTAL CARTILAGE; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; and the NASAL SEPTUM.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mice, Inbred DBADisease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Microscopy, Polarization: Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Femur Head: The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)Growth Plate: The area between the EPIPHYSIS and the DIAPHYSIS within which bone growth occurs.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Lubrication: The application of LUBRICANTS to diminish FRICTION between two surfaces.Osteochondritis: Inflammation of a bone and its overlaying CARTILAGE.Ear Cartilage: Cartilage of the EAR AURICLE and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL.Polychondritis, Relapsing: An acquired disease of unknown etiology, chronic course, and tendency to recur. It is characterized by inflammation and degeneration of cartilage and can result in deformities such as floppy ear and saddle nose. Loss of cartilage in the respiratory tract can lead to respiratory obstruction.Calgranulin A: A 10.8-kDa member of the S-100 family of calcium-binding proteins that can form homo- or heterocomplexes with CALGRANULIN B and a variety of other proteins. The calgranulin A/B heterodimer is known as LEUKOCYTE L1 ANTIGEN COMPLEX. Calgranulin A is found in many cell types including GRANULOCYTES; KERATINOCYTES; and myelomonocytes, and has been shown to act as a chemotactic substance for NEUTROPHILS. Because it is present in acute inflammation but absent in chronic inflammation, it is a useful biological marker for a number of pathological conditions.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein: Major component of chondrocyte EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including bone, tendon, ligament, SYNOVIUM and blood vessels. It binds MATRILIN PROTEINS and is associated with development of cartilage and bone.Laryngeal Cartilages: The nine cartilages of the larynx, including the cricoid, thyroid and epiglottic, and two each of arytenoid, corniculate and cuneiform.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Anemarrhena: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain anemarans (POLYSACCHARIDES), hinokiresinol, mangiferin (a xanthone), and timosaponin (a steroidal saponin).Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Friction: Surface resistance to the relative motion of one body against the rubbing, sliding, rolling, or flowing of another with which it is in contact.Fractures, Cartilage: Breaks in CARTILAGE.Nose Deformities, Acquired: Abnormalities of the nose acquired after birth from injury or disease.Immune Complex Diseases: Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other IMMUNE SYSTEM DISEASES including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Mice, Inbred C57BLHyaluronic Acid: A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.Chondroitin Sulfates: Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.ADAM Proteins: A family of membrane-anchored glycoproteins that contain a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain. They are responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of many transmembrane proteins and the release of their extracellular domain.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Knee Injuries: Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.Procollagen N-Endopeptidase: An extracellular endopeptidase which excises a block of peptides at the amino terminal, nonhelical region of the procollagen molecule with the formation of collagen. Absence or deficiency of the enzyme causes accumulation of procollagen which results in the inherited connective tissue disorder--dermatosparaxis. EC 3.4.24.14.Matrix Metalloproteinase 1: A member of the metalloproteinase family of enzymes that is principally responsible for cleaving FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. It can degrade interstitial collagens, types I, II and III.Keratan Sulfate: A sulfated mucopolysaccharide initially isolated from bovine cornea. At least two types are known. Type I, found mostly in the cornea, contains D-galactose and D-glucosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit; type II, found in skeletal tissues, contains D-galactose and D-galactosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Tissue Culture Techniques: A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Humerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Anterior Cruciate Ligament: A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Epiphyses: The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.Metalloendopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.Calgranulin B: A 13.2-kDa member of the S-100 family of calcium-binding proteins that can form homo- or heterocomplexes with CALGRANULIN A and a variety of other proteins. The calgranulin A/B heterodimer is known as LEUKOCYTE L1 ANTIGEN COMPLEX. Calgranulin B is expressed at high concentrations in GRANULOCYTES during early monocyte differentiation, and serum calgranulin B levels are elevated in many inflammatory disorders such as CYSTIC FIBROSIS.Carpus, Animal: The region corresponding to the human WRIST in non-human ANIMALS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Joint DiseasesMatrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit the enzyme activity or activation of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES.Collagen Type XI: A fibrillar collagen found primarily in interstitial CARTILAGE. Collagen type XI is heterotrimer containing alpha1(XI), alpha2(XI) and alpha3(XI) subunits.