Spores: The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Spores, Protozoan: A vegetative stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. It is characteristic of members of the phyla APICOMPLEXA and MICROSPORIDIA.Picolinic AcidsBacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Bacillus megaterium: A species of bacteria whose spores vary from round to elongate. It is a common soil saprophyte.Bacillus anthracis: A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.Bacillus cereus: A species of rod-shaped bacteria that is a common soil saprophyte. Its spores are widespread and multiplication has been observed chiefly in foods. Contamination may lead to food poisoning.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Anthrax: An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Clostridium botulinum: A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.Clostridium perfringens: The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Encephalitozoon: A genus of FUNGI originally considered a member of the class SPOROZOEA but now recognized as part of the class MICROSPOREA.Microsporidia: A phylum of fungi comprising minute intracellular PARASITES with FUNGAL SPORES of unicellular origin. It has two classes: Rudimicrosporea and MICROSPOREA.Microsporidiosis: Infections with FUNGI of the phylum MICROSPORIDIA.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Encephalitozoon cuniculi: A species of parasitic FUNGI. This intracellular parasite is found in the BRAIN; HEART; and KIDNEYS of several MAMMALS. Transmission is probably by ingestion of the spores (SPORES, FUNGAL).Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Protozoan Infections, Animal: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Encephalitozoonosis: Infection with FUNGI of the genus ENCEPHALITOZOON. Lesions commonly occur in the BRAIN and KIDNEY tubules. Other sites of infection in MAMMALS are the LIVER; ADRENAL GLANDS; OPTIC NERVES; RETINA; and MYOCARDIUM.Dictyostelium: A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Stachybotrys: A mitosporic fungal genus including one species which forms a toxin in moldy hay that may cause a serious illness in horses.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Microsporida: An order of parasitic FUNGI found mostly in ARTHROPODS; FISHES; and in some VERTEBRATES including humans. It comprises two suborders: Pansporoblastina and APANSPOROBLASTINA.Microscopy, Phase-Contrast: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Sigma Factor: A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Muramic Acids: Compounds consisting of glucosamine and lactate joined by an ether linkage. They occur naturally as N-acetyl derivatives in peptidoglycan, the characteristic polysaccharide composing bacterial cell walls. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Cladosporium: A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including some economically important plant parasites. Teleomorphs include Mycosphaerella and Venturia.Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Decontamination: The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Clostridium difficile: A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.Myxococcus xanthus: A species of gliding bacteria found on soil as well as in surface fresh water and coastal seawater.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Alternaria: A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including several plant pathogens and at least one species which produces a highly phytotoxic antibiotic. Its teleomorph is Lewia.Muramidase: A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC 3.2.1.17.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Myxozoa: Single-celled, aquatic endoparasitic worms that are currently considered belonging to the phylum CNIDARIA. They have a complex life cycle and parasitize a wide range of hosts including FISHES; ANNELIDA; and BRYOZOA.Newspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Enterocytozoon: A genus of parasitic FUNGI in the family Enterocytozoonidae, which infects humans. Enterocytozoon bieneusi has been found in the intestines of patients with AIDS.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.United StatesAmino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Phycomyces: A genus of zygomycetous fungi in the family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, forming mycelia having a metallic sheen. It has been used for research on phototropism.Fruiting Bodies, Fungal: The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.Sphagnopsida: A class of BRYOPHYTA which is best known for Sphagnum forming PEAT bogs.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Chondrosarcoma: A slowly growing malignant neoplasm derived from cartilage cells, occurring most frequently in pelvic bones or near the ends of long bones, in middle-aged and old people. Most chondrosarcomas arise de novo, but some may develop in a preexisting benign cartilaginous lesion or in patients with ENCHONDROMATOSIS. (Stedman, 25th ed)Hydrostatic Pressure: The pressure due to the weight of fluid.Myxomycetes: A division of organisms that exist vegetatively as complex mobile plasmodia, reproduce by means of spores, and have complex life cycles. They are now classed as protozoa but formerly were considered fungi.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Peracetic Acid: A liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent. It has an acrid odor and is used as a disinfectant.Radiation Effects: The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Databases, Bibliographic: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.Pasteurization: Treatment of food with physical methods such as heat, high pressure, radiation, or electric current to destroy organisms that cause disease or food spoilage.PeptidoglycanResearch Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Spacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Microsporum: A mitosporic Oxygenales fungal genus causing various diseases of the skin and hair. The species Microsporum canis produces TINEA CAPITIS and tinea corporis, which usually are acquired from domestic cats and dogs. Teleomorphs includes Arthroderma (Nannizzia). (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th edition, p305)Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Streptomyces griseus: An actinomycete from which the antibiotics STREPTOMYCIN, grisein, and CANDICIDIN are obtained.Meteorological Concepts: The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.Myxococcales: An order of rod-shaped, gram-negative fruiting gliding bacteria found in SOIL; WATER; and HUMUS.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Mitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.Diatrizoate: A commonly used x-ray contrast medium. As DIATRIZOATE MEGLUMINE and as Diatrizoate sodium, it is used for gastrointestinal studies, angiography, and urography.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Bioterrorism: The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.Penicillium: A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.Mycelium: The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
... spore-forming organs) which bear spinous emergences particularly at the distal ends. Spores are trilete and retusoid. The only ... For the cladogram, see the Horneophytopsida article. Fanning, U.; Edwards, D. & Richardson, J.B. (1990), "Further evidence for ...
