The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.
A sometimes fatal ASFIVIRUS infection of pigs, characterized by fever, cough, diarrhea, hemorrhagic lymph nodes, and edema of the gallbladder. It is transmitted between domestic swine by direct contact, ingestion of infected meat, or fomites, or mechanically by biting flies or soft ticks (genus Ornithodoros).
A species of the PESTIVIRUS genus causing exceedingly contagious and fatal hemorrhagic disease of swine.
A family of large icosahedral DNA viruses infecting insects and poikilothermic vertebrates. Genera include IRIDOVIRUS; RANAVIRUS; Chloriridovirus; Megalocytivirus; and Lymphocystivirus.
An acute, highly contagious disease affecting swine of all ages and caused by the CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS. It has a sudden onset with high morbidity and mortality.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
A genus of softbacked TICKS, in the family ARGASIDAE, serving as the vector of BORRELIA, causing RELAPSING FEVER, and of the AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS.
A family of double-stranded DNA viruses containing one genus Asfivirus. It is the source of AFRICAN SWINE FEVER.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A phenomenon manifested by an agent or substance adhering to or being adsorbed on the surface of a red blood cell, as tuberculin can be adsorbed on red blood cells under certain conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.
A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
A species of NAIROVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. It is primarily transmitted by ticks and causes a severe, often fatal disease in humans.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An acute infection caused by the RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS, an RNA arthropod-borne virus, affecting domestic animals and humans. In animals, symptoms include HEPATITIS; abortion (ABORTION, VETERINARY); and DEATH. In humans, symptoms range from those of a flu-like disease to hemorrhagic fever, ENCEPHALITIS, or BLINDNESS.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.
Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE, also known as mucosal disease virus group, which is not arthropod-borne. Transmission is by direct and indirect contact, and by transplacental and congenital transmission. Species include BORDER DISEASE VIRUS, bovine viral diarrhea virus (DIARRHEA VIRUS, BOVINE VIRAL), and CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Techniques where DNA is delivered directly into organelles at high speed using projectiles coated with nucleic acid, shot from a helium-powered gun (gene gun). One of these techniques involves immunization by DNA VACCINES, which delivers DNA-coated gold beads to the epidermis.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Remembrance of information from 3 or more years previously.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
It is the only virus with a double-stranded DNA genome known to be transmitted by arthropods. ASFV is a large, icosahedral, ... "African Swine Fever (ASF)". PigSite. Archived from the original on 2018-06-14. Retrieved 2010-01-28. "African Swine Fever". ... In July, 3 farms discovered African swine fever in Estonia. [...] African swine fever spreads to farmed pigs, 500 animals to be ... Viruses portal Veterinary virology Dixon; et al. (2008). "African Swine Fever Virus". Animal Viruses: Molecular Biology. ...
African swine fever, bluetongue, lumpy skin disease and avian and swine flu farm animals. Understanding of viruses comes from ... Arthropod supplies Diagnostics & Surveillance Disinfectant testing Flow cytometry & cell sorting Products - Includes positive ... diagnostics and surveillance viruses carried by animals, such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), ... On 14 June 2019 the largest stock of the rinderpest virus was destroyed at the Pirbright Institute. Dr John Burns Brooksby 1964 ...
With the exception of the African swine fever virus, which belongs to the Asfarviridae family of viruses, all major clinically ... arthropod-borne virus). The word tibovirus (tick-borne virus) is sometimes used to more specifically describe viruses ... Louis encephalitis virus West Nile virus Spondweni virus group Spondweni virus Zika virus Yellow fever virus group Yellow fever ... virus Genus Orthonairovirus Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus Genus Phlebovirus Heartland virus Rift Valley fever virus ...
... caused by infection with the African swine fever virus and carried by O. moubata. In wild members of the family Suidae, the ... ISBN 978-81-315-0104-7. Schwan, T. (1996). "Ticks and Borrelia: model systems for investigating pathogen-arthropod interactions ... It is an ectoparasite and vector of relapsing fever in humans, and African swine fever in pigs. Soft ticks in the family ... African swine fever is a vector-borne disease of domestic pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs, ...
Clausamines D-G inhibit early antigen activation of the Epstein-Barr virus. Leaf extracts have a mild effect on HIV-1 and HIV-2 ... Dried leaves are widely used as an arthropod repellent, such as a filling material for mattresses and pillows against fleas, ... Decoctions of the leaves or roots are taken for gastro-intestinal disorders, fever, pneumonia, headache, hypotension, sore ... Gallery Dressler, S.; Schmidt, M. & Zizka, G. (2014). "Clausena anisata". African plants - a Photo Guide. Frankfurt/Main: ...
The virus of Nairobi sheep disease in East Africa is transmitted by Rhipicephalus ticks. African swine fever is naturally ... Compared to other arthropods of veterinary and medical importance most species of ticks are long-lived over their whole life- ... However, within groups of domestic pigs, the virus can also be transmitted by contagion. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus ... Theileria parva is the causative microbe of East Coast fever of cattle in Eastern, Central, and Southern Africa. Theileria ...
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a large double-stranded DNA virus which replicates in the cytoplasm of infected cells and ... Most flaviviruses are arthropod borne and multiply in both vertebrates and arthropods. The viruses in this family that are of ... West Nile virus, Israel turkey meningoencephalomyelitis virus, Sitiawan virus, Wesselsbron virus, yellow fever virus and the ... Flaviviruses include the West Nile virus, dengue virus, Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus, Yellow Fever Virus, and several other ...
Yellow fever originated in Africa and the virus was brought to the Americas on cargo ships, which were harbouring the Aedes ... These viruses are diverse; the term "arbovirus" - which was derived from "arthropod-borne virus" - is no longer used in formal ... The many diseases caused by viruses included foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest of cattle, avian and swine influenza, swine ... yellow fever virus, dengue virus and Pappataci fever virus. More than 100 of such viruses are now known to cause human diseases ...
... and the large eukaryal DNA viruses: the African swine fever virus (Asfarviridae), Chlorella viruses (Phycodnaviridae) and ... Poxviridae is a family of viruses. Humans, vertebrates, and arthropods serve as natural hosts. There are currently 83 species ... Orthopox: smallpox virus (variola), vaccinia virus, cowpox virus, monkeypox virus, rabbitpox virus; Parapox: orf virus, ... Ectromelia virus and Monkeypox virus do not group closely with any other member. Variola virus and Camelpox virus form a ...
Yellow fever viruses, Dengue fever viruses, and Zika viruses are of the Flavivirus genera and Chikungunya virus is of the ... Elephants: A necroscopy of a free-ranging African elephant (Loxodonta africana) in Kruger National Park in South Africa found ... "Bidirectional Human-Swine Transmission of Seasonal Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus in Pig Herd, France, 2018". Emerging Infectious ... In the case of diseases transferred from arthropod vectors such as urban yellow fever, dengue, epidemic typhus, tickborne ...
Arthropod. Time Held Alive before Inoculation. Collection Method. Probably blood from sick pig Collection Date. 6/1/2010 ... Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ... Virus Name: African swine fever Abbreviation: ASFV Status. Arbovirus Select Agent. No SALS Level. ...
African swine fever virus is carried by arthropods. Infection in pigs causes a lethal and untreatable hemorrhagic disease that ... Francisella tularensis and African swine fever virus (ASFV). F. tularensis causes the disease tularemia. It is a widely studied ... has devastated swine populations in areas of Africa and Eastern Europe. Investigations of endogenous disease proteins produced ...
ASF is unique, as it is the only known arthropod-borne, DNA virus. The disease is endemic in Sardinia, most countries of sub- ... African Swine Fever (ASF). African swine fever (ASF), first described in the 1920s in Kenya, is a highly contagious hemorrhagic ... Saharan Africa, and some West African countries. Spain and Portugal eradicated ASF in the mid-1990s; it was also eradicated ... African Swine Fever {background:#006600; color:#fff; padding: 5px 10px;} {background:#006600; color:#fff; ...
It is the only virus with a double-stranded DNA genome known to be transmitted by arthropods. ASFV is a large, icosahedral, ... "African Swine Fever (ASF)". PigSite. Archived from the original on 2018-06-14. Retrieved 2010-01-28. "African Swine Fever". ... In July, 3 farms discovered African swine fever in Estonia. [...] African swine fever spreads to farmed pigs, 500 animals to be ... Viruses portal Veterinary virology Dixon; et al. (2008). "African Swine Fever Virus". Animal Viruses: Molecular Biology. ...
Abstract The immunodot blot test was used to identify African swine fever virus (ASFV) antigens in the hemolymph from soft ... Techniques for Hemagglutination and Hemagglutination-Inhibition with Arthropod-Borne Viruses D. H. Clarke and J. Casals ... The immunodot blot test was used to identify African swine fever virus (ASFV) antigens in the hemolymph from soft ticks ( ... Identification of African Swine Fever Viral Antigens in the Hemolymph of Soft Ticks (Argasidae: Ornithodoros) by the Immunodot ...
