Venoms from animals of the phylum Arthropoda. Those most investigated are from scorpions and spiders of the class Arachnidae and from ant, bee, and wasp families of the Insecta order Hymenoptera. The venoms contain protein toxins, enzymes, and other bioactive substances and may be lethal to man.
Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.
Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Venoms obtained from Apis mellifera (honey bee) and related species. They contain various enzymes, polypeptide toxins, and other substances, some of which are allergenic or immunogenic or both. These venoms were formerly used in rheumatism to stimulate the pituitary-adrenal system.
Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.
Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.
Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.
Venoms produced by the wasp (Vespid) family of stinging insects, including hornets; the venoms contain enzymes, biogenic amines, histamine releasing factors, kinins, toxic polypeptides, etc., and are similar to bee venoms.
Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.
Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.
A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)
Arthropods of the order Scorpiones, of which 1500 to 2000 species have been described. The most common live in tropical or subtropical areas. They are nocturnal and feed principally on insects and other arthropods. They are large arachnids but do not attack man spontaneously. They have a venomous sting. Their medical significance varies considerably and is dependent on their habits and venom potency rather than on their size. At most, the sting is equivalent to that of a hornet but certain species possess a highly toxic venom potentially fatal to humans. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, p417; Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p503)
Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.
Venoms produced by FISHES, including SHARKS and sting rays, usually delivered by spines. They contain various substances, including very labile toxins that affect the HEART specifically and all MUSCLES generally.
Venoms from the superfamily Formicoidea, Ants. They may contain protein factors and toxins, histamine, enzymes, and alkaloids and are often allergenic or immunogenic.
A family of extremely venomous snakes, comprising coral snakes, cobras, mambas, kraits, and sea snakes. They are widely distributed, being found in the southern United States, South America, Africa, southern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands. The elapids include three subfamilies: Elapinae, Hydrophiinae, and Lauticaudinae. Like the viperids, they have venom fangs in the front part of the upper jaw. The mambas of Africa are the most dangerous of all snakes by virtue of their size, speed, and highly toxic venom. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p329-33)
Venoms from mollusks, including CONUS and OCTOPUS species. The venoms contain proteins, enzymes, choline derivatives, slow-reacting substances, and several characterized polypeptide toxins that affect the nervous system. Mollusk venoms include cephalotoxin, venerupin, maculotoxin, surugatoxin, conotoxins, and murexine.
Arthropods of the class ARACHNIDA, order Araneae. Except for mites and ticks, spiders constitute the largest order of arachnids, with approximately 37,000 species having been described. The majority of spiders are harmless, although some species can be regarded as moderately harmful since their bites can lead to quite severe local symptoms. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p508; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, pp424-430)
A class of Arthropoda that includes SPIDERS; TICKS; MITES; and SCORPIONS.
Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.
A large subphylum of mostly marine ARTHROPODS containing over 42,000 species. They include familiar arthropods such as lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE), crabs (BRACHYURA), shrimp (PENAEIDAE), and barnacles (THORACICA).
Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.

Centipede (Scolopendra gigantea Linneaus 1758) envenomation in a newborn. (1/67)

The first case of centipede (Scolopendra gigantea Linneaus 1758) envenomation in a newborn is reported. When first examined, approximately 6 hours after the bite, the 28-day-old girl was irritable, with uncontrollable cry and intense local pain, oedema, local hyperthermia, and blood clots at punctures. Uncontrollable crying in neonates should rise the possibility of an insect or arachnid sting.  (+info)

Dufour glands in the hymenopterans (Apidae, Formicidae, Vespidae): a review. (2/67)

Associated to the sting apparatus of the aculeate hymenopterans is found the poison gland, originated from the glands associated to the ovipositor of the non-aculeate hymenopterans and the less derived Dufour gland, homologue of the coletterial gland of other insects, and found in all hymenopteran females. The Dufour gland functions is mostly uncertain in hymenopterans but in ants it is involved with communication and defense and in non social bees with the nest building and protection. In wasps possibly with kin-recognition. Differences in morphology and chemical composition of the gland secretion were observed among species, in the same species, between the castes in the social species and among individual of the same caste playing different tasks or belonging to different nest. Its original function of egg-protective substance producing, or favoring the oviposition, appear to have been replaced or complemented in hymenopterans by the production of semiochemicals with function in communication.  (+info)

Antithrombotic effect of Lonomia obliqua caterpillar bristle extract on experimental venous thrombosis. (3/67)

The venom of Lonomia obliqua caterpillar may induce a hemorrhagic syndrome in humans, and blood incoagulability by afibrinogenemia when intravenously injected in laboratory animals. The possible antithrombotic and thrombolytic activities of L. obliqua caterpillar bristle extract (LOCBE) were evaluated in this study. The minimal intravenous dose of the extract necessary to induce afibrinogenemia and anticoagulation was 3.0 and 10.0 microg protein/kg body weight for rabbits and rats, respectively. In rabbits, this dose induced total blood incoagulability for at least 10 h and did not reduce the weight of preformed venous thrombi, in contrast to streptokinase (30,000 IU/kg). In rats, pretreatment with 5.0 and 10.0 microg/kg LOCBE prevented the formation of thrombi induced by venous stasis or by injury to the venous endothelium. The dose of 5.0 microg/kg LOCBE did not modify blood coagulation assay parameters but increased bleeding time and decreased plasma factor XIII concentration. When the extract was administered to rats at the dose of 10.0 microg/kg, the blood was totally incoagulable for 6 h. These data show that LOCBE was effective in preventing experimental venous thrombosis in rats, justifying further studies using purified fractions of the extract to clarify the mechanisms of this effect.  (+info)

A role for Ca2+ stores in kainate receptor-dependent synaptic facilitation and LTP at mossy fiber synapses in the hippocampus. (4/67)

Compared with NMDA receptor-dependent LTP, much less is known about the mechanism of induction of NMDA receptor-independent LTP; the most extensively studied form of which is mossy fiber LTP in the hippocampus. In the present study we show that Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release from intracellular stores is involved in the induction of mossy fiber LTP. This release also contributes to the kainate receptor-dependent component of the pronounced synaptic facilitation that occurs during high-frequency stimulation. We also present evidence that the trigger for this Ca2+ release is Ca2+ permeation through kainate receptors. However, these novel synaptic mechanisms can be bypassed when the Ca2+ concentration is raised (from 2 to 4 mM), via a compensatory involvement of L-type Ca2+ channels. These findings suggest that presynaptic kainate receptors at mossy fiber synapses can initiate a cascade involving Ca2+ release from intracellular stores that is important in both short-term and long-term plasticity.  (+info)

Efficacy and safety of rush immunotherapy in patients with Hymenoptera allergy in Japan. (5/67)

In Japan, approximately 40 persons die annually from anaphylaxis caused by Hymenoptera stings. Venom immunotherapy is considered safe and effective for the treatment of allergic systemic reactions caused by Hymenoptera stings in patients with Hymenoptera allergy. We studied the efficacy and safety of rush immunotherapy in patients who had a history of systemic reactions to Hymenoptera stings in Japan. Between 1988 and 2002, 95 patients with a history of systemic reactions to Hymenoptera stings were investigated. The stings originated from honeybees in 5 patients, yellow jackets in 28, wasps in 48, both yellow jackets and wasps in 9, and both yellow jackets and honeybees in 5. All patients had venom-specific IgE antibodies in sera (RAST score > or = 2) and received rush immunotherapy with venom extracts at our hospital. Forty-three patients had 63 field re-stings during immunotherapy. Of these patients, 41 (95.3%) with 59 field re-stings (93.7%) had no systemic reactions. Two patients (4.7%) with four field restings (6.3%) had anaphylactic shock. Although anaphylactic reactions developed in two patients (2.1%) during rush immunotherapy with honeybee venom and one patient (1.1%) during maintenance therapy wasp venom, systemic adverse reactions were mitigated by treatment with antihistamines before venom injection. Our results show that immunotherapy is safe and effective for the prevention of systemic reactions to Hymenoptera re-stings in patients with Hymenoptera allergy. We therefore recommend that patients who are allergic to Hymenoptera venom prophylactically receive immunotherapy.  (+info)

Importance of the inducible costimulator molecule for the induction of allergic immune responses and its decreased expression on T helper cells after venom immunotherapy. (6/67)