This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. Jones, T. P.; Rowe, N. P. (1999). Fossil plants ... Some coal balls contain preserved root hairs, pollen, and spores, and are described as being "more or less perfectly preserved ... This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. Stopes, Marie C.; Watson, David M. S. (1909). " ... This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. Lyons, Paul C.; Thompson, Carolyn L.; Hatcher, ...
See the Polysporangiophyte article for the expanded cladogram.) Phylum HorneophytaClass Horneophytopsida Němejc 1960 [ ... spores] Genus ?†Salopella Edwards & Richardson 1974 [form taxa- stem; axis] Genus ?†Tarrantia Fanning, Edwards & Richardson ... plants with sporophytes bearing many spore-forming organs (sporangia) on branched stems. They were formerly classified among ...
The spores are shed in late spring. Like other ferns rattlesnake fern undergoes alternation of generations and the form ... described in this article is the sporophyte. This fern has been used medicinally. In India it is still used to treat dysentery ...
The most well characterised class I hydrophobin is EAS, which coats the spores of the fungus Neurospora crassa, followed by ... This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro IPR001338. ... Fungi make complex aerial structures and spores even in aqueous environments. Hydrophobins have been identified in ascomycetes ... these proteins are the main component of the hydrophobic sheath covering the surface of many fungal spores. Genomic sequencing ...
ISBN 0-914868-20-9. Hill, David Jackson (1969). "The absence of chlorophyll in the spores of Cryptothallus mirabilis Malmb". ... Huldremossa Aneura mirabilis (Cryptothallus mirabilis), a short article (in Swedish) with color photographs. ...
Independent newspaper article: Spores for thought Potter, D.M. (4 September 2000). "Carcinogenic effects of ptaquiloside in ... The spores are contained in structures found on the underside of the leaf called sori. The linear pattern of these is different ... The spores have also been implicated as a carcinogen. Danish scientist Lars Holm Rasmussen released a study in 2004 showing ... Guardian newspaper article on ptaquiloside from bracken entering water supplies Auld, RA; Medd, RW (1992). Weeds. Sydney: ...
The kidney-shaped or reniform spore-cases (sporangia) contain spores of one kind only (isosporous, homosporous) and are borne ... see species article for details) Lycopodium diaphanum (Tristan da Cunha) Lycopodium hygrophilum (New Guinea) Lycopodium ... The spores of Lycopodium and Diphasiastrum species are harvested and are sold as lycopodium powder. Lycopodium aberdaricum ( ... The prothallium developed from the spore is a subterranean mass of tissue of considerable size and bears both the male and ...
Microscopically, the spores of A. subrubescens are amyloid, while the ones of A. ovinus are not. Hibbett DS, Pine EM, Langer E ... discussion of the small color differences from the inedible Albatrellus subrubescens can be found at that extensive article. ... from which it may be distinguished microscopically by the amyloid spore wall. It is edible and sold commercially in Finland. A ...
The article title is New and Unusual Dark-Spored Agarics from North America.. ... Psilocybe ferrugineo-lateritia is a dark-spored agaric mushroom briefly mentioned (on page 200) in the Journal of the Mitchell ...
As the puffball matures, its insides become dark brown and powdery from mature spores. In her 1935 Mycologia article, American ... The basidia (spore-bearing cells) are club-shaped, four-spored, and measure 10-12.5 μm long by 5-7.5 μm wide. The capillitium ... The spherical spores measure 3-5 μm, including an outer covering (an epispore) of about 0.5 μm. Their surface texture ranges ... Initially white, the gleba turns color from yellow to golden brown to dark brown as the spores mature. As the gleba dries, the ...
His article "Descriptions of Extinct Batrachia and Reptilia from the Permian Formation of Texas" mentioned the findings of ... Such climate patterns favored gymnosperms, over plants that use spore dispersion. The first Bolosaurus was described by Edward ... Bulletin of the AMNH; v. 23, article 28." (1907). Reisz, Robert R., Vaia Barkas, and Diane Scott. "A new Early Permian ... Bulletin of the AMNH; v. 32, article 33." (1913). Case, Ermine Cowles. "Description of the skull of Bolosaurus striatus Cope. ...