Because of its ability to replicate in Ornithodorus ticks, ASFV can be classified as arthropod-borne virus (2). In domestic ... African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most serious diseases affecting pigs (1). The causative agent, African swine fever ... Rowlands RJ, Michaud V, Heath L, Hutchings G, Oura C, Vosloo W, African swine fever virus isolate, Georgia, 2007. Emerg Infect ... Characterization of African Swine Fever Virus Caucasus Isolate in European Wild Boars On This Page ...
Reservoirs of ASFV: a study of the ASFV in arthropods by means of the haemadsorption test. Bull Off Int Epizoot. 1963;60:895-9. ... Rowlands RJ, Michaud V, Heath L, Hutchings G, Oura C, Vosloo W, African swine fever virus isolate, Georgia, 2007. Emerg Infect ... Basto AP, Nix RJ, Boinas F, Mencles S, Silva MJ, Cartaxeiro C, Kinetics of African swine fever virus infection in Ornithodoros ... African swine fever virus infection in the argasid host, Ornithodoros porcinus porcinus. J Virol. 1998;72:1711-24.PubMed ...
The disease occurs primarily in Africa, more specifically in the countries south of the Sahara. From 2007, outbreaks were ... African swine fever (ASF) is a viral disease that only domestic pigs and wild boar are susceptible to. ... The disease was first described in 1921, in Africa. It is the only DNA virus known that is able to infect arthropods (certain ... The African swine fever virus. The African swine fever (ASF) virus is the sole member of the Asfarviridae family. ...
... and West Nile virus of man, and African swine fever virus of pigs. ... The term "haematophagous arthropod" includes all arthropods that take a blood meal from a suitable host, such as insects, ticks ... Vectors according to the invention include plasmids and viruses (including both bacteriophage and eukaryotic viruses), as well ... Preferably, the haematophagous arthropod is a tick, preferably O. moubata. Diseases and disorders transmitted by ticks of the ...
Creative Biolabs provides development services for vaccines of African swine fever virus according to customers detailed ... It is the only known DNA virus in arthropod viruses. Fig.1 The mechanism of African swine fever virus. (Galindo, 2017) ... The ASFV (African swine fever virus) is a type of uncoated particles with a diameter of 172-220 nm. The mature virus particles ... The virus has CD2, IKB and C-type hemagglutinin. The African swine fever virus has the characteristic of adsorbing pig red ...
It is also the only known DNA arbovirus and the only virus with a double-stranded DNA genome transmitted by arthropods. ... African swine fever. African swine fever. African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious hemorrhagic disease of pigs that ... The virus : one of a kind. The virus belongs to the Asfarviridae family - also known as the African swine fever-like viruses - ... it does not replicate readily in any species other than swine. Fortunately, African swine fever is not a human health threat. ...
African swine fever, bluetongue, lumpy skin disease and avian and swine flu farm animals. Understanding of viruses comes from ... Arthropod supplies Diagnostics & Surveillance Disinfectant testing Flow cytometry & cell sorting Products - Includes positive ... diagnostics and surveillance viruses carried by animals, such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), ... On 14 June 2019 the largest stock of the rinderpest virus was destroyed at the Pirbright Institute. Dr John Burns Brooksby 1964 ...
African swine fever. I. Morphological changes and virus replication in blood platelets of pigs infected with virulent ... Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XX. Arthropod parasites of the Cape mountain zebra (Equus zebra zebra) ... microscope in blood platelets of pigs infected with virulent haemadsorbing and non-haemadsorbing African swine fever virus ... Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XXI. Arthropod parasites of vaal ribbok, bontebok and scrub hares in ...
African swine fever, however, survived in eight ingredients. In addition, ASF virus was the only virus which survived the 30- ... It is the only DNA virus transmitted by arthropods. It has an incubation period of 5 to 19 days after contact with an infected ... and maintain the virus for years.. African swine fevers current appearance outside of Africa was in 2007 in Georgia. It ... Classical Swine Fever (CSF), Foot & Mouth Disease (FMD) and African Swine Fever (ASF). These three foreign animal diseases are ...
ASF is unique, as it is the only known arthropod-borne, DNA virus. The disease is endemic in Sardinia, most countries of sub- ... African Swine Fever Last Modified: Oct 2, 2018 African Swine Fever (ASF) African swine fever (ASF), first described in the ... African Swine Fever Making Territorial Gains In Hungary and OIE: Moldova Reports 1st Incidence Of African Swine Fever (Wild ... USDA and swine industry met to discuss protections USDA has in place to prevent the introduction of African Swine Fever (ASF) ...
Scientists at the Biosecurity Research Institute have been studying African swine fever for three years-an outbreak in China ... African swine fever is not a new virus.. It was first seen in Africa in 1921 and is considered endemic across much of sub- ... It is the only DNA virus known to have an arthropod vector - soft ticks. ... African swine fever produces fever in pigs, and in the early stages they will huddle together for warmth and show signs of ...
The introduction and emergence of African swine fever virus from Africa into the Americas in the 1960s and 1970s seem prophetic ... Increased long-distance livestock transportation facilitates the movement of viruses and arthropods (especially ticks) around ... Lessons from Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever Epidemics. Should we be concerned about Ebola virus? Is there a risk to Africa that ... In Africa, the emergence of Ebola virus could dramatically increase if its still unknown reservoir host(s) increased, the virus ...
Putative role of arthropod vectors in African swine fever virus transmission in relation to their bio-ecological properties. ... African swine fever virus eradication in Africa. Penrith Marie-Louise, Vosloo Wilna, Jori Ferran, Bastos Armanda. 2013. Virus ... An expert opinion assessment of blood-feeding arthropods based on their capacity to transmit African swine fever virus in ... African swine fever virus serodiagnosis: A general review with a focus on the analyses of African serum samples. Cubillos ...
An expert opinion assessment of blood-feeding arthropods based on their capacity to transmit African swine fever virus in ... and their role in the transmission of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in Metropolitan France, a dedicated working group of the ... Here, we used a multi-factorial system containing a non-persistent plant virus, cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), its primary vector ... African Animal Trypanosomiasis -AAT) and humans (Human African Trypanosomiasis-HAT), if not treated. The tsetse fly is the ...
African Swine Fever Virus-DNA - Deletions and additions during adaptation to growth in Monkey Kidney-Cells. ARCHIVES OF ... Expression of Engrailed proteins in Arthropods, Annelids, and Chordates. CELL 58, 955-968 (1989) ... Proteins specified by African Swine Fever Virus. 4. Glycoproteins and Phosphoproteins. ARCHIVES OF VIROLOGY 77, 167-180 (1983) ... Analysis of genetic-variability of populations of Herpes-Simplex viruses. VIRUS RESEARCH 28, 249-261 (1993) ...
Results Here, we show that soft ticks of the Ornithodoros moubata group, the natural arthropod vector of ASFV, harbour African ... African swine fever virus-like integrated elements in a soft tick genome - an ancient virus vector arms race?. Jan H. Forth, ... African swine fever virus-like integrated elements in a soft tick genome - an ancient virus vector arms race? ... African swine fever virus-like integrated elements in a soft tick genome - an ancient virus vector arms race? ...
African swine fever virus (. A. S. F. V) is normally an extremely infectious disease. Posted on March 16, 2017 2:55 pm by Alice ... virus (ASFV) is a pathogen of the Suidae (domestic and wild pig species) which may be transmitted straight or via an arthropod ... African swine fever virus (ASFV) is normally an extremely infectious disease of home pigs with virulent isolates causing a ... Furthermore ASF is known as to become the major restricting element to pig creation in Africa (34). ASFV can be BMP6 a big ...
... are vectors of human and animal pathogens that include tick-borne relapsing fever spirochetes and African swine fever virus. ... We highlight the presence of big defensins in various classes of lophotrochozoans, as well as in a few arthropods and basal ... Mosquito Defensins Enhance Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection by Facilitating Virus Adsorption and Entry within the Mosquito ... Cucumber Mosaic Virus, and Potato Virus Y infections) and abiotic (cold stress) stimuli. Tomato defensin sequences were ...
Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros (a natural arthropod host), infected with the virus ... A Guide to African Swine Fever (ASF). African swine fever Biosecurity and Hygiene Production Management People Government and ... The causative agent is a large complex virus, African swine fever virus (ASFV) ... African swine fever Biosecurity and Hygiene Production Management People Government and regulatory ...
Arthropod Vectors in African Swine Fever Virus Transmission in Relation to Their Bio-Ecological Properties African swine fever ... Replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus vaccine vector. Clem April 27, 2021 0 Comments ... Development of Tomato bushy stunt virus-based vectors for fusion and non-fusion ... Development of Tomato bushy stunt virus-based vectors for fusion and non-fusion ...
Research at the Infectious Diseases Laboratory has aimed at deepening the knowledge on different aspects of African swine fever ... The African swine fever (ASF) unit, developed research regarding different aspects of African swine fever virus (ASFV) ... infection towards the development of vaccine models against the disease and on the role of arthropod vectors of the etiological ... Viruses 7: 4978-4996. Coelho, J., Martins, C., Ferreira, F., Leitão, A. 2015. African swine fever virus ORF P1192R codes for a ...
