Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.
An order of parasitic, blood-sucking, wingless INSECTS with the common name of fleas.
Lice of the genus Pediculus, family Pediculidae. Pediculus humanus corporus is the human body louse and Pediculus humanus capitis is the human head louse.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.
A species of gram-negative bacteria that is the etiologic agent of bacillary angiomatosis (ANGIOMATOSIS, BACILLARY). This organism can also be a cause of CAT-SCRATCH DISEASE in immunocompetent patients.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
Arthropods of the class ARACHNIDA, order Araneae. Except for mites and ticks, spiders constitute the largest order of arachnids, with approximately 37,000 species having been described. The majority of spiders are harmless, although some species can be regarded as moderately harmful since their bites can lead to quite severe local symptoms. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p508; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, pp424-430)
A serotype of the species California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA), in the genus ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS, causing human MENINGOENCEPHALITIS. This is the agent most responsible for California encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, CALIFORNIA), the most prevalent mosquito-borne disease recognized in the United States.
A viral infection of the brain caused by serotypes of California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA) transmitted to humans by the mosquito AEDES triseriatus. The majority of cases are caused by the LA CROSSE VIRUS. This condition is endemic to the midwestern United States and primarily affects children between 5-10 years of age. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; VOMITING; HEADACHE; and abdominal pain followed by SEIZURES, altered mentation, and focal neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13)
Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.
Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)
Virus diseases caused by the BUNYAVIRIDAE.
Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.

Mechanisms of arthropod transmission of plant and animal viruses. (1/145)

A majority of the plant-infecting viruses and many of the animal-infecting viruses are dependent upon arthropod vectors for transmission between hosts and/or as alternative hosts. The viruses have evolved specific associations with their vectors, and we are beginning to understand the underlying mechanisms that regulate the virus transmission process. A majority of plant viruses are carried on the cuticle lining of a vector's mouthparts or foregut. This initially appeared to be simple mechanical contamination, but it is now known to be a biologically complex interaction between specific virus proteins and as yet unidentified vector cuticle-associated compounds. Numerous other plant viruses and the majority of animal viruses are carried within the body of the vector. These viruses have evolved specific mechanisms to enable them to be transported through multiple tissues and to evade vector defenses. In response, vector species have evolved so that not all individuals within a species are susceptible to virus infection or can serve as a competent vector. Not only are the virus components of the transmission process being identified, but also the genetic and physiological components of the vectors which determine their ability to be used successfully by the virus are being elucidated. The mechanisms of arthropod-virus associations are many and complex, but common themes are beginning to emerge which may allow the development of novel strategies to ultimately control epidemics caused by arthropod-borne viruses.  (+info)

Restriction of major surface protein 2 (MSP2) variants during tick transmission of the ehrlichia Anaplasma marginale. (2/145)

Anaplasma marginale is an ehrlichial pathogen of cattle that establishes lifelong persistent infection. Persistence is characterized by rickettsemic cycles in which new A. marginale variant types, defined by the sequence of the expressed msp2 transcripts, emerge. The polymorphic msp2 transcripts encode structurally distinct MSP2 proteins and result in an antigenically diverse and continually changing A. marginale population within the blood. In this manuscript, we used sequence analysis of msp2 transcripts to show that a restricted repertoire of variant types, designated SGV1 and SGV2, is expressed within the tick salivary gland. The same SGV1 and SGV2 variant types were expressed in ticks regardless of the variant types expressed in the blood of infected cattle at the time of acquisition feeding by the ticks. Importantly, subsequent tick transmission to susceptible cattle resulted in acute rickettsemia composed of organisms expressing only the same SGV1 and SGV2 variant types. This indicates that the msp2 expressed by organisms within the tick salivary gland predicts the variant type responsible for acute rickettsemia and disease. This restriction of transmitted A. marginale variant types, in contrast to the marked diversity within persistently infected cattle, supports development of MSP2 vaccines to prevent acute rickettsemia in tick-transmitted infections.  (+info)

Observations on the epidemiology of Rift Valley fever in Kenya. (3/145)

The epizootic range of Rift Valley fever in Kenya is defined from the results of virus isolations during epizootics, and form an extensive serological survey of cattle which were exposed during an epizootic. A study of the sera from a wide range of wild bovidae sampled immediately after the epizootic, showed that they did not act as reservoir or amplifying hosts for RVF. Virus isolation attempts from a variety of rodents proved negative. Rift Valley fever did not persist between epizootics by producing symptomless abortions in cattle in areas within its epizootic range. A sentinel herd sampled annually after an epizootic in 1968 revealed not one single seroconversion from 1969 to 1974. Certain forest and forest edge situations were postulated as enzootic for Rift Valley fever, and a small percentage of seroconversions were detected in cattle in these areas, born four years after the last epizootic. This has been the only evidence for the persistence of the virus in Kenya since 1968, and may be a part of the interepizootic maintenance cycle for Rift Valley fever in Kenya, which otherwise remains unknown.  (+info)

The differential transmissibility of Myxoma virus strains of differing virulence grades by the rabbit flea Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale). (4/145)

Laboratory studies showed that few rabbit fleas (Spilopsyllus cuniculi (Dale)) transmitted myxomatosis after removal from wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus (L) that had been infected for fever than 10-12 days, irrespective of the virulence of the myxoma virus strain involved. Rabbits infected with fully virulent (Grade I) strains died within 10-15 days and few fleas from these hosts became infective; averaging all the samples takem. 12% of the fleas were infective. Also, few fleas acquired infectivity on individual rabbits which covered from infection with attenuated strains; the mean was 8% infective. Rabbits which died between 17 and 44 days after infection had higher proportions of infective fleas at all sampling times; the mean was 42% infective. Male and female fleas transmitted virus with equal efficiency. For rabbits infected with any of the attenuated virus strains the mean percentage of infective fleas was inversely related to the survival time of the host. Rabbits infected with moderately attenuated strains (Grades IIIA and IIIB) had, on average, the highest proportion of infective fleas; hence such strains have a selective advantage and have become predominant under natural conditions in Britain. The changes that might occur if there is an increase in host resistance to myxomatosis are discussed.  (+info)

Anti-arthropod saliva antibodies among residents of a community at high risk for Lyme disease in California. (5/145)

The role of the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus) versus that of other potential arthropod vectors in the epidemiology of Lyme disease was evaluated by determining the prevalence of anti-arthropod saliva antibodies (AASA) among residents (n = 104) of a community at high-risk (CHR). Salivary gland extracts prepared from I. pacificus, the Pacific Coast tick (Dermacentor occidentalis), the western cone-nose bug (Triatoma protracta), and the western tree-hole mosquito (Aedes sierrensis) were used as antigens in an ELISA. Sera from 50 residents of the San Francisco Bay region in northern California and 51 residents of Imperial County in southern California served as comparison groups. The prevalence of AASA ranged from 2% for A. sierrensis to 79% for I. pacificus in study subjects, 0% for D. occidentalis to 36% for I. pacificus among residents of the San Francisco Bay region, and 6% for I. pacificus to 24% for A. sierrensis in residents of Imperial County. The associations between AASA and demographic factors, potential risk factors, probable Lyme disease, and seropositivity for Borrelia burgdorferi were assessed for 85 members of the CHR. Seropositivity for I. pacificus and B. burgdorferi were significantly correlated, the relative risk of seropositivity to B. burgdorferi was about 5 (31% versus 6%) for subjects who were seroreactive to I. pacificus, nearly every individual who was seropositive for B. burgdorferi had elevated levels of antibodies to I. pacificus, and the mean titer for antibodies to I. pacificus was significantly higher for subjects seropositive versus those seronegative for B. burgdorferi. Together, these findings support the widely held belief that I. pacificus is the primary vector of B. burgdorferi for humans in northern California, and they demonstrate the utility of the AASA method as an epidemiologic tool for studying emerging tick-borne infections.  (+info)

Temporal changes in outer surface proteins A and C of the lyme disease-associated spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, during the chain of infection in ticks and mice. (6/145)

