Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.
Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Arthropods of the class ARACHNIDA, order Araneae. Except for mites and ticks, spiders constitute the largest order of arachnids, with approximately 37,000 species having been described. The majority of spiders are harmless, although some species can be regarded as moderately harmful since their bites can lead to quite severe local symptoms. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p508; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, pp424-430)
A large subphylum of mostly marine ARTHROPODS containing over 42,000 species. They include familiar arthropods such as lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE), crabs (BRACHYURA), shrimp (PENAEIDAE), and barnacles (THORACICA).
A class of Arthropoda that includes SPIDERS; TICKS; MITES; and SCORPIONS.
A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
Proteins synthesized by organisms belonging to the phylum ARTHROPODA. Included in this heading are proteins from the subdivisions ARACHNIDA; CRUSTACEA; and HORSESHOE CRABS. Note that a separate heading for INSECT PROTEINS is listed under this heading.
Venoms from animals of the phylum Arthropoda. Those most investigated are from scorpions and spiders of the class Arachnidae and from ant, bee, and wasp families of the Insecta order Hymenoptera. The venoms contain protein toxins, enzymes, and other bioactive substances and may be lethal to man.
Animals that have no spinal column.
A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Arthropods of the order Scorpiones, of which 1500 to 2000 species have been described. The most common live in tropical or subtropical areas. They are nocturnal and feed principally on insects and other arthropods. They are large arachnids but do not attack man spontaneously. They have a venomous sting. Their medical significance varies considerably and is dependent on their habits and venom potency rather than on their size. At most, the sting is equivalent to that of a hornet but certain species possess a highly toxic venom potentially fatal to humans. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, p417; Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p503)
A phylum of metazoan invertebrates comprising the segmented worms, and including marine annelids (POLYCHAETA), freshwater annelids, earthworms (OLIGOCHAETA), and LEECHES. Only the leeches are of medical interest. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
A genus of small beetles of the family Tenebrionidae; T. confusum is the "confused flour beetle".
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
One of the largest orders of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 10,000 species. Like AMPHIPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Amphipoda, they possess abdominal pleopods (modified as gills) and their bodies are dorsoventrally flattened.
A yellowish fossil resin, the gum of several species of coniferous trees, found in the alluvial deposits of northeastern Germany. It is used in molecular biology in the analysis of organic matter fossilized in amber.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
Family of spider MITES, in the superfamily Tetranychoidea, suborder Trombidiformes.
Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
An order of parasitic, blood-sucking, wingless INSECTS with the common name of fleas.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.
An arthropod subclass (Xiphosura) comprising the North American (Limulus) and Asiatic (Tachypleus) genera of horseshoe crabs.
A large, subclass of arachnids comprising the MITES and TICKS, including parasites of plants, animals, and humans, as well as several important disease vectors.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain STILBENES.
A diverse genus of minute freshwater CRUSTACEA, of the suborder CLADOCERA. They are a major food source for both young and adult freshwater fish.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)
A body of stories, the origins of which may be unknown or forgotten, that serve to explain practices, beliefs, institutions or natural phenomena. Mythology includes legends and folk tales. It may refer to classical mythology or to a body of modern thought and modern life. (From Webster's 1st ed)
Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.
The effects, both local and systemic, caused by the bites of SPIDERS.
Acquired and inherited conditions that feature DYSTONIA as a primary manifestation of disease. These disorders are generally divided into generalized dystonias (e.g., dystonia musculorum deformans) and focal dystonias (e.g., writer's cramp). They are also classified by patterns of inheritance and by age of onset.
Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
A family of viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of a single strand of RNA. Virions are enveloped particles 90-120 nm diameter. The complete family contains over 300 members arranged in five genera: ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS; HANTAVIRUS; NAIROVIRUS; PHLEBOVIRUS; and TOSPOVIRUS.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.

Myths, models and mitigation of resistance to pesticides. (1/594)

Resistance to pesticides in arthropod pests is a significant economic, ecological and public health problem. Although extensive research has been conducted on diverse aspects of pesticide resistance and we have learned a great deal during the past 50 years, to some degree the discussion about 'resistance management' has been based on 'myths'. One myth involves the belief that we can manage resistance. I will maintain that we can only attempt to mitigate resistance because resistance is a natural evolutionary response to environmental stresses. As such, resistance will remain an ongoing dilemma in pest management and we can only delay the onset of resistance to pesticides. 'Resistance management' models and tactics have been much discussed but have been tested and deployed in practical pest management programmes with only limited success. Yet the myth persists that better models will provide a 'solution' to the problem. The reality is that success in using mitigation models is limited because these models are applied to inappropriate situations in which the critical genetic, ecological, biological or logistic assumptions cannot be met. It is difficult to predict in advance which model is appropriate to a particular situation; if the model assumptions cannot be met, applying the model sometimes can increase the rate of resistance development rather than slow it down. Are there any solutions? I believe we already have one. Unfortunately, it is not a simple or easy one to deploy. It involves employing effective agronomic practices to develop and maintain a healthy crop, monitoring pest densities, evaluating economic injury levels so that pesticides are applied only when necessary, deploying and conserving biological control agents, using host-plant resistance, cultural controls of the pest, biorational pest controls, and genetic control methods. As a part of a truly multi-tactic strategy, it is crucial to evaluate the effect of pesticides on natural enemies in order to preserve them in the cropping system. Sometimes, pesticide-resistant natural enemies are effective components of this resistance mitigation programme. Another name for this resistance mitigation model is integrated pest management (IPM). This complex model was outlined in some detail nearly 40 years ago by V. M. Stern and colleagues. To deploy the IPM resistance mitigation model, we must admit that pest management and resistance mitigation programmes are not sustainable if based on a single-tactic strategy. Delaying resistance, whether to traditional pesticides or to transgenic plants containing toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis, will require that we develop multi-tactic pest management programmes that incorporate all appropriate pest management approaches. Because pesticides are limited resources, and their loss can result in significant social and economic costs, they should be reserved for situations where they are truly needed--as tools to subdue an unexpected pest population outbreak. Effective multi-tactic IPM programmes delay resistance (= mitigation) because the number and rates of pesticide applications will be reduced.  (+info)

Hemocyanin of the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. Structural differentiation of the isolated components. (2/594)

The high molecular weight hemocyanin found in the hemolymph of the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, is composed of at least eight different kinds of subunits. Ion exchange chromatography at high pH in the presence of EDTA yields five major zones, hemocyanins I to V, three of which are electrophoretically heterogeneous. The subunits have similar molecular weights, 65,000 to 70,000, and their amino acid compositions are remarkably similar to each other and to other arthropod and molluscan hemocyanins. Digestion of the native subunits of Limulus hemocyanin by formic acid or trypsin shows considerable structural diversity which is supported by cyanogen bromide cleavage patterns and by peptide mapping of the tryptic peptides prepared from denatured hemocyanin subunits. The structural differentiation of the subunits is accompanied by functional differentiation, as shown in previous investigations of their O2 and CO affinities (Sullivan, B., Bonaventura, J., and Bonaventura, C. (1974) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 71, 2558-2562; Bonaventura, C., Bonaventura, J., Sullivan, B., and Bourne, S. (1975) Biochemistry 13, 4784-4789). The subunit diversity of Limulus hemocyanin suggests that other electrophoretically heterogeneous hemocyanins may be composed of structurally distinct subunits.  (+info)

Cryptocyanin, a crustacean molting protein: evolutionary link with arthropod hemocyanins and insect hexamerins. (3/594)

Cryptocyanin, a copper-free hexameric protein in crab (Cancer magister) hemolymph, has been characterized and the amino acid sequence has been deduced from its cDNA. It is markedly similar in sequence, size, and structure to hemocyanin, the copper-containing oxygen-transport protein found in many arthropods. Cryptocyanin does not bind oxygen, however, and lacks three of the six highly conserved copper-binding histidine residues of hemocyanin. Cryptocyanin has no phenoloxidase activity, although a phenoloxidase is present in the hemolymph. The concentration of cryptocyanin in the hemolymph is closely coordinated with the molt cycle and reaches levels higher than hemocyanin during premolt. Cryptocyanin resembles insect hexamerins in the lack of copper, molt cycle patterns of biosynthesis, and potential contributions to the new exoskeleton. Phylogenetic analysis of sequence similarities between cryptocyanin and other members of the hemocyanin gene family shows that cryptocyanin is closely associated with crustacean hemocyanins and suggests that cryptocyanin arose as a result of a hemocyanin gene duplication. The presence of both hemocyanin and cryptocyanin in one animal provides an example of how insect hexamerins might have evolved from hemocyanin. Our results suggest that multiple members of the hemocyanin gene family-hemocyanin, cryptocyanin, phenoloxidase, and hexamerins-may participate in two vital functions of molting animals, oxygen binding and molting. Cryptocyanin may provide important molecular data to further investigate evolutionary relationships among all molting animals.  (+info)

Mechanisms of arthropod transmission of plant and animal viruses. (4/594)

A majority of the plant-infecting viruses and many of the animal-infecting viruses are dependent upon arthropod vectors for transmission between hosts and/or as alternative hosts. The viruses have evolved specific associations with their vectors, and we are beginning to understand the underlying mechanisms that regulate the virus transmission process. A majority of plant viruses are carried on the cuticle lining of a vector's mouthparts or foregut. This initially appeared to be simple mechanical contamination, but it is now known to be a biologically complex interaction between specific virus proteins and as yet unidentified vector cuticle-associated compounds. Numerous other plant viruses and the majority of animal viruses are carried within the body of the vector. These viruses have evolved specific mechanisms to enable them to be transported through multiple tissues and to evade vector defenses. In response, vector species have evolved so that not all individuals within a species are susceptible to virus infection or can serve as a competent vector. Not only are the virus components of the transmission process being identified, but also the genetic and physiological components of the vectors which determine their ability to be used successfully by the virus are being elucidated. The mechanisms of arthropod-virus associations are many and complex, but common themes are beginning to emerge which may allow the development of novel strategies to ultimately control epidemics caused by arthropod-borne viruses.  (+info)

Internal phylogeny of the Chilopoda (Myriapoda, Arthropoda) using complete 18S rDNA and partial 28S rDNA sequences. (5/594)

The internal phylogeny of the 'myriapod' class Chilopoda is evaluated for 12 species belonging to the five extant centipede orders, using 18S rDNA complete gene sequence and 28S rDNA partial gene sequence data. Equally and differentially weighted parsimony, neighbour-joining and maximum-likelihood were used for phylogenetic reconstruction, and bootstrapping and branch support analyses were performed to evaluate tree topology stability. The results show that the Chilopoda constitute a monophyletic group that is divided into two lines, Notostigmophora (= Scutigeromorpha) and Pleurostigmophora, as found in previous morphological analyses. The Notostigmophora are markedly modified for their epigenic mode of life. The first offshoot of the Pleurostigmophora are the Lithobiomorpha, followed by the Craterostigmomorpha and by the Epimorpha s. str. (= Scolopendromorpha + Geophilomorpha), although strong support for the monophyly of the Epimorpha s. lat. (= Craterostigmomorpha + Epimorpha s. str.) is only found in the differentially weighted parsimony analysis.  (+info)

Divergence time estimates for the early history of animal phyla and the origin of plants, animals and fungi. (6/594)

In the past, molecular clocks have been used to estimate divergence times among animal phyla, but those time estimates have varied widely (1200-670 million years ago, Ma). In order to obtain time estimates that are more robust, we have analysed a larger number of genes for divergences among three well-represented animal phyla, and among plants, animals and fungi. The time estimate for the chordate-arthropod divergence, using 50 genes, is 993 +/- 46 Ma. Nematodes were found to have diverged from the lineage leading to arthropods and chordates at 1177 +/- 79 Ma. Phylogenetic analyses also show that a basal position of nematodes has strong support (p > 99%) and is not the result of rate biases. The three-way split (relationships unresolved) of plants, animals and fungi was estimated at 1576 +/- 88 Ma. By inference, the basal animal phyla (Porifera, Cnidaria, Ctenophora) diverged between about 1200-1500 Ma. This suggests that at least six animal phyla originated deep in the Precambrian, more than 400 million years earlier than their first appearance in the fossil record.  (+info)

Animal mitochondrial genomes. (7/594)

Animal mitochondrial DNA is a small, extrachromosomal genome, typically approximately 16 kb in size. With few exceptions, all animal mitochondrial genomes contain the same 37 genes: two for rRNAs, 13 for proteins and 22 for tRNAs. The products of these genes, along with RNAs and proteins imported from the cytoplasm, endow mitochondria with their own systems for DNA replication, transcription, mRNA processing and translation of proteins. The study of these genomes as they function in mitochondrial systems-'mitochondrial genomics'-serves as a model for genome evolution. Furthermore, the comparison of animal mitochondrial gene arrangements has become a very powerful means for inferring ancient evolutionary relationships, since rearrangements appear to be unique, generally rare events that are unlikely to arise independently in separate evolutionary lineages. Complete mitochondrial gene arrangements have been published for 58 chordate species and 29 non-chordate species, and partial arrangements for hundreds of other taxa. This review compares and summarizes these gene arrangements and points out some of the questions that may be addressed by comparing mitochondrial systems.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of American cockroach tropomyosin (Periplaneta americana allergen 7), a cross-reactive allergen. (8/594)

Inhalation of allergens produced by the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) induces IgE Ab production and the development of asthma in genetically predisposed individuals. The cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of P. americana tropomyosin allergen have been achieved. The protein shares high homology with other arthropod tropomyosins (80% identity) but less homology with vertebrate ones (50% identity). The recombinant allergen was produced in E. coli as a nonfusion protein with a yield of 9 mg/l of bacterial culture. Both natural and recombinant tropomyosins were purified by isoelectric precipitation. P. americana allergen 1 (Per a 1) and Per a 7 (tropomyosin) are to date the only cross-reacting allergens found in cockroaches. ELISA and Western blot inhibition experiments, using natural and recombinant purified tropomyosins from shrimp and cockroach, showed that tropomyosin induced cross-reactivity of IgE from patients allergic to these allergens, suggesting that this molecule could be a common allergen among invertebrates.  (+info)