We acknowledge that Children's Hospital is Hospital A in an upcoming article in The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. The ... these are usually due to a traumatic inoculation of fungal spores. Internationally, mucormycosis was found in 1% of patients ... of a lethal mucormycosis outbreak which occurred in 2008 emerged after television and newspaper reports responded to an article ...
The spores are borne on barrel-shaped basidia, with four spores per basidium, measuring 8 to 12 by 6 to 7 μm. There are also ... The pair named the species Fomitiporia ellipsoidea in an article in the journal Mycotaxon. The specific name ellipsoidea is ... The spore shape is one of the features that makes the species readily recognisable microscopically, and the spores measure from ... Its spores are less dextrinoid than those of the genus and their shape is atypical. Other than this, it is typical of the genus ...
Different types of asexual spores can be identified by colour, shape, and how they are released as individual spores. Spore ... See the article on asci for further details. The Ascomycota fulfil a central role in most land-based ecosystems. They are ... each spore separates and leaves a ring-shaped scar inside the scar left by the previous spore), blastic-phialidic (the spores ... repeated sideways spore formation from behind the leading spore, so that the oldest spore is at the main tip), blastic- ...
Heilna du Plooy (2003-04-01). Spore in die sand - 'n herbeskouing van die oeuvre van C.M. van den Heever. (Research Articles). ...
Unusually for plants of its time, spores of Tortilicaulis were covered all over with small granules. The initial suspicions of ... For the cladogram, see the Horneophytopsida article. Edwards, D. (1979). "A late Silurian flora from the Lower Old Red ... Fossils consist of an elongate apical sporangium (spore-forming organ), which may be branched, with spiralled walls attached to ...
... in one-spored asci they measure 42.5-62.5 by 17.5-30 µm; in two-spored asci they are 32.5-50 by 15-25 µm; in three-spored asci ... The species was first officially described and named in a 2010 Mycologia article, although Tuber oregonense had been previously ... in five-spored asci 28-34 by 22-25 µm (all sizes excluding surface ornamentation). The spore walls are 2-3 µm thick and are ... appears in some spores when the light microscope objective is focused on the optical cross section but not on the spore wall ...
1996) This article describes the reasons how ANSI has limited the use of respirators of different designs (Assigned PF). To ... 2005) Experts measured the protective properties of respirators that are used to protect against inhalation of fungal spores ... This article shows a significant difference between the real and lab efficiencies, that forced to carry out researches of ... The article also describes the problems when evaluating the protective properties of the high efficiency RPE types: very low ...
Science News article Collins team homepage Collins, T. J. (2002), "TAML oxidant activators: a new approach to the activation of ... The potential use of TAML as a bactericide against anthrax spores, which are known for their resilience, is being investigated ...
The spores measure 8.0 - 10.0 (0.8 - 1 mm) × 6.0 - 7.5 (0.6 - 0.75 mm) µm and are broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid and amyloid. ... List of Amanita species Amanita As of this edit, this article uses content from "Amanita virgineoides", which is licensed in a ...
This article is based on a translation of an equivalent article at the German Wikipedia. Harvard University Library Faxon's ... Other written works of his include: Die höheren Sporenpflanzen Deutschland's und der Schweiz, (The higher spore plants of ...
... then that these spores' presence depended on the clams' living environment; and finally that these spores would be killed if ... A later research article in 1898 showed photography of bacteria magnified 1,000 times. This research proved beneficial to the ... They first discovered that the clams contained some heat-resistant bacterial spores that were able to survive the processing; ...
This article contains information derived from public domain sources including U.S. Government publications and principally a ... The Wallings had two daughters, Grace, who married U.S. Navy Commander James Sutherland Spore and a younger sister, Bernice. ...
The added substance only protects the natural article against deterioration by inhibiting development of extraneous spores upon ... an article of merchandise; an article of clothing; salt is a necessary article." 1 Century Dictionary 326 (William Dwight ... as being tangible articles or commodities. Examples of articles of manufacture are ceramics, cast metal articles, hammers, ... Articles of manufacture may have parts, but any interaction among the parts is usually static. A natural article, even if ...
Main article: Pneumococcal infection. S. pneumoniae is part of the normal upper respiratory tract flora. As with many natural ... and do not form spores and are nonmotile.[2] As a significant human pathogenic bacterium S. pneumoniae was recognized as a ... Main article: Pneumococcal vaccine. Due to the importance of disease caused by S. pneumoniae, several vaccines have been ... Main article: Pneumococcal infection § Treatment. Resistant Pneumococci strains are called penicillin-resistant Pneumocci (PRP) ...