Disinfectant/chemical selections and procedures - African swine fever and classical swine fever; category A viruses ... Arthropod vectors. N/A. Wild birds. Water fowl and many species of wild birds are reservoirs for the virus, without showing ... Category of virus2. Asfaviridae. large-sized dsDNA enveloped. African swine fever. swine. ingestion, contact ticks ( ... Disinfectant/chemical selections and procedures - Rift Valley fever; category A virus. Item to be disinfected. Disinfectant/ ...
African Swine Fever African Swine Fever Virus Animals Arachnid Vectors Argasidae Arthropod Vectors Asfarviridae Cells, Cultured ... African swine fever is a highly contagious disease of pigs in Africa. Although its persistence in Senegal may be caused by ... African swine fever (ASF) is widespread in Africa but is rarely introduced to other continents. In June 2007, ASF was confirmed ... African Swine Fever Virus Strain Georgia 2007/1 in Ornithodoros erraticus Ticks ...
  • Putative role of arthropod vectors in African swine fever virus transmission in relation to their bio-ecological properties. (
  • The African swine fever (ASF) unit , developed research regarding different aspects of African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection towards the development of vaccine models against the disease and on the role of arthropod vectors of the etiological agent. (
  • This program was initiated with the objective of detecting early the circulation of West Nile virus, a virus that can affect wild birds and equids and is transmitted by mosquito vectors to people. (
  • These 'arboviruses' ( ar thropod- bo rne viruses ) use arthropods as 'vectors' to help them transmit. (
  • While arboviruses do not generally cause recognisable disease in their arthropod vectors they often do in vertebrates, in particular warm-blooded vertebrates like primates like us and livestock. (
  • The tick microbiome consists of communities of viruses, bacteria and eukaryotes [ 4 ], and tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) of humans and animals are among the most important microorganisms that have been characterised within these arthropod vectors. (
  • They are usually transmitted by arthropod vectors (usually mosquitoes). (
  • Research in the Hamer Lab broadly investigates the ecology of infectious diseases of humans, wild animals, and domestic animals, with particular attention to those transmitted by arthropod vectors (e.g. mosquitoes, ticks, kissing bugs). (
  • Biting midges ( Culicoides species) are vectors of arboviruses and were responsible for the emergence and spread of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in Europe in 2011 and are likely to be involved in the emergence of other arboviruses in Europe. (
  • These findings expand our current knowledge of viral diversity in arthropods and especially in these understudied disease vectors. (
  • Ticks are important vectors for the transmission of pathogens including viruses. (
  • Herein, we review the current knowledge of TBVs with emphases on the history of virus isolation and identification, tick vectors, and potential pathogenicity to humans and animals, including assigned species as well as the recently discovered and unassigned species. (
  • Although this has not been experimentally proven hitherto, if these tick species in the " O. erraticus complex" were also competent vectors of the ASF virus, their presence in anthropic environments would significantly increase the transmission and long-term persistence of ASF in this wide region. (
  • Very little of the disease work that goes on there has zoonotic potential, that is potential to infect humans, and those diseases that do would require transmission via arthropod vectors that hopefully don't live in New York. (
  • African swine fever can be transmitted by direct contact with infected animals, indirect contact on fomites, and by tick vectors. (
  • Baculoviruses are insect viruses extensively exploited as eukaryotic protein expression vectors. (
  • African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a large, double-stranded DNA virus in the Asfarviridae family. (
  • ASFV is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa and exists in the wild through a cycle of infection between ticks and wild pigs, bushpigs, and warthogs. (
  • ASFV is a large, icosahedral, double-stranded DNA virus with a linear genome of 189 kilobases containing more than 180 genes. (
  • All ASFV p72 genotypes have been circulating in eastern and southern Africa. (
  • The causative agent, African swine fever virus (ASFV), is a complex DNA virus of the genus Asfivirus within the Asfarviridae family. (
  • Because of its ability to replicate in Ornithodorus ticks, ASFV can be classified as arthropod-borne virus ( 2 ). (
  • The immunodot blot test was used to identify African swine fever virus (ASFV) antigens in the hemolymph from soft ticks ( Ornithodoros coriaceus ) fed on ASFV-infected pigs. (
  • A) Ticks fed on African swine fever virus (ASFV) strain OUR T88/1 at 4 log 10 50% hemadsorbing doses (HAD 50 )/mL. (
  • Ticks that fed on blood containing 6 log 10 HAD 50 ASFV on average had virus titers 2.15 log 10 HAD 50 higher than those for ticks that fed on blood containing 4 log 10 HAD 50 /mL. (
  • The ASFV (African swine fever virus) is a type of uncoated particles with a diameter of 172-220 nm. (
  • The ASFV was first discovered in Kenya in 1921 and has so far become popular in dozens of countries in Africa, Europe and America. (
  • Although ASFV can be adapted to grow in cells from different species, it does not replicate readily in any species other than swine. (
  • Distinct genotypes of ASFV have been differentiated by sequence analysis of the genomes of viruses obtained from different geographic areas over a long time. (
  • To date, more than 20 genotypes of ASFV have been identified, most from wildlife in Africa. (
  • Depending on isolates, virulence of ASFV vary greatly, from highly pathogenic viruses that kill most pigs to strains that result only in seroconversion. (
  • ASFV is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa , with a few outbreaks recorded outside the continent. (
  • ASFV is maintained in Africa by a natural cycle of transmission between warthogs and the soft tick vector O. moubata , which inhabits warthog burrows and from which it is unlikely ever to be eliminated. (
  • Background African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the only known DNA-arbovirus and a most devastating suid pathogen that, originating from a sylvatic cycle in Africa, has spread to eastern Europe and recently reached western Europe and Asia, leading to a socio-economic crisis of global proportion. (
  • However, since neither closely related viruses nor integrated viral elements have yet been identified, ASFV evolution remains a mystery. (
  • Results Here, we show that soft ticks of the Ornithodoros moubata group, the natural arthropod vector of ASFV, harbour African swine fever virus-like integrated (ASFLI)-elements corresponding to up to 10% (over 20 kb) of the ASFV genome. (
  • Conclusion We suggest that this mechanism of protection, shaped through many years of co-evolution, is part of an evolutionary virus-vector "arms race", a finding that has not only high impact on our understanding of the co-evolution of viruses with their hosts but also provides a glimpse into the evolution of ASFV. (
  • African swine fever virus (ASFV) is normally an extremely infectious disease of home pigs with virulent isolates causing a rapidly fatal hemorrhagic fever. (
  • INTRODUCTION African swine fever (ASF) virus (ASFV) is a pathogen of the Suidae (domestic and wild pig species) which may be transmitted straight or via an arthropod vector by means of ticks (35). (
  • Research at the Infectious Diseases Laboratory has aimed at deepening the knowledge on different aspects of African swine fever virus (ASFV) biology towards development of vaccine candidates, and evaluating relevant epidemiological aspects of infectious diseases namely zoonosis and emergent diseases affecting livestock, companion animals and wildlife, and development of animal health information systems and risk analysis assessments. (
  • Researchers of the ASF unit have developed comprehensive studies on the dynamics and role of Ornithodoros erraticus in the epidemiology of the disease, on virus-cell interactions and on functional characterization of several ASFV genes involved in viral transcription and replication, towards the development of rational design of antiviral molecules and efficient and safe vaccines, namely by the generation of defective infectious single cycle (DISC) viral particles. (
  • African wild swine are unapparently infected and act as reservoir hosts of ASFV in Africa. (
  • Just a few hours ago we learned that the virus causing this disease, the African Swine Fever virus (ASFv), had been diagnosed in two wild boars. (
  • The African swine fever virus (ASFV) DP71L protein is present in all isolates as either a short form of 70 to 72 amino acids or a long form of about 184 amino acids, and both of these share sequence similarity to the C-terminal domain of the herpes simplex virus ICP34.5 protein and cellular protein GADD34. (
  • Protein p72 is the major capsid protein of African swine fever virus (ASFV) and is an important target for test and vaccine development. (
  • We have now studied the methylation status of African swine fever virus (ASFV) DNA at various times after infection of Vero cells in culture. (
  • For this purpose, we use three DNA viruses replicating in the cytoplasm of the infected cells: wild-type African swine fever virus (ASFV)-Georgia 2007, culture-adapted type ASFV-BA71V, and Vaccinia virus (VV). (
  • Whereas hard ticks have been intensively studied, little is known about soft ticks, even though they can also transmit pathogens, including African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) affecting domestic and wild suids or Borrelia bacteria causing tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) in humans. (
  • New species of human virus are still being identified, at a rate of three or four per year (see below), and viruses make up over two-thirds of all new human pathogens [ 2 ], a highly significant over-representation given that most human pathogen species are bacteria, fungi or helminths. (
  • Gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) as a potential reservoir of a Bartonella clarridgeiae-like bacterium and domestic dogs as part of a sentinel system for surveillance of zoonotic arthropod-borne pathogens in northern California. (
  • Currently, he is studying why some pathogens are particularly likely to jump between species and spread, and using metagenomic technology to discover novel viruses and determine the possible microbial cause of disease syndromes (e.g. emerging tick-borne disease in Australia). (