The Lyme disease-associated spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, is maintained in enzootic cycles involving Ixodes ticks and small mammals. Previous studies demonstrated that B. burgdorferi expresses outer surface protein A (OspA) but not OspC when residing in the midgut of unfed ticks. However, after ticks feed on blood, some spirochetes stop making OspA and express OspC. Our current work examined the timing and frequency of OspA and OspC expression by B. burgdorferi in infected Ixodes scapularis nymphs as they fed on uninfected mice and in uninfected I. scapularis larvae and nymphs as they first acquired spirochetes from infected mice. Smears of midguts from previously infected ticks were prepared at 12- or 24-h intervals following attachment through repletion at 96 h, and spirochetes were stained for immunofluorescence for detection of antibodies to OspA and OspC. As shown previously, prior to feeding spirochetes in nymphs expressed OspA but not OspC. During nymphal feeding, however, the proportion of spirochetes expressing OspA decreased, while spirochetes expressing OspC became detectable. In fact, spirochetes rapidly began to express OspC, with the greatest proportion of spirochetes having this protein at 48 h of attachment and then with the proportion decreasing significantly by the time that the ticks had completed feeding. In vitro cultivation of the spirochete at different temperatures showed OspC to be most abundant when the spirochetes were grown at 37 degrees C. Yet, the synthesis of this protein waned with continuous passage at this temperature. Immunofluorescence staining of spirochetes in smears of midguts from larvae and nymphs still attached or having completed feeding on infected mice demonstrated that OspA but not OspC was produced by these spirochetes recently acquired from mice. Therefore, the temporal synthesis of OspC by spirochetes only in feeding ticks that were infected prior to the blood meal suggests that this surface protein is involved in transmission from tick to mammal but not from mammal to tick.  (+info)

Phylogeny of the genus flavivirus using complete coding sequences of arthropod-borne viruses and viruses with no known vector. (7/145)

Attempts to define the evolutionary relationships and origins of viruses in the genus Flavivirus are hampered by the lack of genetic information particularly amongst the non-vectored flaviviruses. Using a novel protocol for sequence determination, the first complete coding sequence of St Louis encephalitis virus and those of two representative non-vectored flaviviruses, Rio Bravo (isolated from bat) and Apoi (isolated from rodent), are reported. The encoded polyproteins of Rio Bravo and Apoi virus are the smallest described to date within the genus FLAVIVIRUS: The highest similarities with other flaviviruses were found in the NS3 and NS5 genes. The proteolytic cleavage sites for the viral serine protease were highly conserved among the flaviviruses completely sequenced to date. Comparative genetic amino acid alignments revealed that p-distance cut-off values of 0.330-0.470 distinguished the arthropod-borne viruses according to their recognized serogroups and Rio Bravo and Apoi virus were assigned to two distinct non-vectored virus groups. Within these serogroups, cladogenesis based on the complete ORF sequence was similar to trees based on envelope and NS5 sequences. In contrast, branching patterns at the deeper nodes of the tree were different from those reported in the previous study of NS5 sequences. The significance of these observations is discussed.  (+info)

Genetics of mosquito vector competence. (8/145)

Mosquito-borne diseases are responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Efforts to control mosquito-borne diseases have been impeded, in part, by the development of drug-resistant parasites, insecticide-resistant mosquitoes, and environmental concerns over the application of insecticides. Therefore, there is a need to develop novel disease control strategies that can complement or replace existing control methods. One such strategy is to generate pathogen-resistant mosquitoes from those that are susceptible. To this end, efforts have focused on isolating and characterizing genes that influence mosquito vector competence. It has been known for over 70 years that there is a genetic basis for the susceptibility of mosquitoes to parasites, but until the advent of powerful molecular biological tools and protocols, it was difficult to assess the interactions of pathogens with their host tissues within the mosquito at a molecular level. Moreover, it has been only recently that the molecular mechanisms responsible for pathogen destruction, such as melanotic encapsulation and immune peptide production, have been investigated. The molecular characterization of genes that influence vector competence is becoming routine, and with the development of the Sindbis virus transducing system, potential antipathogen genes now can be introduced into the mosquito and their effect on parasite development can be assessed in vivo. With the recent successes in the field of mosquito germ line transformation, it seems likely that the generation of a pathogen-resistant mosquito population from a susceptible population soon will become a reality.  (+info)

Lyme disease is typically diagnosed based on a combination of physical symptoms, medical history, and laboratory tests. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, which can help to clear the infection and alleviate symptoms.

Prevention of Lyme disease involves protecting against tick bites by using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing when outdoors, and conducting regular tick checks. Early detection and treatment of Lyme disease can help to prevent long-term complications, such as joint inflammation and neurological problems.

In this definition, we have used technical terms such as 'bacterial infection', 'blacklegged tick', 'Borrelia burgdorferi', and 'antibiotics' to provide a more detailed understanding of the medical concept.

1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2022). Encephalitis. Retrieved from
2. Mayo Clinic. (2022). Encephalitis. Retrieved from
3. MedlinePlus. (2022). Encephalitis. Retrieved from
4. UC Davis Health System. (2022). Encephalitis. Retrieved from
5. California Department of Public Health. (2022). Encephalitis. Retrieved from

In the medical field, "Encephalitis, California" refers to a type of inflammatory disease that affects the brain and is caused by a viral or bacterial infection. The term specifically refers to cases of encephalitis that occur in the state of California.

Encephalitis is a serious condition that can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, headache, confusion, seizures, and loss of consciousness. In severe cases, it can lead to long-term complications, such as brain damage, or even be fatal.

The causes of encephalitis in California are typically viral or bacterial infections that are transmitted through mosquitoes, ticks, or other vectors. The most common viruses that cause encephalitis in the state include West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and St. Louis encephalitis virus.

The diagnosis of encephalitis is typically made based on a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment for encephalitis typically involves supportive care, such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and medication to manage fever and pain. In severe cases, antiviral or antibacterial medications may be administered to help reduce the severity of the infection.

Prevention of encephalitis in California is focused on reducing the risk of mosquito-borne and tick-borne infections. This includes using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and avoiding areas with high mosquito or tick activity. Vaccines are also available for some of the viruses that cause encephalitis, such as West Nile virus.

In summary, "Encephalitis, California" refers to a serious inflammatory disease that affects the brain and is caused by viral or bacterial infections in the state of California. The diagnosis and treatment of encephalitis are based on clinical symptoms and laboratory tests, and prevention strategies focus on reducing the risk of mosquito-borne and tick-borne infections.

Some common types of arbovirus infections include:

* Dengue fever: A viral disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes and can cause severe flu-like symptoms.
* Chikungunya: A viral disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes and can cause joint pain, fever, and swelling of the limbs.
* Yellow fever: A viral disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes and can cause fever, chills, headache, and muscle pain.
* Zika virus disease: A viral disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes and can cause fever, rash, joint pain, and conjunctivitis (red eyes).

Arbovirus infections can be diagnosed through blood tests, such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) or ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), which can detect the presence of viral antigens or genetic material in the blood. Treatment for arbovirus infections is typically supportive, such as providing fluids and pain relief medication to manage symptoms.

Prevention of arbovirus infections primarily involves controlling the populations of mosquitoes and ticks that transmit the viruses, through measures such as:

* Using insecticides to kill mosquitoes and ticks.
* Wearing protective clothing and applying insect repellent when outdoors.
* Eliminating standing water around homes and communities to reduce mosquito breeding sites.
* Implementing public health measures such as spraying insecticides and installing window screens to reduce the risk of mosquito bites.

Overall, arbovirus infections can be a significant public health concern, particularly in areas where the viruses are common and transmission is frequent. Effective prevention and control measures, such as those listed above, can help reduce the risk of infection and manage outbreaks when they do occur.

Symptoms of arbovirus encephalitis can include fever, headache, confusion, seizures, and coma. In severe cases, the infection can be fatal.

Diagnosis of arbovirus encephalitis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Laboratory tests may include blood tests to detect the presence of antibodies against the virus or PCR (polymerase chain reaction) to detect the virus itself in the blood or cerebrospinal fluid.

Treatment of arbovirus encephalitis typically involves supportive care, such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and pain management. Antiviral medications may be used in some cases to help reduce the severity of the infection. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide more intensive care.

Prevention of arbovirus encephalitis primarily involves protecting against mosquito bites, such as using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and avoiding areas with high mosquito activity. Eliminating standing water around homes and communities can also help reduce the risk of mosquito breeding and transmission of the virus. Vaccines are not available for most arboviruses, but research is ongoing to develop effective vaccines against these viruses.