Of the total spore Zn2+ pool 25% is released from non-heat-activated spores within 4 min of triggering germination. During this ... Zinc release and the sequence of biochemical events during triggering of Bacillus megaterium KM spore germination. K Johnstone ... Furthermore, a correlation can be demonstrated between the extent of zinc release from spore populations and the time required ... These findings have been used to expand a recently published model for the triggering of bacterial spore germination. ...
Journal Article Biological responses of Raw 264.7 macrophage exposed to two strains of Stachybotrys chartarum spores grown on ... and macrophages were exposed to whole spores of both strains and fragmented spores of strain 51-11. Whole spores of the Houston ... Mycotoxin levels of 51-11 spores from all of the wallboard types measured ,250 ng/muL of T2 equivalent toxin based on activity ... High concentrations of fragmented 51-11 spores primarily resulted in the apoptosis of macrophage with no inflammation. None of ...
Purification of Enterocytozoon bieneusi spores from stool specimens by gradient and cell sorting techniques ... Prevalence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi spores in the stool of AIDS patients and African children not infected by HIV. Bulletin ... Identification of spores of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in stool and duodenal fluid from AIDS patients. Lancet 336(Nov. 3): 1127- ... Flow cytometry as a possible method of isolation of spores of the microsporidian Enterocytozoon bieneusi. Journal of Eukaryotic ...
... against wild-type spores and a range of spore mutants deficient in the spore coat or small acid-soluble spore proteins. The ... Furthermore, we observed that the synergistic combination was based on H2O2 compromising the spore coat, which was the main ... This study provides information on the mechanism of synergistic interaction of PAA and H2O2 against bacterial spores. We ... Article Date Type:. Published Online. Status:. Published. Schools:. Pharmacy. Publisher:. American Society for Microbiology. ...
Search results for spores. Open Access Articles 8 Conference Proceedings 2 Journals 1 Editors 3 Speakers 3 National symposiums ...
The maximum spore density was 20.6 spores per g DW. The density of AM fungal spore did not vary significantly with the sampling ... the spore density was lower than 5 spores per g DW. Thus, in the acid or alkaline soil, the sporogenesis of AM fungi is ... pH and AM fungal spore density. The AM fungal spore density in the 124 soil samples was 1.7 per g DW on the average, and lower ... The pH of the soil with a high spore density ranged from 6 to 8, and in the soil samples with a pH lower than 6 and higher than ...
Article meta. Share. *facebook. link opens in a new window. *twitter. link opens in a new window. ... Using Sound to Filter Bacterial Spores from Water. Acoustic trapping can remove bacterial spores from water, according to a new ... Any bacterial spores in the water are then subjected to three forces: buoyancy/gravity, the drag of the fluid as flows along ... The spores can then be analysed using spectroscopy of some sort.. That seems potentially useful. However, the team will need to ...
About this article. Cite this article as: Stratis-Cullum, D.N., Griffin, G.D., Mobley, J. et al. Anal Bioanal Chem (2008) 391: ... spores) and the negative control sample (0 spores) shown, an ELISA producing a chemiluminescence reaction product was coupled ... spore concentrations. For comparison, the negative control, using all assay steps except the introduction of B.g. spores is ... spore (goat anti-B. globigii diluted to 10 μg mL−1 in 0.1 M carbonate buffer, pH 9.6) were immobilized onto a Nunc maxisorp ...
About this article. Cite this article as: Egel, R. Arch. Microbiol. (1977) 112: 109. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00446662. * DOI ... This observation has been used to develop a simple and fast method by which colonies can be replicaplated and only spores ...
... anthracis spore and could potentially serve as targets for the detection of spores in multiplexed biosensors. Peripheral blood ... anthracis spores and not to other Bacillus species. Additionally, SODA1 and p5303 binding sdAbs detected spores in sandwich ... SdAbs targeting the BclA and gerQ proteins were able to successfully detect bacterial spores, whether broken or intact, using a ... To obtain thermostable immunoreagents specific for the spore form of Bacillus anthracis two llamas were immunized with a ...
In this article Van den Heever's own views are compared to the views held by critics. The article indicates that Van den ... Spore in die sand - 'n herbeskouing van die oeuvre van C.M. van den Heever C.M. van den Heever was 'n toonaangewende ... The article concludes that rereading older works of literature opens up new perspectives on the past and on older literary ... Article. n Literator : Journal of Literary Criticism, Comparative Linguistics and Literary Studies - Spore in die sand - ' ...