  • Climate warming also could facilitate the expansion of the distributions of many arboviruses, as documented for bluetongue viruses (BTV), major pathogens of ruminants. (
  • albopictus, may be met by two other viruses with the potential to become major human pathogens: Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, already an important cause of neurological disease in humans and equids throughout the Americas, and Mayaro virus, a close relative of CHIKV that produces a comparably debilitating arthralgic disease in South America. (
  • In September 2018 the virus made a big leap and hundreds of wild boars in our neighbouring country became infected. (
  • On August 3, 2018, a small pig farm in northeastern China was confirmed as infected with African swine fever. (
  • On September 5, 2018, USDA and swine industry met to discuss protections USDA has in place to prevent the introduction of African Swine Fever (ASF) to the United States as well as activities to enhance those protections. (
  • Using a mosquito surveillance program in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) and San Antonio, TX, from 2016 to 2018, we detected the presence of an insect-specific virus, cell fusing agent virus (CFAV), in the Aedes aegypti mosquito population. (
  • African swine fever (ASF), first described in the 1920s in Kenya, is a highly contagious hemorrhagic disease of wild and domestic suids with extremely high morbidity and mortality rates. (
  • In common with other viral hemorrhagic fevers, the main target cells for replication are those of monocyte, macrophage lineage. (
  • African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious hemorrhagic disease of pigs that produces a wide range of clinical signs and lesions that closely resemble those of classical swine fever. (
  • While laboratories around the world continue to work toward a clear understanding of the double-stranded DNA virus that causes the hemorrhagic disease and strive to develop a treatment or a vaccine, the people who work to safeguard American livestock from foreign animal diseases have an added level of responsibility. (
  • The family includes equine arteritis virus (EAV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), lactate dehydrogenaseelevating virus (LDV) of mice and simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV). (
  • Dengue hemorrhagic fever is a far more severe form of the dengue virus. (
  • Kortepeter MG, Bausch DG, Bray M. Basic clinical and laboratory features of filoviral hemorrhagic fever. (
  • Ebola hemorrhagic fever: novel biomarker correlates of clinical outcome. (
  • Under natural circumstances Ebola induced hemorrhagic fever carriers have such high death rates that their rapid death actually acts to limit the spread of the virus. (
  • The species of Ebola virus are among a number of viruses that cause a disease, hemorrhagic fever, that is typified by copious internal bleeding and bleeding from various orifices of the body, including the eyes. (
  • Examples of substances handled by a BSL-4 lab include: Marburg virus, Ebola virus, Lassa fever and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. (
  • The virus is thought to be derived from a virus of soft tick (genus Ornithodoros) that infects wild swine, including giant forest hogs (Hylochoerus meinertzhageni), warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus), and bushpigs (Potamochoerus porcus). (
  • It is the only DNA virus known that is able to infect arthropods (certain soft-bodied ticks of the genus Ornithodoros), as well as mammals. (
  • The virus is found in all body fluids and tissues and persistently infects its natural hosts, warthogs, bushpigs, and the soft ticks of the Ornithodoros genus, which are thought to act as a vector. (
  • genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae ) is a mosquitoborne RNA virus that causes death in young piglets, miscarriage in pregnant sows, and mild illness in horses (1-3). (
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) are nonsegmented, positive-sense RNA viruses of the genus Alphavirus in the family Togaviridae [1]. (
  • Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the prototypic member of the Aphthovirus genus in the Picornaviridae family. (
  • According to the VIIIth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) [ 20 ], the dsDNA viruses can be classified into certain families or unassigned genus. (
  • It is caused by Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV), which belongs to the genus Phlebovirus and the family Phenuiviridae within the order Bunyavirales. (
  • Bluetongue virus (BTV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV) are distinct arthropod borne virus species in the genus Orbivirus ( Reoviridae family), causing the notifiable diseases Bluetongue and African horse sickness of ruminants and equids, respectively. (
  • Bluetongue (BT), African horse sickness (AHS), and epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD) are OIE listed arthropod borne animal diseases caused by the viruses in the genus Orbivirus , family Reoviridae . (
  • Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is the prototype of the genus Vesiculovirus in family Rhabdoviridae. (
  • Hepatitis delta virus, the only member of the only species in the genus Deltavirus , is a unique human pathogen. (
  • Previous studies suggest that it takes 3-4 weeks for ticks to completely digest and clear ingested blood and that virus isolated after this period is due to viral replication ( 5 , 6 ). (
  • Certain ticks can also become infected with the virus. (
  • Soft-bodied ticks feed on infected warthogs, propagate the virus and pass it on to another warthog at their next blood meal. (
  • As warthogs and ticks cohabit closely in warthog burrows, this is an efficient method of spreading the virus. (
  • African swine fever can be spread by direct contact with infected animals, on equipment or clothes, and by soft ticks. (
  • Genetic characterization of African swine fever virus isolates from soft ticks at the wildlife/domestic interface in Mozambique and identification of a novel genotype. (
  • Yet some viruses are transmitted in a wholly different way and are spread by arthropods, such as mosquitoes, midges, sandflies or ticks. (
  • Of note, the African swine fever virus - spread by ticks - is the only arboviruses with a DNA genome. (
  • Kadam virus ( togaviridae flavivirus) infecting camel parasitizing Hyalomma dromedarii ticks (acariixodidae) in Saudi Arabia. (
  • The viruses carried by ticks also known as tick-borne viruses (TBVs), contain a large group of viruses with diverse genetic properties and are concluded in two orders, nine families, and at least 12 genera. (
  • In Africa, a cycle of inapparent infection is established between ticks and wild boars, warthogs and bush pigs. (
  • ASF virus is passed transovarially in some ticks and persists in successive generations of ticks. (
  • She said recent surveys indicate that the prevalence of ASF in Ornithodoros ticks in those regions is slightly lower in the dry season, than similar surveys conducted 20 years ago, with fewer than two percent of that species of tick in found to be carrying the virus in KNP and none in the MGR. (
  • The ticks transmit the virus to warthogs by infesting their burrows and feeding on their blood. (
  • As seen with classical swine fever, the growing population of wild boars is problematic for animal disease control, particularly if the infection reaches endemicity ( 6 ). (
  • The broader scope includes the category FAD (Foreign Animal Disease), and the three that we do not have in this country: Classical Swine Fever (CSF), Foot & Mouth Disease (FMD) and African Swine Fever (ASF). (
  • There is not a specifi c sign that can make you certain that the problem is ASF, although unusual high mortality among pigs of all age groups should lead to a strong suspicion of ASF although it can be similar to CSF (Classical Swine Fever). (
  • Dr. Llilianne Ganges, IRTA-CReSA researcher and OIE expert on Classical Swine Fever virus answers these questions. (
  • Pestiviruses account for important diseases in animals such as Classical swine fever (CSF) and Bovine viral diarrhea / Mucosal disease (BVD/MD). According to the current O.I.E. list CSF and BVD/MD are notifiable diseases and eradication programms are administered in many countries worldwide. (
  • Classical swine fever (CSF), commonly known in the United States as hog cholera, is a highly contagious viral disease of swine caused by a Pestivirus related to bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) and border disease virus (BDV) of sheep. (
  • 3 Classical swine fever virus infects all swine including wild boar and peccaries, but is not known to infect cattle or sheep. (
  • According to the 1996 Office International des Epizooties Manual, classical swine fever has a nearly worldwide distribution involving 44 swine-producing countries on all continents except North America and Australia. (
  • The disease is endemic in Sardinia, most countries of sub-Saharan Africa, and some West African countries. (
  • and to the giant forest hog (Hylochoerus meinertzhageni), all of which are endemic to Africa. (
  • Over recent years we have seen the virus being found increasingly in wild boar, and it seems that under certain circumstances, the virus can continue to circulate among wild boar over the longer term or even become endemic. (
  • The Compton site currently carries out work on endemic (commonplace) animal diseases including some avian viruses and a small amount of bovine immunology whilst Pirbright works on exotic (unusual) animal diseases (usually caused by virus outbreaks). (
  • Despite strict animal importation regulations, CSF-infected swine products are likely to be introduced into the United States by air, sea, or ground transportation in garbage or the baggage of travelers from endemic areas. (
  • It is endemic in several African countries and an outbreak of the disease has been occurring across several countries in Central Asia since 2007. (
  • It soon was endemic in eight African countries. (
  • In (ii) we collaborate closely with NASA and DoD partners to develop landscape scale predictive models of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) activity in endemic regions of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula and link these predictions through transport pathways to high-risk areas of the United States highlighted by historical climate-mosquito dynamics and seasonal environmental signals. (
  • These factors led to the emergence of permanent endemic cycles of urban DENV and CHIKV, as well as seasonal interhuman transmission of yellow fever virus. (