The inducible costimulator (ICOS), a newly identified member of the CD28 receptor family that is induced after T-cell activation, and its ligand (ICOSL), being expressed on activated monocytes and dendritic cells play a key role in T-cell-mediated immune responses. As ICOS costimulation also seems to regulate T helper 2 effector cells, the aim of this study was to analyse the function of this molecule in allergic immune responses and their specific therapy, mainly venom immunotherapy (VIT). CD4+ T cells from grass pollen-, or bee or wasp venom-allergic donors were stimulated in the presence of autologous mature dendritic cells, which were pulsed with different allergen doses. In this system, costimulation of ICOS strongly enhanced the production of the T helper 2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-10 and, to a lesser extent, secretion of the T helper 1 cytokine, interferon-gamma. Expression of ICOS on CD4+ T cells was induced, in a dose-dependent manner, after a few days of stimulation with allergen-pulsed dendritic cells, reaching a peak on day 6. The upregulation of ICOS after stimulation with venom allergens was significantly reduced after VIT. Addition of exogenous IL-10 (which is induced during VIT) to the co-cultures before VIT also led to an inhibition of ICOS expression, while blocking of IL-10 in co-cultures after VIT partially restored the expression of ICOS. These data indicate that the inhibition of T cells after immunotherapy also involves decreased induction of the costimulatory molecule ICOS, which, in turn, seems to be dependent on the presence of IL-10, also associated with the inhibited status of T cells after VIT. This makes the ICOS-ICOSL pathway a potential target for therapeutic intervention in T helper 2-mediated diseases, such as allergic diseases.  (+info)

The evolving global epidemiology, syndromic classification, management, and prevention of caterpillar envenoming. (7/67)

Caterpillars are the wormlike, larval forms of butterflies and moths of the insect order Lepidoptera. Next to flies, lepidopterans are the most abundant arthropods with more than 165,000 species worldwide, and with most species posing no human threats. However, caterpillar species from approximately 12 families of moths or butterflies worldwide can inflict serious human injuries ranging from urticarial dermatitis and atopic asthma to osteochondritis, consumption coagulopathy, renal failure, and intracerebral hemorrhage. Unlike bees and wasps, envenoming or stinging caterpillars do not possess stingers or modified ovipositors attached to venom glands, but instead bear highly specialized external nettling or urticating hairs and breakaway spines or setae to defend against attacks by predators and enemies. Since the 1970s, there have been increasing reports of mass dermatolgic, pulmonary, and systemic reactions following caterpillar encounters throughout the world.  (+info)

A catalog for the transcripts from the venomous structures of the caterpillar Lonomia obliqua: identification of the proteins potentially involved in the coagulation disorder and hemorrhagic syndrome. (8/67)

Accidents with the caterpillar Lonomia obliqua are often associated with a coagulation disorder and hemorrhagic syndrome in humans. In the present study, we have constructed cDNA libraries from two venomous structures of the caterpillar, namely the tegument and the bristle. High-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analyses were performed in parallel. Over one thousand cDNAs were obtained and clustered to produce a database of 538 contigs and singletons (clusters) for the tegument library and 368 for the bristle library. We have thus identified dozens of full-length cDNAs coding for proteins with sequence homology to snake venom prothrombin activator, trypsin-like enzymes, blood coagulation factors and prophenoloxidase cascade activators. We also report cDNA coding for cysteine proteases, Group III phospholipase A2, C-type lectins, lipocalins, in addition to protease inhibitors including serpins, Kazal-type inhibitors, cystatins and trypsin inhibitor-like molecules. Antibacterial proteins and housekeeping genes are also described. A significant number of sequences were devoid of database matches, suggesting that their biologic function remains to be defined. We also report the N-terminus of the most abundant proteins present in the bristle, tegument, hemolymph, and "cryosecretion". Thus, we have created a catalog that contains the predicted molecular weight, isoelectric point, accession number, and putative function for each selected molecule from the venomous structures of L. obliqua. The role of these molecules in the coagulation disorder and hemorrhagic syndrome caused by envenomation with this caterpillar is discussed. All sequence information and the , including figures and tables with hyperlinks to FASTA-formatted files for each contig and the best match to the databases, are available at http://www.ncbi.nih.gov/projects/omes.  (+info)

Arthropod venoms are toxic secretions produced by the venom glands of various arthropods, such as spiders, scorpions, insects, and marine invertebrates. These venoms typically contain a complex mixture of bioactive molecules, including peptides, proteins, enzymes, and small molecules, which can cause a range of symptoms and effects in humans and other animals.

The specific composition of arthropod venoms varies widely depending on the species and can be tailored to serve various functions, such as prey immobilization, defense, or predation. Some arthropod venoms contain neurotoxins that can disrupt nerve function and cause paralysis, while others may contain cytotoxins that damage tissues or hemotoxins that affect the blood and cardiovascular system.

Arthropod venoms have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications, as some of their bioactive components have shown promise in treating various medical conditions, including pain, inflammation, and neurological disorders. However, it is important to note that arthropod venoms can also cause severe allergic reactions and other adverse effects in susceptible individuals, making it essential to exercise caution when handling or coming into contact with venomous arthropods.

Arthropods are a phylum of animals characterized by the presence of a segmented body, a pair of jointed appendages on each segment, and a tough exoskeleton made of chitin. This phylum includes insects, arachnids (spiders, scorpions, mites), crustaceans (crabs, lobsters, shrimp), and myriapods (centipedes, millipedes). They are the largest group of animals on Earth, making up more than 80% of all described species. Arthropods can be found in nearly every habitat, from the deep sea to mountaintops, and play important roles in ecosystems as decomposers, pollinators, and predators.

Crotalid venoms are the toxic secretions produced by the members of the Crotalinae subfamily, also known as pit vipers. This group includes rattlesnakes, cottonmouths (or water moccasins), and copperheads, which are native to the Americas, as well as Old World vipers found in Asia and Europe, such as gaboon vipers and saw-scaled vipers.

Crotalid venoms are complex mixtures of various bioactive molecules, including enzymes, proteins, peptides, and other low molecular weight components. They typically contain a variety of pharmacologically active components, such as hemotoxic and neurotoxic agents, which can cause extensive local tissue damage, coagulopathy, cardiovascular dysfunction, and neuromuscular disorders in the victim.

The composition of crotalid venoms can vary significantly between different species and even among individual specimens within the same species. This variability is influenced by factors such as geographic location, age, sex, diet, and environmental conditions. As a result, the clinical manifestations of crotalid envenomation can be highly variable, ranging from mild local reactions to severe systemic effects that may require intensive medical treatment and supportive care.

Crotalid venoms have been the subject of extensive research in recent years due to their potential therapeutic applications. For example, certain components of crotalid venoms have shown promise as drugs for treating various medical conditions, such as cardiovascular diseases, pain, and inflammation. However, further studies are needed to fully understand the mechanisms of action of these venom components and to develop safe and effective therapies based on them.

Bee venom is a poisonous substance that a honeybee (Apis mellifera) injects into the skin of a person or animal when it stings. It's produced in the venom gland and stored in the venom sac of the bee. Bee venom is a complex mixture of proteins, peptides, and other compounds. The main active components of bee venom include melittin, apamin, and phospholipase A2.

Melittin is a toxic peptide that causes pain, redness, and swelling at the site of the sting. It also has hemolytic (red blood cell-destroying) properties. Apamin is a neurotoxin that can affect the nervous system and cause neurological symptoms in severe cases. Phospholipase A2 is an enzyme that can damage cell membranes and contribute to the inflammatory response.

Bee venom has been used in traditional medicine for centuries, particularly in China and other parts of Asia. It's believed to have anti-inflammatory, analgesic (pain-relieving), and immunomodulatory effects. Some studies suggest that bee venom may have therapeutic potential for a variety of medical conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and chronic pain. However, more research is needed to confirm these findings and to determine the safety and efficacy of bee venom therapy.

It's important to note that bee stings can cause severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis) in some people, which can be life-threatening. If you experience symptoms such as difficulty breathing, rapid heartbeat, or hives after being stung by a bee, seek medical attention immediately.

Venom is a complex mixture of toxic compounds produced by certain animals, such as snakes, spiders, scorpions, and marine creatures like cone snails and stonefish. These toxic substances are specifically designed to cause damage to the tissues or interfere with the normal physiological processes of other organisms, which can lead to harmful or even lethal effects.

Venoms typically contain a variety of components, including enzymes, peptides, proteins, and small molecules, each with specific functions that contribute to the overall toxicity of the mixture. Some of these components may cause localized damage, such as tissue necrosis or inflammation, while others can have systemic effects, impacting various organs and bodily functions.

The study of venoms, known as toxinology, has important implications for understanding the evolution of animal behavior, developing new therapeutics, and advancing medical treatments for envenomation (the process of being poisoned by venom). Additionally, venoms have been used in traditional medicine for centuries, and ongoing research continues to uncover novel compounds with potential applications in modern pharmacology.