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Arytenoid Cartilage: One of a pair of small pyramidal cartilages that articulate with the lamina of the CRICOID CARTILAGE. The corresponding VOCAL LIGAMENT and several muscles are attached to it.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Uronic Acids: Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)Ioxaglic Acid: A low-osmolar, ionic contrast medium used in various radiographic procedures.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Nasal Septum: The partition separating the two NASAL CAVITIES in the midplane. It is formed by the SEPTAL NASAL CARTILAGE, parts of skull bones (ETHMOID BONE; VOMER), and membranous parts.Osteoprotegerin: A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.Arthroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Cricoid Cartilage: The small thick cartilage that forms the lower and posterior parts of the laryngeal wall.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.RANK Ligand: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Arthroplasty, Subchondral: Surgical techniques used to correct or augment healing of chondral defects in the joints (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). These include abrasion, drilling, and microfracture of the subchondral bone to enhance chondral resurfacing via autografts, allografts, or cell transplantation.ZymosanCulture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Antirheumatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.SOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.Collagen Type X: A non-fibrillar collagen found primarily in terminally differentiated hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES. It is a homotrimer of three identical alpha1(X) subunits.Chondroitin: A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein: A ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Collagen Type IX: A fibril-associated collagen usually found crosslinked to the surface of COLLAGEN TYPE II fibrils. It is a heterotrimer containing alpha1(IX), alpha2(IX) and alpha3(IX) subunits.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Talus: The second largest of the TARSAL BONES. It articulates with the TIBIA and FIBULA to form the ANKLE JOINT.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans: Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.Periosteum: Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Growth Differentiation Factor 5: A growth differentiation factor that plays a role in early CHONDROGENESIS and joint formation.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Collagen Type VI: A non-fibrillar collagen that forms a network of MICROFIBRILS within the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The alpha subunits of collagen type VI assemble into antiparallel, overlapping dimers which then align to form tetramers.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Chondrosarcoma: A slowly growing malignant neoplasm derived from cartilage cells, occurring most frequently in pelvic bones or near the ends of long bones, in middle-aged and old people. Most chondrosarcomas arise de novo, but some may develop in a preexisting benign cartilaginous lesion or in patients with ENCHONDROMATOSIS. (Stedman, 25th ed)Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Mandibular Condyle: The posterior process on the ramus of the mandible composed of two parts: a superior part, the articular portion, and an inferior part, the condylar neck.Chondroitin ABC Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Osteoarthritis, Hip: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the hip joint which usually appears in late middle or old age. It is characterized by growth or maturational disturbances in the femoral neck and head, as well as acetabular dysplasia. A dominant symptom is pain on weight-bearing or motion.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Biglycan: A small leucine-rich proteoglycan found in a variety of tissues including CAPILLARY ENDOTHELIUM; SKELETAL MUSCLE; CARTILAGE; BONE; and TENDONS. The protein contains two glycosaminoglycan chains and is similar in structure to DECORIN.Temporomandibular Joint: An articulation between the condyle of the mandible and the articular tubercle of the temporal bone.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Metacarpophalangeal Joint: The articulation between a metacarpal bone and a phalanx.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Osteophyte: Bony outgrowth usually found around joints and often seen in conditions such as ARTHRITIS.Fibrocartilage: A type of CARTILAGE whose matrix contains large bundles of COLLAGEN TYPE I. Fibrocartilage is typically found in the INTERVERTEBRAL DISK; PUBIC SYMPHYSIS; TIBIAL MENISCI; and articular disks in synovial JOINTS. (From Ross et. al., Histology, 3rd ed., p132,136)Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.Thyroid Cartilage: The largest cartilage of the larynx consisting of two laminae fusing anteriorly at an acute angle in the midline of the neck. The point of fusion forms a subcutaneous projection known as the Adam's apple.Sulfur Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 7: A bone morphogenetic protein that is widely expressed during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. It is both a potent osteogenic