  • The IND serogroup has three subtypes IND-1 (classical IND) IND-2 (cocal virus) and IND-3 (alagoas virus) The virus is endemic in South America, Central America, Southern Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru but the disease has been reported in South Africa in 1886 and 1897 and France in years 1915 and 1917. (
  • With our proven competencies and regulatory expertise, we are therefore confident in offering the best services for African swine fever virus vaccine development and guaranteeing the finest results for our customers all over the world. (
  • The inactivated African swine fever virus vaccine has been widely used in many disease preventions, and the results show it plays an important role in the clinic. (
  • Recombinant attenuated vaccine can usually give the body relative protection against the homologous virus. (
  • We provide a comprehensive range of viral vaccines development for swine fever virus vaccine project. (
  • Currently there is no vaccine against African swine fever. (
  • African swine fever (ASF) is an acute haemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs for which there is currently no vaccine. (
  • Support and invest in the Global ASF Research Alliance to continue to coordinate international research efforts to address gaps, in particular for the development a vaccine for ASF virus. (
  • Semliki Forest virus, as efficient gene therapy and/or vaccine delivery vehicles. (
  • There is no cure or vaccine for dengue fever. (
  • For the past several years, GlaxoSmithKline has conducted tests of its vaccine on almost 15,500 children in seven African countries. (
  • GlaxoSmithKline's research was supported by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the company says it will make the vaccine affordable for poorer nations.Ninety percent of the world's malaria cases are in the poorer regions of sub-Saharan Africa where the vaccine was tested. (
  • The number of genes differs slightly among different isolates of the virus. (
  • The virus strain involved was related to isolates of genotype II, which are circulating in Mozambique, Madagascar, and Zambia ( 4 ). (
  • We showed that experimental immunisation of pigs with the non-virulent OURT88/3 genotype I isolate from Portugal followed by the closely related virulent OURT88/1 genotype I isolate could confer protection against challenge with virulent isolates from Africa including the genotype I Benin 97/1 isolate and genotype X Uganda 1965 isolate. (
  • During the 2014 West African Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended that all emergency department (ED) patients undergo travel screening fo. (
  • African swine fever epidemiology and control. (
  • The epidemiology of this disease is complex and unique: the virus is capable of persisting in pork products and surviving in the environment. (
  • However, the epidemiology and pathogenesis of the infection caused by each virus is distinct, as are the diseases they cause. (
  • Linton, Yvonne-Marie 2017-03-10 00:00:00 Next-generation sequencing technologies have significantly facilitated the discovery of novel viruses, and metagenomic surveillance of arthropods has enabled exploration of the diversity of novel or known viral agents. (
  • The warthog and the soft-bodied tick (mainly of the species Ornithodoros moubata) maintain the virus cycle there. (
  • In South America, peccaries (Tayassu species) are also a non-symptomatic carrier of the virus. (
  • There are 219 virus species that are known to be able to infect humans. (
  • The first of these to be discovered was yellow fever virus in 1901, and three to four new species are still being found every year. (
  • Extrapolation of the discovery curve suggests that there is still a substantial pool of undiscovered human virus species, although an apparent slow-down in the rate of discovery of species from different families may indicate bounds to the potential range of diversity. (
  • Indeed, a substantial proportion of mammalian viruses may be capable of crossing the species barrier into humans, although only around half of these are capable of being transmitted by humans and around half again of transmitting well enough to cause major outbreaks. (
  • Moreover, we recognize that 'species' itself is an imprecise designation, especially for viruses such as influenza A where different serotypes can have very different epidemiologies and health impacts. (
  • Nonetheless, a study of currently recognized 'species' is a natural starting point for attempts to characterize and interpret patterns of virus diversity. (
  • As a starting point for our survey, we used a previously published database (see [ 5 ]) obtained by systematically searching the primary scientific literature up to and including 2005 for reports of human infection with recognized virus species, using species as defined by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) [ 6 ]. (
  • 2020. Argas (Persicargas) giganteus soft tick infection with Rickettsia hoogstraali and relapsing fever Borrelia on wild avian species of the desert southwest, USA . (
  • Latent infection in African species that can infect Asian primates and U.S. born African primates. (
  • Changes, including what constitutes the definition of a viral species, have already had an impact on how viruses are characterized and classified. (
  • To date, four species of Ebola virus have been identified, based on differences in their genetic sequences and in the immune reaction they elicit in infected individuals. (
  • However, if the other species of the virus are capable of similar transmission, this has not yet been documented. (
  • During her presentation, Dr. Bastos reported on research into the prevalence of ASF virus in the species of tick that is responsible for maintenance of the virus, in the northern regions of South Africa, notably the Kruger National Park (KNP) and the Mkuze Game Reserve (MGR). (
  • A total of 1380 mosquitoes comprising 13 species, collected from Thrace and the Mediterranean and Aegean regions of Anatolia were screened for the novel virus using primers based on the N and L genes of the prototype genome. (
  • These viruses are spread by specific species of Culicoides biting midges. (
  • Members of this species, named extra small virus, are satellite viruses of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus, an unclassified virus related to members of the family Nodaviridae . (
  • citation needed] The Pirbright Institute carries out research, diagnostics and surveillance viruses carried by animals, such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), African swine fever, bluetongue, lumpy skin disease and avian and swine flu farm animals. (
  • Rapid detection of antibodies of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus by micro-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Micro-ELISA). (
  • Cytoplasmic vacuolization responses to cytopathic bovine viral diarrhoea virus. (
  • Dengue fever is a virus-based disease spread by the bites of mosquitoes. (
  • It can be caused by any one of four separate but related viruses carried by infected mosquitoes, most commonly the mosquito Aedes aegypti, found in tropic and subtropic areas. (
  • The family name derives from the Japanese village of Nodamura where Nodamura virus was first isolated from Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes. (
  • The primary route of infection is the upper respiratory tract, and virus replicates in the tonsil and the lymph nodes draining the head and neck, rapidly leading to a generalised infection via the bloodstream. (
  • In this paper, we take an ecological approach to studying the diversity of human viruses (defined as viruses for which there is evidence of natural infection of humans). (
  • Chikungunya fever is an arboviral infection, caused by an RNA virus of the Togaviridae family. (
  • Human infection due to Ebola virus, subtype Côte d'Ivoire: clinical and biologic presentation. (
  • However, given that filovirus, which produce similar effects, establish a latent infection in African monkeys, macaques, and chimpanzees, scientists consider the possibility that the Ebola virus likewise normally resides in an animal that lives in Africa. (
  • Outbreaks of infection with the Ebola virus appear sporadically and suddenly. (
  • The initial infection is presumable by contact between the person and the animal that harbors the virus. (
  • In addition to structural proteins VP1-7, at least four non-structural proteins NS1 - 4 are expressed after infection of mammalian and insect cells but these are not present in the infectious virus particle. (
  • Discovery of a Novel Human Pegivirus in Blood Associated with Hepatitis C Virus Co-Infection. (
  • Infection is caused by both vertical and horizontal transmission of virus. (
  • It is the only virus with a double-stranded DNA genome known to be transmitted by arthropods. (
  • The virus encodes enzymes required for replication and transcription of its genome, including elements of a base excision repair system, structural proteins, and many proteins that are not essential for replication in cells, but instead have roles in virus survival and transmission in its hosts. (
  • One animal was inoculated intramuscularly with 1,000 hemadsorbing units 50% of a 2009 virus isolate from the Chechen Republic, which is identical to the isolate used in the oral trial in all genome fragments routinely sequenced. (
  • It is also the only known DNA arbovirus and the only virus with a double-stranded DNA genome transmitted by arthropods. (
  • Alphaviruses having single-stranded RNA genome belong to Togaviridae family of viruses and are divided into arthritogenic viruses (old world) and encephalitogenic viruses (new world) including equine encephalitis viruses. (
  • Arteriviruses are small, enveloped, animal viruses with an icosahedral core containing a positive-sense RNA genome. (
  • Evaluation of Viral Genome Copies Within Viral Factories on Different DNA Viruses. (
  • The expanded utilization of whole genome sequence analysis and metagenomic approaches has increased the amount of biological information available to the scientific community for virus characterization and categorization. (
  • A novel metaviromic pipeline called MetaViC was developed specifically to identify novel virus sequence signatures from high throughput sequencing (HTS) datasets in the absence of a known host genome. (
  • West Nile virus is an icosahedral, enveloped virus of 40 to 50 nm in diameter ( 1 , 5 , 10 ) and has a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome ( 1 , 5 , 6 , 12 ) . (
  • Due to the problems caused by the uncertainty in alignment, existing tools for phylogenetic analysis based on multiple alignment could not be directly applied to the whole-genome comparison and phylogenomic studies of viruses. (
  • In this paper, the DL method is used to analyze the whole-proteome phylogeny of 124 large dsDNA viruses and 30 parvoviruses, two data sets with large difference in genome size. (