Bunyaviridae infections can be severe and potentially life-threatening, especially in certain populations such as young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems. Symptoms of Bunyaviridae infections can include fever, headache, muscle pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and in severe cases, hemorrhagic symptoms such as bleeding from the eyes, ears, or gastrointestinal tract.

There is no specific treatment for Bunyaviridae infections, but supportive care and management of symptoms can help alleviate the severity of the illness. Prevention of Bunyaviridae infections includes avoiding insect bites by using protective clothing and insect repellents, as well as controlling the populations of potential vector insects in affected areas.

Examples of diseases caused by Bunyaviridae viruses include Rift Valley fever, which is common in Africa and the Middle East, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, which is found in parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Other examples of Bunyaviridae infections include La Crosse encephalitis, which is found in North America, and Japanese encephalitis, which is prevalent in parts of Asia.

It's important to note that Bunyaviridae infections can be challenging to diagnose, as the symptoms can be similar to other viral or bacterial infections. Laboratory testing, such as PCR or ELISA assays, is often necessary to confirm the presence of a Bunyaviridae virus.

Prevention and control measures for Bunyaviridae infections include avoiding insect bites, controlling vector populations, and implementing public health measures such as surveillance, education, and vaccination programs. Research into the development of vaccines and antiviral drugs against Bunyaviridae viruses is ongoing, but there are currently no licensed treatments available for these infections.

Alphaviruses are a group of viruses that cause a range of diseases, including arthritis, encephalitis, and fever. These viruses are typically found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world and are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes or other insects.

There are several different types of alphaviruses, including:

* Chikungunya virus (CHIKV)
* Sindbis virus (SINV)
* Ross River virus (RRV)
* Barmah Forest virus (BFV)

The symptoms of alphavirus infections can vary depending on the specific type of virus and the severity of the infection. Common symptoms include:

* Fever
* Headache
* Muscle and joint pain
* Swelling and inflammation
* Rash
* Fatigue
* Weakness

In some cases, alphavirus infections can lead to more serious complications, such as meningitis or encephalitis (inflammation of the brain). These complications are more likely to occur in older adults or people with weakened immune systems.

There is no specific treatment for alphavirus infections, but symptoms can be managed with over-the-counter pain relievers, fever reducers, and anti-inflammatory medications. Rest, hydration, and supportive care may also be recommended. Prevention is key to avoiding alphavirus infections, and this includes protecting against mosquito bites by using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and staying in air-conditioned or screened areas. Vaccines are also being developed to protect against some of the most common types of alphaviruses.