factor and a specific regulator of nephrogenesis.Microradiography: Production of a radiographic image of a small or very thin object on fine-grained photographic film under conditions which permit subsequent microscopic examination or enlargement of the radiograph at linear magnifications of up to several hundred and with a resolution approaching the resolving power of the photographic emulsion (about 1000 lines per millimeter).Hydrogel: A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Osteochondritis Dissecans: A type of osteochondritis in which articular cartilage and associated bone becomes partially or totally detached to form joint loose bodies. Affects mainly the knee, ankle, and elbow joints.Interleukin-1alpha: An interleukin-1 subtype that occurs as a membrane-bound pro-protein form that is cleaved by proteases to form a secreted mature form. Unlike INTERLEUKIN-1BETA both membrane-bound and secreted forms of interleukin-1alpha are biologically active.Decorin: A small leucine-rich proteoglycan that interacts with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and modifies the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX structure of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. Decorin has also been shown to play additional roles in the regulation of cellular responses to GROWTH FACTORS. The protein contains a single glycosaminoglycan chain and is similar in structure to BIGLYCAN.Hyalin: A clear, homogenous, structureless, eosinophilic substance occurring in pathological degeneration of tissues.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.GlucosamineOsteochondrodysplasias: Abnormal development of cartilage and bone.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Fibrillar Collagens: A family of structurally related collagens that form the characteristic collagen fibril bundles seen in CONNECTIVE TISSUE.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Fibril-Associated Collagens: A family of non-fibrillar collagens that interact with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS. They contain short triple helical domains interrupted by short non-helical domains and do not form into collagen fibrils.Calcium Pyrophosphate: An inorganic pyrophosphate which affects calcium metabolism in mammals. Abnormalities in its metabolism occur in some human diseases, notably HYPOPHOSPHATASIA and pseudogout (CHONDROCALCINOSIS).Arthrography: Roentgenography of a joint, usually after injection of either positive or negative contrast medium.Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Guided Tissue Regeneration: Procedures for enhancing and directing tissue repair and renewal processes, such as BONE REGENERATION; NERVE REGENERATION; etc. They involve surgically implanting growth conducive tracks or conduits (TISSUE SCAFFOLDING) at the damaged site to stimulate and control the location of cell repopulation. The tracks or conduits are made from synthetic and/or natural materials and may include support cells and induction factors for CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; or CELL MIGRATION.Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Hydroxyproline: A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.Chondrocalcinosis: Presence of calcium salts, especially calcium pyrophosphate, in the cartilaginous structures of one or more joints. When accompanied by attacks of goutlike symptoms, it is called pseudogout. (Dorland, 27th ed)Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hydrogels: Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Intervertebral Disc: Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.SepharoseBone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Elastic Modulus: Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.Matrix Metalloproteinase 8: A member of the MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES that cleaves triple-helical COLLAGEN types I, II, and III.Mechanotransduction, Cellular: The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.HexosaminesTissue Transplantation: Transference of tissue within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Iodoacetates: Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
... may grow in a tumor-like fashion, as in joints where it may erode articular cartilage and bone. The term pannus is often ... Inflammation and exuberant proliferation of the synovium leads to formation of pannus and destruction of cartilage, bone, ... causing loss of bone and cartilage. From Autoimmunity and Disease by Harley Y. Tse and Michail K. Shaw: In ophthalmology, ...
Chronic arthritis, inflammation, destruction of articular cartilage and bone. Tuberculin reaction (Mantoux test)[3]. Tuberculin ... Myelin destruction, inflammation. Rheumatoid arthritis[1]. Possibly collagen and/or citrullinated self proteins. ... Insulitis, beta cell destruction. Granulomas[2]. Various, depending on underlying disease. Walled off lesion containing ...
"Articular cartilage metabolism in patients with an endemic osteoarthropathy in China". Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 16: 680- ... Little is known about the early stages of KBD before the visible appearance of the disease becomes evident in the destruction ... Death of cartilage cells in the growth plate and articular surface is the basic pathologic feature; this can result in growth ... especially in physeal cartilage. Fulvic acid present in drinking water damages cartilage cells. Selenium supplementation in ...