Arthropod vectors are living organisms, specifically arthropods such as mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, and lice, that can transmit infectious agents (such as viruses, bacteria, or parasites) from one host to another. This process is called vector-borne transmission. The arthropod vectors become infected with the pathogen while taking a blood meal from an infected host, then transmit the pathogen to another host during subsequent feedings. The transmission can occur through various means, including biting, stinging, or even mechanical contact. It's important to note that not all arthropods are vectors, and only certain species within each group are capable of transmitting diseases.

Cobra venoms are a type of snake venom that is produced by cobras, which are members of the genus Naja in the family Elapidae. These venoms are complex mixtures of proteins and other molecules that have evolved to help the snake immobilize and digest its prey.

Cobra venoms typically contain a variety of toxic components, including neurotoxins, hemotoxins, and cytotoxins. Neurotoxins target the nervous system and can cause paralysis and respiratory failure. Hemotoxins damage blood vessels and tissues, leading to internal bleeding and organ damage. Cytotoxins destroy cells and can cause tissue necrosis.

The specific composition of cobra venoms can vary widely between different species of cobras, as well as between individual snakes of the same species. Some cobras have venoms that are primarily neurotoxic, while others have venoms that are more hemotoxic or cytotoxic. The potency and effects of cobra venoms can also be influenced by factors such as the age and size of the snake, as well as the temperature and pH of the environment.

Cobra bites can be extremely dangerous and even fatal to humans, depending on the species of cobra, the amount of venom injected, and the location of the bite. Immediate medical attention is required in the event of a cobra bite, including the administration of antivenom therapy to neutralize the effects of the venom.

"Viper venoms" refer to the toxic secretions produced by members of the Viperidae family of snakes, which include pit vipers (such as rattlesnakes, copperheads, and cottonmouths) and true vipers (like adders, vipers, and gaboon vipers). These venoms are complex mixtures of proteins, enzymes, and other bioactive molecules that can cause a wide range of symptoms in prey or predators, including local tissue damage, pain, swelling, bleeding, and potentially life-threatening systemic effects such as coagulopathy, cardiovascular shock, and respiratory failure.

The composition of viper venoms varies widely between different species and even among individuals within the same species. However, many viper venoms contain a variety of enzymes (such as phospholipases A2, metalloproteinases, and serine proteases) that can cause tissue damage and disrupt vital physiological processes in the victim. Additionally, some viper venoms contain neurotoxins that can affect the nervous system and cause paralysis or other neurological symptoms.

Understanding the composition and mechanisms of action of viper venoms is important for developing effective treatments for venomous snakebites, as well as for gaining insights into the evolution and ecology of these fascinating and diverse creatures.

Wasp venoms are complex mixtures of bioactive molecules produced by wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) to defend themselves and paralyze prey. The main components include:

1. Phospholipases A2 (PLA2): Enzymes that can cause pain, inflammation, and damage to cell membranes.
2. Hyaluronidase: An enzyme that helps spread the venom by breaking down connective tissues.
3. Proteases: Enzymes that break down proteins and contribute to tissue damage and inflammation.
4. Antigen 5: A major allergen that can cause severe allergic reactions (anaphylaxis) in sensitive individuals.
5. Mastoparan: A peptide that induces histamine release, leading to localized inflammation and pain.
6. Neurotoxins: Some wasp venoms contain neurotoxins that can cause paralysis or neurological symptoms.

The composition of wasp venoms may vary among species, and individual sensitivity to the components can result in different reactions ranging from localized pain, swelling, and redness to systemic allergic responses.

Spider venoms are complex mixtures of bioactive compounds produced by the specialized glands of spiders. These venoms are primarily used for prey immobilization and defense. They contain a variety of molecules such as neurotoxins, proteases, peptides, and other biologically active substances. Different spider species have unique venom compositions, which can cause different reactions when they bite or come into contact with humans or other animals. Some spider venoms can cause mild symptoms like pain and swelling, while others can lead to more severe reactions such as tissue necrosis or even death in extreme cases.

Elapid venoms are the toxic secretions produced by elapid snakes, a family of venomous snakes that includes cobras, mambas, kraits, and coral snakes. These venoms are primarily composed of neurotoxins, which can cause paralysis and respiratory failure in prey or predators.

Elapid venoms work by targeting the nervous system, disrupting communication between the brain and muscles. This results in muscle weakness, paralysis, and eventually respiratory failure if left untreated. Some elapid venoms also contain hemotoxins, which can cause tissue damage, bleeding, and other systemic effects.

The severity of envenomation by an elapid snake depends on several factors, including the species of snake, the amount of venom injected, the location of the bite, and the size and health of the victim. Prompt medical treatment is essential in cases of elapid envenomation, as the effects of the venom can progress rapidly and lead to serious complications or death if left untreated.

Scorpion venoms are complex mixtures of neurotoxins, enzymes, and other bioactive molecules that are produced by the venom glands of scorpions. These venoms are primarily used for prey immobilization and defense. The neurotoxins found in scorpion venoms can cause a variety of symptoms in humans, including pain, swelling, numbness, and in severe cases, respiratory failure and death.

Scorpion venoms are being studied for their potential medical applications, such as in the development of new pain medications and insecticides. Additionally, some components of scorpion venom have been found to have antimicrobial properties and may be useful in the development of new antibiotics.

"Bothrops" is a genus of venomous snakes commonly known as lancehead vipers, found primarily in Central and South America. The name "Bothrops" comes from the Greek words "bothros," meaning pit, and "ops," meaning face, referring to the deep pits on the sides of their heads that help them detect heat and locate prey. These snakes are known for their aggressive behavior and potent venom, which can cause severe pain, swelling, tissue damage, and potentially life-threatening systemic effects if left untreated.

The genus "Bothrops" includes over 30 species of pit vipers, many of which are considered medically important due to their ability to inflict serious envenomations in humans. Some notable examples include Bothrops asper (the terciopelo or fer-de-lance), Bothrops atrox (the common lancehead), and Bothrops jararaca (the jararaca).

If you encounter a snake of this genus, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately if bitten, as the venom can cause significant harm if not treated promptly.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question as "scorpions" are not a medical term, but instead refer to a type of arachnid. If you're asking about a medical condition that might involve scorpions, then perhaps you're referring to "scorpion stings."

Scorpion stings occur when a scorpion uses its venomous stinger to inject venom into another animal or human. The effects of a scorpion sting can vary greatly depending on the species of scorpion and the amount of venom injected, but generally, they can cause localized pain, swelling, and redness at the site of the sting. In more severe cases, symptoms such as numbness, difficulty breathing, muscle twitching, or convulsions may occur. Some species of scorpions have venom that can be life-threatening to humans, especially in children, the elderly, and those with compromised immune systems.

If you are looking for information on a specific medical condition or term, please provide more details so I can give you a more accurate answer.

Antivenins, also known as antivenoms, are medications created specifically to counteract venomous bites or stings from various creatures such as snakes, spiders, scorpions, and marine animals. They contain antibodies that bind to and neutralize the toxic proteins present in venom. Antivenins are usually made by immunizing large animals (like horses) with small amounts of venom over time, which prompts the animal's immune system to produce antibodies against the venom. The antibody-rich serum is then collected from the immunized animal and purified for use as an antivenin.

When administered to a victim who has been envenomated, antivenins work by binding to the venom molecules, preventing them from causing further damage to the body's tissues and organs. This helps minimize the severity of symptoms and can save lives in life-threatening situations. It is essential to seek immediate medical attention if bitten or stung by a venomous creature, as antivenins should be administered as soon as possible for optimal effectiveness.

Fish venoms are toxic substances produced by some species of fish, primarily found in their spines, fins, or skin. These venoms are used for defense against predators and can cause painful injuries to humans who come into contact with them. The venomous fishes belong to various taxonomic groups, including catfishes (order Siluriformes), stingrays (superorder Batoidea), scorpionfishes (family Scorpaenidae), weevers (family Trachinidae), and stonefishes (family Synanceiidae).

The composition of fish venoms varies among species, but they typically contain a mixture of proteins, enzymes, and small molecules that can induce local and systemic effects. Local reactions usually involve pain, swelling, and redness at the site of the injury, while systemic symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, difficulty breathing, paralysis, or even death in severe cases.

Immediate medical attention is required for fish venom injuries to manage pain, prevent infection, and treat potential systemic effects. Treatment usually involves removing any remaining venomous spines or fragments, immersing the wound in hot water (>45°C/113°F) to denature the proteins in the venom, and administering appropriate analgesics, antibiotics, and supportive care as needed.