Arthropod Management Tests, vol.28, p. L. "Pawpaw". California Rare Fruit Growers. Archived from the original on July 20, 2011 ... Sayers, Thomas DJ; Steinbauer, Martin J; Miller, Rebecca E (April 2019). "Visitor or vector? The extent of rove beetle ( ... Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) pollination and floral interactions". Arthropod-Plant Interactions. 13 (5): 685-701. doi:10.1007/ ...
More recently, some authorities have published increasing concerns about the role of more and more species of arthropod vectors ... Azad AF, Beard CB (1998). "Rickettsial pathogens and their arthropod vectors". Emerging Infect. Dis. 4 (2): 179-86. doi:10.3201 ... has been demonstrated to be a competent vector for Rickettsia felis. More unexpectedly, cells of some important disease vector ... Until recently, fleas have been the recognised vectors of Rickettsia felis and it is present in cat flea populations of North ...
Azad, A. F.; Beard, C. B. (1998). "Rickettsial pathogens and their arthropod vectors". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 4 (2): 179 ...
Arthropods as Vectors of Emerging Disease. Springer. pp. 181, 183. ISBN 9783642288425. Armed Forces Pest Control Board ... Militarily Important Vector-Borne Diseases with Short Incubation Periods (. ...
Some Reoviruses are transmitted from arthropod vectors. All are RNA viruses. One family of enveloped viruses causes ... Viruses transmitted almost exclusively by arthropods: Bunyavirus, Flavivirus, and Togavirus. ...
Mattingly PF (1965). Taylor AE (ed.). "The evolution of parasite-arthropod vector systems". Evolution of Parasites. Symposium ... more than half of the 19 hematophagous arthropod taxa). About 14,000 species of arthropods are hematophagous, even including ... In addition to these biological adaptations that have evolved to help blood-feeding arthropods locate hosts, there is evidence ... Ribeiro JM (September 1995). "Blood-feeding arthropods: live syringes or invertebrate pharmacologists?". Infectious Agents and ...
Brouqui P, Raoult D (October 2006). "Arthropod-borne diseases in homeless". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1078 (1): 223-35. Bibcode: ... Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 9 (3): 345-7. doi:10.1089/vbz.2008.0189. PMID 19492943. "Rickettsialpox: eMedicine Infectious ... Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 8 (1): 111-5. doi:10.1089/vbz.2007.0135. PMID 18171106. ... Cosmopolitan arthropods, All stub articles, Acari stubs). ...
Arthropods form a major group of pathogen vectors with mosquitoes, flies, sand flies, lice, fleas, ticks, and mites ... "Vector-borne diseases". Articles about vector-borne disease. Vaccine News Daily. Chicago. WHO page on vector-borne diseases ... or vectors, such as mosquitoes or ticks." "Vector-borne diseases". "Vector". WordNet Search 3.1. Princeton University. ... "8.20D: Arthropods as Vectors". 23 June 2017. "PEOI Foundations of Public Health". "CDC - Chagas Disease - Detailed Fact Sheet ...
Vectors of Plant Pathogens, 1980. Invertebrate Systems in Vitro, 1980. Vectors of Disease Agents, 1981. Mycoplasma Diseases of ... Arthropod Cell culture Systems, 1994. Forest Trees and Palms- Diseases and Control, 1996. Invertebrate Cell Culture-Novel ... Plant Diseases and Vectors-Ecology and Epidemiology, 1981. Invertebrate Cell Culture Applications, 1982. Pathogens, Vectors and ... Aphids as Virus Vector, 1977. Insect and Plant Viruses-An Atlas, 1977. Viruses and Environment, 1978. Invertebrate Tissue ...
Syed, Z (2015). "Chemical ecology and olfaction in arthropod vectors of diseases". Current Opinion in Insect Science. 10: 83-89 ...
Syed, Zainulabeuddin (2015). "Chemical ecology and olfaction in arthropod vectors of diseases". Current Opinion in Insect ... While CO2 has been found to be an attractant in every arthropod studied and it is very important in mosquito monitoring and ... Among blood-feeding arthropods, these compounds are commonly broken into three classes: short chain carboxylic acids, aldehydes ... Many insects (and other arthropods) have been shown to avoid areas containing N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide or DEET. They ...
Black, W.C, IV (2003) Evolution of arthropod disease vectors. In: C.L. Greenblatt and M. Spigelman (eds) Emerging Pathogens: ... Labandeira, C.C. (2006) Four phases of plant-arthropod associations in deep time Archived 2012-04-06 at the Wayback Machine. ... Nagler, C.; Haug, J. T. (2015). From Fossil Parasitoids to Vectors: Insects as Parasites and Hosts. Advances in Parasitology. ... Srivastava, A.K. (2007). "Fossil evidences of gall-inducing arthropod-plant interactions in the Indian subcontinent". Oriental ...
Poorbaugh JH (June 1993). "Cryptic arthropod infestations: separating fact from fiction" (PDF). Bulletin of the Society for ... Vector Ecology. 18 (1): 3-5. ISSN 0146-6429. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-12-15. Retrieved 2020-08-04. Shelomi M ( ...
"Cryptic arthropod infestations: separating fact from fiction" (PDF). Bulletin of the Society for Vector Ecology. 18 (1): 3-5. ...
Ramasamy, M. S.; Ramasamy, R. (1990). "role of host immunity to arthropod vectors in regulating the transmission of vector ... Arthropod infection with Wolbachia can cause sterility and inhibit the transmission of vector-borne diseases. Ecology portal A ... These models are also used in arthropod vectors and disease transmission. Wolbachia species are common insect endosymbionts and ... Aposymbiotic vectors, especially insects, have been used to study disease transmission. Furthermore, aposymbiotic and dysbiotic ...
They are primarily spread through arthropod vectors (mainly ticks and mosquitoes). The family gets its name from the yellow ... The virus is transmitted via vectors (ticks and mosquitoes). The family has four genera: Genus Flavivirus (includes Dengue ...
The house-mouse mite is the only known vector of the disease rickettsialpox. House dust mites, found in warm and humid places ... Arthropods portal Chigger bite Copra itch Gamasoidosis Grain itch Grocer's itch List of mites associated with cutaneous ... Mites are small arachnids (eight-legged arthropods). Mites span two large orders of arachnids, the Acariformes and the ... ISBN 978-81-315-0104-7. Balashov YS (1972). "Bloodsucking Ticks - Vectors of Diseases of Man and Animals". Miscellaneous ...
Arthropod vectors are thought to be the primary source of infection, although M. haemofelis is also known to be transmitted ... Blood-sucking arthropod vectors including fleas, mosquitoes and ticks are thought to be the primary mode of dissemination of M ... 2018 Apr.) Arthropod vectors appear to be the primary mechanism of M. haemofelis transmission. Mycoplasma DNA sequences have ... Given that humans often cohabit with cats and that species of blood-sucking arthropods inhabit most temperate regions, ...
The most common way the disease is spread is via arthropod vectors. Ticks involved include Amblyomma, Dermacentor, ... highlighting this new vector of risk. An outbreak of tularemia occurred in Kosovo in 1999-2000. In 2004, three researchers at ...
Mosbacher M, Elliott SP, Shehab Z, Pinnas JL, Klotz JH, Klotz SA (Sep-Oct 2010). "Cat scratch disease and arthropod vectors: ... The currently accepted model explaining the infection cycle holds that the transmitting vectors are blood-sucking arthropods ... At this point, they simply wait until they are taken up with the erythrocytes by a blood-sucking arthropod.[citation needed] ... Billeter SA, Levy MG, Chomel BB, Breitschwerdt EB (Mar 2008). "Vector transmission of Bartonella species with emphasis on the ...
"Diversity of Bartonella species detected in arthropod vectors from animals in Australia". Comparative Immunology, Microbiology ...
Through feeding, insects or other arthropod vectors can transmit diseases to humans. Medical entomologists and other medical ... Dengue fever - Vectors: Aedes aegypti (main vector) Aedes albopictus (minor vector). 50 million people are infected by dengue ... are the main vectors. Lyme disease - Vectors: several species of the genus Ixodes Alkhurma virus (KFDV) - Vector: tick Kyasanur ... Vector: Ixodes scapularis Rift Valley Fever (RVF) - Vectors: mosquitoes in the genera Aedes and Culex Scrub typhus - Vector: ...
... is classified as NKV, or no-known vector. This means that it has no known arthropod vector. However, there is some ... Flaviviridae are often found in arthropods, such as mosquitoes and ticks, and may also infect humans. The genus Flavivirus ... Flaviviruses are typically divided into three groups: mosquito borne, tick borne, or non-vector. ... NTR which is conserved in mosquito-borne flaviviruses suggesting ability to infect arthropods. The viral envelope protein (E) ...
Common vectors include bacteria, fungi, nematodes, arthropods and arachnids. Furthermore, human intervention, including ... have resulted in plant viruses relying on the wind and soil to transmit seeds as well as vectors. Vectors either transmit the ... However, the virus is dependent upon physical damage, generated naturally by the wind and feeding of vectors or by human ... MicrobiologyBytes: Plant viruses Vectors of Plant Viruses Descriptions of Plant Viruses (Wikipedia introduction cleanup from ...
This timing increases the chance that they will be picked up by a blood-feeding arthropod vector, which are often more active ... The microfilariae are taken up by blood-feeding arthropod vectors (the "intermediate hosts"). In the intermediate host the ... in the arthropod vector (p. 364). Some consider them to be the first larval stage, such as "microfilariae; i.e. first larva (= ... with the help of blood-feeding arthropod vectors. This system is seen in the life cycle of Elaeophora schneideri. The adults of ...
doi:10.1128/JVI.01183-13 S. A. Babayan et al., Predicting reservoir hosts and arthropod vectors from evolutionary signatures in ... A machine learning algorithm designed to predict animal reservoirs and arthropod vectors suggests the natural host may be ... cattle and the insect vector a biting midge. This prediction is consistent with what is currently known about the transmission ...