Haemophilic arthropathy is characterized by chronic proliferative synovitis and cartilage destruction. If an intra-articular ... resulting in cartilage and bone destruction. Females possess two X-chromosomes, males have one X and one Y-chromosome. Since ... Joint damage from haemarthrosis (haemophilic arthropathy), potentially with severe pain, disfigurement, and even destruction of ...
Cartilage tumors Though articular cartilage damage is not life-threatening, it does strongly affect the quality of life. ... Relapsing polychondritis: a destruction, probably autoimmune, of cartilage, especially of the nose and ears, causing ... Osteoarthritis: The cartilage covering bones (articular cartilage) is thinned, eventually completely worn out, resulting in a " ... Articular cartilage damage is often the cause of severe pain, swellings, strong barriers to mobility and severe restrictions to ...
The synthesis of cartilage intermediate layer protein (CILP), which was identified and purified from human articular cartilage ... 2001). "Implication of cartilage intermediate layer protein in cartilage destruction in subsets of patients with osteoarthritis ... "Up-regulated expression of cartilage intermediate-layer protein and ANK in articular hyaline cartilage from patients with ... Lorenzo P, Bayliss MT, Heinegard D (Oct 1998). "A novel cartilage protein (CILP) present in the mid-zone of human articular ...
The pannus receives blood supply from the newly formed vessels and grows inward, invading the articular cartilage and bone ... The loss and destruction of neutrophils leading to neutropenia is therefore, inflammation-driven due to the body's need for the ... This syndrome is mostly present in people having extra articular manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis. People with this ... and presents with increased severity along with extra articular manifestations. RA can be mistaken for other conditions such as ...
It is more common in smaller breeds of dogs [1] Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) is separation of immature articular cartilage ... Hemolytic anemia* is a type of regenerative anemia found in dogs characterized by destruction of the red blood cell. The most ... is a common condition in dogs characterized by progressive deterioration of articular cartilage in the joints of the limbs. It ... Diabetes mellitus in dogs is type 1, or insulin dependent diabetes: a lack of insulin production due to destruction of ...
Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.; Darling, Eric M.; Hu, Jerry C.; DuRaine, Grayson D.; Reddi, A. Hari (2013). Articular Cartilage. CRC ... Th17 cells are present in higher quantities at the site of bone destruction in joints and produce inflammatory cytokines ... Osteoarthritis begins in the cartilage and eventually causes the two opposing bones to erode into each other. The condition ... In rheumatoid arthritis, most damage occurs to the joint lining and cartilage which eventually results in erosion of two ...
Proteins involved in autophagy are reduced with age in both human and mouse articular cartilage. Mechanical injury to cartilage ... This process generally leads to the destruction of the invasive organism, although some bacteria can block the maturation of ... Autophagy is constantly activated in normal cartilage but it is compromised with age and precedes cartilage cell death and ... Carames, B; Taniguchi, N; Otsuki, S; Blanco, FJ; Lotz, M (2010). "Autophagy is a protective mechanism in normal cartilage, and ...
... is a group of mechanical abnormalities resulting in joint destruction, which can occur in the wrist. These ... Other post-traumatic causes such as intra-articular fractures of the distal radius or ulna can also lead to wrist ... abnormalities include degeneration of cartilage and hypertrophic bone changes, which can lead to pain, swelling and loss of ...
Proteins involved in autophagy are reduced with age in both human and mouse articular cartilage.[76] Mechanical injury to ... This process generally leads to the destruction of the invasive organism, although some bacteria can block the maturation of ... Autophagy is constantly activated in normal cartilage but it is compromised with age and precedes cartilage cell death and ... around the organelle marked for destruction.[28][31] The autophagosome then travels through the cytoplasm of the cell to a ...
It is important to note that perichondrium, and thus chondroblasts, are not found on the articular cartilage surfaces of joints ... After Wnt14 is initiated, phosphorylation of the β-Catenin that would normally mark the protein for destruction is suppressed ... Once they embed themselves into the cartilage matrix, they grow the cartilage matrix by growing more cartilage extracellular ... Chondroblasts then secrete cartilage matrix around themselves in order to reform the lost cartilage tissue.[citation needed] ...