Ant venoms are toxic secretions produced by various species of ants as a defense mechanism against predators and to incapacitate their prey. The composition of ant venoms varies among different species, but they typically contain a mixture of alkaloids, peptides, and proteins that can cause a range of symptoms in humans, from mild irritation and pain to severe allergic reactions.

The venom of some ant species, such as the fire ants (Solenopsis spp.), contains alkaloids that can cause painful pustules and itching, while the venom of other species, like the bulldog ants (Myrmecia spp.), contains proteins that can induce severe allergic reactions and even anaphylactic shock in sensitive individuals.

Understanding the composition and effects of ant venoms is important for developing effective treatments for ant stings and for studying their potential therapeutic applications, such as using ant venom components in pain management or as leads for new drug development.

Elapidae is a family of venomous snakes, also known as elapids. This family includes many well-known species such as cobras, mambas, death adders, and sea snakes. Elapids are characterized by their fixed fangs, which are located at the front of the upper jaw and deliver venom through a hollow canal. The venom of these snakes is typically neurotoxic, causing paralysis and respiratory failure in prey or attackers.

Elapids are found throughout the world, with the greatest diversity occurring in tropical regions. They vary widely in size, from small species like the death adders that measure only a few inches long, to large species like the king cobra, which can reach lengths of up to 18 feet (5.5 meters).

Elapids are generally shy and avoid confrontations with humans whenever possible. However, they will defend themselves aggressively if threatened or cornered. Bites from elapid snakes can be medically significant and may require antivenom treatment.

Mollusk venoms are toxic substances produced by certain species of mollusks, a group of marine animals that includes snails, slugs, clams, octopuses, and squids. These venoms are primarily used for defense against predators or for hunting prey. They can contain a variety of bioactive molecules, such as proteins, peptides, and neurotoxins, which can cause a range of effects on the victim's body, from mild irritation to paralysis and death.

One well-known example of a mollusk venom is that of the cone snail, which uses its venom to capture prey. The venom of some cone snails contains compounds called conotoxins, which are highly selective for specific ion channels in the nervous system and can cause paralysis or death in their victims. These conotoxins have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications, such as pain relief and treatment for neurological disorders.

It's important to note that while some mollusk venoms can be dangerous or even deadly to humans, most species of mollusks are not harmful to people. However, it's always a good idea to exercise caution when handling any marine animals, as even non-venomous species can cause injury with their sharp shells or other structures.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "spiders" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a common name used to refer to arachnids of the order Araneae, characterized by having two main body parts (the cephalothorax and abdomen), eight legs, and fangs that inject venom.

However, in a medical context, "spider" or "spider bite" may be used to describe skin lesions or reactions resulting from the bite of certain spiders, particularly those with medically significant venoms. For example, necrotic arachnidism is a condition caused by the bite of some spider species, such as recluse spiders (Loxosceles spp.). The bites can cause skin necrosis and other systemic symptoms in severe cases.

If you are looking for information on a specific medical topic or condition, please provide more details so I can offer a more accurate response.

Arachnida is a class of joint-legged invertebrate animals that includes spiders, scorpions, mites, and ticks. They are characterized by having two main body segments (the cephalothorax and the abdomen), eight legs, and simple eyes. Most arachnids produce silk, which they use for various purposes such as capturing prey or building shelters.

Arachnids are arthropods, a group that also includes insects, crustaceans, and other related animals. They are found worldwide in diverse habitats, ranging from forests and grasslands to deserts and caves. Many arachnids are predators, feeding on insects and other small animals. Some species are parasites, living on the blood or tissue of other organisms.

Arachnids have a hard exoskeleton made of chitin, which provides protection and support for their soft internal organs. They molt periodically to grow and replace damaged body parts. Arachnids also have a complex reproductive system that involves the transfer of sperm from the male to the female through specialized structures called pedipalps.

While some arachnids are harmless or even beneficial to humans, others can be dangerous or pests. For example, spider bites can cause painful reactions and in rare cases, death. Ticks and mites can transmit diseases such as Lyme disease and scrub typhus. Scorpions can deliver venomous stings that can be fatal to humans. Despite these risks, arachnids play important roles in ecosystems, controlling pests and contributing to nutrient cycling.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "snakes" is not a medical term. It refers to a group of legless reptiles that can be found on every continent except Antarctica. If you have any questions about snakes in a different context, please provide more information and I'll do my best to help!

Crustacea is a subphylum of Arthropoda, which is a phylum that includes animals without backbones and with jointed appendages. Crustaceans are characterized by their segmented bodies, usually covered with a hard exoskeleton made of chitin, and paired, jointed limbs.

Examples of crustaceans include crabs, lobsters, shrimps, crayfish, krill, barnacles, and copepods. Many crustaceans are aquatic, living in both freshwater and marine environments, while some are terrestrial. They can vary greatly in size, from tiny planktonic organisms to large crabs and lobsters.

Crustaceans have a complex life cycle that typically involves several distinct stages, including larval and adult forms. They are an important part of many aquatic ecosystems, serving as both predators and prey. Crustaceans also have economic importance as a source of food for humans, with crabs, lobsters, and shrimps being among the most commonly consumed.

Amphibian venoms are toxic secretions produced by certain species of amphibians, such as frogs, toads, and salamanders. These secretions are often produced by specialized glands in the skin and can contain a variety of bioactive compounds, including alkaloids, steroids, peptides, and proteins. Some amphibian venoms can cause painful burns or irritation upon contact with the skin, while others can be deadly if ingested or introduced into the bloodstream through wounds or mucous membranes.

The study of amphibian venoms has gained increasing attention in recent years due to their potential as sources of novel bioactive compounds with therapeutic applications. For example, some peptides found in amphibian venoms have been shown to have potent analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties, making them promising candidates for the development of new drugs.