Climatic stressors and chemicals should not be treated as isolated problems since they often occur simultaneously, and their combined effects must be evaluated including their possible interactive effects. In the present study we subjected springtails (Folsomia candida) to combined exposure to phenanthrene and dynamic heat cycles in a full factorial experiment. In a microcosm experiment, we studie ...
Article Transcriptional profiling of the soil invertebrate (Folsomia candida) in pentachlorophenol contaminated soil. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) as a widely used pesticide is also considered to be an endocrine disruptor. Molecular effects of chemicals w...
Induction of the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the avoidance of potentially toxic metals in soil by Folsomia candida were investigated. Both laboratory-spiked and field-polluted agricultural soils were used. Cadmium (Cd) concentrations in body tissues, animal avoidance behaviour and physico-chemical properties of the field soils were also d ...
With over 1 million living species described and a rich 520 Myr fossil record, arthropods are the most species-rich clade of animals on Earth, accounting for nearly 80 per cent of animal biodiversity [1]. Four main euarthropod sub-phyla are recognized: Hexapoda (including insects); Crustacea (lobsters, water fleas and others); Myriapoda (e.g. millipedes and centipedes); and Chelicerata (including arachnids, horseshoe crabs and possibly sea spiders). After many years of debate, a consensus has emerged that these four classes (or sub-phyla) form a monophyletic group called the Euarthropoda [2,3]. The relationships between the four euarthropod groups remain disputed, however, as is the validity of their close relationship to tardigrades (water bears) and onychophorans (velvet worms) in a more inclusive clade called Arthropoda (named Panarthropoda by Nielsen [4]).. Within the Euarthropoda, the main point of disagreement concerns the position of the myriapods, which were long thought to be most ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular and biochemical characterizations of a novel arthropod endo-β-1,3-glucanase from the Antarctic springtail, Cryptopygus antarcticus, horizontally acquired from bacteria. AU - Song, Jung Min. AU - Nam, Kiwoong. AU - Sun, Young Uk. AU - Kang, Mee Hye. AU - Kim, Choong Gon. AU - Kwon, Suk Tae. AU - Lee, Jehee. AU - Lee, Youn Ho. PY - 2010/4. Y1 - 2010/4. N2 - Collembolan species have been known to have β-1,3-glucanase activity and yet the genes coding such enzymes have not been demonstrated. We report here a novel arthropod endo-β-1,3-glucanase gene CaLam from the Antarctic springtail, Cryptopygus antarcticus. The open reading frame consists of 813bp encoding 270 amino acids with a putative signal peptide and a typical motif of glycosyl hydrolase family 16 (GHF16), E-I-D-I-T-E. The recombinant protein expressed in E. coli shows the hydrolytic activity toward laminarin (Km ~9.98mg/mL) with an optimal temperature 50°C and an optimal pH 6.0. CaLam digests laminarin and ...
Yellow-spotted Millipede. The yellow-spotted millipede is a species of arthropod in the Myriapoda, the many-legged ones a group that also includes centipedes. Myriapods possess from fewer than 10 to nearly 200 pairs of appendages (legs). They often occur in moist climates like that of the Pacific. Northwest; they may be found in damp places under stones and logs, in leaf litter, or soil. Millipedes play an important ecological role in converting forest floor litter into fertile topsoil.. At certain times of the year forested trails within RNSP are literally crawling with yellow-spotted millipedes and their nymphs, which hatch small and white and take approximately two years and several molts of their exoskeleton to reach maturity. Millipedes belong to the arthropod class Diplopoda, which means double legs, they have two pairs of legs per body segment. Yellow-spotted millipedes have 18-20 body segments and 31 pairs of legs (not a thousand like the name millipede suggests). The cylindrical ...
Shelley, R.M. 2007. Taxonomy of extant Diplopoda (millipeds) in the modern era: perspectives for future advancements and observations on the global diplopod community (Arthropoda: Diplopoda). Pp. 343-362 in: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A. (eds.) Linnaeus tercentenary: progress in invertebrate taxonomy. Zootaxa 1668: 1-766. Abstract & excerpt (PDF). ...
Blobology analysis revealed 13 contigs with deviating GC content, which could be the result of contamination. The GC content in scaffold 160 was only 29.9%. Blast searches in the NCBI non-redundant database yielded no significant hits to non-metazoan sequences for this scaffold, suggesting that this scaffold is not a result of contamination. Instead, visual inspection revealed stretches of low base pair calling. (N stretches) along this scaffold, which resulted in a biased GC estimate. The remaining 12 scaffolds show GC contents of approximately 50%. Blast searches indicated that these scaffolds comprised long stretches of GC-rich repeat sequences without any indication for contamination.. The high quality of the genome assembly and the 28,734 gene models were supported by various lines of evidence. First, we identified 245 complete genes and one partial gene out of 248 (98.8%) core eukaryotic CEGMA predicted gene models, which is a good indicator of completeness of the assembled gene space. ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
The use of directional traps for the assessment of short-term phenanthrene effects upon soil springtail communities. : In: Environmental Pollution, 2006, 140 (2), pp.364-370. Directional traps, both horizontal and vertical, were used to assess the behavioural impact of phenanthrene application on soil springtail communities. Avoidance was not detected. Rather, a vertical attraction of the dominant species, Folsomia manolachei, was demonstrated, as well as a decrease in horizontal movements of Lepidocyrtus
How to Identify Chilopoda of Arthropoda? How Chilopoda are Classified? Systematics of Chilopoda, What is a Chilopoda? Overview of the Class Chilopoda?
The Sektion Myriapoda works on millipedes (Diplopoda) and centipedes (Chilopoda), as well as the smaller groups Symphyla and Pauropoda.
Betsch, J. M., J. M. Thibaud, and J. Najt. 1990. Recent progress in the taxonomy of Collembola (Insecta), especially by analysis of morphological homologies. Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr. 115:165-180.. Cassagnau, P. 1990. Des Hexapodes vieux de 400 millions dann es: les Collemboles. I. Biologie et volution. LAnn e biologique 29:1-37.. Christiansen, K. and P. Bellinger. 1995. The biogeography of Collembola. Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 64:279-294.. Christiansen, K. and E. Pike. 2002. Cretaceous Collembola (Arthropoda, Hexapoda) from the Upper Cretaceous of Canada. Cretaceous Research 23:165-188.. Christiansen, K. and E. Pike. 2002. A preliminary report on the Cretaceous Collembola. Pedobiologia 46:267-273.. Deharveng, L., 2004. Recent advances in Collembola systematics. Pedobiologia 48:415 433.. DHaese, C. 2002. Were the first springtails semi-aquatic? A phylogenetic approach by means of 28S rDNA and optimization alignment. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 269:1143-1151.. DHaese, C. 2003. ...
Purchase your copy of BS EN ISO 11267:2014 as a PDF download or hard copy directly from the official BSI Shop. All BSI British Standards available online in electronic and print formats.
Millipedes are the class Diplopoda, where most segments appear to have two pairs of legs. This happened because each pair of body segments fused (joined) into a single unit, which gives them the appearance of having two pairs of legs per segment. They are slower than centipedes, and feed on leaf litter and detritus. Around 8,000 species have been described, which may represent less than a tenth of the true global millipede diversity.[6] One species, Illacme plenipes has the greatest number of legs of any animal, with 750.[2] Millipedes typically have between 36 and 400 legs. Pill millipedes are much shorter, and are capable of rolling up into a ball, like pillbugs. ...
Millipedes are often mixed up with centipedes, but whereas centipedes have one pair of legs per body segment, millipedes have two. Moreover, millipedes curl up when disturbed; centipedes run away.
Siveter et al. [1] recently described a new putative megacheiran arthropod, Enalikter aphson, from the Silurian Herefordshire Lagerstätte and discussed its impact on arthropod phylogeny and the survival of megacheirans beyond the Cambrian Period.. In this comment, we should like to suggest an alternative interpretation of the new fossil. We think that the evidence for arthropod affinities of E. aphson is not compelling, and we argue that all features of this species are more compatible with an annelid affinity of E. aphson. Accordingly, the supposed impact of E. aphson on arthropod phylogeny and longevity of early megacheirans is questioned.. The body of E. aphson is composed of segments that bear appendages, some of which are interpreted as biramous or multiramous. The segments lack a well-delineated tergite on the dorsal side; as pointed out by Siveter et al. [1] tergo-pleurae are also not visible in the material. Siveter et al. [1] identify a dome-like tergite on the dorsal side of the ...
A house centipede (Scutigera coleoptrata) on rotting wood. In a laboratory observation of 24 house centipedes, an average of 63 and a maximum of 151 eggs were laid. Invertebrates are animals without backbones, including earthworms, slugs, snails, and arthropods. Who is the longest reigning WWE Champion of all time? In temperate areas, centipede egg-laying occurs in spring and summer. The body is brown to grayish-yellow and has three dark stripes on top. What are the release dates for The Wonder Pets - 2006 Save the Ladybug? We usually see them in houses, where they prey on all the other insects and spiders you dont want around. Their eggs and young are especially vulnerable to predation. House centipedes are easy to spot by their elongated, worm-like body with their many pairs of legs. But like almost every other bug out there, a centipede … Indeed, it is a real predator. LFS house centipede. The legs of house centipedes are barbed to help hold prey. The typical response to a house centipede ...
A Fascinating Creature. Petroglyph National Monument is unique in many ways, but one of its most striking attributes is the seventeen-mile long volcanic escarpment. In addition to having thousands of petroglyphs on the basalt boulders, the escarpment is home to many plants and animals that may not usually be found this far north in the Chihuahuan Desert. The boulders strewn across the escarpment allow moisture and heat to be concentrated. This gives plants and animals the slight edge they need to be able to survive. One such animal is the millipede. Millipedes are known to exist in many different habitats from rainforests to sub-alpine mountaintops to deserts. The millipedes that live in these diverse habitats have adapted in order to survive the elements. Some have developed mechanisms to keep from freezing, to keep from being eaten or to keep from drying out in the heat. In whatever habitat they occupy, millipedes are fascinating creatures that have a long history and are an important member ...
Janie & Geoff. Hiking the Burgess Shale: 500 Million Years Ago in the Canadian Rockies. Many people travel to the Canadian Rockies and end up in popular spots such as Banff, Jasper, and Lake Louise. The Rockies are so magnificently beautiful its hard to imagine that there could be even more awesome experiences there than gazing at those mountains and lakes. But if you make it to Lake Louise, Alberta, take the time to travel another 30 kilometers to a World Heritage site that is awesome in the original sense of the word. It is well worth the drive and an overnight stay to take the guided hike the next day to the Burgess Shale, located in Yoho National Park on the British Columbia side of the Rockies.. If youve ever been to natural science museums, most notably the Smithsonian, and seen fossils from the Cambrian Age (540 million years ago), chances are that they came from the Burgess Shale. Steven J. Goulds book Wonderful Life describes the discovery of the site and how it changed our notions ...
View Notes - ch21 from ENT 100 at UC Davis. ENT 100 Fall 2009 1 Lecture 21: Insects & Disease Many insects and other arthropods are studied because they transmit parasites or pathogens to humans or
In the course of exploratory field studies on arthropods with defensive glands, we came across two species which emit a strong and persistent phenolic odor when handled. One is a carabid beetle (Chlaenius cordicollis Kirby), the other a chordeumoid millipede [Abacion magnum (Loomis)]. The fact that both animals produce repellent secretions is not surprising, since many other carabids and millipedes are well known for their defensive glands. But the particular phenolic odor possessed by these two species is unIike the odor of any other arthropod secretion that has been studied (for a summary of defensive secretions of arthropods see Roth and Eisner, 1962).The purpose of this paper is to report on the nature of the two phenols involved, and to discuss the structure and mode of operation of the glands, as well as their defensive effectiveness. Both species were collected in the environs of Ithaca, N. Y. Abacion was from leaf litter in deciduous woods, and Chlaenius from beneath rocks near a creek ...
Any way you look at it - by sheer weight, species diversity or population - the hard-shelled, joint-legged creepy crawlies called arthropods dominate planet Earth. Because of their success and importance, scientists have been trying for decades to figure out the family relationships that link lobsters to millipedes and cockroaches to tarantulas and find which might have come first.. In a scientific and technological tour de force that was nearly a decade in the making, a team of scientists from Duke University, the University of Maryland and the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County have compared genetic sequences from 75 different species to draw a new family tree that includes every major arthropod lineage. Some of the relationships are so surprising that new names had to be coined for five newly-discovered groupings.. The work, which was supported by the National Science Foundation, appears early online Wednesday in the journal Nature.. A big surprise to tumble out of the new tree is ...
Nonnative plants alter the composition of native plant communities, with concomitant effects on arthropods. However, plant invasions may not be the only disturbance affecting native communities, and multiple disturbances can have compounding effects. We assessed the effects of invasion and drought on plant and arthropod communities by comparing grasslands dominated by nonnative Old World bluestem grasses (OWBs, Dichanthium annulatum) to grasslands dominated by native plants during a period of decreasing drought severity (2011â€2013). Native plant communities had more species of plants and arthropods (/m2) than areas dominated by OWBs during extreme drought, but richness was comparable as drought severity decreased. Abundance of arthropods was greater in native plant communities than in OWB communities during extreme drought, but OWB communities had more arthropods during moderate and non-drought conditions. We observed a shift in the arthropod community from one dominated by detritivores to ...
Termites and termite mounts, Silverfish and Springtails. Original antique artwork by Abraham Rees. About 200 years old. Fast shipping worldwide
Trek Aerospaces Springtail Exoskeleton Flying Vehicle is a single operator powered-lift vehicle that supports the operator/pilot in a standing position. There are a pair of ducts, approximately one meter in diameter, mounted on the upper end of the airframe above the operator. Each duct contains a fan consisting of five blades which produce thrust in the vertical direction. The fans are counter-rotating, eliminating the torque that is normally associated with a single rotor.. ...