The joint capsule may also be completely ruptured and the articular portion of the bones exposed to view. An osselet is ... It wasn't the break in Barbaro's leg that necessitated his destruction, but the hoof disease laminitis. Barbaro's team of ... The musculoskeletal system consists of the bones, cartilage, muscles, ligaments, and tendons. Skeletal fractures account for 87 ... can be considered any physical damage or harm caused to the body resulting in impairment or destruction of health. Injuries ...
... and the formation of articular cartilage and the epiphyseal plates.[citation needed] Endochondral ossification begins with ... This may lead to compression of the spinal cord, destruction of the marrow resulting in bruising, bleeding and ... The following steps are followed in the conversion of cartilage to bone: Zone of reserve cartilage. This region, farthest from ... it involves the development of bone from cartilage. This process includes the development of a cartilage model, its growth and ...
As injury or inflammation involves the destruction of tissue or cells, growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor ( ... Intra-articular Infiltration in the Treatment of Gonarthrosis. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, online published on ... cartilage damage Plantar fasciitis Tendinitis such as patellar tendinitis Impingement syndrome Tendinopathy, for example of the ...
"Expression of cartilage growth plate signalling molecules in Chondroblastoma." Journal of Pathology 202 (2004): 113-120. Web. 6 ... However, in skeletally immature patients intraoperative fluoroscopy may be helpful to avoid destruction of the epiphyseal plate ... weight-bearing lesions being at an increased risk for articular collapse and recurrence. Overall, the success and method of ... In chondroblastoma, growth signaling molecules may be present due to the pre-pubertal signaling network as well as cartilage ...
Genetically modified mice in which the catalytic domain of ADAMTS5 was deleted are resistant to cartilage destruction in an ... "Aggrecan degradation in human articular cartilage explants is mediated by both ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5". Arthritis and Rheumatism ... ADAMTS5 is the major aggrecanase in mouse cartilage in a mouse model of inflammatory arthritis. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "ADAMTS5 is the major aggrecanase in mouse cartilage in vivo and in vitro". Nature. 434 (7033): 648-52. doi:10.1038/nature03417 ...
Contribution of joint tissues to their articular production". Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 14 (7): 690-95. doi:10.1016/j.joca. ... which contribute to joint inflammation and cartilage destruction. As such, obese individuals are in an altered state, due to a ... Gualillo O (2007). "Further evidence for leptin involvement in cartilage homeostases". Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 15 (8): ... effect on cartilage metabolism". Osteoarthritis and Cartilage. 15 (8): 872-83. doi:10.1016/j.joca.2007.01.018. PMID 17350295. ...
... before joints destructions occur. Destruction of the joints viewed in radiological images was a significant point of the ACR ... It also affects the underlying bone and cartilage. The diagnosis is made mostly on the basis of a person's signs and symptoms. ... Turesson C, O'Fallon WM, Crowson CS, Gabriel SE, Matteson EL (2003). "Extra-articular disease manifestations in rheumatoid ... As the pathology progresses the inflammatory activity leads to tendon tethering and erosion and destruction of the joint ...
Wakitani S, Nawata M, Tensho K, Okabe T, Machida H, Ohgushi H (2007). "Repair of articular cartilage defects in the patello- ... Destruction of the immune system by the HIV is driven by the loss of CD4+ T cells in the peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues ... Natural cartilage regeneration is very limited and no current drug therapies are curative, but rather look to reduce the ... There is other stem cell research that does not involve the destruction of a human embryo, and such research involves adult ...
Wakitani S, Nawata M, Tensho K, Okabe T, Machida H, Ohgushi H (2007). "Repair of articular cartilage defects in the patello- ... because the production of adult stem cells does not require the destruction of an embryo. Early regenerative applications of ... "Regeneration of meniscus cartilage in a knee treated with percutaneously implanted autologous mesenchymal stem cells, platelate ... Centeno CJ, Busse D, Kisiday J, Keohan C, Freeman M, Karli D (2008). "Increased knee cartilage volume in degenerative joint ...
... which lead to the destruction of cartilage and bone. Th17 cells and IL-17 have also been linked to Crohn's disease (CD) and ... Shalom-Barak T, Quach J, Lotz M (October 1998). "Interleukin-17-induced gene expression in articular chondrocytes is associated ...