  • In comparison, some alignment-free methods such as the CV Tree method can be used for recovering the phylogeny of large dsDNA viruses, but they are not suitable for resolving the phylogeny of parvoviruses with a much smaller genome size. (
  • The present study represents another effort of applying an alignment-free method in analysing complete genome data to elucidate the phylogeny of two virus groups of different genome size, the large dsDNA viruses and parvoviruses. (
  • The genome sizes of dsDNA viruses are usually larger than 10 kb except those in the families Polyomaviridae (5 kb) and Papillomaviridae (7-8 kb). (
  • On the other hand, the genome sizes of ssDNA viruses are smaller than 10 kb. (
  • Some of these may already have been present within the initial virus, and others may be coded for by the viral genome for production within the host cell. (
  • Although Group VII viruses such as hepatitis B contain a DNA genome, they are not considered DNA viruses according to the Baltimore classification, but rather reverse transcribing viruses because they replicate through an RNA intermediate. (
  • The complete viral genome contains 11,798 nucleotides with 83% genome-wide nucleotide sequence similarity to Merida virus. (
  • As a result, the eBioKit has formed an integral part of training and research performed by a wide variety of universities and organizations such as the Pan African Bioinformatics Network (H3ABioNet) as part of the initiative Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa), the Southern Africa Network for Biosciences (SAnBio) initiative, the Biosciences eastern and central Africa (BecA) hub, and the International Glossina Genome Initiative. (
  • Isolation of a GB virus-related genome from a chimpanzee. (
  • Molecular biology studies have provided exciting discoveries on virus-host interactions, but the application of omic high-throughput techniques on the baculovirus-insect cell system has been hampered by the lack of host genome sequencing. (
  • It is the causative agent of African swine fever (ASF). (
  • However, it was not until 1930 when the causative agent, Rift Valley fever phlebovirus (RVFV), was first isolated [ 2 ]. (
  • When the African swine fever virus was first discovered, researchers began to develop inactivated vaccines. (
  • Approaches and perspectives for development of african swine fever virus vaccines. (
  • This study will test two new vaccines, one for Ebola and one for Marburg virus, to see if they are safe, if they have side effects, and if they create an immune response in people who rece. (
  • Investigation of Salmonella colonization and pathogenesis in swine and turkeys for development of interventions (vaccines, probiotics, prebiotics, immunomodulators, bacteriophage therapy) to enhance animal production. (
  • Virus titers were estimated on porcine bone marrow cells ( 7 ) and expressed as log 10 HAD 50 per tick. (
  • In animal agriculture, especially when we speak about biosecurity, we encounter an alphabet soup of diseases: PRRS (Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome), PEDV (Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus), SVA (Seneca Virus A) and more. (
  • Following the 2013 outbreak of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV) in the US, researchers began to explore how the disease might have gotten into the North American pig population. (
  • While African swine fever is the most serious disease that affects pigs at all levels of production in Mozambique, it is likely that productivity is reduced by the presence of mange and gastrointestinal parasites, while in traditional systems the conditions are favourable for the development of porcine cysticercosis caused by the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, which poses a health risk to communities. (
  • A pilot project whose objective was to propose ways to improve health and production in smallholder pigs in Mozambique in order to achieve better control of African swine fever (ASF) and porcine cysticercosis and thus improve the income of producers was conducted in 2 districts in Mozambique. (
  • Symptomatic infections occur in domestic swine, feral pigs, and European wild boars. (
  • Assessment of domestic pigs, wild boars and feral hybrid pigs as reservoirs of hepatitis E virus in Corsica, France. (
  • African swine fever (ASF) occurs naturally in wild, feral and domestic swine (Suidae). (
  • An expert opinion assessment of blood-feeding arthropods based on their capacity to transmit African swine fever virus in Metropolitan France. (
  • 6 Scraps of CSFV-infected fresh, cured, or insufficiently cooked meat fed to pigs can transmit the virus. (
  • Signs vary greatly, depending on the virulence of the virus, and can range from inapparent or subclinical to hyperacute with sudden death. (
  • The evolution of virus virulence and host range. (
  • It is a large, double-stranded DNA virus which replicates primarily in the cytoplasm of cells of the mononuclear phagocytic system. (
  • The DNA of DNA viruses is usually double-stranded (dsDNA), but may also be single-stranded (ssDNA). (
  • Herpes viruses are double stranded DNA viruses assigned to Group I . The Herpesviridae Study Group has proposed that herpes viruses be assigned to a newly defined order, Herpesvirales. (
  • Baculoviruses are rod-shaped viruses with double-stranded DNA genomes. (
  • Pigs were initially domesticated in North Africa and Eurasia. (
  • In the acute form of the disease caused by highly virulent strains, pigs may develop a high fever, but show no other noticeable symptoms for the first few days. (
  • African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most serious diseases affecting pigs ( 1 ). (
  • African swine fever (ASF) is a viral disease that only domestic pigs and wild boar are susceptible to. (
  • Domestic pigs and the wild boar (Sus scrofa) are also susceptible to this virus. (
  • The spread of virus from the wildlife reservoirs to domestic pigs can be by the bite of an infected soft tick or by ingestion of warthog tissues. (
  • ASF infections which show no symptoms are found in warthogs, bush pigs, giant forest hogs in Africa, and they are considered the reservoir of the virus. (
  • In Africa, infected soft tick colonies living in pigs' burrows can repeatedly pass ASF virus to baby warthogs and back, and maintain the virus for years. (
  • African swine fever produces fever in pigs, and in the early stages they will huddle together for warmth and show signs of respiratory distress. (
  • Not surprisingly, the states with the highest pig populations - Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin - were found to have the highest risk of introduction in live pigs, while California, Florida and Texas are most at risk of introduction through swine products. (
  • Burton says the virus does not affect people, so humans could safely consume contaminated food, but infects pigs by using the food waste from their own table to feed domestic animals. (
  • The outbreak in China, which is home to half of the world's swine population - some 700 million pigs - is particularly alarming, as is the rapid increase in outbreaks reports since Aug. 1, when it was first detected. (
  • Aujeszky's disease and hepatitis E viruses transmission between domestic pigs and wild boars in Corsica: Evaluating the importance of wild/domestic interactions and the efficacy of management measures. (
  • Experimental evaluation of faecal Escherichia coli and hepatitis E virus as biological indicators of contacts between domestic pigs and Eurasian wild boar. (
  • ASF is a devastating disease affecting domestic and wild pigs, caused by a complex virus belonging to the Asfarviridae family, able to cause significant socio-economic losses in affected countries, being a major threat for the global pig industry. (
  • The fi rst spread of ASF outside Africa was to Portugal in 1957 as a result of waste from airline fl ights being fed to pigs near the Lisbon airport. (
  • Brucellosis - a chronic infectious disease of some domestic animals, for example, cattle, dogs, goats, and pigs, caused by bacteria and may lead to spontaneous abortion (also called Bang's disease and undulant fever). (
  • 2 Recovered pigs may have a chronic disease with intermittent fever and poor reproductive performance. (
  • Pigs born of infected sows may be persistently infected and carry the virus for life, but with no immune response. (
  • An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies against Aujeszky's disease virus in pigs sera. (
  • Prohibiting importation of swine and pork from infected countries, and eliminating or regulating the practice of waste-food feeding to pigs are fundamental to most successful eradication programs. (
  • For example, the virus can remain infectious in dried hams (Serrano and similar) for up to 4-5 months. (
  • The virus is highly resistant to a wide pH range and to a freeze/thaw cycle and can remain infectious for many months at room temperature or when stored at 4°C. In unprocessed pig meat the virus can remain viable for several weeks, unless it is inactivated by heating to 70°C for 30 min. (
  • In order to eliminate disease viruses/agents from clothing, vehicles, tools, carcasses or the environment, there must be a good understanding of the general properties of each infectious agent and the subtle ways each may persist in the environment and infect other animals. (
  • Cryptosporidiosis - an infectious condition of humans and domestic animals, characterized by fever, diarrhea, and stomach cramps. (
  • Laboratory studies have shown that Ebola virus can remain infectious when aerosolized. (
  • The virus often is introduced by feeding uncooked garbage containing scraps of infectious pork. (
  • Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus of salmonids and infectious bursal disease virus of poultry are two economically important birnaviruses. (
  • In Africa, the reservoir of the African swine fever virus is found in the wild. (
  • Does tick-borne relapsing fever have an animal reservoir in East Africa? (
  • Studies of reservoir hosts for Marburg virus. (
  • In the intervening years between the sporadic outbreaks, the Ebola virus probably is resident in the natural reservoir. (
  • South Texas has experienced local transmission of Zika virus and of other mosquito-borne viruses such as chikungunya virus and dengue virus in the last decades. (
  • A computer model of the dengue virus particle. (
  • 1] This oddly termed virus owes its name to the African Kimakonde language which means "to walk bent over" due to joint pains associated with the disease - a major distinguishing factor from the dengue virus[2] and is sometimes known as the Buggy Creek Virus. (
  • Following these additional reports, the CDC launched its study of antibodies in Key West residents and found that 5 percent of the town's residents have been exposed to the dengue virus. (