We have been inundated with springtails (verified by our county vector control entomologist) for almost 3 months since getting 4 new sliding doors installed. Showers, essential oil baths, washing all linens and vacuuming mattresses and floors every day have kept them down. We have had terminex spray inside 4x and outside 3x, which helps temporarily. Our outdoor sprinklers were leaking and we ripped up and replaced the sprinklers and front yard - new topsoil and sod. They die from flea powder for the carpet, but come back within a week. We are having some plants with whiteflies torn out, and removing all mulch. Diatamaceous earth work pretty well, as it compromises their joints and dries them out. There is a company called Diatect that sells an organic product with food-grade D.E. and natural pyrethrens from african daisies. It is safe for people and pets, you can even eat it, though I wouldnt recommend it. It is used commercially for grain storage and organic crops. I have a hand pump sprayer ...
Phylum Arthropoda (jointed feet) Subphylum Trilobita (extinct, but often pretty) Subphylum Chelinidea (2 tagmata [singular is tagma], cephlo-thorax and abdomen; uses chelicerae for feeding Class Xiphosura (horseshoe crabs) Class Eurypterida (extinct; dominant for 300M years) Class Arachnida *Order Araneae (spiders) **Order Acarina (mites, also includes ticks) *Order Scorpiones Order Phalangidae (daddy-long-legs) Order Pseudoscorpiones (small but impressive, as your TA will tell you) Subphylum Mandibulata (2 or 3 tagmata, if 2 then head free; various bits of anatomy used for feeding, mostly by chewing or, secondarily, by sucking) Class Crustacea (often good to eat) Class Symphyla (small, maybe ancestor of the rest) Class Diplopoda (second segment fused with first, so it appears to have two legs on each segment-millipedes) Class Chilopoda (small poison jaws; centipedes) Some call these three Classes collectively as the Myriapoda; poor Class Insecta (or Hexapoda) (3 tagmata [head, thorax, ...
Phylum Arthropoda (jointed feet) Subphylum Trilobita (extinct, but often pretty) Subphylum Chelinidea (2 tagmata [singular is tagma], cephlo-thorax and abdomen; uses chelicerae for feeding Class Xiphosura (horseshoe crabs) Class Eurypterida (extinct; dominant for 300M years) Class Arachnida *Order Araneae (spiders) **Order Acarina (mites, also includes ticks) *Order Scorpiones Order Phalangidae (daddy-long-legs) Order Pseudoscorpiones (small but impressive, as your TA will tell you) Subphylum Mandibulata (2 or 3 tagmata, if 2 then head free; various bits of anatomy used for feeding, mostly by chewing or, secondarily, by sucking) Class Crustacea (often good to eat) Class Symphyla (small, maybe ancestor of the rest) Class Diplopoda (second segment fused with first, so it appears to have two legs on each segment-millipedes) Class Chilopoda (small poison jaws; centipedes) Some call these three Classes collectively as the Myriapoda; poor Class Insecta (or Hexapoda) (3 tagmata [head, thorax, ...
A new paper, published online in Nature this week, aims to resolve long-standing disputes within Arthropod phylogenetics. This work offers strong evidence for, and opens new, perplexing questions about, the deep evolutionary history of arthropods. The phylum Arthropoda consists of four major subphyla: Chelicerata - Arachnids, horseshoe crabs, sea spiders. Myriapoda - Centipedes, millipedes. Crustacea…
Dont worry if you notice occasional centipedes and millipedes in your home. In fact, centipedes may help control populations of other pests, such as flies and cockroaches. If you have a lot of centipedes or millipedes, however, decrease the humidity inside the home and remove moist, decaying matter from outside the home. Sealing cracks in the foundation and using screens in doors and windows may also help keep centipedes and millipedes out of your home. Use chemical pesticides as a last resort.. ...
Ecosystem engineering is a process by which organisms change the distribution of resources and create new habitats for other species via non-trophic interactions. Leaf-rolling caterpillars can act as ecosystem engineers because they provide shelter to secondary users. In this study, we report the influence of leaf-rolling caterpillars on speciose tropical arthropod communities along both spatial scales (leaf-level and plant-level effects) and temporal scales (dry and rainy seasons). We predict that rolled leaves can amplify arthropod diversity at both the leaf and plant levels and that this effect is stronger in dry seasons, when arthropods are prone to desiccation. Our results show that the abundance, richness, and biomass of arthropods within several guilds increased up to 22-fold in naturally and artificially created leaf shelters relative to unaltered leaves. These effects were observed at similar magnitudes at both the leaf and plant scales. Variation in the shelter architecture (funnel, ...
The first antennae of arthropods are divisible into two main types, viz. (1) segmented antennae and (2) annulated antennae. In the first type the antenna consists of a variable number of segments, each having intrinsic musculature. The antennae of the Ohilopoda, Diplopoda, Pauropoda, Symphyla, Collembola, and Thysanura Entognatha all pertain to this type; also, the first antennae of many Copepoda and Ostracoda.. In the second type the antenna consists of a peduncle or protopodite composed of one or more segments, each with intrinsic musculature. Distally it bears an annulated flagellum, or a pair of flagella, devoid of intrinsic muscles and whose movements are effected by muscles originating within the peduncle. The first antennae of the Crustacea Malacostraca and the antennae of the Thysanura Ectognatha and of all the Insecta Pterygota belong to this type.. The greatly elongated antennae of the Schizotarsia are intermediate between these two types. They are composed of an immense number of ...
The first soybean aphids of the year were found in northeastern Iowa. Photo by Greg VanNostrand. The warm winter was helpful to those insects trying to overwinter in Iowa, particularly for bean leaf beetle. For the other crop in Iowa, corn rootworm egg hatch is peaking, stalk borers are moving to corn, and European corn borer egg hatch is also happening now. Then the conversation turned to millipedes - not a typical field crop pest. They talk about field conditions conducive to millipede injury, in addition to other emerging pests like slugs, snails and isopods. Finally, Matt reminded us Pollinator Fest is coming up at Reiman Gardens in Ames on June 25. Random fact: Millipedes are arthropods within the class Diplopoda. They are distant relatives to insects and arachnids. People who study millipedes are called diplopodologists. ...
The first soybean aphids of the year were found in northeastern Iowa. Photo by Greg VanNostrand. The warm winter was helpful to those insects trying to overwinter in Iowa, particularly for bean leaf beetle. For the other crop in Iowa, corn rootworm egg hatch is peaking, stalk borers are moving to corn, and European corn borer egg hatch is also happening now. Then the conversation turned to millipedes - not a typical field crop pest. They talk about field conditions conducive to millipede injury, in addition to other emerging pests like slugs, snails and isopods. Finally, Matt reminded us Pollinator Fest is coming up at Reiman Gardens in Ames on June 25. Random fact: Millipedes are arthropods within the class Diplopoda. They are distant relatives to insects and arachnids. People who study millipedes are called diplopodologists. ...
How to Trap Millipedes. Millipedes are usually beneficial in the garden. If they are in really large numbers, however, they can sometimes turn their sights to shoots, sprouts and soft fruits such as strawberries rather than their usual...
In this study, we examined 31 samples of varying chemical composition, including samples of soils from gasworks, coke production sites, and sites where wood preservatives were heavily used; ash and soot from municipal solid waste incinerators; antiskid sand; and dust from areas with heavy road traffic. The samples were comprehensively chemically characterized, especially their polycyclic aromatic compound contents, using gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry, whereas their biological effects were assessed using dehydrogenase activity, root growth (Hordeum vulgare), reproduction of springtails (Folsomia candida), algal growth (Desmodesmus subspicatus), germinability (Sinapis alba), Vibrio fischeri, DR-CALUX, and Ames Salmonella assays. The number of compounds detected in the samples ranged from 123 to 527. Using the multivariate regression technique of partial-least-squares projections to latent structures, it was possible to find individual compounds that exhibited strong ...
Dung from large mammalian herbivores provides a concentrated food resource, rich in bacteria, nitrogen, and many forms of carbon that support a diverse community of arthropods. Detrital communities, while essential to nutrient cycling, are poorly studied. From July 2010 to October 2010, we sampled these arthropod assemblages using pitfall traps baited with horse dung at five sites southeast of Boston, MA. A total of 396 samples were collected, resulting in 10,299 arthropod specimens. We found a highly diverse group of arthropods dominated by Coleoptera (|svg style=vertical-align:-0.20474pt;width:60.712502px; id=M1 height=11.275 version=1.1 viewBox=0 0 60.712502 11.275 width=60.712502 xmlns:xlink=http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink xmlns=http://www.w3.org/2000/svg||g transform=matrix(.017,-0,0,-.017,.062,10.962)||path id=x1D45B d=M495 86q-46 -47 -87 -72.5t-63 -25.5q-43 0 -16 107l49 210q7 34 8 50.5t-3 21t-13 4.5q-35 0 -109.5 -72.5t-115.5 -140.5q-21 -75 -38 -159q-50 -10 -76 -21l-6 8l84 340q8
We believe we have correctly identified your Millipede as a Worm Millipede AKA American Giant Millipede, Narceus americanus-annularis-complex, which BugGuide describes as: Usually dark reddish-brown with red edges on each segment. The most commonly-seen large millipede in its range. We were searching through interesting, recent, unanswered requests so that we could postdate a few submissions to go live in early November while when we will be away from the office. ...
Crustaceans (Crustacea /krʌˈsteɪʃə/) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimps, prawns, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.[1] The crustacean group can be treated as a subphylum under the clade Mandibulata; because of recent molecular studies it is now well accepted that the crustacean group is paraphyletic, and comprises all animals in the clade Pancrustacea other than hexapods.[2] Some crustaceans are more closely related to insects and the other hexapods than they are to certain other crustaceans. The 67,000 described species range in size from Stygotantulus stocki at 0.1 mm (0.004 in), to the Japanese spider crab with a leg span of up to 3.8 m (12.5 ft) and a mass of 20 kg (44 lb). Like other arthropods, crustaceans have an exoskeleton, which they moult to grow. They are distinguished from other groups of arthropods, such as insects, myriapods and chelicerates, by the possession of biramous (two-parted) limbs, and by their larval ...
BUDD, G. E. 2002. A palaeontological solution to the arthropod head problem. Nature, 417: 271-275.. CARON, J.-B. AND D. A. JACKSON. 2008. Paleoecology of the Greater Phyllopod Bed community, Burgess Shale. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 258: 222-256.. CARON, J.-B., D. M. RUDKIN AND S. MILLIKEN. 2004. A new Late Silurian (Pridolian) naraoiid (Euarthropoda: Nektaspida) from the Bertie Formation of southern Ontario, Canada - delayed fallout from the Cambrian explosion. Journal of Paleontology, 78: 1138-1145. CHEN, J. G. D. EDGECOMBE AND L. RAMSKöLD. 1997. Morphological and ecological disparity in naraoiids (Arthropoda) from the Early Cambrian Chengjiang fauna, China. Records of the Australian Museum, 49: 1-24. COTTON, T. J. AND S. J. BRADDY. 2004. The phylogeny of arachnomorph arthropods and the origin of the Chelicerata. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences, 94: 169-193.. EDGECOMBE, G. D. AND L. RAMSKÖLD. 1999. Relationships of Cambrian Arachnata and ...
BUDD, G. E. 2002. A palaeontological solution to the arthropod head problem. Nature, 417: 271-275.. CARON, J.-B. AND D. A. JACKSON. 2008. Paleoecology of the Greater Phyllopod Bed community, Burgess Shale. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 258: 222-256.. CARON, J.-B., D. M. RUDKIN AND S. MILLIKEN. 2004. A new Late Silurian (Pridolian) naraoiid (Euarthropoda: Nektaspida) from the Bertie Formation of southern Ontario, Canada - delayed fallout from the Cambrian explosion. Journal of Paleontology, 78: 1138-1145. CHEN, J. G. D. EDGECOMBE AND L. RAMSKöLD. 1997. Morphological and ecological disparity in naraoiids (Arthropoda) from the Early Cambrian Chengjiang fauna, China. Records of the Australian Museum, 49: 1-24. COTTON, T. J. AND S. J. BRADDY. 2004. The phylogeny of arachnomorph arthropods and the origin of the Chelicerata. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences, 94: 169-193.. EDGECOMBE, G. D. AND L. RAMSKÖLD. 1999. Relationships of Cambrian Arachnata and ...
Scientists have recently described the deepest terrestrial animal ever found, together with four new species. These animals are springtails (Arthropoda, Insecta, Collembola), a minute primitive wingless insect with six legs and without eyes that live in total darkness ...
Although molecular analyses have contributed to a better resolution of the animal tree of life, the phylogenetic position of tardigrades (water bears) is still controversial, as they have been united alternatively with nematodes, arthropods, onychophorans (velvet worms), or onychophorans plus arthropods. Depending on the hypothesis favoured, segmental ganglia in tardigrades and arthropods might either have evolved independently, or they might well be homologous, suggesting that they were either lost in onychophorans or are a synapomorphy of tardigrades and arthropods. To evaluate these alternatives, we analysed the organisation of the nervous system in three tardigrade species using antisera directed against tyrosinated and acetylated tubulin, the amine transmitter serotonin, and the invertebrate neuropeptides FMRFamide, allatostatin and perisulfakinin. In addition, we performed retrograde staining of nerves in the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli in order to compare the serial locations of motor
In Drosophila, the T-box genes optomotor-blind (omb) and H15 have been implicated in specifying the development of the dorso-ventral (DV) axis of the appendages. Results from the spider Cupiennius salei have suggested that this DV patterning system may be at least partially conserved. Here we extend the study of the DV patterning genes omb and H15 to a representative of the Myriapoda in order to add to the existing comparative data set and to gain further insight into the evolution of the DV patterning system in arthropod appendages. The omb gene of the millipede Glomeris marginata is expressed on the dorsal side of all appendages including trunk legs, maxillae, mandibles, and antennae. This is similar to what is known from Drosophila and Cupiennius and suggests that the role of omb in instructing dorsal fates is conserved in arthropods. Interestingly, the lobe-shaped portions of the mouthparts do not express omb, indicating that these are ventral components and thus may be homologous to the ...
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The super worm (Zophobas morio) is a larva of a species of darkling beetle. Only the larvae are fed out to amphibians, as the adult are not preferred foods for frogs. This insect goes through complete metamorphosis.. We also have a colony of earthworms. Our colonies are not thriving at the moment, so most of the time we harvest from our own backyard. The other food item that we are currently not breeding, but do feed out, is the Neoconocephalus saturatus, a type of cone-headed katydid. We rely on a local family to help us out by collecting these katydids for us.. Last, but certainly not least, is the newest food item on the menu at EVACC; Blaberus discoidalis, a very large cockroach.. ...