It is important to note that not all amphibians produce venom, and even those that do may use their toxic secretions primarily for defense against predators rather than for hunting prey. Additionally, while some amphibian venoms can be dangerous or even lethal to humans, most cases of envenomation occur in the context of intentional handling or accidental contact with these animals in their natural habitats.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Bettini, Sergio (1978). Bettini, Sergio (ed.). Arthropod Venoms. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. p. 477. doi:10.1007/978-3 ... With a median lethal dose (LD50) of 7.3 mg/kg, the venom is relatively weak in comparison to other Myrmecia ants, whose LD50 is ... However, in a 2011 study, at least one patient had an allergic reaction to M. nigriceps venom. This study also concluded that ... Like other Myrmecia species, M. nigriceps ants possess a powerful and painful sting, and the venom is capable of inducing ...
Bettini, S. (March 13, 2013). Arthropod Venoms. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9783642455018 - via Google Books. "ITIS ...
Maretic, 1978 :Venoms of Theridiidae, Genus Steatoda. Arthropod Venoms, Springer Science & Business Media, p. 213-216. Grbic & ... 1978). "9". Arthropod Venoms. Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. pp. 213-214. ISBN 978-3-642-45501-8. Zamani, A. (2016). " ... S. paykulliana's venom is much less potent than the true black widows', and its effect on humans is minor, similar to a wasp ...
"Arthropod venoms: A vast arsenal of insecticidal neuropeptides". Biopolymers. American Peptide Society (Wiley). 98 (4): 385-405 ... Workers use this ability to scavenge for dead insects such as earwigs and fall webworm larvae, as well as live arthropods. They ... Schmidt, Justin O. (1982). "Biochemistry Of Insect Venoms". Annual Review of Entomology. Annual Reviews. 27 (1): 339-368. doi: ... Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification. 5: 20-21, 402-403. Greene, Albert, John F. Macdonald, Peter J. Landolt, and Harry ...
Schwartz, EF; Mourão, CB; Moreira, KG; Camargos, TS; Mortari, MR (2012). "Arthropod venoms: a vast arsenal of insecticidal ... These neuropeptide toxins may cooperate to make venom more effective. Another possibility is the presence of other more potent ... a potent depressant insect toxin from Buthus occitanus tunetanus venom". Toxicon. 41 (2): 163-71. doi:10.1016/S0041-0101(02) ... "Biochemical and pharmacological characterization of a depressant insect toxin from the venom of the scorpion Buthacus arenicola ...
Gray, Michael R. (1978), "Venoms of Dipluridae", in Bettini, S. (ed.), Arthropod Venoms, Springer, Berlin, p. 125 Pickard- ... Though none have died since the anti venom has been introduced, many consider this spider to be quite dangerous, and deadly. ... with implications for venom evolution". Scientific Reports. 8 (1636): 4. Bibcode:2018NatSR...8.1636H. doi:10.1038/s41598-018- ...
Konno, Katsuhiro; Rádis-Baptista, Gandhi (2020-03-25). Arthropod Venom Components and Their Potential Usage. MDPI. ISBN 978-3- ... and throes were observed following venom injection. S. cyanea venom also contains some antibacterial activity. Human accidents ... The venom of Conus is a conotoxin, whose action occurs by blocking muscle and neural receptors. Two cases were recorded by ... Phoneutria nigriventer venom contains two fractions PhTx-1 and PhTx-2 which are potent for primates, however, the spider has ...
"5-Hydroxytryptamine content of some arthropod venoms and venom-containing parts". Toxicon. 1 (4): 165-170. doi:10.1016/0041- ... in addition to continuing to inject venom, the sting apparatus also releases alarm pheromones and thereby marks the target as a ... slow contracting substance in wasp venom". Br. J. Pharmacol. 9 (1): 53-58. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.1954.tb00816.x. PMC 1509391 ...
"5-Hydroxytryptamine Content of Some Arthropod Venoms and Venom-containing Parts." Toxic on 1.4 (1963): 165-70. Web. "sting: ... Among arthropods, a sting or stinger is a sharp organ, often connected with a venom gland and adapted to inflict a wound by ... in its venoms. The 5-HT in these venoms has been found to play at least two roles: one as a pain-producing agent and the other ... Specific components of venom are believed to give rise to an allergic reaction, which in turn produces skin lesions that may ...
The centipede uses its venom to subdue prey. S. heros hatch from eggs. As they grow and mature, like all arthropods they shed ... Baerg, W. J.; Centipedes (1924-09-01). "The Effect of the Venom of Some Supposedly Poisonous Arthropods". Annals of the ... The venom of S. heros is similar in composition to the venom of other Scolopendra species, including components such as ... Arthropods of Mexico, Arthropods of the United States, Fauna of the Southwestern United States, Fauna of the Chihuahuan Desert ...
August 2015). "Neuroactive compounds obtained from arthropod venoms as new therapeutic platforms for the treatment of ... The basic structure of Delucemine was based on argiotoxin 636, a NMDA antagonist isolated from the venom of the Araneid Argiope ... Oldrati V, Bianchi E, Stöcklin R (February 2013). "Spider Venom Components as Drug Candidates". Spider Ecophysiology. pp. 491- ...
Because of these individuals, it is known that though spider wasp venom causes paralysis in their arthropod prey, they inflict ... December 2015). "Neuroactive compounds obtained from arthropod venoms as new therapeutic platforms for the treatment of ... After the venom has entered the body via the wasp sting, it enters the bloodstream, where it will be diluted in the blood and ... Sahara Y, Gotoh M, Konno K, Miwa A, Tsubokawa H, Robinson HP, Kawai N (June 2000). "A new class of neurotoxin from wasp venom ...
2015). "Neuroactive compounds obtained from arthropod venoms as new therapeutic platforms for the treatment of neurological ... naturally occurring dizocilpine or related site antagonist found in Argiope venom AP5 - glutamate site antagonist AP7 - ...
Secretions of Opilionids, Whip Scorpions and Pseudoscorpions, in: Arthropod Venoms, Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology / ... Other differences include the fact that Opiliones have no venom glands in their chelicerae, so pose no danger to humans. They ... None of the known species of harvestmen have venom glands; their chelicerae are not hollowed fangs but grasping claws that are ... but this name is also used for two other distantly related groups of arthropods, the crane flies of the superfamily Tipuloidea ...
... s in this category include snake venom poisoning, botulism, arthropod poisoning, organophosphates ... Most commonly animal venom or poison, or other toxic substances are the origin of the problem.[citation needed] ...
Large arthropods are injected with venom but are usually overpowered by brute strength before the venom has immobilized them. ... "Evaluation of venom peptides of two jumping spider species (Araneae: Salticidae) for use as insecticide potential". ... It was concluded based on a study that the protein fractions of Plexippus paykulli venom had bio-insecticide potential. World ... In one study, these spiders hunted and consumed individuals of sixteen species of arthropods from fourteen families and six ...
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are commonly found in the venom of arthropods, and these proteins function by breaking up ... leading to a study of the venom of H. sexcinctus. Two newly isolated peptides from the venom were found to be significantly ... AMPs that damaged red blood cells at low rates were found in the venom of several species of bees, ... sexcinctus venom show good antimicrobial properties, they also show found to damage red blood cells (hemolysis), reducing their ...
... arthropod venoms MeSH D20.888.065.055 - ant venoms MeSH D20.888.065.115 - bee venoms MeSH D20.888.065.115.060 - apamin MeSH ... wasp venoms MeSH D20.888.230 - cnidarian venoms MeSH D20.888.370 - fish venoms MeSH D20.888.590 - mollusk venoms MeSH D20.888. ... viper venoms MeSH D20.888.850.960.200 - crotalid venoms MeSH D20.888.850.960.200.050 - ancrod MeSH D20.888.850.960.200.105 - ... snake venoms MeSH D20.888.850.325 - elapid venoms MeSH D20.888.850.325.139 - bungarotoxins MeSH D20.888.850.325.220 - cobra ...
Bettini Arthropod Venoms Euw, J. von. Reichstein, T. Rothschild, M. Heart poisons (cardiac glycosides) in the lygaeid bugs ...
... another use being as an antidote to snake venom and arthropod stings. Megaphrynium macrostachyum has been used in research into ...
... are often immune to the venom of their arthropod prey. Humans also consume tarantulas for food in their native ranges. They are ... The chelicerae of a tarantula completely contain the venom glands and the muscles that surround them, and can cause the venom ... Although their venom is not deadly to humans, some bites cause serious discomfort that might persist for several days. In ... Other arthropods, such as large scorpions and giant centipedes, are also known to prey on tarantulas. Tarantulas are also ...
This species captures prey such as arthropods with their legs and then kills them with their venom. Their predators are larger ... This species grabs prey with their legs and chelicerae, biting the prey until it is killed by the spider's venom. They ... They feed on ground-dwelling arthropods like crickets. Thesey also consume Diptera, Collembola, Homoptera, Thysanoptera, small ...
They administer venom through forcipules. These are not part of their mandibles, so strictly speaking they sting rather than ... It is an insectivore; it kills and eats other arthropods, such as insects and arachnids. In 1758, Carl Linnaeus described the ... For wasps, they retreat after applying the venom to give it time to take effect. When the centipede is in danger of becoming ... Arthropods portal House Centipede Fact Sheet R. Wicks (2001). "Scutigera coleoptrata". Animal Diversity Web. University of ...
Spiders are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom. They are the largest ... Although all arthropods use muscles attached to the inside of the exoskeleton to flex their limbs, spiders and a few other ... Spiders injected with venom components which cause injected humans to report pain (serotonin, histamine, phospholipase A2 and ... Under experimental conditions, when spiders were injected in the leg with bee or wasp venom, they shed this appendage. But if ...