More Articles of This Classification. Biological Sciences. *. Improving vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae using ... Conversely, the higher the spore success rate s or the death rate of solitary cells μ, the more spores will be favored. Finally ... Of the aggregating cells, a fraction s become viable spores; we assume that spores are very resistant to environmental stress, ... and a spore mass = (0.8α1N A + 0.8α2N B). Unless α1 = α2, the chimeric spore investment appears skewed, but the same skew is ...
Research Article. Muramic lactam in peptidoglycan of Bacillus subtilis spores is required for spore outgrowth but not for spore ... C and D) Wild-type and cwlD mutant germinated spores, respectively. c, spore coats and exosporium; e, spore cortex ... Transmission electron microscopy of dormant and germinated wild-type and cwlD mutant spores. Dormant spores or spores that had ... Muramic lactam in peptidoglycan of Bacillus subtilis spores is required for spore outgrowth but not for spore dehydration or ...
Article Tools *. Email. Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science. ... Mechanically ground spores also split along this ridge, one part of the spore case being hinged to the other, the ridge being ... Bacillus megaterium spores have a characteristic polar knob and equatorial ridge, or groove. During germination, the spore case ...
Article Tools *. Email. Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science. ... Studies of irradiated bacterial spores in aqueous suspension indicate that the sensitization of spores by oxygen can depend on ... Irradiation of bacterial spores in water: three classes of oxygen-denpendent damage ... Irradiation of bacterial spores in water: three classes of oxygen-denpendent damage ...
Related articles in PubMed. * The genome sequence of the anaerobic, sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris ... spore coat polysaccharide biosynthesis protein spsF. Locus tag. DVU0350. Gene type. protein coding. RefSeq status. REVIEWED. ... spore coat polysaccharide biosynthesis protein spsF. YP_009574.1. *identified by match to protein family HMM PF02348 ... spsF spore coat polysaccharide biosynthesis protein spsF [ Desulfovibrio vulgaris str. Hildenborough ] Gene ID: 2794677, ...
Enter your email below to set up alert notifications for new article, or to manage your existing alerts.. Email *. ... N, nucleus; PSM, prospore membrane; PSM, prospore membrane; ISW, inner spore wall; OSW, outer spore wall; imSW, immature spore ... Some asci contain spores with SWs of different thicknesses, providing another indication of a lack of coordination among spores ... During spore morphogenesis, the four daughter nuclei are packaged into spores, which are contained within an ascus. ...
... producer for Will Wrights Spore, to put all sorts of questions to him. Find out what Thomas thinks of DirectX 10, creationism ... RELATED ARTICLES. The Sims 3 Hands-on Preview Is The Sims 3 destined to be another casual game for the masses, or will it go ... Spore de-authorisation tool released EA has released an official de-authorisation tool for Spore, while a Ubisoft patch ... BT: So, even in that last year and a half, Spore is such a massive game that it must have been tough to comprehend. How do you ...
Enter your email below to set up alert notifications for new article, or to manage your existing alerts.. Email *. ... spores. As previously reported, wild-type spores contained both the lightly staining mannan and β-glucan inner spore wall ... Analysis of spore walls of srt1-D75A spores. (A) Electron micrographs of srt1Δ cells transformed with integrating plasmids ... 2008 The yeast spore wall enables spores to survive passage through the digestive tract of Drosophila. PLoS One 3: e2873. ...
Spore is one of the most massive and anticipated games of recent years and weve had full hands-on access. Can one of the most ... In a recent article, Varietys Ben Fritz has called out games journalists who offer exclusive reviews as ethically troubled. ... Spore Competition. Compete for your chance to win a custom hand made Spore character in our Spore competition to celebrate the ... Spore: Hands-on Preview. Platforms: PC, Nintendo DS, Mobile, Mac. Publisher: Electronic Arts. Spore. Games dont come any more ...
We also considered the behavior of the atoms of cluster ions in the spores after the dissociation of cluster ions into monomer ... In this study, we employed bacterial spores as a model organism, established an irradiation method, and examined the lethal ... suggested that the single atoms of 2 MeV C deposited enough energy to kill the spores, and, therefore, there was no significant ... Open AccessArticle. Experimental Study on the Biological Effect of Cluster Ion Beams in Bacillus subtilis Spores by Yoshihiro ...
Research Article. Comparison of various properties of low-molecular-weight proteins from dormant spores of several Bacillus ... NOTE: We request your email address only to inform the recipient that it was you who recommended this article, and that it is ... Several properties of the major proteins degraded during germination of spores of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, and ... However, amino terminal sequences within one group of proteins varied considerably, whereas the spore protease cleavage sites ...