Venomous animals have evolved with sophisticated bio-chemical strategies to arrest prey and defend themselves from natural predators. In recent years, peptide toxins from venomous animals have drawn considerable attention from researchers due to their surprising chemical, biochemical, and pharmacological diversity. Similar to other venomous animals, centipedes are one of the crucial venomous arthropods that have been used in traditional medicine for hundreds of years in China. Despite signifying pharmacological importance, very little is known about the active components of centipede venoms. More than 500 peptide sequences have been reported in centipede venomous glands by transcriptome analysis, but only a small number of peptide toxins from centipede has been functionally described. Like other venomous animals such as snakes, scorpions, and spiders, the venom of centipedes could be an excellent source of peptides for developing drugs for treatments as well as bio-insecticides for agrochemical
Phylum Onychophora Phylum Onychophora: Velvet worms, Peripatus. All modern Onychophorans are terrestrial but fossils, which date back to the Cambrian, are mainly from marine sediments. Onychophorans look a bit like slugs with legs and when first described in 1825 were thought to be mollusks. However, now placed at the base of the Arthropod family tree.
MUTURI, J. J. et al. Effect of integrated soil fertility management interventions on the abundance and diversity of soil Collembola in Embu and Taita Districts, Kenya. Trop. subtrop. agroecosyt [online]. 2011, vol.13, n.1, pp.35-42. ISSN 1870-0462.. The study aimed at identifying soil fertility management practices that promote the Collembola population, diversity and survival in the soil. Soil samples were randomly collected from on farm plots amended with: 1-Mavuno ((Ma)-is a compound fertilizer containing 26% Potassium, 10% Nitrogen, 10% Calcium, 4% Sulphur, 4% Magnesium and trace elements like Zinc, Copper, Boron, Molybdenum and Manganese)), 2-Manure (Mn), 3-Trichoderna (Tr) inoculant (is a soil and compost-borne antagonistic fungus used as biological control agent against plant fungal diseases), 4-Farmers practice ((FP) where Tripple Super Phosphate (T.S.P.) and Calcium Ammonium Nitrate (C.A.N.) fertilizers are applied in the soil in mixed form), 5-Tripple Super Phosphate (T.S.P.), ...
The observations from the recent period revealed that the Western Carpathians, a part of the Carpathian mountain chain, is the northernmost region in Europe with the occurrence of the obligate cave fauna. The collembolan genus Pseudosinella Schäffer, 1897 is a polyphyletic taxon derived from the genus Lepidocyrtus Bourlet, 1839 from which it differs in reduced number of eyes. It covers about 350 species with predominantly Holarctic distribution of which about 39% are confined to caves. We studied the morphology and molecular traits to identify cave species of the genus Pseudosinella occupying the Western Carpathian caves and clarify their phylogenetic relationships. Based on morphological traits we hypothesized that Pseudosinella aggtelekiensis (Stach, 1929) and P. paclti Rusek, 1961 are descendants of the different phyletic lineages, the former species lacking morphologically related edaphic species. On the other hand, several species related to P. paclti were found in caves, superficial subterranean
An experimental procedure using biotin-labelled probes and streptavidin-bound magnetic beads (FIASCO) was used to produce a microsatellite-enriched library for the collembolan Orchesella villosa. PCR primers were successfully constructed for seven loci containing, respectively, five pure, one interrupted, and one compound dinucleotide microsatellite repeats. As a preliminary test of their variability, we investigated 15 individuals from 5 locations inside a dismissed mining area in southern Tuscany. All microsatellite loci showed high levels of polymorphism. The mean number of different alleles at each locus across populations was 10.1 and observed heterozygosity per locus was 0.13-0.86. Only 2 out of the 7 loci appeared to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The potential application of these loci to test the effects of environmental contamination on the genetic structure of exposed populations is discussed.. ...
Hemocyanins (also spelled haemocyanins and abbreviated Hc) are proteins that transport oxygen throughout the bodies of some invertebrate animals. These metalloproteins contain two copper atoms that reversibly bind a single oxygen molecule (O2). They are second only to hemoglobin in frequency of use as an oxygen transport molecule. Unlike the hemoglobin in red blood cells found in vertebrates, hemocyanins are not bound to blood cells but are instead suspended directly in the hemolymph. Oxygenation causes a color change between the colorless Cu(I) deoxygenated form and the blue Cu(II) oxygenated form. Hemocyanins are found only in the Mollusca and Arthropoda: the earliest discoveries of hemocyanins were in the snail Helix pomatia (a mollusc) and in the horseshoe crab (an arthropod). They were subsequently found to be common among crustaceans and are utilized by some land arthropods such as the tarantula Eurypelma californicum, the emperor scorpion, and the centipede Scutigera coleoptrata. Also, ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Zebrafish trilobite identifies new roles for Strabismus in gastrulation and neuronal movements. AU - Jessen, Jason R.. AU - Topczewski, Jacek. AU - Bingham, Stephanie. AU - Sepich, Diane S.. AU - Marlow, Florence. AU - Chandrasekhar, Anand. AU - Solnica-Krezel, Lilianna. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Embryonic morphogenesis is driven by a suite of cell behaviours, including coordinated shape changes, cellular rearrangements and individual cell migrations, whose molecular determinants are largely unknown. In the zebrafish, Dani rerio, trilobite mutant embryos have defects in gastrulation movements1-4 and posterior migration of hindbrain neurons5. Here, we have used positional cloning to demonstrate that trilobite mutations disrupt the transmembrane protein Strabismus (Stbm)/Van Gogh (Vang), previously associated with planar cell polarity (PCP) in Drosophila melanogaster6,7, and PCP and canonical Wnt/β-catenin signalling in vertebrates8,9. Our genetic and molecular analyses argue ...
I recently moved into a small studio an an historic building (old!) and there have been quite a few centipede visitors in the night. I dont seem to be able to catch them so I end up just chasing them away. One afternoon when I came home from work I noticed both my cats were in the bathtub playing with a huge centipede. I use the word playing deliberately because I stood and watched the three of them silently for about a minute, and was amazed at how unafraid the insect was of the two mammals. It just waddled around as though it were teasing the cats. Finally I yelled, Hey! and stomped my foot. The cats froze to look at me and the centipede zipped down the drain as fast as lightning. Very curious. It was as if it knew I was dangerous, and the cats were not. ...
The House Centipide Scutigera coleoptrata Xini Ta`l-Indewwa is unfortunately a well considered pest locally. Originally endemic to the Mediterranean region, the species has spread to other parts of the world, where it usually lives in human homes. This species can live its entire life inside a building, usually the ground levels of homes. They are generally considered harmless to humans. Bites are not common, and the jaws of most house centipedes are not strong enough to penetrate human skin . the latter feed on spiders, bedbugs, termites, cockroaches, silverfish, ants, and other household arthropods. They administer venom through modified legs. These are not part of their mandibles, so strictly speaking they sting rather than bite. They are mostly nocturnal hunters. Despite their developed eyes they seem to rely mostly on their antennae when hunting. Their antennae are sensitive to both smells and tactile information. They use both their mandibles and their legs for holding prey. This way they ...
Soil organic matter (SOM) cycling has significant consequences for ecosystem processes and functioning. Studies of SOM have focused traditionally on soil microorganisms that regulate the fundamental biochemical processes of litter mineralization and organic matter formation. However, microbe-mediated processes rarely occur in isolation in natural systems without the involvement of soil fauna. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to soil fauna - e.g., the direct roles they play in SOM cycling, and indirect roles through changing microbial community composition, activity, and function to influence soil C and N dynamics. We combine traditional morphological characterization of soil invertebrates with microbial functional assays, and modern chemical techniques to identify relationships among soil fauna, microbe, plant residue inputs, and SOM. Our ultimate goal is to investigate whether/how soil fauna contribute to soil organic carbon storage, especially through their impacts on microbial ...
Abstract. Thousands of arthropod species, ranging from arachnids (spiders and scorpions) to hymenopterans (ants, bees, and wasps) and myriapods (centipedes), are venomous and use their venoms for both defense and predation. These venoms are invariably harmful to humans, and some may cause serious injuries, e.g., those from scorpions, spiders, and wasps. Arthropods venoms are also known as rich sources of biologically active compounds and have attracted the attention of toxin researchers for years. In this century, venom component analysis has progressed considerable due to the advances in analytical techniques, in particular, mass spectrometry and next-generation deep (DNA and RNA) sequencing. As such, proteomic and peptidomic analyses using LC-MS have enabled the full analysis of venom components, revealing a variety of novel peptide and protein toxins sequences and scaffolds, potentially useful as pharmacological research tools and for the development of highly selective peptide ligands and ...
Rights: This volume was digitized and made accessible online due to deterioration of the original print copy. If you are the author of this work and would like to have online access removed, please contact the Library Administration Office, 785-532-7400, [email protected] ...
Publications (10 selected Publications since 2008). 1. Heuer C, Binzer M, Kollmann M, Schachtner J. 2012. Neuropeptides in the insect mushroom bodies. Arthropod Struct Dev 41(3):199-226.. 2. Neupert S, Fusca D, Schachtner J, Kloppenburg P, Predel R. 2012. Toward a single-cell-based analysis of neuropeptide expression in Periplaneta americana antennal lobe neurons. J Comp Neurol, 520(4):694-716.. 3. Kollmann M, Huetteroth W, Schachtner J. 2011. The brain of springtails: neuroarchitecture of a basal arthropod brain. Arthropod Struct Dev 40(4):304-316.. 4. Schachtner J, Wegener C, Neupert S, Predel R. 2010. Direct peptide profiling of brain tissue by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Methods Mol Biol 615:129-135.. 5. Carlsson MA, Diesner M, Schachtner J, Nässel DR. 2010. Multiple neuropeptides in the Drosophila antennal lobe suggest complex modulatory circuits. J Comp Neurol 518:3359-3380.. 6. Huetteroth W, El Jundi B, El Jundi S, Schachtner J. 2010. 3D-reconstructions and virtual 4D-visualization to ...
The springtails (Collembola) species collected include Desoria klovstadi, Fresia grisea, Cryptopygus cisantarcticus, Gomphiocephalus hodgsoni, Antarctophorus sudpolaris, Biscoia subpolaris and Neocryptopygus nivicolis. The mite (Acari) species collected were Stereotydeus mollis and Nanorchestes spp. Some genetic work was completed on one species of nematode Scottnema lindsayae from Mt Kyffin Traditional, morphologically-based, taxonomic approaches for assessing biodiversity were combined with more recent molecular techniques (e.g. allozyme and DNA analyses) with individuals from each study site evaluated using protein electrophoresis, mtDNA and morphological analyses. Allozyme electrophoresis was used to determine genetic differences within and among populations. Genotype frequencies were recorded for each locus at each site. Detailed and quantitative observations were made on modes of dispersal through the use of windsocks, pitfall traps and stream drift nets. These analyses are designed to ...
The Crustacea are a subphylum of arthropods with 67,000 described species. They are part of the phylum Arthropoda. Crustaceans include crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill and barnacles. They are relatives of insects. If the Arthropods are regarded as a superphylum, then the insects and crustacea would be phyla. (see List of animal phyla). The group has an extensive fossil record, reaching back to the Cambrian. Most crustaceans are aquatic, mostly marine. Some have moved onto land permanently. Crustaceans that live on land include some crabs, and woodlice. Crustacea range in size from a parasite 0.1mm long, to the Japanese spider crab with a leg span of up to 14 ft (4.3 m) and a mass of 44 lb (20 kg). The North Atlantic lobster can weigh more than 40 pounds. Most crustaceans are mobile, but some become sessile after their larval stage. Barnacles become attached to rocks on the sea shore. Some are parasitic, like fish lice, and tongue worms. Crustacea usually have separate sexes, and the eggs ...
Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is an important combinable break crop in the UK, which is largely protected from arthropod pests by insecticidal chemicals. Despite ongoing debate regarding the use of neonicotinoids, the dominant seed treatment ingredients used for this crop, there is little publicly available data comparing the efficacy of insecticides in controlling key arthropod pests or comparing the impacts on non-target species and the wider environment. To provide an insight into these matters, a UK-wide expert survey targeting agronomists and entomologists was conducted from March to June 2015. Based on the opinions of 90 respondents, an average of 20% yield loss caused by the key arthropod pests was expected to have occurred in the absence of insecticide treatments. Relatively older chemical groups were perceived to have lower efficacy for target pests than newer ones, partly due to the development of insecticide resistance. Without neonicotinoid seed treatments, a lack of good ...
Abstract The possibility of vaccinating hosts against blood-feeding arthropods using antigens derived from salivary gland, gut, and other tissues is reviewed. These vaccines directed against vector arthropods also have the potential to effect the arthropods capacity to transmit pathogens, and this is distinct from transmission-blocking vaccines that use antigens derived from pathogens. Antigen extracts have been used in attempts to vaccinate against fleas, lice, keds, flies, mosquitoes, and a number of tick species. A vaccine against the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus (Canestrini), using a recombinant antigen, has been tested under field conditions. Ticks feeding on vaccinated hosts are damaged by an immune response directed against their gut cells. Some die on the host, others engore but their fecundity is reduced. The Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organization-Biotechnology Australia tick vaccine against B. microplus is cited as a model for the development of other vaccines. It is
Jul 19, 2015 - Feathertail Centipedes are an entire genus of centipedes from eastern Africa. this is one of the largest species of centipede in the world also one of the hardest to find and most expensive in the hobb The list below will updated weekly, the website will be updated as often as possible. Reptile and amphibian food should be varied, which is why we offer an array of feeder insects for sale. • Scolopendra alternans … Texas Giant Gold Millipedes. However, humans are rarely bitten, because of the centipedes generally secretive lifestyle. Wenn Sie bestimmte Exemplare (1.1 oder 1.2) … Scolopendra alternans (Haiti): 5 - 10+ uL frozen or lyophilized, ready to ship Scolopendra dehaani (S.E. Its always far more cost effective to buy feeder insects in bulk, which often saves up to 70% off pet store prices. They have a yellow to orange body with dark grey band at each segment join. Our reptile and amphibian feeder insects and lizards include a guarantee of live arrival. Its a ...