  • He has studied the emergence and spread of avian influenza virus, dengue virus, HIV, hepatitis C virus, myxoma virus, RHDV and Yersinia pestis . (
  • Sexual transmission and the probability of an end of the Ebola virus disease epidemic. (
  • Ebola virus disease epidemic. (
  • Ebola cases defined by the World Health Organization did not explicitly account for the sexual transmission and led to multiple recrudescent events in West Africa from 2015-2016, partly indeed caused by sexual transmission from survivors. (
  • We devised a statistical model to compute the probability of the end of an Ebola virus disease epidemic, accounting for sexual transmission and under-ascertainment of cases. (
  • The 2014-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa was the largest of its kind with 11,000 deaths and approximately 28,637 affected cases. (
  • During the Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in Liberia, contact tracing was implemented to rapidly detect new cases and prevent further transmission. (
  • During the 2014 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) epidemic, the Ebola-Tx trial evaluated the use of convalescent plasma (CP) in Guinea. (
  • Ebola Virus Isolation Using Huh-7 Cells has Methodological Advantages and Similar Sensitivity to Isolation Using Other Cell Types and Suckling BALB/c Laboratory Mice. (
  • Following the largest Ebola virus disease outbreak from 2013 to 2016, viral RNA has been detected in survivors from semen and breast milk long after disease recovery. (
  • Adherence to Universal Travel Screening in the Emergency Department During Epidemic Ebola Virus Disease. (
  • Since its first outbreak occurred in 1976, Zaire Ebola virus have been associated with 14 outbreaks reported up to 2014. (
  • The Zaire Ebola virus in 2014 causing the most serious outbreak was. (
  • With the unprecedented size of the recent 2014-2016 West African Ebola outbreak, the scientific community is learning a great deal about the psychological and physical consequences of Ebol. (
  • Morbidity and mortality of wild animals in relation to outbreaks of Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Gabon, 1994-2003. (
  • Ebola haemorrhagic fever. (
  • Ebola virus disease in West Africa: the first 9 months of the epidemic and forward projections. (
  • Clinical presentation, biochemical, and haematological parameters and their association with outcome in patients with Ebola virus disease: an observational cohort study. (
  • Clinical features of patients isolated for suspected Ebola virus disease at Connaught Hospital, Freetown, Sierra Leone: a retrospective cohort study. (
  • Caring for critically ill patients with Ebola virus disease. (
  • Investigational therapeutics for the treatment of people with Ebola virus disease. (
  • Ebola virus disease fact sheet. (
  • Ebola virus disease among children in West Africa. (
  • Nomenclature- and database-compatible names for the two Ebola virus variants that emerged in Guinea and the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2014. (
  • 6. Leroy EM, Gonzalez JP, Baize S. Ebola and Marburg haemorrhagic fever viruses: major scientific advances, but a relatively minor public health threat for Africa. (
  • Ebola virus disease in the Democratic Republic of Congo. (
  • Clinical manifestations and case management of Ebola haemorrhagic fever caused by a newly identified virus strain, Bundibugyo, Uganda, 2007-2008. (
  • The Ebola virus is one of two members of a family of viruses that is designated as the Filoviridae. (
  • Ebola-Reston is named for the United States military primate research facility where the virus was isolated, during a 1989 outbreak of the disease caused by infected monkeys that had been imported from the Philippines . (
  • The appearance of the Ebola virus only dates back to 1976. (
  • The explosive onset of the illness and the underdeveloped and wild nature of the African region of the virus's appearance have complicated the definitive determinations of the origin and natural habitat of Ebola. (
  • The source of the Ebola virus is still unknown. (
  • A search for Ebola virus in such primates has so far not revealed evidence of the virus. (
  • Almost all confirmed cases of Ebola from 1976 to 2002 have been in Africa. (
  • As well, a laboratory worker in England developed Ebola fever as a result of a laboratory accident in which the worker was punctured by an Ebola-containing needle. (
  • The Ebola virus produces a high fever, headache, muscle aches, abdominal pain, tiredness and diarrhea within a few days after infecting a person. (
  • Alphaviruses comprise a group of small, enveloped single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses. (
  • While nearly exclusively RNA viruses, arboviruses include some very distinct kinds of viruses. (
  • for BVDV frequently nonhomologous RNA recombination events lead to the appearance of genetically distinct viruses that are lethal to the host. (
  • The newly identified viruses were found to be phylogenetically distinct to those previous known. (
  • Phylogenetic analysis of the complete and partial viral polymerase (L gene) amino acid sequences placed the novel virus and Merida virus in a distinct group, indicating that these strains are closely related. (
  • The virus has two serologically distinct serotypes, VSV-New Jersey (NJ) and VSV-Indiana (IND). (
  • Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), another arbovirus that infects humans after amplification in domesticated animals, undergoes epizootic transmission during wet years following droughts. (
  • Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. (
  • 2019. Risk of African swine fever virus sylvatic establishment and spillover to domestic swine in the United States . (
  • The virus is also completely harmless to humans. (
  • In humans brucellosis can cause a range of symptoms that are similar to the flu and may include fever, sweats, headaches, back pains, and physical weakness. (
  • Following on from the discovery of tobacco mosaic virus in 1892 and foot-and-mouth disease virus in 1898, the first 'filterable agent' to be discovered in humans was yellow fever virus in 1901 [ 1 ]. (
  • here, we are interested in all stages of the process by which a virus shifts from not infecting humans at all to becoming a major human pathogen. (
  • avian influenza viruses can directly infect humans. (
  • Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that was first recognized as an acute and highly fatal disease of lambs associated with heavy rains and accompanied by illness in humans in the early twentieth century in the Rift Valley region in Kenya [ 1 ]. (
  • Virus replication takes place in perinuclear factory areas. (
  • The majority of replication and assembly occurs in discrete, perinuclear regions of the cell called virus factories, and finally progeny virions are transported to the plasma membrane along microtubules where they bud out or are propelled away along actin projections to infect new cells. (
  • In addition research into animal viruses has made an important contribution to our understanding of viruses in general, their replication, molecular biology, evolution and interaction with the host. (
  • Because these properties are shared by certain bacteria ( rickettsiae , chlamydiae ), viruses are now characterized by their simple organization and their unique mode of replication. (
  • Virus then spreads in lymph and blood to secondary replication sites (bone marrow, lung, spleen and kidney). (
  • Together with replication proteins VP1, 4 and 6, and VP3, replication complexes are formed in virus inclusion bodies, and synthesize dsRNA in subcore particles which become core particles by addition of VP7 and virions by assembly of outer shell proteins VP2 and VP5. (
  • The aim of this review is to summarize the state of the art in the molecular biology of the baculovirus replication and host-virus interaction in this system. (
  • On 14 June 2019 the largest stock of the rinderpest virus was destroyed at the Pirbright Institute. (
  • The African Swine Fever (ASF) Forum was held in Ottawa on April 30 and May 1, 2019. (
  • an ancient virus vector arms race? (
  • Aedes aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito, is the principal vector of dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses, and has well-established populations across tropical and subtropical urban areas of the Americas, including the southern United States. (
  • Culex pipiens mosquito, the vector for West Nile virus, on human skin. (
  • The recent invasion into the Americas, Europe and Africa by Aedes albopictus, an important CHIKV and secondary DENV vector, could enhance urban transmission of these viruses in tropical as well as temperate regions. (
  • Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that presents a substantial threat to human and public health. (
  • 14. Mahanty S, Bray M. Pathogenesis of filoviral haemorrhagic fevers. (
  • In 1963 Pirbright became the Animal Virus Research Institute and Compton became the Institute for Research on Animal Diseases. (
  • These three foreign animal diseases are the ones for which the US swine industry is putting together a nationwide strategy of movement and containment, the Secure Pork Supply. (
  • The viruses/disease agents responsible for serious/emergency diseases can be categorized according to their size and whether or not they contain lipid. (
  • The study of animal viruses is important from a veterinary viewpoint and many of these viruses causes diseases that are economically devastating. (
  • As early as the 1950s, the army's Fort Detrick in partnership with the CIA launched a multi-million dollar research program under which dengue fever and several addition exotic diseases were studied for use in offensive biological warfare attacks. (
  • Along with the highly contagious foot-and-mouth disease, NBAF researchers plan to study African swine fever, Japanese encephalitis, Rift Valley fever, and other viruses in the Biosafety Level (BSL) 3 and BSL-4 livestock laboratory capable of developing countermeasures for foreign animal diseases. (
  • This book is the beginning, for me, of a similar exploration into the world of viruses, emerging and resistant viral diseases, and more ecologically responsible (and often more effective) forms of treatment. (
  • Optimization of reverse genetics enlarge the possibilities to rescue virus mutants and reassortants, and will greatly benefit the control of these important diseases of livestock and companion animals. (
  • Birnaviridae is a family of viruses with bi-segmented dsRNA genomes totalling about 6 kbp forming icosahedral, non-enveloped virions. (
  • BACKGROUND: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), which is caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), is a highly contagious tansboundary disease of cloven-hoofed animals and causes devastating economic damages. (