"The ecological significance of arthropod vectors of plant, animal, and human pathogens" (PDF). Trends in Parasitology. Cell ... "Studies on Avian Malaria in Vectors and Hosts of Encephalitis in Kern County, California - II. Infections in Mosquito Vectors ... Besides vectoring PD they are also themselves a sucking pest and Hewitt et al., 1949 found they will often additionally go ... See § Cotton and § Arthropods in peach.) Two-Spotted Spider Mite is also a major pest of strawberry, see Production of ...
... arthropod vectors are considered a significant source of infection. As vector patterns change with warming temperatures, C. ... This disease is spread between infected animals by vectors, and through contamination of the environment with exudate from ...
Blitvich, Bradley J.; Firth, Andrew E. (June 21, 2017). "A Review of Flaviviruses that Have No Known Arthropod Vector". Viruses ... The Flavivirus genus includes nearly 80 viruses, both vector-borne and no known vector (NKV) species. Known flavivirus vector- ... Since no vector has been identified for MODV, the exact mode transmission is not known. However, the studied field strain of ... There are other anti-genetically and genetically related viruses which also have no known vector such as Jutiapa virus, the ...
For arboviruses, vectors are commonly mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies and other arthropods that consume the blood of vertebrates ... Arbovirus is an informal name for any virus that is transmitted by arthropod vectors. The term arbovirus is a portmanteau word ... The warm climate conditions found in tropical areas allows for year-round transmission by the arthropod vectors. Other ... Transmission between the vector and the host occurs when the vector feeds on the blood of the vertebrate, wherein the virus ...
However, recent studies show that the disease can be transmitted to both humans and arthropods. The camelpox virus is spread in ... three ways: direct contact, indirect contact, and insect vectors.[citation needed] In direct contact infection, a camel becomes ...
Viruses transmitted by arthropods such as ticks are an emerging field of study. Commonly mentioned viruses include ... Semenza, Jan C; Suk, Jonathan E (2018-01-01). "Vector-borne diseases and climate change: a European perspective". FEMS ... arthropod', and while they are often thought of in the context of disease transmission, they are also known to cause direct ... Journal of Vector Borne Diseases. 58 (3): 183-192. doi:10.4103/0972-9062.321739 (inactive 2022-11-21). ISSN 0972-9062. PMID ...
They also commonly eat grass, shoots, and many other forms of plant matter, as well as fungi, insects and other arthropods, ... and are an important vector for dispersal of the spores of subterranean sporocarps (truffles) which have co-evolved with these ...
"The Gut Microbiome of the Vector Lutzomyia Longipalpis Is Essential for Survival of Leishmania Infantum." MBio, vol. 8, no. 1, ... Graça-Souza, C. Maya-Monteiro, G. O. Paiva-Silva et al., "Adaptations against heme toxicity in blood-feeding arthropods," ... Vectors. 9 (1): 580. doi:10.1186/s13071-016-1866-x. PMC 5109651. PMID 27842601. Lima, L., Mesquita, M., Skrip, L. et al. DNA ... the vector of Leishmania donovani chagasi Cunha & Chagas and its significance to kala-azar distribution in South America". ...
... and pyrethroid insecticides in insects and other arthropods that result from reduced sensitivity of the nervous system caused ... "Evolution of Resistance to Insecticide in Disease Vectors". In Tibayrenc, Michel (ed.). Genetics and Evolution of Infectious ...
Animal vectors include birds, deer, and rodents such as voles, squirrels, and chipmunks. Many species of trees, such as Quercus ... Microscopic arthropods such as mites feed directly on mycelium and release valuable nutrients for the uptake of other organisms ... Soil-dwelling arthropods: their diversity and functional roles. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service General ... Therefore, nearly all truffles depend on mycophagous animal vectors for spore dispersal. This is analogous to the dispersal of ...
... a non-taxonomic term for viruses borne by arthropod vectors. In 1928, an outbreak of acute febrile arthritis was recorded in ... This is again based on the repelling of vectors such as mosquitoes through the use of bright colours. Lastly, high risk areas ... Following, burning citronella candles are based on the same principle, that it repels insects that are vectors of the virus. ... Scherer WF, Funkenbusch M, Buescher EL, Izumit (1962). "Sagiyama virus, a new group A arthropod-borne virus from Japan. I. ...
Hard-bodied ticks of the genus Ixodes are the vectors of Lyme disease (also the vector for Babesia). Most infections are caused ... Dotters-Katz SK, Kuller J, Heine RP (September 2013). "Arthropod-borne bacterial diseases in pregnancy". Obstetrical & ... Companion Vector-Borne Diseases. Archived from the original on 7 June 2019. Retrieved 21 May 2019. Eisen L, Eisen RJ (September ... In North America, the black-legged tick or deer tick (Ixodes scapularis) is the main vector on the East Coast. The lone star ...
Many wasp species are parasitoids; the females deposit eggs on or in a host arthropod on which the larvae then feed. Some ... Sühs; Somavilla; Putzke; Köhler (2009). "Pollen vector wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi ( ... Arthropod Structure & Development. 31 (2): 103-120. doi:10.1016/s1467-8039(02)00025-7. PMID 18088974. Hoell, H.V.; Doyen, J.T ... Pollen vector wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brazil]. ...
Ogbu O, Ajuluchukwu E, Uneke CJ (March 2007). "Lassa fever in West African sub-region: an overview". J Vector Borne Dis. 44 (1 ... Arthropod-borne viral fevers and viral haemorrhagic fevers, Biological weapons, Hemorrhagic fevers, Rodent-carried diseases, ... Ogbu O, Ajuluchukwu E, Uneke CJ (2007). "Lassa fever in West African sub-region: an overview". Journal of Vector Borne Diseases ... They have developed a replication-competent vaccine against Lassa virus based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vectors ...
... evidence for pathogen transmission by a male arthropod vector". International Journal for Parasitology. 36 (10-11): 1167-1173. ... Vectors. 11 (1): 272. doi:10.1186/s13071-018-2842-4. ISSN 1756-3305. PMC 5924467. PMID 29703231. v t e (Articles with short ... Vectors. 7: 516. doi:10.1186/s13071-014-0516-4. ISSN 1756-3305. PMC 4243723. PMID 25404259. Otranto, D.; Cantacessi, C.; ... variegata can serve as a vector of Thelazia callipaeda roundworms. The species was first described as Amiota variegata (Fallén ...
Mosquitoes and ticks are vectors that can transmit ailments but are also pests because of the distress caused by their bites. ... Being exceedingly minute, many plant mites are spread by wind, although others use insects or other arthropods as a means to ... Animals able to live in the dry conditions found in buildings include many arthropods such as beetles, cockroaches, moths, and ... van Emden, H. F.; Service, M. W. (2004). Pest and Vector Control. Cambridge University Press. pp. 8-11. ISBN 978-0-521-01083-2 ...
... there is limited knowledge about the arthropod communities they harbor and interact with. Terrestrial arthropod communities ... Vectors. 11 (1): 342. doi:10.1186/s13071-018-2928-z. ISSN 1756-3305. PMC 5994096. PMID 29884202. Bergman, Paul S.; Schumer, ... Differentiation of arthropod communities by plant species Bipartite plot for the COI gene, showing from which plants each ... Stork, Nigel E. (2018). "How Many Species of Insects and Other Terrestrial Arthropods Are There on Earth?". Annual Review of ...
Turkeypox, like all avipoxviruses, is transmitted either through skin contact or by arthropods (typically mosquitos) acting as ... Weli, Simon C; Tryland, Morten (December 2011). "Avipoxviruses: infection biology and their use as vaccine vectors". Virology ... Transmission of avipoxvirus occurs through a mosquito vector. Timoney, John Francis (1988), Hagan and Bruner's Microbiology and ... mechanical vectors. Turkeypox virus was first reported in a turkey flock in New York by E.L. Burnett, and may be identified by ...
It is spread by aphids vectors, which means that aphids do not cause the AV-1, but they do spread it. The virus consists of a ... The virus is transmitted by arthropods of the order Hemiptera, family Aphididae; Aphis craccivora, Myzus persicae. The ... principal natural vector(s) are Myzus persicae. The virus is not transmitted by Aphis gossypii, Macrosiphum euphorbiae. The ...
Like arbovirus (arthropod borne) and tibovirus (tick borne) the name refers to its method of transmission, known as its vector ... A robovirus is a zoonotic virus that is transmitted by a rodent vector (i.e., rodent borne). Roboviruses mainly belong to the ... Vector- and Rodent-Borne Diseases" in Human Health in a Changing Climate. ed. Séguin, Jacinthe. Health Canada, Ch. 5, p. 188 " ...
Among the vectors for the spread in Russia of African swine fever virus was the 'distribution' of 'infected pig products' ... It is the only virus with a double-stranded DNA genome known to be transmitted by arthropods. ASFV is a large (175-215 nm), ... were vectors for the virus's spread, said the Food and Agriculture Organization report-and evidence of that was "repeated ... which likely act as a vector, with no disease signs. It does not cause disease in humans. ASFV is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa ...
It has been suggested that this vector could be an arthropod rather than a mosquito or the vector of most haemosporidian ... it has been suggested that it could possibly be an arthropod other than a mosquito. It is also hypothesized that the vectors of ... The vector of Nycteria has been hard to acquire and identify. Because of this, the life cycle of Nycteria still remains unknown ... It is composed of vector-borne haemosporidian parasites that infect a wide range of mammals such as primates, rodents and bats ...
The mite was reported as capable of vectoring human typhus, but these reports are not generally accepted. The bites tend to be ... Parasitic arthropods of mammals). ... have proved that the mite is at least capable of vectoring ... No human disease has been definitively found to be naturally vectored by this mite. Lab demonstrations ...