Venom". Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases. 7 (2): 139-46. ISSN 2322-1984. PMC 3875880. PMID 24409439. (Ion channel toxins, ... In general, the M. eupeus scorpion venom has a lethal dose (LD50) of 4.5 (IV), 8.75 (IP), and 11.5 mg/kg (SC). Currently, there ... The neurotoxin's name is an acronym in which the first three letters refer to the source of the venom (M. eupeus; lesser Asian ... M. eupeus stings can only be effectively treated using antibodies against venom components. C.M. Shi, Z.S. Huang, L. Wang, L.J ...
Some animal venoms, especially those produced by arthropods (such as certain spiders, scorpions, and bees) are only potentially ... "Molecular dissection of box jellyfish venom cytotoxicity highlights an effective venom antidote". Nature Communications. 10 (1 ... This results in an antivenom that can be used to counteract venom produced by certain species of snakes, spiders, and other ... In early 2019, a group of researchers in Australia published the finding of a new box jellyfish venom antidote using CRISPR. ...
Spiders (order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom. ... Unlike most arthropods, spiders have no extensor muscles in their limbs and instead extend them by hydraulic pressure. As of ... In all except the most primitive group, the Mesothelae, spiders have the most centralized nervous systems of all arthropods, as ... This checklist was made by the Association for Conservation of Environment and Arthropods Sri Lanka, and encompasses a wide ...
The sting consists of an insertion wound, and venom. The venom is evolved to cause pain to a predator, paralyse a prey item, or ... Patients with a history of venom hypersensitivity may benefit from venom immunotherapy (VIT). Patients eligibile for VIT ... Arthropods and humans, Parasitic infestations, stings, and bites of the skin, Arthropod attacks). ... Most arthropod bites and stings cause self-limited redness, itchiness and/or pain around the site. Less commonly (around 10% of ...
Arthropods of tropical forests: Spatio-temporal dynamics and resource use in the canopy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press ... In the cerambycid Onychocerus albitarsis, the antennae have venom injecting structures used in defense, which is unique among ... Stork, Nigel E. (January 7, 2018). "How Many Species of Insects and Other Terrestrial Arthropods Are There on Earth?". Annual ... Southwood, T. R. E. (1962). "Migration of Terrestrial Arthropods in Relation to Habitat". Biological Reviews. 37 (2): 171-211. ...
Venom is common in all the arthropod subphyla, but was believed to be completely absent from the approximately 70,000 known ... Venom-filled reservoirs have since been found attached to the needles, packed in muscles that can force out the venom. Glands ... The feeding technique of X. tulumensis is unique among crustaceans, and its venom is a useful adaptation that to some extent ... This blind remipede liquefies the body contents of other crustaceans with a venom similar to that of rattlesnakes, and which ...
ICD-10 code T63.482 for Toxic effect of venom of other arthropod, intentional self-harm is a medical classification as listed ... Toxic effect of venom of other arthropod, intentional self-harm T63. Includes: bite or touch of venomous animal. pricked or ... ICD-10-CM Code for Toxic effect of venom of other arthropod, intentional self-harm T63.482 ICD-10 code T63.482 for Toxic effect ... Toxic effect of venom of other arthropod, intentional self-harm, initial encounter ...
Bettini, Sergio (1978). Bettini, Sergio (ed.). Arthropod Venoms. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. p. 477. doi:10.1007/978-3 ... With a median lethal dose (LD50) of 7.3 mg/kg, the venom is relatively weak in comparison to other Myrmecia ants, whose LD50 is ... However, in a 2011 study, at least one patient had an allergic reaction to M. nigriceps venom. This study also concluded that ... Like other Myrmecia species, M. nigriceps ants possess a powerful and painful sting, and the venom is capable of inducing ...
Associate Professor Volker Herzig is an ARC Future Fellow and his lab is focussed on the biodiscovery of novel arthropod venom ... Associate Professor Volker Herzigs specialist areas of knowledge are biodiscovery of novel arthropod venom components, ... Fortunately, some arthropod toxins are selective and potent modulators of ion channels and receptors in the insect nervous ... A future area of research that he will embark on at USC is to investigate how venom toxins modulate learning and memory in ...
Toxic effect of venom of other arthropods. T75.3. Motion sickness. T78.40. Allergy, unspecified. ...
48, Arthropod Venoms. Springer-Verlag, New York.. Weatherston, J.; Percy, J.E. ... Venoms of coleoptera. 1978. Weatherston, J.; Percy, J.E. Chapter 19, p. 511-554 in S. Bettini, ed. Handbook of Experimental ... Studies of physiologically active arthropod secretions II. some observations on the scent pencils of male Vitula edmandsae ( ... Studies of physiologically active arthropod secretions IX. morphology and histology of the pheromone-producing glands of some ...
However, arthropod venoms are underexploited, although they are a rich source of new molecules. A recent in vitro screening of ... Spider venom biomolecules induced smaller and necrotic xenogeneic GB; spider venom activated the innate immune system; venom ... The effect of venom was also evaluated on macrophages in vitro. Tumors from PnV-treated animals were smaller and did not uptake ... The venom increased monocytes, neutrophils and NK cells, and this effect was the opposite of that observed in the animals ...
Categories: Arthropod Venoms Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
So far, only seven BPPs have been identified in the arthropod venoms (Table 1). In 1993, Ferreira et al. (91) isolated and ... That was the first report of a BPP obtained from arthropod venom. The primary structure of peptide T is quite different from ... Venoms, including those from arthropods, showing biological activities with various potential uses in medicine and ... mediated effects of scorpion venom: an experimental study of the effects of a second challenge with scorpion venom. Intensive ...
A newly identified toxin in the venom of a tropical centipede helps the arthropod to overpower giant prey in about 30 seconds. ... Insight into how this venom overwhelms lab mice could lead to an antidote for people who suffer excruciatingly painful, ... Researchers there found a small peptide, now named "spooky toxin," largely responsible for venom misery. ...
Additionally, she has a special interest in the therapeutic uses of arthropods venoms, particularly in neurodegenerative ...
Additionally, she has a special interest in the therapeutic uses of arthropods venoms, particularly in neurodegenerative ...
The Potential of Arthropods Causes Venom Allergy at Turkey KILIÇ E.. International Euroasia pharmacy congresses, 3 - 07 ...
However, only 25 species have venom capable of killing humans. Scorpions are among the arthropods with the longest lifespan. ... Spider and Scorpion Venom The venom of spiders and scorpions are of interest to scientists for various reasons. For example, no ... Similarly, scorpion venom has shown promising results in the treatment of cancer. Different experiments have shown the venom ... However, like insects, spiders and scorpions belong to the arthropod phylum. Insects have three body segments, which are the ...
Chemical and pharmacological aspects of Tityinae ven-oms. Arthropod venoms. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1978, 379-94. google ... 1 Lipps BV Novel snake venom protein cytolytic to cancer cells in vitro and in vivo systems J Venom Anim Toxins 1999; 5: 172-83 ... Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus venom on 293T and C2C12 eukaryotic cell lines. J Venom Anim ... Scorpion venom induces glioma cell apoptosis in vivo and inhibits glioma tumor growth in vitro. J Neuro-Oncol 2005; 73(1): 1-7. ...
Some animal venoms, especially those produced by arthropods: spiders, scorpions, and bees, are only potentially lethal when ... This results in an antivenom that can be used to counteract venom produced by certain species of snakes, spiders, and other ... Therefore there is no antidote for these venoms; however anaphylactic shock can be treated with epinephrine. ...
Investigating the structural complexity of ancient Australian arthropod venoms, BE.EP.DR ... Animal venoms consist of a complex variety of bioactive molecules, among which the vast majority are small peptides, referred ...
Venom systems in terrestrial arthropods-Dr Michel Dugon Dr Dugon is interested in the evolution, development and ultrastructure ... of venom systems in terrestrial arthropods, particularly centipedes and arachnids.. Benthic ecology-Dr Bob Kennedy. Dr Kennedy ...
... and characteristics that should be considered when developing an AMP derived from scorpion venoms. In addition, this review may ... Several AMPs from scorpion venoms have been described as a potential source for the development of new drugs; however, some ... Several antimicrobial peptides from scorpion venoms have been described as potential source for the development of new drugs, ... Arthropods also include scorpions, from which several bioactive molecules have been isolated from the venom glands. AMPs are ...
Venoms [D23.946.833]. *Arthropod Venoms [D23.946.833.065]. *Spider Venoms [D23.946.833.065.870] ... A class of polyamine and peptide toxins which are isolated from the venom of spiders such as Agelenopsis aperta. ...
Arthropod Venom Allergy Entry term(s). Allergy, Arthropod Venom Arthropod Venom Allergies Arthropod Venom Hypersensitivities ... Arthropod Venom Hypersensitivity Hypersensitivity, Arthropod Venom Venom Allergy, Arthropod Venom Hypersensitivity, Arthropod ... Arthropod Venom Allergies. Arthropod Venom Allergy. Arthropod Venom Hypersensitivities. Arthropod Venom Hypersensitivity. Bee ... Venom Allergies. Venom Allergy. Venom Allergy, Arthropod. Venom Allergy, Honeybee. Venom Allergy, Insect. Venom ...
Most of the studied AMPs originated from arthropod venoms. In addition, all AMPs are positively charged and rich in lysine ... Animal venom-derived AMPs are a potential source of prototype molecules for the development of new therapeutic agents against ... Here, we aimed to summarize the current knowledge on the use of animal venom-derived AMPs in the treatment of MDR-Ab infections ... Moreover, animal venom-derived AMPs have pleiotropic effects, such as pro-healing, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant ...