  • A highly contagious, viral disease with signs, lesions and other features that closely resemble swine fever (CSF). (
  • His interest in the emergence and spread of novel viral infections began in the late 1980s/early 1990s, as this was a time of the highest rates of HIV-associated deaths and when hepatitis C virus was first identified. (
  • Detection in chimpanzees of a novel flavivirus related to GB virus-C/hepatitis G virus. (
  • GB virus B as a model for hepatitis C virus. (
  • Hepatitis G virus encodes protease activities which can effect processing of the virus putative nonstructural proteins. (
  • Hepatitis delta virus uses host RNA polymerase II to replicate via double rolling circle RNA synthesis. (
  • It is commonly found in Southeast Asia, South and Central America, Indonesia, and Sub-Saharan Africa. (
  • Medical systems in Africa, Asia, and South and Central America are turning away from pharmaceuticals as a first-line treatment for bacterial infections because of resistance problems and, most especially, because pharmaceutical corporations make a great deal too much money off the suffering of their populations. (
  • While disease is not uncommon, when present, symptoms can include fever, arthralgia, encephalitis and haemorrhage depending on host and virus. (
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus) whilst one, salmonid alphavirus, is of economic importance to the farmed fish industry. (
  • West Nile fever ( 6 ) , West Nile encephalitis, WN fever ( 1 , 10 ) , West Nile disease ( 12 ) , and West Nile neuroinvasive disease ( 10 ) . (
  • Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), the most frequent arboviral cause of encephalitis worldwide, has spread throughout most of Asia and as far south as Australia from its putative origin in Indonesia and Malaysia. (
  • Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an arbovirus belongs to the family Togaviridae and was discovered in Tanzania in year 953-54. (
  • 16 000 Chrysomyia albiceps and 52 000 C. marginalis adults were radioactively labelled with ³²P-orthophosphate and released in the northern Kruger National Park, South Africa. (
  • In 2012, the United States experienced one of the largest outbreaks of West Nile virus (WNV)-associated deaths, with the majority occurring in Dallas County (Co.), Texas (TX) and surrounding areas. (
  • ASF spread rapidly throughout the country and in the rest of the Caucasus region (Azerbaijan, Armenia) and the Russian Federation, with some outbreaks reported very near to the EU borders (including a single introduction in Ukraine and a recently declared outbreak in Belarus), making it a signifi cant present threat to the swine industry across Europe and beyond. (
  • Prior to the recent Key West findings and still today, the CDC has consistently reported that there have been no outbreaks of dengue fever in Florida since 1934, and none in the continental U.S. since 1946. (
  • Once the virus is introduced, direct or indirect contact of healthy swine with it leads to outbreaks. (
  • Most outbreaks can be traced to contact with infected swine. (
  • Viral taxonomy, classification, and characterization is not a simple academic exercise but practically improves our ability to diagnose, track, and compare viruses of medical importance and develop a better understanding of pathophysiologic processes. (
  • With these newer molecular approaches for virus identification and characterization, as well as enhanced bioinformatics approaches, viral classification is as dynamic and challenging as ever, requiring continuous monitoring, reassessment, and updating to achieve a rational taxonomic framework. (
  • Brucellosis can also cause long-lasting or chronic symptoms that include recurrent fevers, joint pain, and fatigue. (
  • Moreoever, Albarelli draws attention to the eerie similarity between dengue fever symptoms and those linked to the toxic emanations in the Gulf of Mexico and warns of the looming disaster that could unfold from the overlap. (
  • The chief symptoms of dengue fever are a high fever, severe headache, strong pain behind the eyes, joint, muscle and bone pain, easy bruising, rash, and mild bleeding from the nose and gums. (
  • Some viruses do not produce rapid lysis of host cells, but rather remain latent for long periods in the host before the appearance of clinical symptoms. (
  • Clinical management of patients with viral haemorrhagic fever: a pocket guide for the front-line health worker. (
  • Zika Virus in Gabon (Central Africa) - 2007: A New Threat from Aedes albopictus? (
  • An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of IgG, IgA&IgM antibodies to rinderpest-virus in experimentally infected cattle. (
  • Rift Valley Fever (RVF) disease is most severe in sheep, cattle, and goats, resulting in high mortality in new born animals and mass abortion upon infecting pregnant animals [ 8 , 9 , 10 ]. (
  • In blood clots in large vessels of cattle and swine, the virus is infective for 2 months. (
  • Vesicular stomatitis is a viral disease which primarily affects cattle, horses, and swine. (
  • Moderately virulent disease causes high fever, mild lethargy, mild hemorrhages in lymphoid organs, transient leukocytopenia (or none), and low mortality. (
  • The virus spread westwards across the United States, southward into Central America and the Caribbean, and northward into Canada(8,10,11), resulting in the largest epidemics of neuroinvasive WNV fever ever known(8,10). (
  • Based on progression of lesions, histopathology and virus isolation. (
  • Whereas some viruses spread just in arthropods, arboviruses have evolved to exploit their blood-feeding hosts and are able to infect vertebrates, like us, and also replicate in them, which plays an important role in their life-cycle. (
  • Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are important causes of human disease nearly worldwide. (
  • The disease occurs primarily in Africa, more specifically in the countries south of the Sahara. (
  • The disease was first described in 1921, in Africa. (
  • We developed a model for the reproductive number, R0, for Zika virus (ZIKV) in South Texas relative to northern Mexico using human disease data from Tamaulipas, Mexico. (
  • First described in Kenya, the disease exists in most of Sub-Saharan African countries, including Madagascar. (
  • West Nile fever, which is caused by West Nile virus (WNV) can be a serious disease, sometimes resulting in brain inflammation, paralysis and even death. (
  • Importantly, many of these viruses cause disease and even death in their vertebrate hosts. (
  • 3] This virus, compared to dengue, is a re-emerging disease that has been raising the alarm in the Philippines, particularly, since arboviral infections like these are extensive in tropical areas. (
  • Reports from Asia are incomplete, but the disease is believed to be present in swine-producing areas and controlled by vaccination. (
  • Enzyme labelled immunosorbent assay techniques in foot and mouth disease virus research. (
  • The specific detection of foot and mouth disease virus whole particle antigen (140 S) by enzyme labelled immunosorbent assay. (
  • The recent outbreak of dengue fever is being portrayed by the media as a fortuitous reemergence of the disease in Florida and elsewhere in the United States after 75 years. (
  • With little fanfare on July 13, Florida officials released the findings of a Centers for Disease Control (CDC) study conducted recently in the Key West area revealing that about 10 percent, or 1,000 people, of the coastal town's population are infected with the dengue fever virus. (
  • In 2000 and 2001, a major outbreak of RVFV inflicting severe disease and economic loss was first reported outside the African continent in Saudi Arabia and Yemen in the Arabian Peninsula [ 7 ]. (
  • Until the non-human involvement of the disease was proven, the outbreak was thought to be the first outside of Africa. (
  • In 1957, the disease occurred in Portugal, the first non-African country to be infected. (
  • An expert on the spread of African swine fever (ASF) in South Africa updated members of the Richt Lab on the latest research into that disease during a June 15 presentation at Kansas State University. (
  • disease in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient leading to severe heart disease with a late positive direct microscopic examination of the blood. (
  • Complete genomic sequence of border disease virus, a pestivirus from sheep. (
  • Both viruses have isometric, spherical virions, infect giant freshwater prawns and together cause white tail disease, which is responsible for mass mortalities and severe economic losses in hatcheries and farms. (
  • The virus encodes proteins that inhibit signalling pathways in infected macrophages and thus modulate transcriptional activation of immune response genes. (
  • The main target cells of the virus include monocytes, macrophages, cells of the reticuloendothelial (RE) system, endothelial cells, and platelets. (
  • Perspectives from West Africa. (
  • A virus consists of genetic material, which may be either DNA or RNA, and is surrounded by a protein coat and, in some viruses, by a membranous envelope. (
  • Within the host cell the genetic material of a DNA virus is replicated and transcribed into messenger RNA by host cell enzymes, and proteins coded for by viral genes are synthesized by host cell ribosomes. (
  • Because host cells do not have the ability to replicate "viral RNA" but are able to transcribe messenger RNA, RNA viruses must contain enzymes to produce genetic material for new virions. (
  • In other viruses a reverse transcriptase contained in the virion transcribes the genetic message on the viral RNA into DNA, which is then replicated by the host cell. (
  • A DNA virus is a virus that has DNA as its genetic material and replicates using a DNA-dependent DNA polymerase . (
  • His work has helped define the barriers faced by viruses as they emerge in new hosts, determine the range of transmission patterns exhibited by emerging viruses, and establish genetic models for host switching. (
  • FMDV is a highly variable and transmissible virus. (
  • The natural hosts for the virus are suids. (
  • More than two-thirds of human viruses can also infect non-human hosts, mainly mammals, and sometimes birds. (
  • Therefore, African trypanosomes combine antigenic variation of their surface coats with the ability to take up transferrin from their mammalian hosts A given VSG coat protein is encoded by a single vsg gene. (
  • The phylogeny based on single genes or gene families contains ambiguity because horizontal gene transfer (HGT), along with gene duplication and gene capture from hosts, appear to be frequent in large DNA viruses [ 7 - 10 ]. (