Ann Trop Med Public Health 2015;8:83-7 Gratz N.G. (2004). The vector-borne human diseases in Europe. Their distribution and ... Arthropod-borne viral fevers and viral haemorrhagic fevers, Insect-borne diseases). ... Pappataci fever (also known as Phlebotomus fever and, somewhat confusingly, sandfly fever and three-day fever) is a vector- ... 25-6. Tesh, R.B. (1984). "Transovarial transmission of arboviruses in their invertebrate vectors". In K.F. Harris (ed.). ...
Moreover, those two viruses do not have an arthropod vector as most of the viruses in the family Flaviviridae do. The infection ... of a bat with Entebbe Bat Virus is unknown due to the fact that it no longer needs a vector of transfer. The Entebbe Bat Virus ...
Theiler, Max and Downs, W. G. The Arthropod-Borne Viruses of Vertebrates: An Account of the Rockefeller Foundation Virus ... Thomas H. G. Aitken The CDC Fellowship Training Program at Yale on vector-borne diseases Caribbean Epidemiology Center website ... The Arthropod-Borne Viruses of Vertebrates in 1973. Downs was an avid reader with a huge private library including works in ...
This fly often breeds in carrion and feces, making it a possible vector for disease. The larvae of this species can cause ... Forensic Entomology: The Utility of Arthropods in Legal Investigations, CRC Press, 2001 ISBN 0-8493-8120-7, 978-0-8493-8120-1 ... Goddard, Jerome (2007). Physician's Guide to Arthropods of Medical Importance. CRC Press. pp. 63, 194, 215. ISBN 0-8493-8539-3 ... pernix has been accounted for as a dipteran species that may serve as a mechanical vector for disease, especially if it ...
... research concerned the interactions between animal and human disease agents and their transmitting arthropod vectors, ... Burgdorfer, W. Arthropod-Borne Spirochetoses. A Historical Perspective, Editorial, Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 201: 1 ... Burgdorfer, W. Discovery of the Lyme disease spirochete and its relation to tick vectors. Yale J. Biol. Med. 57:518-520, 1984. ... "Keynote Address - The Complexity of Vector-borne Spirochetes (Borrelia spp)" (PDF). 12th International Conference on Lyme ...
... and not by its saliva as occurs in most bloodsucking arthropod vectors such as malaria mosquitoes. Triatomine infestation ... Brenner RR, Stoka AM (1987) Chagas' disease vectors. I, II and III. CRC Press. Boca Ratón Dujardin JP, Schofield CJ, Panzera F ... Rozendaal, Jan A. (1997). Vector control: Methods for use by individuals and communities. World Health Organization. p. 215. ... are considered important vectors. Also, proteins released from their bites have been known to induce anaphylaxis in sensitive ...
The chosen insect vector of a plant virus will often be the determining factor in that virus's host range: it can only infect ... "Mechanisms of Arthropod Transmission of Plant and Animal Viruses". Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 63 (1): 128-148 ... Viral vectors based on tobacco mosaic virus include those of the magnICON® and TRBO plant expression technologies. ... Most plants do not move, and so plant-to-plant transmission usually involves vectors (such as insects). Plant cells are ...
The most common intermediate hosts for H. nana are arthropods (e.g. flour beetles). When an egg is ingested by the definitive ... Vector-Borne Diseases, Volume 1, 2021, 100023, ISSN 2667-114X, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crpvbd.2021.100023 Ortiz JJ, Favennec ...
July 2018). "Repurposing isoxazoline veterinary drugs for control of vector-borne human diseases". Proceedings of the National ... selective inhibition of arthropod γ-aminobutyric acid- and L-glutamate-gated chloride channels and insecticidal/acaricidal ... Vectors. 7 (1): 87. doi:10.1186/1756-3305-7-87. PMC 3975339. PMID 24606886. Ranjan S, Young D, Sun F (July 2018). "A single ... Vectors. 11 (1): 385. doi:10.1186/s13071-018-2927-0. PMC 6029119. PMID 29970135. Lee J (21 May 2014). "New Flea/Tick Medication ...
... virus may be transferred from monkeys or another reservoir host to humans by infected arthropods that act as mechanical vectors ...
Geographical distribution of arthropod-borne diseases and their principal vectors  World Health Organization. Division of ... Current and possible future techniques for the identification of blood meals of vector haematophagous arthropods / by R. S. ... Development of new techniques for the identification of host blood meals in arthropod vectors : report of the interlaboratory ... Chemical methods for the control of arthropod vectors and pests of public health importance  ...
Rickettsial pathogens and their arthropod vectors A F Azad et al. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998 Apr-Jun. ... Rickettsial pathogens and their arthropod vectors A F Azad 1 , C B Beard ... This article examines the common features of the host-pathogen relationship and of the arthropod vectors of the typhus and ... While studies often focus primarily on the vertebrate host, the arthropod vector is often more important in the natural ...
Targeting the Pathogen within the Arthropod Vector NOT-AI-22-074. NIAID ... Arthropod vectors transmit viruses, bacteria, parasites, and nematodes to humans resulting in high morbidity and mortality ... Targeting the pathogen within the arthropod vector;. *Using transgenics targeting ligand/receptor molecules in the pathogen/ ... vector or that hinder development of the pathogen in the vector;. *Using vector symbionts to hamper pathogen development and/or ...
Arthropod Vectors. Some bunyaviruses (RVF virus) and flaviviruses (dengue and yellow fever) can be transmitted by the bites of ... 6, Mosquitoes, Ticks & Other Arthropods).. For VHFs that can be transmitted person to person (EVD, MVD, Lassa Fever, CCHF), ... Each virus is associated with ≥1 nonhuman host or vector species, restricting the virus and the initial contamination to the ... Efficacy and effectiveness of an rVSV-vectored vaccine in preventing Ebola virus disease: final results from the Guinea ring ...
I ask questions about the temporal biology of mosquito vectors of human disease at two temporal timescales: The daily 24 hour ... There are no vaccines for most vector-borne diseases. Controlling mosquitoes, therefore, is often the only way to prevent ...
Start Over You searched for: Subjects Arthropod Vectors ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Arthropod Vectors ... Arthropod Vectors. Bacterial Infections -- transmission. Parasitic Diseases -- transmission 2. Kan emerken hastalık bulaştıran ...
Chemical methods for the control of arthropod vectors and pests of public health importance. by World Health Organization. ... Host regulated developmental mechanisms in vector arthropods : proceedings of the Vero Beach Symposium, Vero Beach, Florida, ... Chemical methods for the control of arthropod vectors and pests of public health importance.Availability: Items available for ... Chemical methods for the control of arthropod vectors and pests of public health importance.Availability: Items available for ...
This study presents the first robust evidence that canine haemoplasmas may be transmitted without arthropod vectors drawing ... Transmission of haemotropic mycoplasma in the absence of arthropod vectors within a closed population of dogs on ... Transmission of haemotropic mycoplasma in the absence of arthropod vectors within a closed ... Here, we treated forty dogs with two different topically-acting ectoparasiticide products able to prevent vector-borne pathogen ...
Arthropod vectors. In: Monath TP, ed. St. Louis encephalitis. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, 1980:313-79. ... Participating state epidemiologists, veterinarians, and vector-control coordinators. Arbovirus Diseases Br, Div of Vector-Borne ... the primary vector of SLE virus in Florida) (5), 2) ensure proper screening of residential doors and windows, 3) wear long- ... outbreaks and reducing human risk through vector control and modification of human activity patterns (4). For example, in ...
This invention claims nine major salivary proteins from the sand fly vector of Leishmania major, Phlebotomus papatasi, nucleic ...
Bacteria of the genus are transmitted from arthropod vectors and primarily. Bacteria of the genus are transmitted from ... arthropod vectors and primarily infect cells of the mammalian endothelial system. of serum sensitive are small gram-negative ... obligate intracellular α-protebacteria that are typically transmitted to mammalian hosts via an arthropod vector. The "spotted ... rather than with those bacterias containing the unfilled vector family pet22b (crimson trace).. ...
Notice of Special Interest (NOSI)-Targeting the Pathogen Within the Arthropod Vector. For the published notice of special ... Notice of Special Interest (NOSI)-Targeting the Pathogen Within the Arthropod Vector ... Targeting the Pathogen Within the Arthropod Vector.. Alternatives to Benzathine Penicillin for Treatment of Syphilis. Note: ...
Surveillance of Arthropod-Borne Viruses and Their Vectors in the Mediterranean and Black Sea Regions Within the MediLabSecure ... The aim of this review is to give an exhaustive overview of arboviruses and their vectors in the region. ... Arboviruses, viruses transmitted by arthropods such as mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies, and fleas are a significant threat to ... and vectors) by reinforcing capacity building and harmonizing national surveillance systems to address this important human and ...
Avoid bites by arthropod vectors. Use insect repellants and other protective measures, eg, proper clothing. ... Parasit Vectors. 2018 Dec 19. 11 (1):663. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. [Full Text]. ...
... and epithelial cells in their invertebrate arthropod vectors. Rickettsiae are transmitted to humans through infected arthropods ... Rickettsial pathogens and their arthropod vectors. Emerg Infect Dis. 1998;4:179-86. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... and hard ticks serve as both vectors and reservoir hosts for most spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae (1). ...
Association of salivary acetylcholinesterase with arthropod vectors of disease - (Peer Reviewed Journal) ... Potential Involvement of Salivary Cholinesterase Activity in Arthropod Vector-Borne Disease Transmission - (Abstract Only) ... Livestock Arthropod Pest Research Unit Biological Science Lab Technician (Microbiology). Phone: (830) 223-2706 Fax: 2700 ... ARS Home » Plains Area » Kerrville, Texas » Knipling-Bushland U.S. Livestock Insects Research Laboratory » Livestock Arthropod ...