Brief blurbs about recent arthropod news and research: The blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, has been found in England for the second time ever. These ill-tempered, but delicious, swimming crabs are native to North America; where they represent a major marine fishery despite serious conservation concerns. Previously, blue crabs have turned up in Japan and the…
Maxillopoda. Ostracoda. Malacostraca. Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a very large group of arthropods, usually treated as a subphylum, which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill and barnacles. The 50,000 described species range in size from Stygotantulus stocki at 0.1 mm (0.004 in), to the Japanese spider crab with a leg span of up to 12.5 ft (3.8 m) and a mass of 44 lb (20 kg). Like other arthropods, crustaceans have an exoskeleton, which they moult to grow. They are distinguished from other groups of arthropods, such as insects, myriapods and chelicerates by the possession of biramous (two-parted) limbs, and by the nauplius form of the larvae.. Most crustaceans are free-living aquatic animals, but some are terrestrial (e.g. woodlice), some are parasitic (e.g. fish lice, tongue worms) and some are sessile (e.g. barnacles). The group has an extensive fossil record, reaching back to the Cambrian, and includes living fossils such as Triops cancriformis, which ...
CBG provides a standard sampling kit to all GMP participants. This includes a brand new Townes style Malaise trap and typically a years worth of collection bottles. Partners provide ethanol for killing and preserving samples and are responsible for changing the collection bottle once every week for the duration of the flight season.. All collection bottles are shipped for subsequent processing at CBG. Samples are accessioned, specimens were identified to order, arrayed, labeled, databased, and tissue-sampled for genetic analysis. All arthropods are barcoded, with the exception of a few very common species of Collembola, where only a few individuals from each trap sample were analyzed. Standard barcoding protocols are followed to recover the barcode region of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. The barcode sequences, specimen images and collateral data are uploaded to BOLD under the Global Malaise Program campaign. Barcoded specimens are assigned to an existing or new Barcode Index ...
Numerous studies have recently reported on the discovery of bee viruses in different arthropod species and their possible transmission routes, vastly increasing our understanding of these viruses and their distribution. Here, we review the current literature on the recent advances in understanding the transmission of viruses, both on the presence of bee viruses in Apis and non-Apis bee species and on the discovery of previously unknown bee viruses. The natural transmission of bee viruses will be discussed among different bee species and other insects. Finally, the research potential of in vivo (host organisms) and in vitro (cell lines) serial passages of bee viruses is discussed, from the perspective of the host-virus landscape changes and potential transmission routes for emerging bee virus infections.
Plant Pest Handbook Insect Index Abstract: Insects and Their Injuries to Plants How Insects Develop How Insects Injure Plants How to Live with Insects How Insect Pests are Controlled on Plants Insecticides Botanical Insecticides and Related Structures Bacillus thuringiensis Products Organophosphates and Carbamates Dormant and Ultrafine Oils Insecticidal Soap Chloronicotinyl Insecticides Professionally Labeled Insecticides The majority of small invertebrate animals belong to Phylum Arthropoda, which consists of organisms with external skeletons and jointed legs. Insects, Class Hexapoda (meaning six-footed), has the largest number of species within this phylum. In addition to the characteristics already mentioned, insects also are distinguished by having one pair of antennae, and most have wings and three body regions as adults. Centipedes, millipedes, mites, sowbugs, and spiders are non-insect arthropods: all have external skeletons but adults have more than six legs. Insects are by far
Download this Free Definition http://bit.ly/35LrH5W In this Grasshopper Definition the isosurface component from the Millipede plugin has been used to create…
When choosing a pesticide, the landscaper should select a product that is specific to the pest to be controlled in order to spare beneficial arthropods. Systemic insecticides are less likely to affect predators and parasites on plant surfaces. Insecticidal soaps may spare hard bodied predaceous or parasitic arthropods. Microbial insecticides such as Bacillus thuringiensis products (Dipel®, Thuricide® and others) are target-specific for certain groups of insects. Specific miticides generally spare other arthropods.. Care must also be taken when using pesticides other than insecticides and miticides. Certain fungicides such as Benlate® will affect insectivorous fungi and other non-target organisms. Broad-spectrum insecticides often are useful when more than one pest is present, but they may cause a rapid resurgence of the primary or secondary pest. Pyrethroid insecticides can be more harmful to parasitic wasps than to the pests listed on their labels and may result in secondary pest outbreaks. ...
The European Union (EU) is facing the recent arrival of the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Its fast spread has caused great alarm because of the economic impact it implies for the agroeconomy of European countries. Among its insect vectors, Philaenus spumarius has been demonstrated to transmit the bacterium from infected to uninfected trees in the EU, where different measures have been established to control it. One of the proposals to manage this vector is the augmentation of natural enemy populations. However, the identification of candidate predator species is essential if such a management system is to be introduced. The present paper describes a set of species-specific primers designed to detect the presence of P. spumarius DNA in soil arthropod fauna generalist predators’ gut which can reveal candidate species for the pest’s biological control. Such primers have been proven to be a useful and reliable taxonomic tool for P. spumarius identification at any life stage, i.e., nymphs. This
These are a few of the pdf files (and a few Microsoft Word documents) that Ive accumulated in my web browsing. MOST of these are hyperlinked to their source. If you want one that is not hyperlinked or if the link isnt working, e-mail me at [email protected] and Ill be happy to send it to you. Please note that this list will be updated continuously as I find more available resources. All of these files are freely available on the Internet so there should be no copyright issues. Articles with author names in RED are new additions since May 24, 2018. Phylum Mollusca Family Odontogriphidae (affinity with Mollusca uncertain) Caron, J.-B., et al. (2006). A soft-bodied mollusc with radula from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale. Nature, 442(7099). Ritchie, A. and G.D. Edgecombe (2001). An Odontogriphid from the Upper Permian of Australia. Palaeontology, Vol.44, Part 5. Smith, M.R. (2012). Mouthparts of the Burgess Shale fossils Odontogriphus and Wiwaxia: implications for the ancestral molluscan ...
Centipede Description: Centipedes have multi-jointed body, each segment having a pair of legs, growing to 30 centimeters (12 inches) long, with each pair
The Center conducts research on insects of agricultural, medical and veterinary importance with the goal of achieving control of pest species through the development of environmentally acceptable approaches. Emphasisis placed on developing components and systems for integrated pest management, based upon an understanding of the behavior, physiology and ecology of pest species. Sensitive detection devices that employ semio-chemicals and electronic technology will provide the means for early intervention. Investigations will lead to biological control based on parasites, predators and microbes, and thus provide alternative, bio-rational tools for managing populations of pest species. Special attentionis focused on insect pests of field & horticultural crops, stored products and on arthropod pests of medical and veterinary importance. Protection of humans from arthropods of medical importance is a continuing priority. Thescope of the Centers research is national and international and impacts ...
The Medical Entomology Project (MEP), a cooperative venture between the Smithsonian Institution and the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, conducts biosystematic research on arthropods of medical importance to the Army. MEP fulfills these objectives by performing biosystematic studies on important groups of vectors such as anopheline vectors of malaria parasites and culicine vectors of arboviruses, providing information on potential vectors for the guidance of military field research teams and other governmental agencies and preparing monographs and technical papers which summarize data on the ecology, taxonomy and medical importance of arthropod vectors in various regions of the world. In addition, MEP performs curation and research on the national collection of mosquitoes at the National Museum of Natural History (USNM), Smithsonian Institution. Research continues on the arbovirus vector groups of the subgenus Stegomyia, genus Aedes, of the African Region.*Entomology
A plan to eliminate rats on Alcatraz, home to the famous old prison in San Francisco Bay, led to the discovery of an unfamiliar glowing creature never before seen on the island.
The Paleozoic era spanned from 540 to 252 million years ago (mya) and represents the first era of diverse, complex life on Earth. The name Paleozoic means ancient life. During the early Paleozoic era, many new groups of marine invertebrates (animals without backbones) dominated the earth, although primitive vertebrates (animals with backbones) also began to appear. As the Cambrian explosion continued, almost all of the major groups of modern animals evolved from shared common ancestors. The ancient world ocean brimmed with invertebrate animals such as sponges, corals, and crabs (Fig. 7.11 A) as well as the first vertebrate animals: fishes (Fig. 7.11 B). The first animals to begin to colonize dry land were likely arthropods (Fig. 7.11 C). Arthropods are a group of invertebrate animals with jointed arms and hard shells including crabs, shrimp, spiders, and insects. By the end of the Paleozoic era-almost 300 mya after the Cambrian explosion-arthropods, amphibians, and some primitive reptiles ...
Story continues with In The Newspaper (Part 2 of 5). If not for the badge pinned to his jeans pocket, no one would know the pony-tailed 20-something was a cop. This is detective Ed Burgess. Double-chinned Schofield, stained collar open and tie unknotted, gestured toward the newcomer. Judge Denton, Detective Ed Burgess. Burgess. Denton. Before extending a hand, the young Burgess removed mini headphones from deep within his ear canals. Pleasure, said Burgess. He stood, despite the empty chair next to Denton. It was understandable. First, the thrift shop condition of the chair wasnt too inviting and second, the judge looked like hell after the ordeal. Remarkable transformation, calculated Burgess. The judge had left his house earlier that morning, no doubt looking sharp and crisp, ready to do whatever judges do. Now, he appeared worse than shit. Burgess had dealt with down and out crack addicts who looked and smelled better.. Schofield spoke between thick lips. Judge, this has got to be ...
Mandibles are also crucial to the hunting success of predatory ants. Mandibles can be wielded as formidable weapons in their own right, or as tools with which to grasp prey until a paralyzing sting can be delivered (a common strategy in the Ponerinae, most of which are solitary predators). Mass foraging predators (e.g. army ants, described below) use their mandibles to pin down prey from all sides while their nestmates dispatch it. A number of highly modified mandibles have evolved in response to the requirements of catching certain prey, especially those that are otherwise difficult to catch (e.g. collembolans). See the section on specialized predators below for several examples of such modifications. Despite a common misconception, most ants lack painful bites (being too small to have any effect on human skin). Usually ant bites are actually the venomous stings of ants in certain subfamilies (most commonly the Myrmicinae, but also members of the Ponerinae, Myrmeciinae, Pseudomyrmecinae, and ...
De oermûnigen (Latynske namme: Protostomata of Protostomia) foarmje in boppestamme fan it ryk fan e dieren (Animalia), it ûnderryk fan e echte dieren (Metazoa), it tuskenryk fan e twasidigen (Bilateria) en de rangleaze groep fan e termdieren (Nephrozoa). Oermûnigen ûnderskiede har fan har sustergroep, de nijmûnigen (Deuterostomata), trochdat by de embryonale ûntwikkeling de earste lichemsiepening de mûle wurdt, wylst dat by de oermûnigen de anus wurdt (de lichemsiepening dyt him as twadde ûntwikkelet, ûntjout him by nijmûnigen ta de mûle). Dêrfandinne de wittenskiplike namme Protostomata of Protostomia, wat yn it Gryksk earste mûle bestjut. Ta de oermûnigen hearre û.m. de lidpoatigen (Arthropoda), de weakdieren (Mollusca), de rûnwjirms (Nematoda) en de platwjirmeftigen (Platyzoa). Fierwei de grutste groep binne de lidpoatigen, dêrt û.m. de ynsekten (Insecta), de spineftigen (Arachnida), de kreefteftigen (Crustacea), en de tûzenpoatigen (Myriapoda) ûnder falle. ...
ID DROME2LHET_PE9 STANDARD; PRT; 206 AA. AC DROME2LHET_PE9; DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 1, Created) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 2, Last sequence update) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 3, Last annotation update) DE (DROME2LHET.PE9). OS DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Eumetazoa; Bilateria; Coelomata; Protostomia; OC Panarthropoda; Arthropoda; Mandibulata; Pancrustacea; Hexapoda; Insecta; OC Dicondylia; Pterygota; Neoptera; Endopterygota; Diptera; Brachycera; OC Muscomorpha; Eremoneura; Cyclorrhapha; Schizophora; Acalyptratae; OC Ephydroidea; Drosophilidae; Drosophilinae; Drosophilini; Drosophilina; OC Drosophiliti; Drosophila. OX NCBI_TaxID=7227; RN [0] RP -.; RG -.; RL -.; CC -!- SEQ. DATA ORIGIN: Translated from the HOGENOM CDS DROME2LHET.PE9. CC Drosophila melanogaster chromosome 2LHet BDGP5.25 full sequence 1..3688 CC annotated by Ensembl CC -!- GENE_FAMILY: HOG000166435 [ FAMILY / ALN / TREE ] DR HOGENOM:Drosophila_melanogaster;FBGN0058042;FBTR0113781;FBPP0112504. DR HOGENOMDNA; DROME2LHET.PE9; -. KW ...
ID ACYPI_10000_PE14 STANDARD; PRT; 155 AA. AC ACYPI_10000_PE14; DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 1, Created) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 2, Last sequence update) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 3, Last annotation update) DE (ACYPI_10000.PE14). OS ACYRTHOSIPHON PISUM. OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Eumetazoa; Bilateria; Coelomata; Protostomia; OC Panarthropoda; Arthropoda; Mandibulata; Pancrustacea; Hexapoda; Insecta; OC Dicondylia; Pterygota; Neoptera; Paraneoptera; Hemiptera; Sternorrhyncha; OC Aphidiformes; Aphidomorpha; Aphidoidea; Aphididae; Aphidinae; Macrosiphini; OC Acyrthosiphon. OX NCBI_TaxID=7029; RN [0] RP -.; RG -.; RL -.; CC -!- SEQ. DATA ORIGIN: Translated from the HOGENOM CDS ACYPI_10000.PE14. CC Acyrthosiphon pisum supercontig EQ120772 Acyr2 full sequence 1..333179 CC annotated by Ensembl Genomes CC -!- GENE_FAMILY: HOG000045970 [ FAMILY / ALN / TREE ] DR HOGENOM:Acyrthosiphon_pisum;ACYPI33724;ACYPI33724-RA;ACYPI33724-PA. DR HOGENOMDNA; ACYPI_10000.PE14; -. KW ACYPI337246; ACYPI33724-PAA. SQ SEQUENCE 155 AA; UNKNOWN ...