Beautiful metallic shield bugs band together to take down prey a thousand times their mass without the use of venom or jaws. ... Insect & Arthropod Publications. Book available now!. Orthopteran Zoology: How to Keep Grasshoppers, Crickets, and Katydids ... This amazing arthropod apex predator is the most significant arthropod predator in its range and yet few humans could answer a ... E&A site on US Arthropods: millipedes, arachnids, etc.. Some Vendors With E&A Titles BioQuip Entomological Supply Bugs In ...
... pistol harbors eight plus one stored kills that are far more lethal to humans than the neurotoxin venom of 25 of the arthropod ... Scorpions are widespread throughout the world and consist of 1,400 species and sub species, but only 25 inject venom dangerous ...
As with any arthropod venom, allergic reactions are possible. An ice pack applied to the affected area will relieve some pain. ... Severity of the sting is dependent upon the individual scorpion and the persons reaction to the venom. A person who is stung ...
Biochemical signaling in single dendritic spines: implications for synaptic plasticity, learning and memory
Molecular Basis for "Exercise Is Medicine" - Local Cyclical Compression Modulates Macrophage Function In Situ and Alleviates Immobilization-Induced Muscle Atrophy
Catching their prey, they inject the victim with venom and suck the liquids from the body. Such an arthropod may appear to be ... Arthropod Science: Air-to-Ground Offensive Technology. Equally amazing is the "dive bombing" behavior of the tarantula hawk ... And why? Because she was pre-programmed, as are all other arthropods, to "breed abundantly in the earth, and be fruitful, and ... Yet even more bizarre are the details of how the venom-stung spiders flesh is consumed. Two creation scientists reported ...
nursing home overdose, envenomations from marine, snakes, arthropods, anti-venom administration, evaluation of toxidromes ( ...
  • Scorpions are widespread throughout the world and consist of 1,400 species and sub species, but only 25 inject venom dangerous to humans. (swatmag.com)
  • Catching their prey, they inject the victim with venom and suck the liquids from the body. (icr.org)
  • Certain animals, insects, and arthropods can inject venom (poison) through mouthparts or a stinger. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A spider is an eight-legged, air-breathing arthropod with fangs that inject venom. (printablejd.com)
  • These are some mouthparts that present a nail with which they inject venom. (animalwised.com)
  • Many people wonder, if chelicerae are used to bite and inject venom, are spiders carnivorous? (animalwised.com)
  • Spiders are predatory animals that capture other arthropods and inject venom to paralyze or kill them before eating them. (animalwised.com)
  • Spiders are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and fangs that inject venom. (couttspestcontrol.com)
  • Black Widow and Brown Recluse spiders can inject venom that can be dangerous to humans and pets. (couttspestcontrol.com)
  • They can inject venom when provoked which is non-lethal. (couttspestcontrol.com)
  • Spiders are air-breathing arthropods that have chelicerae with fangs generally able to inject venom. (superindiapestcontrol.com)
  • Wolf spiders inject venom into their prey through their fangs. (globalinfo247.com)
  • The first pair of legs on the cranial segment is, in actuality, modified into a pincerlike apparatus, known as forcipules, used to inject venom into prey. (snopes.com)
  • Molecules from animal venoms are promising candidates for the development of new drugs. (nature.com)
  • More recently, however, animal venoms have been attracting attention and studies have been successful in addressing treatment of accidents. (scielo.br)
  • A new generation of drugs is likely to emerge from peptides, including those found in animal venoms. (scielo.br)
  • Some animal venoms, especially those produced by arthropods: spiders, scorpions, and bees, are only potentially lethal when they provoke allergic reactions and induce anaphylactic shock. (standardofcare.com)
  • Fortunately, some arthropod toxins are selective and potent modulators of ion channels and receptors in the insect nervous system, which aids in overcoming prey or fending off predators. (edu.au)
  • By studying the interaction of arthropod toxins with their molecular targets, Associate Professor Herzig is hoping to discover novel and environmentally safe bioinsecticides and antiparasitic agents. (edu.au)
  • A future area of research that he will embark on at USC is to investigate how venom toxins modulate learning and memory in insects. (edu.au)
  • Furthermore, venoms and their toxins have been considered good tools for prospecting for new active drugs or models for new therapeutic drugs. (scielo.br)
  • In this review, we discuss some possibilities of using different toxins, especially those from arachnid venoms, which have shown some potential application in diseases involving pain, hypertension, epilepsy and erectile dysfunction. (scielo.br)
  • Objective: Since they contain various toxins that may influence various biological events, scorpion venoms raise new hopes for cancer treatments. (istanbul.edu.tr)
  • A class of polyamine and peptide toxins which are isolated from the venom of spiders such as Agelenopsis aperta. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Due to their high degree of target specificity, venom toxins have been increasingly used as lead compounds in the development of drugs [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, like insects, spiders and scorpions belong to the arthropod phylum. (worldatlas.com)
  • The venom of spiders and scorpions are of interest to scientists for various reasons. (worldatlas.com)
  • As a result, scientists are investigating the possibility of developing a pesticide from its venom, as funnel-web spiders thrive in captivity and are easy to milk. (worldatlas.com)
  • This results in an antivenom that can be used to counteract venom produced by certain species of snakes, spiders, and other venomous animals. (standardofcare.com)
  • It feeds on insects, spiders, and other small arthropods. (letssavemichigan.com)
  • These are the most primitive spiders, which do not have venom, although they do orthognate chelicerae that can produce a strong bite. (animalwised.com)
  • In all except the most primitive group, the Mesothelae, spiders have the most centralized nervous systems of all arthropods, as all their ganglia are fused into one mass in the cephalothorax. (couttspestcontrol.com)
  • Unlike most arthropods, spiders have no extensor muscles in their limbs and instead extend them by hydraulic pressure. (couttspestcontrol.com)
  • Wolf spiders possess venom glands and fangs, which they use for subduing and digesting their prey. (globalinfo247.com)
  • As a result, their venom is generally considered non-lethal to humans, and wolf spiders are not considered medically significant in terms of envenomation. (globalinfo247.com)
  • Maany people fear or dislike spiders but, for the most part, spiders are beneficial because of their role as predators of insects and other arthropods, and most cannot harm people. (pestcontrolprosca.com)
  • Although spiders often are found on plants, they eat mainly insects, other spiders, and related arthropods, not plants. (pestcontrolprosca.com)
  • Most spiders have toxic venom, which they use to kill their prey. (pestcontrolprosca.com)
  • However, only those spiders whose venom typically causes a serious reaction in humans are called poisonous spiders. (pestcontrolprosca.com)
  • Here, we tested the ability of three commercially available cell-free protein expression systems to produce venom components from small arthropods, using U2-sicaritoxin-Sdo1a from the six-eyed sand spider Hexophtalma dolichocephala as a case study. (academic-accelerator.com)
  • Wolf spider venom is primarily designed to affect insects and small arthropods, not humans. (globalinfo247.com)
  • Dr Dugon is interested in the evolution, development and ultrastructure of venom systems in terrestrial arthropods, particularly centipedes and arachnids. (universityofgalway.ie)
  • Biology and ecology of venomous animals: aquatic fauna, terrestrial arthropods, amphibians, reptiles and mammals. (edu.gh)
  • Associate Professor Volker Herzig is an ARC Future Fellow and his lab is focussed on the biodiscovery of novel arthropod venom components, particularly peptides, for potential applications in basic science, medicine and agriculture. (edu.au)
  • Associate Professor Volker Herzig's specialist areas of knowledge are biodiscovery of novel arthropod venom components, particularly peptides, for potential applications in basic science, medicine and agriculture. (edu.au)
  • 14. Willems J, Noppe W, Moerman L, Van der WJ, Verdonck F. Cationic peptides from scorpion venom can stimulate and inhibit polymor-phonuclear granulocytes. (istanbul.edu.tr)
  • 19. Ammar A, Qosay A. Scorpion venom peptides with no disulfide bridges: A review. (istanbul.edu.tr)
  • The venom is a complex mixture of various bioactive compounds, including proteins, peptides, and enzymes. (pestkeen.com)
  • Snake venoms are a complex mixture of peptides and proteins, including peptidases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Biologically active proteins and peptides, as those found in venoms, may have a potential therapeutic use for the correction of hemostatic disorders and cellular adhesion among other applications [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Similarly, scorpion venom has shown promising results in the treatment of cancer. (worldatlas.com)
  • It is thought that the bioactive compounds contained in scorpion venom could be used in cancer treatments in near future. (istanbul.edu.tr)
  • 10. Oukkache N, Chgoury F, Lalaoui M, Cano A A, Ghalim N. Compari-son between two methods of scorpion venom milking in Morocco. (istanbul.edu.tr)
  • Anti-HIV-1 activ-ity of a new scorpion venom peptide derivative Kn2-7. (istanbul.edu.tr)
  • 18. Zhijian C, Feng L, Yingliang W, Xin M, Wenxin L. Genetic mechanisms of scorpion venom peptide diversification. (istanbul.edu.tr)
  • Like other Myrmecia species, M. nigriceps ants possess a powerful and painful sting, and the venom is capable of inducing allergic reactions in sensitive people. (wikipedia.org)
  • As with any arthropod venom, allergic reactions are possible. (beelinepestcontrol.com)