NOTE: We request your email address only to inform the recipient that it was you who recommended this article, and that it is ... In order to cause disease, the spores must germinate and the organism must grow vegetatively. Spore germination in Bacillus is ... Spores of a sleC mutant were unable to form colonies when germination was induced with taurocholate, although decoated sleC ... Spores are highly resistant to many forms of disinfection and thus are able to persist on hospital surfaces and disseminate ...
Please log in to add an alert for this article.. User Name *. ... spores radius of gyration. RS. spherical spore radius. t. time ... Spore ejection is best described by first analyzing the spore ballistics to infer the spore initial velocity and kinetic energy ... initial spore velocity. VD. velocity of the drop. WS. width of the spore. v. velocity. x. axis of discharge. γ. surface tension ... area of the spore covered by the drop after fusion. a. acceleration of the spore. a, b. minor and major semi-axes of the ...
In response to the need for methods that can rapidly detect potentially virulent Bacillus anthracis spores, we developed a two- ... Article Identification and characterization of bacillus anthracis spores by multiparameter flow cytometry. ... All Products Services Software Training Applications Companies News Articles Books Magazines Events Downloads Videos ... anthracis spores and the presence of spore-associated protective antigen, a virulence marker for strains harboring the pXO1 ...
  • The fungi were grown on four different gypsum products, and macrophages were exposed to whole spores of both strains and fragmented spores of strain 51-11. (rti.org)
  • When quantified by flow cytometry using tubes with known numbers of highly fluorescent polystyrene beads, the sorted material showed a slight decrease in light scatter characteristics compared with the slightly larger Encephalitozoon species spores. (eurekamag.com)
  • Whole spores of the Houston strain elicited no cytotoxicity with some level of inflammation, while exposure to whole spores of 51-11 caused variable responses depending on the wallboard type supporting the fungal growth. (rti.org)
  • Although the overall recovery of the E. bieneusi spores was low, calcofluor and Gram chromotrope staining, indirect immunofluorescence assay, and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the sorted material was highly purified and contained large numbers of E. bieneusi spores and relatively few bacteria and other debris. (eurekamag.com)
  • The dispersal of most fungal spores by wind requires that the spores be small thus making the force of gravity inconsequential compared with adhesion forces. (biologists.org)
  • However, unlike other active dispersal mechanisms, which involve mass release of spores from specialized launching structures, ballistospores are self-propelled by water. (biologists.org)
  • Without knowing the number of rust spores that actually escape from the canopy and the conditions that favor spore dispersal, long-distance spread models could be inaccurate. (labmanager.com)
  • Larger capsules enhance short-range spore dispersal in Sphagnum, but what happens further away? (ovid.com)
  • In biology , a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spores of seed plants , however, are produced internally and the megaspores, formed within the ovules and the microspores are involved in the formation of more complex structures that form the dispersal units, the seeds and pollen grains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main difference between spores and seeds as dispersal units is that spores are unicellular, while seeds contain within them a multicellular gametophyte that produces a developing embryo, the multicellular sporophyte of the next generation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The oil-spore preparation is easy to mix and use of the oil improved the dispersal of spores across the water. (eurekalert.org)
  • The development of any fern vegetation on a former sea floor will depend heavily on the deposition of spores onto the drained land by natural or artificial means of dispersal. (wur.nl)
  • Cazemier AE, Wagenaars SFM, Steeg PF (2001) Effect of sporulation and recovery medium on the heat resistance and amount of injury of spores from spoilage bacilli. (springer.com)
  • In an effort to develop such a device, we have been investigating the ability of surfaceenhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to detect dipicolinic acid (DPA) as a chemical signature of bacilli spores. (spie.org)
  • Recently we observed that an innovative approach, based on a cleanser added with spores of non-pathogenic probiotic Bacilli , was effective in stably counteracting the growth of several pathogens contaminating hospital surfaces. (plos.org)
  • Chloroform-resistant, spore-forming bacteria, which primarily belong to the classes Bacilli and Clostridia in the phylum Firmicutes, have been shown to exhibit immunomodulatory properties in vitro and in vivo, but they have not yet been characterized in the context of human disease. (caltech.edu)
  • spsF spore coat polysaccharide biosynthesis protein spsF [Desulfovibrio vulgaris str. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we have successfully designed and constructed recombinant spores displaying an antigen/adjuvant chimeric protein. (springer.com)
  • Obtained results show that recombinant spores presenting an antigen/adjuvant chimeric protein exhibit both properties in mucosal immunization of mice. (springer.com)