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How to Identify Malacostraca of Arthropoda? How Malacostraca are classified? Systematics of Malacostraca, What is a Malacostraca? Overview of the Class
Free photo: nature, beetle, insect, arthropod, invertebrate, metamorphose, beetle insects, insects and bugs, animal, arthropod, beetle, biology.
From Kelly Slivka:. Science Fridays Science and the Arts section posted beautiful arthropod brain images on their website this week. The images are part of an article featuring a new book fresh off the Harvard presses: Arthropod Brains: Evolution, Functional Elegance, and Historical Significance by Nicholas James Strausfeld.. Check out the Wired Science blog post about shrimp who vomit bioluminescence as a defense mechanism. Its been coined The Fire Breathing Shrimp! (Exclamation point added for effect.) There are two fun videos in the post and an entertaining, thorough discussion by Brian Switek.. Every now and then, its good to take a moment to sit back and enjoy the natural world without thinking too hard about it. A blog on My Modern Metropolis has provided one of those moments with a stellar (oh, jeeze) post featuring Milky Way photography. The photos are taken at national parks, and youll recognize some bewitching landscapes below the skies.. ...
Austin Journal of Vector Borne Diseases: Open Access is an open access, peer reviewed, scholarly journal dedicated to publish articles in all areas of vector borne diseases including existing or new policy in the relevant areas, impact of all types of vector borne diseases and related medical research methodologies. Vector-borne diseases are the infections transmitted by the bite of infected arthropod species, such as mosquitoes, ticks, triatomine bugs, sandflies, and blackflies. Arthropod vectors are cold-blooded (ectothermic) and thus especially sensitive to climatic factors. Or Vectors are organisms that transmit pathogens and parasites from one infected person (or animal) to another, causing serious diseases in human populations. These diseases are commonly found in tropical and sub-tropical regions and places where access to safe drinking-water and sanitation systems is problematic. Austin Journal of vector borne diseases welcomes research manuscripts, review articles, case reports, ...
Duties: To support, develop and execute research in sensory biophysics, as part of the research team. The research planned is aimed at elucidating the biophysical mechanisms of electroreception in honeybees and bumblebees. As research progresses, electroreception in other arthropod species will also be investigated. The successful candidate will have a track record in the field of sensory biophysics and/or insect electrophysiology. A key asset will be the capacity to identify and solve problems ... | Requirements: Experience in electrophysiology. Experience in sensory ecological research. Flexible, rigorous, innovative and conscientious approach to work, attention to details in data acquisition and analysis. PhD in Life Sciences. Record of oral and poster presentations at international conference. Publications in peer reviewed journals. Evidence of capability to work in multidisciplinary team...
In lowland tropical forests, ants play a variety of trophic functions in green food webs but their abundance and diversity decrease with elevation. How these functions are altered by elevation and how ants are replaced by other key arthropod taxa remain poorly studied due to the difficulty to determine ant diet by direct observations. ...
1972). Arthropods. New York: Praeger. Williams, Ron. ""Letter from Ron Williams" (blog),". Sherwin, Mary; et al., eds. (1982). ... and Jim Burns's book Arthropods (1972). Onyx's posters are in the permanent collection of the Frac Centre. Burns, Jim, ed. ( ...
"Cotinis mutabilis". Field Guide: Arthropods. San Diego Natural History Museum. Retrieved August 27, 2016. CS1 maint: ...
Kaua'i Cave Arthropods". United States Fish and Wildlife Service. January 6, 2010. "Hawaii's Comprehensive Wildlife ... Conservation Strategy (2005): Kaua'i Cave Arthropods" (PDF). October 1, 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 17, ...
Arthropods portal Parasitology Ticks of domestic animals Tick-borne disease Micrographs of the wasp laying eggs into a tick, ... Hematophagy evolved independently at least six times in arthropods living during the late Cretaceous; in ticks it is thought to ... Goddard J (2008). "Tick-borne diseases". Infectious Diseases and Arthropods. Springer. ISBN 978-1-60327-399-2. Guglielmone AA, ...
Chemical Defenses of Arthropods. Academic Press, New York. Chinery, Michael. 1991. Collins Guide to the Insects of Britain and ...
Arthropods of tropical forests. Spatio-temporal resource use in the canopy. Cambridge University Press. pp. 69-88. ISBN ...
Arthropods can also bite. Biting can be a physical action in result of an attack, but it is also a normal activity or response ...
Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK. ISBN 0-19-857356-1. 627 pp. Johannesson, B. (1986). " ...
... and huge arthropod trackways. Size of arthropod tracks (less than 91 cm) is taken to imply that water must have been required ... The arthropod trackways are thought to have been formed in shallow water, and supersaturated sand has a shallow angle of repose ... Could also have been made by other arthropods, or the lower parts of the Beacon sandstone may have been marine. They have been ... Probably produced by a very different arthropod to B. antarcticus. Large (~30 cm wide) trails with a scrape mark from a central ...
Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK. ISBN 0-19-857356-1. 627 pp. Harms, J. , 1993. Checklist ...
entomonecrophagy feeding on dead arthropods. entomophagy feeding on other insects. epicranius (Anatomical feature) the top of ...
Arthropods portal Carl Linnaeus (1763). Amoenitates Academicæ. Vol. 6 (in Latin). Carl Linnaeus (1763). Centuria Insectorum ...
Arthropods portal Virant-Doberlet, Meta; Cokl, Andrej (2004). "Vibrational communication in insects". Neotropical Entomology. ... Arthropod Structure & Development. 39 (4): 230-241. doi:10.1016/j.asd.2010.02.002. ISSN 1467-8039. Friedman, Morton H. (1972 ...
ISBN 978-981-256-801-4. Sivinski J (1981). "Arthropods attracted to luminous fungi". Psyche. 88 (3-4): 383-90. doi:10.1155/1981 ...
Insects and Other Terrestrial Arthropods. New York: Dorling Kindersley Ltd. p. 230. ISBN 0-7894-9392-6. Bücherl, Wolfgang; ...
In arthropods, it contains the pars intercerebralis and pars lateralis. six3 is associated with the euarthropod labrum and the ... Arthropod brains. Ortega-Hernández J., Janssen R., Budd G.E. (2017). "Origin and evolution of the panarthropod head - A ... Scholtz G., Edgecombe G.D. (2006). "The evolution of arthropod heads: reconciling morphological, developmental and ... Scholtz G., Edgecombe G.D. (2006). "The evolution of arthropod heads: reconciling morphological, developmental and ...
"Arthropleuridea". Studies in Arthropod Morphology and Evolution. University of Maryland. Archived from the original on 2007-04- ... Reaching over 2 meters in length, arthropleurids are among the largest arthropods ever to have lived. The lack of large ... Arthropleuridea is an extinct subclass of myriapod arthropods that flourished during the Carboniferous period, having first ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Fortey, Richard; R. H. Thomas (1998). Arthropod Relationships. Springer. ISBN 0-412- ...
... anomalous arthropods or arthropod-like worms?. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.693.5869.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link) Cong, ... Kühl, G.; Briggs, D. E. G.; Rust, J. (Feb 2009). "A Great-Appendage Arthropod with a Radial Mouth from the Lower Devonian ... Dinocaridida is a proposed taxon of extinct fossil arthropod-like marine animals found, with one exception, in the Cambrian and ... Budd, G. E. (1996). "The morphology of Opabinia regalis and the reconstruction of the arthropod stem-group". Lethaia. 29: 1-14 ...
Part 1. Introduction and catalog" (PDF). Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Areas. Florida Department of Agriculture and ...
Part 1. Introduction and catalog" (PDF). Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Areas. Florida Department of Agriculture and ...
Trichomycetes and the arthropod gut. In: The Mycota, Animal and Human Relations. D. Howard, and D. Miller, eds. Springer-Verlag ... Arthropod gut fungi from Puerto Rico and summary of tropical Trichomycetes worldwide. Caribbean Journal of Science, 36: 210-220 ... The Trichomycetes: Fungal Associates of Arthropods. Springer-Verlag, New York. 343 pp. Lichtwardt, R. W., and Williams, M. C. ... The Trichomycetes: Fungal Associates of Arthropods. Springer-Verlag, New York. 343 pp. V. Robert, G. Stegehuis and J. Stalpers ...
Part 1. Introduction and catalog" (PDF). Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Areas. Florida Department of Agriculture and ...
Part 1. Introduction and catalog" (PDF). Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Areas. Florida Department of Agriculture and ...
Arthropods portal H. E. Ewing (1928). "The scorpions of the western part of the United States, with notes on those occurring in ...
Part 1. Introduction and catalog" (PDF). Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Areas. Florida Department of Agriculture and ...
Part 1. Introduction and catalog" (PDF). Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Areas. Florida Department of Agriculture and ...
Hoyle G, Wiersma CA (1977). Identified neurons and behavior of arthropods. Plenum Press. ISBN 978-0-306-31001-0. "Wormbook: ...
Part 1. Introduction and catalog" (PDF). Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Areas. Florida Department of Agriculture and ...
It is possible that other extinct arthropods, such as members of the Aglaspidida, may also have produced some of these ... Protichnites is an ichnogenus of trace fossil consisting of the imprints made by the walking activity of certain arthropods. It ... doi:10.1111/j.1502-3931.1988.tb02064.x. Hoxie, C. T. (2005). "Late Cambrian arthropod trackways in subaerially exposed ... Hagadorn, J. W.; A. Seilacher (2009). "Hermit arthropods 500 million years ago?". Geology. 37 (4): 295-298. Bibcode:2009Geo.... ...
Baranowski, Richard M.; James A. Slater (October 1986). Coreidae of Florida (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) (PDF). Arthropods of ...
Arthropod robot synonyms, Arthropod robot pronunciation, Arthropod robot translation, English dictionary definition of ... Arthropod robot. n. A hard outer structure, such as the shell of an insect or crustacean, that provides protection or support ... Arthropod robot - definition of Arthropod robot by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Arthropod+robot ... redirected from Arthropod robot). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. ex·o·skel·e·ton. (ĕk′sō-skĕl′ĭ-tn). n.. A ...
... April 13, 2012 by clarice Filed under All Posts, Reptiles ... Herptiles and arthropods have been around for approximately 350 million years!. The World of Reptiles, Amphibians and ... Arthropods, or land invertebrates, include arachnids such as spiders, scorpions, and tarantulas and myriapods such as ... and Arthropods. Everything to help you keep reptiles, amphibians, and land invertebrates is contained here! ...
Arthropods function on two of the three broad levels of organization of the soil food web: they are plant litter transformers ... The feces of arthropods are the basis for the formation of soil aggregates and humus, which physically stabilize the soil and ... The burrowing by arthropods, particularly the subterranean network of tunnels and galleries that comprise termite and ant nests ... arthropods may represent as much as 85% of the soil fauna. They comprise a large proportion of the meso- and macrofauna of the ...
This latest study has created a fuller picture of the arthropod family tree by using more species and more genes, he said. ... Study Finds Surprising New Branches On Arthropod Family Tree. Date: February 16, 2010Author: LockerGnome Editor ... Regier was an early proponent of using protein coding genes to sort out the arthropod tree, while most other researchers were ... Now, after analyzing 62 shared genetic sequences across all the arthropods, the researchers are putting the strange shrimp ...
Arthropods haes exoskelets, lithed bodies, an lithed limms. Some o the maist weel-kent arthropods is insects, speeders, an ... Arthropoda is the phylum for aw the Arthropod speshie. Arthropoda is in the domain eukaryots, the kinrick Animalia, the ... "The correct authorship are the taxon name Arthropoda" (PDF), Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny, 71 (2): 71-74. .mw-parser- ... "The enigmatic arthropod Camptophyllia", Palaeontologia Electronica, 15 (2): 12, doi:10.1111/1475-4983.00174 ...
Defense Mechanisms of Arthropods. XI. The Structure, Function, and Phenolic Secretions of the Glands of a Chordeumoid Millipede ... In the course of exploratory field studies on arthropods with defensive glands, we came across two species which emit a strong ... But the particular phenolic odor possessed by these two species is unIike the odor of any other arthropod secretion that has ... been studied (for a summary of defensive secretions of arthropods see Roth and Eisner, 1962).The purpose of this paper is to ...
Arthropod SYSTEMATICS & pHYLOGENY - 76 (2) 2018. Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny is the successor of Entomologische ... Research fields covered by Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny are the taxonomy, morphology/anatomy, phylogeny (molecular or ... Papers published in Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny (eISSN 1864-8312 (online); ISSN 1863 - 7221 (print) are freely available ... morphology-based), historical biogeography and palaeontology of arthropod taxa.. ...
Memoirs: On the Antennal Musculature in Insects and other Arthropods Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... The first antennae of arthropods are divisible into two main types, viz. (1) segmented antennae and (2) annulated antennae. In ...
2008 The arthropod Bundenbachiellus giganteus from the Lower Devonian Hunsrück Slate, Germany. Paläontol. Z. 82, 31-39. (doi: ... Enalikter aphson is more likely an annelid than an arthropod: a comment to Siveter et al. (2014). Torsten H. Struck, Carolin ... We think that the evidence for arthropod affinities of E. aphson is not compelling, and we argue that all features of this ... Siveter et al. [1] discuss the absence of a sclerotized hypostome in E. aphson and name three arthropod examples allegedly ...
The arthropod that most result in accidents was the spider with 1,126 (75.9%) cases followed by Honeybees and others Arthropods ... Was recorded more than twice of accidents with arthropods in Urban area than in rural areas. The Chi-square test revealed that ... Likewise, the number the victims and activity type in moment of the bite/sting had been a differ behavior between arthropods ... The aim of this Research was to draw the epidemiologic profile of accidents with arthropods in Criciúma region. Approach: The ...
ENT 100 Fall 2009 1 Lecture 21: Insects & Disease Many insects and other arthropods are studied because they transmit parasites ... Fall 2009 1 Lecture 21: Insects & Disease Many insects and other arthropods are studied because they transmit parasites or ... 2/29/2012 Ent 10 Kimsey Medical Entomology Define the discipline Ways that arthropods ... Biological transmission is the commonest and perhaps most effective form of parasite transmission found in arthropod vectors. ...
Mosquitoes, Ticks & Other Arthropods. John-Paul Mutebi, John E. Gimnig. Because vector control programs vary in coverage and ... Expert review of the evidence base for arthropod bite avoidance. J Travel Med. 2010 May-Jun; 17(3):182-92. ... Clothing treated with the other repellent products described above (such as DEET) provides protection from biting arthropods ... Permethrin-treated clothing repels and kills ticks, chiggers, mosquitoes, and other biting and nuisance arthropods. Clothing ...