Wakitani S, Nawata M, Tensho K, Okabe T, Machida H, Ohgushi H (2007). "Repair of articular cartilage defects in the patello- ... because the production of adult stem cells does not require the destruction of an embryo. ... "Regeneration of meniscus cartilage in a knee treated with percutaneously implanted autologous mesenchymal stem cells, platelate ... have reported high field MRI evidence of increased cartilage and meniscus volume in individual human clinical subjects as well ...
Matrilin 1 is also found in adult auricular cartilage and costochondral cartilage and is absent in articular cartilage. The ... Antibodies to collagen types I, II, and III are believed to result from cartilage destruction; it has been proposed that ... Biopsy of the cartilage is a potential source of infection and cosmetic damage. Perform biopsy on cartilage only if ... As the cartilage degenerates, mononuclear cells and macrophages infiltrate the matrix. The cartilage matrix is eventually ...
Cysteine proteinase inhibitors decrease articular cartilage and bone destruction in chronic inflammatory arthritis.. Esser RE1 ... treatment significantly reduced the severity of clinical joint disease and decreased the destruction of articular cartilage and ... and on cartilage and bone destruction in experimental arthritis.. METHODS: The effects of the fluoroketones on cathepsins B and ... These studies suggest that cysteine proteinase inhibitors may limit tissue destruction in diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis ...
... the specific feature of which is progressive joint destruction induced by synovitis. The universal consensus is that ... Rheumatoid arthritis Joint destruction Synovitis Articular cartilage Regeneration Abbreviations. ACR. American College of ... Pinder previously reported that synovectomy with drilling of areas of articular cartilage loss showed cartilage regeneration ... The loss of the articular cartilage in RA is evident on X-ray as joint-space narrowing, but in most cases, erosion and joint- ...
Destruction of articular cartilage * Formation of osteophytes * Loss of the normal joint interval ... The principal problem is loss of articular cartilage between the carpal bones and/or the metacarpal and distal radius. The ... 15] This does not affect the articular changes directly but can reduce symptoms to allow arthrodesis to be postponed or avoided ...
Chronic arthritis, inflammation, destruction of articular cartilage and bone. Tuberculin reaction (Mantoux test)[3]. Tuberculin ... Myelin destruction, inflammation. Rheumatoid arthritis[1]. Possibly collagen and/or citrullinated self proteins. ... Insulitis, beta cell destruction. Granulomas[2]. Various, depending on underlying disease. Walled off lesion containing ...
... Free Radic Biol Med. 2019 Dec 09;: Authors: Alcaraz MJ, Ferrándiz ... It involves articular cartilage destruction and a whole joint inflammation. In spite of OA pathogenesis is still unclear, new ... this pathway may control the activation and metabolism of articular cells to play a regulatory role in joint destruction thus ... Relevance of Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 in articular diseases. Free Radic Biol Med. 2019 Dec 09;: Authors: Alcaraz MJ, Ferrándiz ...
... and shear stresses encourage cartilage destruction and ossification. In the present investigation we examined the combined ... Variations in articular mechanical load are predicted to modulate cartilage thickness. These results are consistent with the ... Mechanobiology in the development, maintenance, and degeneration of articular cartilage.. Beaupré GS1, Stevens SS, Carter DR. ... on the development of a layer of articular cartilage, using an idealized finite element computer model. The results of our ...
The damage to articular cartilage, primarily caused by trauma and excessive mechanical conditions, is the most common clinical ... Destruction of the articular cartilage in osteoarthritis. . Clin. Calcium. 23. , 1705. -. 1713 ... Development of hybrid scaffolds using ceramic and hydrogel for articular cartilage tissue regeneration ... Articular cartilage damage in severe cases probably leads to osteoarthritis (OA), which subsequently causes disability and ...
... damage and degeneration of articular cartilage are certain to cause subchondral bone destruction [71]. Moreover, the separation ... 4. Cartilage Injury Mechanisms and Treatment. 4.1. Articular Cartilage. Articular cartilage damage can occur through violent ... The injected material can have a direct effect on articular cartilage and remain in the articular cavity for a long time. Due ... were the first to describe cartilage stem cells (CSCs) on the surface of articular cartilage [16]. They discovered that CSCs ...