  • First, the recombinant one, requires modification of B. subtilis genome to express a passenger protein in fusion with a spore coat protein enabling its incorporation into the forming spore coat. (springer.com)
  • Nonpathogenic status of B. subtilis , simplicity of construction of recombinant spores presenting heterologous protein, as well as efficient surface adsorption, combined with easiness of spores' production and administration make them especially interesting carriers of antigens in mucosal vaccines. (springer.com)
  • The outermost layers of spores are of particular interest since (i) these represent the primary site for interaction with the environment and (ii) the protein constituents may have biotechnological applications. (asm.org)
  • Here, we present a ''gel-free'' protocol that is capable of comprehensive B. subtilis spore coat protein extraction and addresses the insoluble coat fraction. (uva.nl)
  • To develop specific and sensitive spore detection and/or purification systems from food stuff or patient material, suitable protein targets can be derived from our proteomic approach. (uva.nl)
  • In this work we have discovered that the negatively charged and hydrophobic surface layer of spores provides a suitable platform for adsorption of protein antigens. (ei-resource.org)
  • and Bacillus subtilis spores of a wild type and an isogenic mutant strain lacking the CotH protein to clarify the adsorption process. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Wild type spores are preferable when a very tight protein-spore interaction is needed, for example to develop reusable biocatalysts or bioremediation systems for field applications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • cotH mutant spores are instead preferable when the heterologous protein has to be displayed on the spore surface or has to be released, as could be the case in mucosal delivery systems for antigens and drugs, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Apparent homologues of the spore cortex lytic enzyme genes cwlJ and sleB ( Bacillus subtilis ) and sleC ( C. perfringens ) are present in the C. difficile genome, and we describe inactivation of these homologues in C. difficile 630Δ erm and a B1/NAP1/027 clinical isolate. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, fewer R20291 spores germinated, indicating that there are differences in both sporulation and germination between these epidemic and nonepidemic C. difficile isolates. (asm.org)
  • Use of sodium taurocholate to enhance spore recovery on a medium selective for Clostridium difficile. (asm.org)
  • To quantify the survival of Clostridium difficile spores on hospital bed sheets through the United Kingdom National Health System (UK NHS) healthcare laundry process (Health Technical Memorandum (HTM) 01-04) in vitro and on bed sheets from patients with C. difficile through the commercial laundry. (cambridge.org)
  • Spore survival on hospital sheets naturally contaminated with C. difficile was also assessed using a washer extractor plus drying and finishing cycles at a commercial laundry. (cambridge.org)
  • Clostridium difficile spores are able to survive laundering through a commercial washer extractor and may be contributing to sporadic outbreaks of CDI. (cambridge.org)
  • Further research to establish exposure of laundry workers, patients, and the hospital environment to C. difficile spores from bed sheets is needed. (cambridge.org)
  • Botulism and tetanus are infectious diseases transmitted by spores, while the spores of Clostridium difficile are responsible for hospital-acquired infections, which are harmful to patients and expensive to treat and eradicate. (frontiersin.org)
  • Norovirus), retain their infectivity for days to weeks on dry inanimate surfaces, and that Clostridium difficile spores may survive on environmental surfaces for months. (plos.org)
  • Spores from C. difficile may in turn contaminate the environment and skin and clothing after elimination from the infected host. (asm.org)
  • Following immobilization, a labeled second antibody, which is used for detection, specifically recognizes another epitope on the spore surface. (springer.com)
  • Detection of microsporidial spores in fecal specimens from patients diagnosed with cryptosporidiosis. (asm.org)
  • Recombinant spores presenting FliD were able to elicit immune response in orally immunized mice which could be evaluated by detection of FliD-specific IgA antibodies in feces of immunized animals. (springer.com)
  • Binding can be promoted under conditions of low pH and requires a potent combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between spore and immunogen. (ei-resource.org)
  • Immunoblotting with antibodies against recombinant polypeptides demonstrated specific accumulation of both metabolic enzymes in A. locustae spores. (asm.org)
  • In 2003 we employed SERS to measure DPA extracted from a 10,000 spores per μL sample using hot dodecylamine. (spie.org)
  • Mold County Accuracy: are airborne mold spore counts per cubic meter if air valid? (inspectapedia.com)
  • On the other hand, the size distribution curve of the airborne spores produced at higher air flows was correspondingly slightly shifted towards larger sizes, which is related to less efficient loosening of spores and corresponding increase in concentration of clumps consisting of more than one spore. (edu.au)
  • Also, it was found that incubation of fungal cultures for extended periods (2-6 weeks) led towards production of larger numbers of airborne fungal spores. (edu.au)
  • Synthesis of chitin by Chs3, the chitin synthase responsible for chitosan layer formation, is dependent on the cis -prenyltransferase activity of Srt1, indicating that polyprenols are necessary to coordinate assembly of the spore wall layers. (genetics.org)