A spiracle or stigma is the opening in the exoskeletons of insects and some more derived[clarification needed] spiders to allow air to enter the trachea. In the respiratory system of insects, the tracheal tubes primarily deliver oxygen directly into the animals tissues. The spiracles can be opened and closed in an efficient manner to reduce water loss. This is done by contracting closer muscles surrounding the spiracle. In order to open, the muscle relaxes. The closer muscle is controlled by the central nervous system, but can also react to localized chemical stimuli. Several aquatic insects have similar or alternative closing methods to prevent water from entering the trachea. The timing and duration of spiracle closures can affect the respiratory rates of the organism. Spiracles may also be surrounded by hairs to minimize bulk air movement around the opening, and thus minimize water loss. ...
In arthropods and other organisms however, it generally is a component of a complex matrix of materials. It practically always ... In arthropods, the integument, the external "skin", or "shell", is the product of a single layer of ectodermal epithelium. That ...
Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=Category:fy:Arthropods&oldid=26735673" ...
Neatorama Posts Tagged "arthropods" Dinner Time! Enjoy Your Giant Isopods... (Image: Togech)I hope that you brought your ... Arthropod Mythbusting... Afraid of spiders? Maybe its because of all those stories youve heard about their creepy ways. Some ... Arthropod Pancakes... Pancake artist Nathan Shields polled his Facebook... ...k friends, asking them to identify their favorite ... NeatoShop Products Tagged "arthropods" There are no products matching your search terms ...
An arthropod (from Greek arthro-, joint + podos, foot) is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a ... For Arthropods[edit]. *Ha! Whare ye gaun, ye crawlin ferlie?. Your impudence protects you sairly;. I canna say but ye strunt ... Arthropods form the phylum Arthropoda, and include the insects, arachnids, myriapods, and crustaceans. ... For all their apparent differences, lobsters, crabs, starfish, and mosquitoes are all arthropods, and so vulnerable to the same ...
This illustration shows some of the general characteristics of arthropods. ... Many arthropods are capable of carrying disease. This illustration shows some of the general characteristics of arthropods. ... Many arthropods are capable of carrying disease. ...
... of the arthropod class Arachnida. They resemble true scorpions but are tailless and only 1 to 7.5 mm (0.04 to 0.3 inch) long. ... of the arthropod class Arachnida. They resemble true scorpions but are tailless and only 1 to 7.5 mm (0.04 to 0.3 inch) long. ...
Amys arthropods are members of the Cerambycidae, a family of beetles that come in many shapes and sizes. I spent a whole ... Erwin guessed that about two-thirds of the arthropods would be found only at canopy level and one-third only at ground level, ... Erwin thought there were at least 29 undescribed arthropods for every one that has been described, but only about one-third of ... Erwins statement was based on the assumptions that many arthropods are very picky about where they live and lay their eggs ( ...
arthropod locomotion. Learn about this topic in these articles:. gypsy moths. * In gypsy moth. …the silk acts as a parasail, ...
Arthropod-borne encephalitis viruses represent a significant public health problem throughout most of the world. These viruses ... Arthropod-borne encephalitides. Author. Lyle R Petersen, MD, MPH. Lyle R Petersen, MD, MPH ... Arthropod-borne encephalitis viruses represent a significant public health problem throughout most of the world. These viruses ... This topic will review the major characteristics of most of the arthropod-borne viral encephalitides. General issues related to ...
... The Understanding Evolution Team Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window ... The Arthropod Story is an interactive investigation that takes you on a tour through the amazing evolutionary history of ... Parts of the Arthropod Story can also be utilized separately for indivual class activities. ... arthropods. Along the way, youll get a healthy dose of taxonomy, paleontology, natural history and principles of evolution. ...
Each major group of arthropods is characterised by a particular tagmosis. Arthropods include groups that are wholly marine (the ... A cross‐section of a typical arthropod segment showing basic characteristics. All arthropods are built from many such segments ... Recent phylogenomic studies are beginning to resolve arthropod relationships. Two of the largest groups of arthropods - ... Arthropoda (Arthropods). Neil W Blackstone, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois, USA Published online: October 2012 ...
Arthropods. Native Hawaiian invertebrates encompass over 5,000 endemic insect species that are known to occur in Hawaii. ... Iridescent, blue, green, maroon, and yellow coloring are unique identifiers of this endemic arthropod; measuring almost an inch ...
Insects and other arthropods, the largest group of animals in number of species, have global impact on agriculture, industry, ... Arthropods covered in this volume include honeybee, bumblebee, the parasitic Jewel Wasp, silkworm, pea aphid, mosquito, Hessian ... Genome Mapping and Genomics in Arthropods. Editors: Hunter, Wayne, Kole, Chittaranjan (Eds.) ...
The facts of arthropod structure are presented in clear, easy-to-use fashion in this text by R. E. Snodgrass. Examples of each ...
Arthropods! - Those creepy things that crawl on you... by Courtney Murphy , This newsletter was created with Smore, an online ... Since arthropods are such a wide range of animals, there is no specific scientific name. Their trophic level is a herbivore. ... An arthropod (or is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and jointed appendages ...
Infection-derived lipids elicit an immune deficiency circuit in arthropods. *Dana K. Shaw1. *, Xiaowei Wang1. *, Lindsey J. ... b) The Rel homology domain sequence from D. melanogaster Relish was used to search arthropod transcripts for relish (class I) ... Arthropod transcriptional activator protein-1 (AP-1) aids tick-rickettsial pathogen survival in the cold *Supreet Khanal ... The prevailing view of humoral immunity in arthropods is largely driven by studies performed in Dipteran insects2,16,18,19,20. ...
Arthropod-borne diseases in homeless.. Brouqui P1, Raoult D.. Author information. 1. Unité des rickettsies, CNRS UMR 6020, IFR ...
Can you name the Arthropod Morphology? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to ...
Arthropods (Grasshopper) - Perch Dissection Pre-AP Biology April 9, 2014 - Vu 3rd by Lucas Martins , This newsletter was ... Arthropods (Grasshopper) Perch Dissection Pre-AP Biology April 9, 2014 - Vu 3rd ... Arthropods (Grasshopper) Perch Dissection Pre-AP Biology April 9, 2014 - Vu 3rd ... http://www.amnh.org/learn/biodiversity_counts/ident_help/Parts_Arthropods/grasshopper.htm. ...
... Citation. Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information (2019). Insect Arthropods (KIDR-IN ... Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information Insect Arthropods Resources Taxonomic Coverages. Geographic Coverages. ...
Expression of engrailed proteins in arthropods, annelids, and chordates.. Patel NH1, Martin-Blanco E, Coleman KG, Poole SJ, ... Other arthropods, including grasshopper and two crustaceans, have similar patterns of engrailed expression. However, these ... ancestral function was in neurogenesis and whose function was co-opted during the evolution of segmentation in the arthropods, ... antibody that recognizes a conserved epitope in the homeodomain of engrailed proteins of a number of different arthropods, ...
The common characteristics of arthropods are they are invertebrates, which means they lack backbones. In fact, they lack bones ... Arthropods also have segmented legs, and in some of the more primitive arthropods, each segment of the body has a pair of legs ... Arthropod legs are most often used for swimming or walking, but some arthropods have pairs of legs that have been modified. ... The arthropod exoskeleton is made up of a tough material called chitin. Some arthropods, such as houseflies, have very thin and ...
Invertebrates, such as arthropods, (crabs and insects) produces unique hormone known as ecdysone. Ecdysone is a hormone ... To examine: Whether the statement "All hormones secreted by arthropods are also secreted by vertebrates." is true or false. ... Invertebrates produce some unique hormones especially in arthropods that play an important role in metamorphosis. ... True or false? All hormones secreted by arthropods are also secreted by vertebrates. ...
When divided into two equal sections, both sides of the arthropod body are mirror images of each... ... Arthropods have bilateral symmetry. When divided into two equal sections, both sides of the arthropod body are mirror images of ... Since arthropods make up 90 percent of the animal kingdom, there are plenty of examples showing this body type, as stated by ... Bilateral symmetry is a feature shared by all arthropods. This symmetry refers to how the body is structured, and it is also an ...
During the last 12 years more than 50 insect and other arthropod genome projects have been started and about half of them, ... In our review we will shortly discuss the arthropods with a sequenced genome and in how far a sequenced genome might contribute ... During the last 12 years more than 50 insect and other arthropod genome projects have been started and about half of them, ... Grimmelikhuijzen C.J.P., Hauser F. (2013) Arthropod Genomics and Pest Management Targeting GPCRs. In: Ishaaya I., Palli S., ...
Miles, J. A. R. (‎1960)‎. Epidemiology of the arthropod-borne encephalitides*. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 22 (‎ ...
... Kleber Del-Claro,1 Monique Johnson,2 and Helena Maura Torezan-Silingardi1 ...
And certainly there is more molecular consensus regarding arthropods as a whole than there is with particular groups. The ... A contribution to the natural classification of Lower and Middle Cambrian arthropods: Food-gathering and feeding mechanisms. ... to replace the mass extinction of almost all other large aquatic arthropods at the end of the Paleozoic. MAK120528 ...
  • Arthropoda is the phylum for aw the Arthropod speshie. (wikipedia.org)
  • Native plant communities had more species of plants and arthropods (/m2) than areas dominated by OWBs during extreme drought, but richness was comparable as drought severity decreased. (montana.edu)
  • Now, after analyzing 62 shared genetic sequences across all the arthropods, the researchers are putting the strange shrimp together with the six-legged insects, Hexapoda, to form a new group they dubbed Miracrustacea, or "surprising crustaceans. (lockergnome.com)
  • Any way you look at it - by sheer weight, species diversity or population - the hard-shelled, joint-legged creepy crawlies called arthropods dominate planet Earth. (lockergnome.com)
  • Given the importance of arthropods for ecosystem services, incorporating arthropod data into conservation studies may demonstrate how changes in arthropod diversity alter ecosystem function where nonnative plants are dominant. (montana.edu)
  • Regression analysis between sand parameters, beach characteristics, arthropod species, α and β diversity indices and the distance in km from the river mouth was carried out. (unifi.it)
  • The diversity of the arthropod body plan has long been a fascinating subject of study. (rti.org)
  • Zoology) the protective or supporting structure covering the outside of the body of many animals, such as the thick cuticle of arthropods. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Abundance of arthropods was greater in native plant communities than in OWB communities during extreme drought, but OWB communities had more arthropods during moderate and non-drought conditions. (montana.edu)
  • We present the expression patterns of the ten Hox genes in a centipede, Lithobius atkinsoni, and compare our results to those from studies in other arthropods. (rti.org)
  • The centipede is a arthropod. (cepolina.com)
  • This latest study has created a fuller picture of the arthropod family tree by using more species and more genes, he said. (lockergnome.com)
  • Regier was an early proponent of using protein coding genes to sort out the arthropod tree, while most other researchers were using relatively less complex analyses from the DNA found in ribosomes and mitochondria. (lockergnome.com)
  • A flurry of recent research has analyzed Hox gene expression in various arthropod groups, with hopes of gaining insight into the mechanisms that underlie their evolution. (rti.org)
  • Mean abundance1 of non-target beneficial arthropods (No./leaf) in brinjal relative to insecticides and varieties, OFRD, BARI, Bogra, Bangladesh. (figshare.com)
  • The fungal order Laboulbeniales contains more than 2000 species which are all obligate epibionts of arthropods. (zfmk.de)
  • In a scientific and technological tour de force that was nearly a decade in the making, a team of scientists from Duke University, the University of Maryland and the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County have compared genetic sequences from 75 different species to draw a new family tree that includes every major arthropod lineage. (lockergnome.com)
  • To place springtails on the arthropod family tree, molecular biologist Francesco Nardi of the University of Siena in Italy and his colleagues analyzed the genetics of cell structures called mitochondria in two springtail species and an insect. (freethesaurus.com)
  • Once assembled, the 75 species were then stripped down to their DNA for a painstaking search to find genetic sequences that would appear across all arthropods, enabling statistical comparisons. (lockergnome.com)
  • An arthropod (from Greek arthro- , joint + podos , foot) is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton ), a segmented body, and jointed appendages . (wikiquote.org)
  • Arthropods are characterised by a segmented, jointed and hardened exoskeleton that has internal musculature. (els.net)
  • The arthropod exoskeleton is made up of a tough material called chitin. (reference.com)
  • Other characteristics that all arthropods share include an exoskeleton, body segmentation and jointed appendages. (reference.com)
  • However, while V. cholerae attachment to the arthropod exoskeleton has been the focus of previous studies, these findings suggest a different paradigm for the interaction of V. cholerae with arthropod hosts. (pnas.org)
  • Arthropods are the animals with jointed appendages and have strong exoskeleton made of chitin. (bartleby.com)
  • Agents of diseases ( prions, viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites ) are not only transmitted by body contact or direct exchange of bodily fluids, but also by means of vectors which belong to the groups of licking or blood-sucking arthropods (mites, ticks, insects) that live close to humans and their houses. (ebooks.com)
  • Major groups of arthropods exhibit a characteristic tagmosis. (els.net)
  • Chapters on whiteflies and dipteran leafminers should broaden our understanding of the galling habit in other groups of arthropods. (platekompaniet.no)
  • This illustration shows some of the general characteristics of arthropods. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This topic will review the major characteristics of most of the arthropod-borne viral encephalitides. (uptodate.com)
  • A cross‐section of a typical arthropod segment showing basic characteristics. (els.net)
  • What Are the Common Characteristics of Arthropods? (reference.com)
  • The common characteristics of arthropods are they are invertebrates, which means they lack backbones. (reference.com)
  • Despite their vast number and varied existence, all arthropods share certain characteristics. (scholastic.com)
  • What characteristics do all arthropods share? (msnucleus.org)
  • Arthropod characteristics. (slideserve.com)
  • Soil-dwelling arthropods have several characteristics that distinguish them from surface-living forms, in particular with respect to water balance. (sciencemag.org)