  • Even mildly toxic venoms may cause serious allergic reactions. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In some instances, the venom may lead to allergic reactions, cardiovascular complications, or even death, especially if left untreated. (pestkeen.com)
  • Researchers there found a small peptide, now named "spooky toxin," largely responsible for venom misery. (sciencenews.org)
  • Giant centipedes , belonging to the class Chilopoda, produce venom that serves both defensive and predatory purposes. (pestkeen.com)
  • Previous in vitro studies have shown that the venom of the spider Phoneutria nigriventer (PnV) is a potential source of antineoplastic components with activity in glioblastoma (GB) cell lines. (nature.com)
  • A recent in vitro screening of the Phoneutria nigriventer spider venom (PnV) antitumor effects by our group has shown that the venom significantly affected glioblastoma cell lines. (nature.com)
  • For example, no insect is known to have developed immunity to the venom of the Australian funnel-web spider, which is highly toxic, yet the same venom is harmless to vertebrates. (worldatlas.com)
  • 8. Raposo C. Scorpion and spider venoms in cancer treatment: state of the art, challenges, and perspectives. (istanbul.edu.tr)
  • However, only 25 species have venom capable of killing humans. (worldatlas.com)
  • This amazing arthropod apex predator is the most significant arthropod predator in its range and yet few humans could answer a single question about it. (angelfire.com)
  • Aptly named after the prehistoric eight-legged predatory insect with claws, pincers and a flexible stingerarmed tail, SIG Sauer's new 1911 Scorpion R (Rail) pistol harbors eight plus one stored kills that are far more lethal to humans than the neurotoxin venom of 25 of the arthropod species. (swatmag.com)
  • Despite their venomous nature, only about 25 species of scorpions have venom potent enough to be dangerous to humans. (letssavemichigan.com)
  • Its venom is relatively mild and is not considered dangerous to humans, although it can cause pain and discomfort. (letssavemichigan.com)
  • Its venom is more potent than the striped bark scorpion and can cause severe pain, numbness, and muscle spasms in humans. (letssavemichigan.com)
  • Giant centipedes produce venom that can cause severe pain, swelling, and tissue damage when they bite humans. (pestkeen.com)
  • While this venom is primarily used to subdue and digest their meal, it is not harmful to humans. (globalinfo247.com)
  • A newly identified toxin in the venom of a tropical centipede helps the arthropod to overpower giant prey in about 30 seconds. (sciencenews.org)
  • With silk and venom, they capture prey, making them intriguing creatures to observe. (westvalleyupick.com)
  • The production of artificial silks in the laboratory (for example using recombinant arthropod silk proteins expressed in bacteria) has the potential to deliver new smart protein materials with tunable properties and green chemistry. (edu.au)
  • [ 10 ] Reagents containing venom proteins are required for these tests. (medscape.com)
  • Current advances in ant venom proteins causing hypersensitivity reactions in the Asia-Pacific region. (medscape.com)
  • Allergic reaction to venoms in insect bites and stings that is triggered by the immune system (i.e. (bvsalud.org)
  • Currently, I am investigating the composition, function and evolution of neglected insect venoms produced by assassin bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), robber flies (Diptera: Asilidae) and nettle caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae). (edu.au)
  • Many BPPs were described in the venoms from arthropods, amphibians and snakes, most of them being ACE inhibitors [ 19 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, it should be treated with extreme caution as it has very powerful venom and is one of the most toxic caterpillars in North America. (listverse.com)
  • This review attempts to summarize what is known about the evolution of fish venoms from an ecological perspective and, where possible, to place it in the context of the evolutionary ecology of other venomous/toxic taxa. (mdpi.com)
  • The aim of this work was to isolate and characterize novel BPPs from the venom of Bitis gabonica rhinoceros . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Arthropods are incredible animals that include insects, arachnids and crustaceans. (listverse.com)
  • Additionally, studying the evolutionary adaptations in giant centipedes that have led to the development of potent venoms can provide valuable insights into their ecological roles and survival strategies. (pestkeen.com)
  • The meeting will address aspects of venoms and envenoming, including the expanding range of venomous taxa, venoms in drug discovery and experimental science, antivenoms and other treatment strategies, ion channel and inflammatory venoms, "-omics", and snake and arthropod bites and stings. (lpmhealthcare.com)
  • Compared with other arthropod assaults, fire ant stings are far more pustular, with more neutrophils and fewer eosinophils. (medscape.com)
  • Arthropods also include scorpions, from which several bioactive molecules have been isolated from the venom glands. (frontiersin.org)
  • Venoms represent a still underexplored reservoir of bioactive components that might mitigate or cure diseases in conditions in which conventional therapy is ineffective. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Materials and Methods: In this study, different cytotoxic, apoptotic, necrotic, and anti-proliferative effects of crude venom obtained from Euscorpius mingrelicus (Kessler, 1874) scorpions species were tested on human breast cancer cells (MCF-7), human lung carcinoma cells (H1299), and mice fibroblast cells (L929). (istanbul.edu.tr)
  • Results: It was determined that the crude venom had cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects on MCF-7 and fibroblast cells even when at low concentrations and the effect on H1299 was half of the effect on MCF-7 and fibroblast. (istanbul.edu.tr)
  • Conclusion: It was found that crude venom of E. mingrelicus scorpion played an effective role in decreasing the proliferation of MCF-7 cells, and more comprehensive studies are needed in order to determine the toxin that is responsible for this effect. (istanbul.edu.tr)
  • There are more than 1,700 species of scorpions, and all have a venom sting. (worldatlas.com)
  • Venom systems are the subject of increasing attention for studies of molecular evolution, trait evolution, pharmacology, drug discovery, and toxinology. (edu.au)
  • The effect of venom was also evaluated on macrophages in vitro . (nature.com)
  • Evaluation of an in vitro assay for fire ant venom-specific IgE. (medscape.com)
  • A stinger is a part of the body in certain arthropods that is used to deliver venom into another organism. (wildaboutants.com)
  • This type of stinger is found in only two groups of arthropods: insects of the order Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps) and arachnids of the order Scorpiones (scorpions). (wildaboutants.com)
  • Studies in progress are selecting the venom molecules with antitumor and immunomodulatory effects and trying to better understand their mechanisms. (nature.com)
  • However, arthropod venoms are underexploited, although they are a rich source of new molecules. (nature.com)
  • Additionally, she has a special interest in the therapeutic uses of arthropods venoms, particularly in neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. (peerj.com)
  • To fully comprehend the potential medicinal uses of giant centipede venom, extensive research is required to identify and isolate specific components with therapeutic properties. (pestkeen.com)
  • Insight into how this venom overwhelms lab mice could lead to an antidote for people who suffer excruciatingly painful, reportedly even fatal, centipede bites, an international research team reports the week of January 22 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences . (sciencenews.org)
  • That got me to thinking that why there might be so much confusion about whether ants (and other arthropods) bite, sting, both or neither. (wildaboutants.com)
  • Centipedes are a familiar group of arthropods characterized by a long body made up of individual segments, each with its own pair of legs. (snopes.com)
  • Centipedes are nocturnal multisegmented elongated arthropods known for the distinct feature of having a pair of legs for each body segment except for the last. (snopes.com)
  • These venoms range in toxicity from mild to life threatening. (msdmanuals.com)
  • These arthropods possess venomous bites that can cause severe pain and inflammation. (pestkeen.com)
  • Silks are protein supermaterials made by arthropods. (edu.au)
  • Different experiments have shown the venom can inhibit the growth of about 38 different types of cancer cells while showing no harmful effects on healthy cells. (worldatlas.com)
  • Venomous fish have been relatively poorly studied, with respect to both the composition and evolution of their venoms. (mdpi.com)
  • A sting from a fire ant delivers a harmful substance, called venom, into your skin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Fire ant venom contains a chemical called piperidine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some people are allergic to fire ant venom. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Professor John B Harris , Emeritus Professor of Neurotoxicolgy at Newcastle University (UK) and President of the International Society on Toxinology (2003-2006) and a keynote speaker at Venoms 2012 (Oxf0rd) will receive a life-time achievement award at this symposium. (lpmhealthcare.com)
  • Because pure venom vaccines are not commercially available, whole-body extracts are used. (medscape.com)
  • It was observed that, as the dilution rate increased, the venom effect decreased, apoptosis and necrosis rates on H1299 decreased, and it had no effect on cell proliferation. (istanbul.edu.tr)
  • Nature of venom and structure of venom apparatus. (edu.gh)
  • Black scorpion (Het-erometrus longimanus) as a laboratory animal: maintenance of a colony of scorpion for milking of venom for research, using a re-straining device. (istanbul.edu.tr)
  • Here, we describe strategies used in several approaches to optimize scorpion AMPs, addressing their primary sequence, biotechnological potential, and characteristics that should be considered when developing an AMP derived from scorpion venoms. (frontiersin.org)