  • Nisin and vancomycin both inhibited the replication of vegetative cells, but only nisin inhibited the transition from a germinated spore to a vegetative cell. (nih.gov)
  • 2. At least 15 antigens could be detected in vegetative-cell extracts by the antiserum prepared against cell extracts and at least seven could be demonstrated in spore extracts by the homologous antiserum. (portlandpress.com)
  • 3. Cross-absorption studies showed that two of these antigens were probably completely specific for vegetative-cell extracts and that one was probably completely specific for spore extracts. (portlandpress.com)
  • inset, S.E.M. of a lycopodium spore (~30 μm in diameter). (frontiersin.org)
  • Validated modified lycopodium spore method has been developed for simple and rapid quantification of herbal powdered drugs. (ajol.info)
  • Lycopodium spore method was performed on ingredients of Shatavaryadi churna, an ayurvedic formulation used as immunomodulator, galactagogue, aphrodisiac and rejuvenator. (ajol.info)
  • The broad spectrum of immune responses elicited coupled with the attendant benefits of safety suggest that spore adsorption could be appropriate for improving the immunogenicity of some vaccines as well as the delivery of biotherapeutic molecules. (ei-resource.org)
  • The molecular details of spore adsorption have not been fully clarified yet. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The spore appears to present a bound antigen in its native conformation promoting a cellular (T(h)1-biased) response coupled with a strong antibody response. (ei-resource.org)
  • The B1/NAP1/027 strain R20291 was found to sporulate more slowly and produce fewer spores than 630Δ erm . (asm.org)
  • The introduction of plasmid-borne cotW and orthologous cotX genes to the PV361 strain, which lacks all indigenous plasmids and produces spores that are devoid of an exosporium, results in the development of spores with a rudimentary exosporium-type structure. (asm.org)
  • These two killers act in strain-background-independent and genome-location-independent manners to perturb the maturation of spores not inheriting them. (elifesciences.org)
  • Whole spores of the Houston strain elicited no cytotoxicity with some level of inflammation, while exposure to whole spores of 51-11 caused variable responses depending on the wallboard type supporting the fungal growth. (rti.org)
  • Anthrax Spore Vaccine is prepared from a virtually non-pathogenic, nonencapsulated variant strain of B. anthracis . (drugs.com)
  • Counting indoor mold spore levels per cubic meter of air or "liter" produces numbers which may be very precise (many digits or decimal places) but which are generally highly inaccurate (wrong by one to three orders of magnitude). (inspectapedia.com)
  • The AM fungal spore density in the 124 soil samples was 1.7 per g DW on the average, and lower than 1.0 per g dry soil (DW) in about half of the soil samples. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The density of AM fungal spore did not vary significantly with the sampling site and the kind of cultivated crop in the sampling field. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Because available P content was consistently low in the soil samples with a high spore density, P content was considered to correlate with the AM fungal spore density. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Therefore, crop cultivation with limited P fertilizer application and reduced available P content may be important to increase AM fungal spore density in upland field soil. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This observation has been used to develop a simple and fast method by which colonies can be replicaplated and only spores survive in the replicas. (springer.com)
  • Using appropriately adsorbed spores we have shown that mice immunised mucosally can be protected against challenge with tetanus toxin, Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin and could survive challenge with anthrax toxin. (ei-resource.org)
  • Spores can survive almost any environmental assault, including UV radiation, heat, organic chemicals and degradative enzymes such as lysozyme. (els.net)
  • In this study, we employed bacterial spores as a model organism, established an irradiation method, and examined the lethal effect of 2 MeV C, 4 MeV C 2 , and 6 MeV C 3 ion beams. (mdpi.com)
  • TiO 2 at 0.25g/L was found to be the optimal concentration needed for the reduction of four orders of magnitude in B. subtilis spores viability after irradiation for 300 minutes. (iwaponline.com)
  • Spore capsule diameter negatively correlated with the proportions of spores remaining in dehisced capsules (range 5-16%), being deposited within the colony (range 2-14%), and being deposited between the colony edge and the outer sampled perimeter (range 7-22%), probably because a larger capsule shoots the spores higher into the air, in effect meaning an increased initial release height. (ovid.com)
  • To achieve the multicellular stage, individual amoebae aggregate upon starvation to form a fruiting body made of dead stalk cells and reproductive spores, a process that has been described in terms of cooperation and altruism. (pnas.org)
  • Many Dictyostelia in groups 1, 2 and 3 retained this strategy, but, when starved, preferentially aggregate to construct multicellular fruiting bodies with walled stalk cells (blue) and walled dormant spores (red). (nature.com)
  • The online version of this article ( https://doi.org/10.1007/s12033-018-0117-0 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. (springer.com)