  • A 2-yr study was conducted to document the influence of selected buffalograss, Buchloë dactyloides (Nuttall) Engelmann, management practices (three mowing heights and five nitrogen levels) on the seasonal abundance of the western chinch bug, Blissus occiduus Barber (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae), and its beneficial arthropods. (bioone.org)
  • In contrast, buffalograss cultivar had little influence on the abundance of other beneficial arthropods collected. (bioone.org)
  • Sustainable Management of Arthropod Pests of Tomato provides insight into the proper and appropriate application of pesticides and the integration of alternative pest management methods. (elsevier.com)
  • This book provides a global overview of the biology and management of key arthropod pests of tomatoes, including arthropod-vectored diseases. (elsevier.com)
  • Arthropod pests -- Control. (powells.com)
  • Note: There are 75-100 arthropod pests reported on holly ( Ilex sp. (ncsu.edu)
  • In comparison, there are fewer arthropod pests are fewer, but they can be serious detriments to onion production. (umn.edu)
  • Arthropod pests discussed here can be problematic in one or more areas of North America. (umn.edu)
  • The SPDN invites participants of the Invasive Arthropod Workshop to submit Poster Abstracts on relevant invasive arthropod (or mollusk) issues for the southern region of the U.S. Notes on recent exotic pest introduction, new diagnostic guides, management updates, state or multi-state training events, research updates on recently introduced pests, or other information relevant to exotic arthropods in the southern region are welcome. (ufl.edu)
  • DOLINSKI, Claudia e LACEY, Lawrence A. . Microbial control of arthropod pests of tropical tree fruits . (scielo.br)
  • Inundatively and inoculatively applied microbial control agents (virus, bacteria, fungi, and entomopathogenic nematodes) have been developed as alternative control methods of a wide variety of arthropods including tropical fruit pests. (scielo.br)
  • Microbial control of arthropod pests of banana includes banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (with EPNs and fungi) among others Oryctes rhinoceros (L.) is one of the most important pests of coconut and one of the most successful uses of non-occluded virus for classical biological control. (scielo.br)
  • Also successful is the microbial control of arthropod pests of guava, papaya and pineapple. (scielo.br)
  • Insects and other arthropods, the largest group of animals in number of species, have global impact on agriculture, industry, human health and environment. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, because this is a single lineage, an understanding of their global species richness, and that of the insects and other arthropods of which they form a part, is particularly important. (pnas.org)
  • Yet today many people still find it surprising that insects and other arthropods show behaviors that are much more complex than innate reflexes. (harvard.edu)
  • Arthropods such as mites and lice flourish on the bodies of almost every kind of animal on Earth. (scholastic.com)
  • The arthropod body plan consists of repeated segments, each with a pair of appendages. (phys.org)
  • Modern arthropods have fewer body segments and more specialized appendages. (slideserve.com)
  • Erwin suggested that there might be 30 million species of arthropods, implying that for every one that has already been described there are 29 that are unknown, unnamed, and unclassified. (amnh.org)
  • All species of arthropods also share a basic body plan. (scholastic.com)
  • Arthropod Order Decapoda (Crayfish) and Mayfly Species Hexagenia limbata (Hex) . (troutnut.com)
  • Arthropod Order Decapoda (Crayfish) , Insect Order Ephemeroptera (Mayflies) , and Insect Order Trichoptera (Caddisflies) . (troutnut.com)
  • Arthropod-borne diseases in homeless. (nih.gov)
  • At a time when vector-borne diseases have increased their spread, Infectious Diseases and Arthropods provides physicians, infectious disease specialists, medical entomologists, and public health officials with an up-to-date, readily accessible, gold-standard reference source. (indigo.ca)
  • Dynamics of Arthropod-Borne Diseases. (indigo.ca)
  • II Major Arthropod-Borne Diseases. (indigo.ca)
  • For the assistance of trainers in illustrating the information provided in the maps of distribution of arthropod-borne diseases and their principal vectors, a set of slides and another of transparencies for overhead projection are soon to be produced and made available against payment. (ciesin.org)
  • Arthropods are well known vectors for the spread of diseases. (ebooks.com)
  • This book presents reviews on examples of such arthropod-borne emerging diseases that lurk on the fringes of our crowded megacities. (ebooks.com)
  • Hence, host insects and general arthropods, which developed a way to coexist with such parasites, are a promising source for the prospection of anti-parasitic compounds, as alternative methods for the treatment of protozoa-related diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • ICD-9 code 065 for Arthropod-borne hemorrhagic fever is a medical classification as listed by WHO under the range -ARTHROPOD-BORNE VIRAL DISEASES (060-066). (aapc.com)
  • Arthropod-borne Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat is an invaluable resource for information on the clinical presentation, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of the major arthropod-borne diseases of dogs and cats. (routledge.com)
  • Is Arthropod Saliva the Achilles' Heel of Vector-Borne Diseases? (frontiersin.org)
  • Arthropods include the only invertebrate group to evolve flight. (els.net)
  • Response of arthropod biodiversity to foundation species declines: the case of the eastern hemlock. (usf.edu)
  • Amy's arthropods are members of the Cerambycidae, a family of beetles that come in many shapes and sizes. (amnh.org)
  • With beetles alone accounting for about 40% of all described arthropod species, the truly pertinent question is how many beetle species exist. (pnas.org)
  • Arthropod Vectors of Infectious Disease: Biology and Control. (routledge.com)
  • That V. cholerae can also be carried by insects such as chironomids ( 6 ) hints that V. cholerae interactions with arthropods are extensive. (pnas.org)
  • In an attempt to simplify the complex interactions between multiple species (vertebrate host, arthropod vector, and microbial pathogen) that occur during the blood meal and following the deposition of pathogen in the host, researchers routinely use artificial animal models, which do not account for a number of potential parameters. (frontiersin.org)
  • Some arthropods, such as houseflies, have very thin and weak exoskeletons, while the exoskeletons of other arthropods are very tough. (reference.com)
  • Thanks to their exoskeletons, arthropods became the world's first land animals some 300 million years ago. (scholastic.com)
  • Arthropods exhibit unparalleled diversity and abundance along with a correspondingly large ecological impact. (els.net)
  • ABSTRACT: The main objective of this study is to assess the soil diversity, and temporal and spatial distribution of soil macro-arthropods, on different dayas in Algerian steppe. (issuu.com)
  • Any way you look at it - by sheer weight, species diversity or population - the hard-shelled, joint-legged creepy crawlies called arthropods dominate planet Earth. (lockergnome.com)
  • Soil arthropods play an important role in nutrient cycling and maintenance of soil structure, and their abundance and diversity provide an indication of the biological quality of soil. (scirp.org)
  • This study was conducted to quantify soil arthropod abundance and diversity for a period of one year following swine manure application via broadcast or injection. (scirp.org)
  • Monitoring changes in abundance and diversity of arthropods may reveal valuable information about the ecological health of soil in response to external stimuli. (scirp.org)
  • This study focused on assessing the impact of swine slurry application method and time following slurry application on soil chemical properties and arthropod abundance and diversity for a period of one year. (scirp.org)
  • My collaborators and I are intimately aware of the difficulty of managing and monitoring the vast diversity of arthropods in most systems. (usf.edu)
  • 1997) Evidence for a clade of nematodes, arthropods and other moulting animals. (els.net)
  • Since arthropods are such a wide range of animals, there is no specific scientific name. (smore.com)
  • Zoology) the protective or supporting structure covering the outside of the body of many animals, such as the thick cuticle of arthropods. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Indeed, arthropods far outnumber all other types of animals combined, with an estimated 1 million species. (scholastic.com)
  • The arthropods, or "joint-footed" animals, also fill every imaginable environment, from the deepest ocean trenches to the highest mountain peaks, from the frozen wasteland of Antarctica to the broiling Mojave Desert in the western United States. (scholastic.com)
  • Like all animals, arthropods need oxygen to survive. (scholastic.com)
  • Envenomation of animals by poisonous arthropods is relatively uncommon and difficult to recognize. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • No arthropod looks so fierce as the tailless whipscorpion, but in fact these animals are harmless, gentle, and extraordinarily photogenic. (myrmecos.net)
  • Arthropods also have segmented legs, and in some of the more primitive arthropods, each segment of the body has a pair of legs. (reference.com)
  • Evolution can separately modify each segment for different purposes, allowing arthropods to adapt to almost every possible environment and mode of life. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The total number of living arthropod species is probably in the tens of millions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anderson DT (1973) Embryology and Phylogeny in Annelids and Arthropods. (els.net)
  • Expression of engrailed proteins in arthropods, annelids, and chordates. (nih.gov)
  • On the basis of these patterns, we suggest that engrailed is a gene whose ancestral function was in neurogenesis and whose function was co-opted during the evolution of segmentation in the arthropods, but not in the annelids and chordates. (nih.gov)
  • The neprhidial organs are thought to be derived from similar organs in annelids , although reduced in number since the open circulatory system of arthropods lessens the demand on separate excretory organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • This xiphosuran chelicerate shows many typical arthropod features both externally and internally, (c) comparison of the structure of the arthropod brain, for example, that of L. polyphemus and a crustacean and (d) might suggest that the chelicerae of the former are homologous to the second antennae of the latter, but this is far from clear. (els.net)
  • In addition to the biological and ecological informa-tion on these arthropods, each chapter also provides information on their evolution, in most instances, viewed against the evolution of their host plants. (platekompaniet.no)
  • Drosophila] Last Chance to Register for Arthropod Genomics Symposium! (bio.net)
  • May 26, 2017: Poster Abstracts Due** & **Registration Deadline* http://globalhealth.nd.edu/10th-annual-arthropod-genomics-symposium/ The website above has information on registration, speakers, abstract submissions, the accompanying bioinformatics workshop, and accommodations. (bio.net)
  • A new phylogeny based on an analysis of over 41,000 base pairs of DNA from 75 species, including representatives of every major arthropod lineage, should ease the way towards a consensus on the matter. (natureasia.com)
  • In a scientific and technological tour de force that was nearly a decade in the making, a team of scientists from Duke University, the University of Maryland and the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County have compared genetic sequences from 75 different species to draw a new family tree that includes every major arthropod lineage. (lockergnome.com)
  • This new edition is updated with the latest research findings and current theories about infectious disease and arthropods. (indigo.ca)
  • Arthropod limbs may be uniramous (one branched) or biramous (two branched). (els.net)
  • Arthropods' unparalleled success is in large part because of the segmented construction of their bodies and limbs. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Modern arthropod limbs in their most basic form have two branches, each of which is often highly specialized for one function - for instance, moving around, sensing the environment, breathing or mating. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Another mystery revolved around the apparent complete absence of limbs on their trunk - rather embarrassing for an arthropod! (scientificamerican.com)
  • One mystery concerned the nature of the flaps on their bodies: it was believed that anomalocaridids possessed only one set of flaps, and it wasn't clear to what structure in other arthropods these flaps were equivalent. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Arthropods haes exoskelets , lithed bodies, an lithed limms. (wikipedia.org)
  • arthropods are some of the animal world's most fascinating creatures! (animal-world.com)
  • Erwin's statement was based on the assumptions that many arthropods are very picky about where they live and lay their eggs (this is called host specificity) and that there are twice as many arthropods that live only at treetop level as there are that live on the ground. (amnh.org)
  • A typical arthropod has a simple brain, an amazing set of sense organs, and a nervous system that connects the two. (scholastic.com)
  • Bed bug bites cause typical arthropod bite reactions: a small pink papulovesicle that is highly pruritic in sensitive individuals ( Figure 4 ). (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Because vector control programs vary in coverage and effectiveness, travel health practitioners should advise travelers to use repellents and other general protective measures against biting arthropods. (cdc.gov)
  • These vaccines directed against vector arthropods also have the potential to effect the arthropods capacity to transmit pathogens, and this is distinct from transmission-blocking vaccines that use antigens derived from pathogens. (ajtmh.org)
  • Finally, even a temporal separation of saliva- and pathogen-delivery cannot eliminate effects of arthropod saliva on a subsequent infection with a vector-borne disease ( 8 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Numerous reports have documented the potent and pleiotropic effects of the saliva of blood-feeding arthropods, which include anti-coagulation, vasodilation anti-inflammation [reviewed by ( 9 )], calling into question how minute amounts of proteins in the inoculum that is delivered during a blood meal could significantly alter the host's immune response against the vector-delivered pathogen. (frontiersin.org)
  • This observation is particularly puzzling considering that vector saliva primarily evolved to assist the arthropod in obtaining a blood meal and not to facilitate the infection of the vertebrate host with a vector-borne pathogen. (frontiersin.org)
  • Once assembled, the 75 species were then stripped down to their DNA for a painstaking search to find genetic sequences that would appear across all arthropods, enabling statistical comparisons. (lockergnome.com)
  • One conservative estimate puts the number of arthropod species in tropical forests alone at six to nine million species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The optic(al) lobe of arthropods is a structure of the protocerebrum that sits behind the arthropod eye (mostly compound eyes) and is responsible for the processing of the visual information. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many arthropods have compound eyes. (els.net)
  • Some arthropods undergo metamorphosis, which means they need to pass through several stages from larva to adult. (reference.com)