No histological signs of bone destruction were observed in the denuded subchondral bone. These data might imply that ... Temporal cartilage repair pattern following subchondral drilling. The outcome of articular cartilage repair was assessed at ... 2016b). Role of the subchondral bone in articular cartilage degeneration and repair. J. Am. Acad. Orthop. Surg. 24, e45-e46. ... 2015). (iv) Treatment options for articular cartilage damage in the knee. Orthopaedics Trauma 29, 24-30. doi:10.1016/j.mporth. ...
Mechanical (wear and tear) destruction of articular cartilage. Age, Obesity, Joint deformity. NSAIDs, Intra-articular ... Autoimmune - inflammatory destruction of synovial joints. Type III hypersensitivity reaction Pannus formation in joints (MCP ... Pain in weight-bearing joints after use (at end of day), Improves with rest, Knee cartilage loss begins medially (bowlegged), ... Predispose to infection including TB since TNF blockade prevents activation of macrophages and destruction of phagocytosed ...
When infused directly into the shoulder, destruction of articular cartilage (chondrolysis) has occurred. On-Q pumps should ... Intra-articular infusion related chondrolysis: Continuous intra-articular infusion of local anesthetics after arthroscopic or ... Neuromuscular & skeletal: Chondrolysis (continuous intra-articular administration), weakness. Ophthalmic: Blurred vision, ...
... these features result in the destruction of articular cartilage and bone erosion. The identification of genetic alterations and ... is induced and immunolocalized in articular cartilage during inflammatory arthritis," Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. ... A. R. Poole, "Cartilage in health and disease," in Arthritis and Allied Conditions. A Textbook of Rheumatology, D. J. McCarty ... and clinical models of RA appear to be cartilage proteoglycan (PG) aggrecan-induced arthritis (PGIA) [6, 7] and cartilage type ...
When infused directly into the shoulder, destruction of articular cartilage (chondrolysis) has occurred. On-Q pumps should ... Intra-articular infusion related chondrolysis: Continuous intra-articular infusion of local anesthetics after arthroscopic or ... continuous intra-articular administration), circulatory shock, dyskinesia, hallucination, hypersensitivity reaction, ...
... gross joint destruction, infectious/crystal arthropathy; bone resorption visible on pre-operative roentgenogram or presents ... The HemiCAP® is an articular resurfacing device that is contoured to match the patients articular cartilage. It is designed to ... Gomoll AH, Farr J, Gillogly SD, Kercher J, Minas T. Surgical management of articular cartilage defects of the knee. J Bone ... Articular cartilage performs an important function in the homeostasis and functioning of joints.7-8 Focal full thickness ...
Destruction of articular cartilage, leading to pain and stiffness. -Bone or fibrous ankylosis ...
"Prostaglandins and articular cartilage; does Prostaglandin perturbation perpetuate cartilage destruction?" Semin Arthritis ... "Prostaglandins and articular cartilage metabolism: Does prostaglandin perturbation perpetuate cartilage destruction?," ... This novel interaction has the potential to have a cartilage modulating effect.. Example 2. Procedure. Articular cartilage was ... Equine chondrocytes were isolated from articular cartilage by collagenase digestion. Equine chondrocytes and human articular ...
It is a degenerative disease characterised by joint destruction and loss of articular cartilage. Cartilage is the slippery ... In OA, the surface layer of cartilage breaks down and wears away. This allows bones under the cartilage to rub together, ... Healthy cartilage allows bones to glide over one another. It also absorbs energy from the shock of physical movement. ... Modulation of these targets in human chondrocytes should lead to a net production of stable cartilage and should therefore be ...
"Platelet lysate activates quiescent cell proliferation and reprogramming in human articular cartilage: Involvement of hypoxia ... Hypoxia promotes the production and inhibits the destruction of human articular cartilage ... tissue with properties of healthy articular cartilage. Moreover, in cultured cartilage cells, PL induced a hypoxia‐inducible ... tissue with properties of healthy articular cartilage. Moreover, in cultured cartilage cells, PL induced a hypoxia‐inducible ...