Arthropods *: Numerous isol. from mosquitoes in endemic areas; few from other arthropods. U.S. Main vector for birds, Culiseta ... Vertebrate (species and organ) and arthropod No. isolations/No. tested No. with antibody/No. tested Test used Country and ...
Aedes; Arthropod Vectors; Chikungunya virus; Culex; Dengue Virus; Disease Outbreaks; Epidemiology; Genetics, Microbial; ... Genetic Drift during Systemic Arbovirus Infection of Mosquito Vectors Leads to Decreased Relative Fitness during Host Switching ... Isolation of a Novel Insect-Specific Flavivirus from Culiseta melanura in the Northeastern United States Vector-Borne And ... Genetic Drift during Systemic Arbovirus Infection of Mosquito Vectors Leads to Decreased Relative Fitness during Host Switching ...
... mosquitoes or other arthropod vectors. The use of any means of public travel by people infected with HIV does not pose a risk ... These vector mosquitoes are found near human habitations and often are present indoors. Prevention There is no vaccine for ... mosquito vector density, and prevalence of infection, can have a marked effect on local malaria transmission patterns. Risk of ...
Hard ticks are the vectors for TBEV, transmitting the virus to a variety of animals. The importance of these animals in the ... Like any other arbovirus, TBEV relies on complex interactions between vectors, reservoir hosts, and the environment for ... For TBEV transmission, the arthropod vectors are primarily hard ticks. In Europe, the most important tick vector is Ixodes ... They have managed to adapt to mammalian hosts as well as to arthropod vectors, adapting their replication cycle to two highly ...
... hematophagous arthropods must combat the hosts natural hemostatic and inflammatory responses. Salivary proteins of blood- ... Ribeiro J.M.C. Blood-feeding arthropods: Live syringes or invertebrate pharmacologists? Infect. Agents Dis. 1995;4:143-152. - ... NF-κB-Like Signaling Pathway REL2 in Immune Defenses of the Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae. Zakovic S, Levashina EA. Zakovic ... Salivary gland-specific gene expression in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Arcà B, Lombardo F, Capurro M, della Torre A, ...
arthropod vector biology and vectorborne diseases. *epidemiology and mathematical modelling of animal and human infections ...
Categories: Arthropod Vectors Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
USA-354 - WHO CC for Arthropod-Borne Viruses Reference and Research. USA-397 - WHO CC for Bacterial Vector-Borne Diseases. USA- ... ARG-29 - WHO CC for Insecticide Resistance and Insecticide Research on Chagas and Dengue Vectors ...
Arthropod-borne Diseases and Their Vectors in New York State. Health News 37, 4-18. ...
insect vector; entomology; surveillance; nucleic acid sequencing; arthropod disease vectors. Eligibility. Citizenship: Open to ... Insect Vectors and Emerging Vector-borne Diseases The successful candidate will be joining a multidisciplinary team of ... microbiology or a related discipline within the past five years and have demonstrated experience in arthropod disease vectors, ... Molecular Biology of Emerging Vector-borne Diseases Location. Naval Research Laboratory, DC, Center for Bio/Molecular Science ...
Find Expert Witnesses in Fungus, Termite & Pest Control
Their vectors are mostly hematophagic arthropods such as fleas, lice, ticks, and mosquitoes.[21][28] For example, the deer tick ... Arthropods. Parasitoid wasps. 650,000[60]. Yes. Yes. Yes. 1. Yes Parasitism is widespread in the animal kingdom,[61] and has ... Anopheles mosquito vector,. attracted by odour of. infected human host[35]. - Variations[edit]. Among the many variations on ... Borrelia, the cause of Lyme disease and relapsing fever, is transmitted by vectors, ticks of the genus Ixodes, from the ...
Journal of arthropod-borne diseases. 2014 Jul 16;9(1):60-70. PMID:26114144 ... Biological variations in the vectors might complicate the control of malaria transmission, and vector control strategy depends ... Extensive and long-term use of chemicals in malaria vector control programmes leads to changes in vector behaviour (8). ... To combat malaria transmission and vectors it is necessary to understand the behaviour of the vector species. Spatial ...
In this study, we investigated whether it is plausible for S. nobilis and other synanthropic European spiders to vector ... Therefore, some post-bite infections could be the result of vector-borne bacterial zoonoses that may be antibiotic resistant. ... These could be secondary infections derived from opportunistic bacteria on the skin or infections directly vectored by the ... Baxter, R. H., Contet, A. & Krueger, K. Arthropod innate immune systems and vector-borne diseases. Biochemistry 56, 907-918 ( ...
  • I ask questions about the temporal biology of mosquito vectors of human disease at two temporal timescales: The daily 24 hour circadian rhythms of mosquitoes and seasonal scales. (nd.edu)
  • Arboviruses, viruses transmitted by arthropods such as mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies, and fleas are a significant threat to public health because of their epidemic and zoonotic potential. (pasteur.fr)
  • Specifically, the candidate will be responsible for developing molecular identification methods for insect vectors (e.g. mosquitoes, ticks, fleas) and emerging vector-borne diseases. (nas.edu)
  • Overall, 1249 female Anopheles mosquitoes were captured on human and animal baits, but no human-vector contact occurred indoors. (who.int)
  • Five species of mosquitoes ( Aedes melanimon, Aedes nigromaculis, Anopheles free-borni, Culex tarsalis , and Culiseta inornata ) and two species of ticks ( Dermacentor parumapertus and Ornithodorus parkeri ) were unable to serve as experimental vectors of BUT virus. (ajtmh.org)
  • Best adapted of all are Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the cosmopolitan vector of epidemic yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • The research, " Culex species mosquitoes and Zika virus ," appears in the journal Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases and involves researchers from Rutgers University, the University of Florida and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. (k-state.edu)
  • Our results underscore the importance of understanding the effects of insecticide resistance on vector competence and require reconsidering vector control strategies by limiting the production of insecticide-resistant mosquitoes. (pasteur.fr)
  • Arboviral encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain caused by arboviruses (viruses carried by arthropods, such as mosquitoes and ticks). (southern7.org)
  • Recently, much of my work has focused on Anopheles mosquitoes, the principal vectors of malaria. (tufts.edu)
  • Exophilic/exophagic habit of mosquito vectors leads to fewer human bites, resulting in biting protection. (who.int)
  • Arboviruses represent a large group of viruses that frequently cause emergent disease, but the project will being by tackling just one such disease, Rift Valley Fever (RVF), a lethal disease of livestock and people caused by an arbovirus spread by mosquito vectors. (drugdiscoverynews.com)
  • The aim of this review is to give an exhaustive overview of arboviruses and their vectors in the region. (pasteur.fr)
  • 220 897 dengue fever cases, and 25 064 Rift Valley fever cases among arboviruses or vector-borne diseases reported in 2020. (who.int)
  • Over the last decades, arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) that affect human health such as dengue, chikungunya, Zika or West Nile viruses have taken the center stage owing to epidemic outbreaks or even pandemics affecting the world. (pasteur.fr)
  • We provide the first evidence of the impact of two main mechanisms of insecticide resistance on arbovirus transmission ", explains Anna-Bella Failloux, Head of the Arboviruses and Insect Vectors laboratory at the Institut Pasteur. (pasteur.fr)
  • The project will focus primarily on arboviruses-those viruses that are carried by arthropods, in particular blood suckers like ticks, or even by blood-sucking insects. (drugdiscoverynews.com)
  • First, it will survey human, livestock, wildlife and vector populations to monitor the circulation transmission and maintenance of arboviruses within them, with a focus on the RVF virus. (drugdiscoverynews.com)
  • Sloth biology:An update on their physiological ecology, behavior and role as vectors of arthropods and arboviruses. (bvsalud.org)
  • The northern house mosquito, Culex pipiens Linnaeus, is considered as a major vector of pathogens worldwide. (ufl.edu)
  • Many of these pathogens are transmitted by arthropod vectors. (vt.edu)
  • Our faculty study fundamental properties of these pathogens as well as the vectors that transmit them, from microbial to organismal scales. (vt.edu)
  • Among these pathogens, several vector-borne pathogens have garnered considerable attention for the toll they exact on human health, which a growing body of evidence indicates may be exacerbated by anthropogenic environmental change ( 2 - 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • A rigorous understanding of the transmission dynamics of pathogens from infected wildlife hosts to vector organisms is critical to explorations of the ecology of vector-borne diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Among the most rapidly emerging vector-borne zoonotic pathogens in the United States are several that are transmitted by the lone star tick ( Amblyomma americanum ). (cdc.gov)
  • Efforts to identify reservoir hosts for vector-borne zoonotic pathogens have historically been labor-intensive exercises, often requiring the capture of potential wildlife hosts, experimental infection with the pathogen of interest, and a subsequent examination of the efficiency with which these hosts pass the infectious agent to vector organisms under controlled conditions ( 10 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Several researchers have successfully used this technology to identify the reservoir hosts for numerous pathogens transmitted by Ixodes ricinus , a preeminent vector of tick-borne diseases in Europe ( 13 - 16 ). (cdc.gov)