1983) Histomorphologic basis of articular cartilage destruction in rheumatoid arthritis. Coll Relat Res 3:141-155, . ... 1993) Cell origin and differentiation in the repair of full-thickness defects of articular cartilage. J Bone Joint Surg 75A:532 ... During the operation, pannus samples were carefully selected from granulation tissue invading the articular cartilage of the ... 10 11 The articular cartilage has been considered to contribute, at least in part, to the formation of pannus.9 10 Others have ...
... the replacement body part is a skeletal joint and the new plural distinct tissues include bone and articular cartilage. ... In normal articular cartilage, a balance exists between synthesis and destruction of the above-described extracellular network ... Articular cartilage has little or no self-regenerative properties. Thus, if the articular cartilage is torn or worn down in ... Articular cartilage refers to hyaline or articular cartilage, an avascular, non-mineralized tissue which covers the ...
Ghrelin prevents articular cartilage matrix destruction in human chondrocytes Page :651-655 ...
... joint swelling and cartilage destruction. These cells also integrate into the synovium in AIA. ... Intra-articular injection of mesenchymal stem cells leads to reduced inflammation and cartilage damage in murine antigen- ... reducing joint swelling and cartilage destruction. Murine mesenchymal stem cells (mMSCs) were isolated from bone marrow of ... Antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) was induced by intra-articular injection of methylated bovine serum albumin into the knee ...
... destruction of articular cartilage deformity (pencil-point deformity of metatarsal heads) debris (... ... destruction of articular cartilage. *deformity (pencil-point deformity of metatarsal heads). *debris (loose bodies) ... There is joint destruction across the midfoot involving the tarsometatarsal joints suggestive of Charcots arthropathy; however ...
Produces nonsuppurative proliferative synovitis, may progress to destruction of articular cartilage and joint ankylosis ... Loose bodies: may form if portion of articular cartilage breaks off; has the tide mark of articular cartilage, has evidence of ... Not present over articular cartilage *Produce proteins, hyaluronic acid (lubricant, nutrition for cartilage) *Positive for VCAM ... Hyaline cartilage. Joint. Tendon. Non-neoplastic disease. Bakers cyst. Reviewer: Vijay Shankar, M.D. (see Reviewers page). ...
  • The evidence for an autoimmune etiology includes pathological findings of infiltrating T cells, the presence of antigen-antibody complexes in affected cartilage, cellular and humoral responses against collagen type II and other collagen antigens, and the observation that immunosuppressive regimens most often suppress the disease. (wordpress.com)
  • Furthermore, levels of antibodies to matrilin 1, an extracellular matrix protein predominantly expressed in tracheal cartilage, were significantly higher in patients with relapsing polychondritis, especially in those with respiratory symptoms, than in patients with Wegener granulomatosis , systemic lupus erythematosus , or RA and in healthy controls. (wordpress.com)
  • The specificity of autoimmune injury to cartilaginous tissues has led investigators to test the hypothesis that a cartilage-specific autoantibody is central to the pathogenesis of relapsing polychondritis. (wordpress.com)
  • Previous in vivo studies and computer models suggest that mechanobiological factors can play a key role in modulating cartilage growth and ossification. (nih.gov)
  • These results have important implications for future investigations aimed at an enhanced translation into clinical settings for the treatment of cartilage defects, highlighting the importance of considering specific aspects of modifiable variables such as improvements in the design and reporting of preclinical studies, together with the need to better understand the underlying mechanisms of cartilage repair following subchondral drilling. (biologists.org)
  • These results strongly suggested that MMPs play an essential role in the destruction of proteoglycans and the suppression of MMPs as well as prostaglandins(PGs)is very likely to be effective to suppress the RA and OA. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This can be verified by using a cartilage specific matrix protein, distinct from the proteoglycans. (lu.se)
  • The presence of RF in RA is associated with extra-articular manifestations of disease, and its absence is generally associated with milder disease. (clevelandclinicmeded.com)