  • EPG holds the potential to significantly improve research on a wider array of species, such as heteropterans, as well as blood-sucking vectors of medical/veterinary pathogens. (usda.gov)
  • The earliest members of genus Homo were surely bedeviled by blood-feeding arthropods, some of which doubtless carried zoonotic pathogens. (cdc.gov)
  • Settlements offered pathogens not only host density but also opportunities for their vertebrate reservoirs and arthropod vectors to cohabitate with us. (cdc.gov)
  • Evolution of blood-feeding arthropods to our changing environment and evolution of some zoonoses to exploit this advantage are major links in the emergence of obscure pathogens into epidemic threats. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition to fundamental physiotoxicology, a branch of the Swale Research Lab focuses on pathogen-vector interactions that alter physiological pathways to enhance pathogenesis of pathogens, alter arthropod behavior, or alter vector competency. (ufl.edu)
  • control of animal reservoirs or arthropod vectors. (who.int)
  • Vertebrate hosts were inoculated subcutaneously with approximately 1,000 plaque-forming units (PFU) of virus and arthropods were fed on pledgets soaked with high concentrations of virus in defibrinated blood or on viremic Sylvilagus auduboni . (ajtmh.org)
  • To combat malaria transmission and vectors it is necessary to understand the behaviour of the vector species. (who.int)
  • It was the aim down on white sheets were collected and preserved of this study to identify the malaria vector species in petridishes with wet cotton and Whatman filter and their infectivity rates in Mkuzi village of Muheza paper. (who.int)
  • Selected species of wild vertebrates and hematophagous arthropods indigenous to Kern County, California, were evaluated as experimental hosts and vectors of Buttonwillow (BUT) virus. (ajtmh.org)
  • how wide the range of vector species will be. (cdc.gov)
  • However, I am interested in switching my focus to local mosquito species and other arthropod vectors. (tufts.edu)
  • To combat malaria transmission and vectors than 200 cases of malaria, which was confirmed based it is necessary to understand the behaviour of the vector on the World Health Organization (WHO) classification species. (who.int)
  • Blood feeding and resting behaviour of malaria vectors are the most influential factors in malaria transmission. (who.int)
  • Two of the most important malaria vectors in the world exploit human activity to proliferate. (cdc.gov)
  • Blood feeding and resting behaviour of malaria vectors are the most influential factors in malaria trans- mission. (who.int)
  • Chemical methods for the control of arthropod vectors and pests of public health importance. (who.int)
  • Our lab studies the fundamental and applied aspects of physiology and toxicology by integrating toxicological, pharmacological, electrophysiological, and genomic approaches to address broad ranging hypotheses in model insects, arthropod vectors of human diseases, and agriculture pests. (ufl.edu)
  • However, such laboratory-based estimates may fail to capture the true distribution of host reservoir competencies because of unknown consequences of host selection behavior by vector organisms or the unmeasured contributions of cryptic reservoir hosts ( 11 ). (cdc.gov)
  • My approach to research integrates molecular and genetic approaches with elements of animal behavior, ecology, evolution and phylogenetics with the experimental power of model systems to answer fundamental questions about the evolution of reproduction in disease vectors and other insect model systems of significance to humanity. (tufts.edu)
  • The candidate must have acquired a Ph.D. in entomology, microbiology or a related discipline within the past five years and have demonstrated experience in arthropod disease vectors, molecular biology and nucleic acid sequencing. (nas.edu)
  • To eliminate malaria transmission from potential zones is a big challenge, and understanding vector biology and ecology play a major role in the battle against malaria (1). (who.int)
  • To eliminate malaria transmission from potential zones depends on mosquito biting and resting behaviour, as is a big challenge, and understanding vector biology and well as their susceptibility to the applied insecticides ecology play a major role in the battle against malaria ( 1 ). (who.int)
  • However, until now, most studies have emphasized a relatively small number of insects, mostly small-bodied aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), with almost no blood-sucking arthropods used. (usda.gov)
  • These patterns are a boon for certain vector-borne illnesses - defined as infections transmitted by an organism (usually an arthropod, a category that includes insects and arachnids). (entrepreneur.com)
  • There are no vaccines for most vector-borne diseases. (nd.edu)
  • The data presented underline the importance of surveillance in the implementation of more adapted control strategies to combat vector-borne diseases. (pasteur.fr)
  • Tropical and vector-borne diseases contribute significantly to the global burden of communicable diseases. (who.int)
  • The integrated framework builds on progress made in the last two decades in the control, elimination and/or eradication of tropical and vector-borne diseases and addresses major programme deficiencies that drive the persistently high burden of these diseases and the lost momentum towards the 2030 targets. (who.int)
  • of serum sensitive are small gram-negative obligate intracellular α-protebacteria that are typically transmitted to mammalian hosts via an arthropod vector. (healthweeks.com)
  • Second, it will employ cutting-edge genomics and knowledge management systems to aid in the understanding of the dynamics and diversity of disease-causing agents, their vectors and their hosts. (drugdiscoverynews.com)
  • Yellow fever is an acute febrile infectious disease, caused by arthropod vector-borne virus that has two epidemiological different transmission cycles: wild and urban. (bvsalud.org)
  • In this context, the European network "MediLabSecure" gathering laboratories in 19 non-EU countries from the Mediterranean and Black Sea regions seeks to improve the surveillance (of animals, humans, and vectors) by reinforcing capacity building and harmonizing national surveillance systems to address this important human and veterinary health issue. (pasteur.fr)
  • Humans can also be infected by these vectors as well as by contact or inhalation of aerosols generated when handling sick or dead infected animals or their fresh tissues. (cdc.gov)
  • These vectors also transmit dengue and chikungunya virus and are found throughout much of the Americas, including parts of the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Dr. Scott's research interests include: The ecology, epidemiology, and prevention of vector-borne disease. (ucdavis.edu)
  • As seasonal fluctuations in vector populations act to synchronize disease transmission, the patterns of anopheline mosquito population dynamics provide important data for understanding the epidemiology and control of malaria (4). (who.int)
  • Therefore, some post-bite infections could be the result of vector-borne bacterial zoonoses that may be antibiotic resistant. (nature.com)
  • Surveillance of Arthropod-Borne Viruses and Their Vectors in the Mediterranean and Black Sea Regions Within the MediLabSecure Network. (pasteur.fr)
  • Researchers from the Institut Pasteur (Paris) and its partners prove that mechanisms of insecticide resistance, observed in Culex quinquefasciatus vector, impact the transmission of West Nile virus. (pasteur.fr)
  • Insecticide resistance genes affect Culex quinquefasciatus vector competence for West Nile virus, Proceedings of the Royal Society , January 16th, 2019. (pasteur.fr)
  • Conclusions & recommendations : Workshop on Research & Training Needs in the Field of Integrated Vector-borne Disease Control in Riceland Agroecosystems of Developing Countries, 9-14 March 1987 / sponsors, International Rice Research Institute, Joint WHO/FAO/UNEP Panel of Experts on Environmental Management for Vector Control, USDA Riceland Mosquito Management Program. (who.int)
  • and strengthen prevention of tropical and vector-borne disease outbreaks in epidemic-prone Member States by 2030. (who.int)
  • Studies have linked drought and rising temperatures to increased incidence of arthropod-vectored disease and a longer mosquito season. (lawnandlandscape.com)
  • Black Death) was only possible because black rats ( Rattus rattus ), the host of the vector flea, had become extraordinarily successful at living off human garbage and nesting in our buildings. (cdc.gov)
  • Second, conditions enabling transition from vectorborne animal-to-animal transmission to arthropod-mediated human-to-human transmission are poorly understood. (cdc.gov)
  • These could be secondary infections derived from opportunistic bacteria on the skin or infections directly vectored by the spider. (nature.com)
  • Islamic Republic of Iran, 7 are considered to be malaria lation dynamics provide important data for understand- vectors, and five of them, Anopheles stephensi , Anopheles ing the epidemiology and control of malaria ( 4 ). (who.int)
  • The emergence of new behavioural patterns of mosqui- vector control programmes leads to changes in vector toes may significantly increase the risk for malaria trans- behaviour ( 8 ). (who.int)
  • Results of search for 'su:{Arthropod vectors. (who.int)
  • U.S. Main vector for birds, Culiseta melanura. (cdc.gov)
  • The main malaria vector control tools are indoor residual spraying (IRS), and long-lasting insecticide-impregnated bednets. (who.int)
  • In this study, we investigated whether it is plausible for S. nobilis and other synanthropic European spiders to vector bacteria during a bite, by seeking to identify bacteria with pathogenic potential on the spiders. (nature.com)
  • El Niño will mean a longer breeding season for a lot of vectors and increased malaria potential in a lot of the world," she said. (entrepreneur.com)
  • These may be influenced by existing levels of immunity in the local population, density and movement of the host population, presence of appropriate vectors, and standards of environmental hygiene. (who.int)