Arthropods of the class ARACHNIDA, order Araneae. Except for mites and ticks, spiders constitute the largest order of arachnids, with approximately 37,000 species having been described. The majority of spiders are harmless, although some species can be regarded as moderately harmful since their bites can lead to quite severe local symptoms. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p508; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, pp424-430)
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
Arthropods of the order Scorpiones, of which 1500 to 2000 species have been described. The most common live in tropical or subtropical areas. They are nocturnal and feed principally on insects and other arthropods. They are large arachnids but do not attack man spontaneously. They have a venomous sting. Their medical significance varies considerably and is dependent on their habits and venom potency rather than on their size. At most, the sting is equivalent to that of a hornet but certain species possess a highly toxic venom potentially fatal to humans. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, p417; Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p503)
One of the largest orders of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 10,000 species. Like AMPHIPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Amphipoda, they possess abdominal pleopods (modified as gills) and their bodies are dorsoventrally flattened.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.
TCR-mediated activation of allergen-specific CD45RO(+) memory T lymphocytes results in down-regulation of cell-surface CXCR4 expression and a strongly reduced capacity to migrate in response to stromal cell-derived factor-1. (1/346)The selective migration of functional T(h) lymphocyte subsets with different cytokine production profiles into inflamed tissue is likely to depend on the state of activation of the cells, as well as on the differential expression of various adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors. In this study, we have analyzed the effect of allergen-specific activation on the expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 on T lymphocytes. We show that stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from atopic patients with the allergen Der p results in down-regulation of CXCR4 surface expression on Der p-activated CD25(+)CD45RO(+) antigen-specific memory cells which was caused by a decrease in CXCR4 gene transcription and did not seem to be mediated by endogenous cytokines, such as IFN-gamma. In contrast, however, CXCR4 surface expression was enhanced on naive CD25(-)CD45RO(-) and resting CD25(-)CD45RO(+) memory T cells, as a result of the presence of endogenous IL-4, most likely produced by Der p-activated memory T cells. Antigen-specific CD25(+)CD45RO(+) T lymphocytes, purified 7 days after stimulation with Der p, had a strongly reduced capacity to migrate in response to stimulation with stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1, the ligand for CXCR4. Together, these results suggest that differential expression of CXCR4 on activated and resting T cells is due to the counteracting effects of TCR-mediated down-regulation and IL-4-mediated up-regulation of this chemokine receptor respectively, and furthermore indicate that antigen-activated memory T cells are unlikely to migrate into inflamed tissue in response to SDF-1. (+info)
Functional and structural diversities of C-reactive proteins present in horseshoe crab hemolymph plasma. (2/346)Limulin, a sialic-acid-binding and phosphorylethanolamine-binding hemagglutinin in the hemolymph plasma of the American horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus), is a hemolytic C-reactive protein [Armstrong, P.B., Swarnakar, S., Srimal, S., Misquith, S., Hahn, E.A., Aimes, R. T. & Quigley, J.P. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 14717-14721]. We have now identified three types of C-reactive protein in the plasma of the Japanese horseshoe crab (Tachypleus tridentatus), based on different affinities against fetuin-agarose and phosphorylethanolamine-agarose determined by quantitative precipitin assays using fetuin and an artificial phosphorylethanolamine-protein conjugate. Partial amino acid sequences of the isolated C-reactive proteins identified homologous proteins which were named Tachypleus tridentatus CRP-1 (tCRP-1), tCRP-2 and tCRP-3, each of which possibly constitute isoprotein mixtures. tCRP-2 and tCRP-3, but not tCRP-1, agglutinated mammalian erythrocytes. tCRP-1, the most abundant C-reative protein in the plasma, exhibited the highest affinity to the phosphorylethanolamine-protein conjugate but lacked both sialic-acid-binding and hemolytic activities. tCRP-2 bound to both fetuin-agarose and phosphorylethanolamine-agarose, and exhibited Ca2+-dependent hemolytic and sialic-acid-binding activities, suggestive of limulin-like properties. Furthermore, tCRP-2 exhibited a higher affinity to colominic acid, a bacterial polysialic acid. By contrast, tCRP-3 shows stronger hemolytic, sialic-acid-binding and hemagglutinating activities than tCRP-2. tCRP-3 has no affinity to phosphorylethanolamine-agarose, phosphorylethanolamine-protein conjugate and colominic acid. This suggests tCRP-3 is a novel hemolytic C-reactive protein lacking a common characteristic of phosphorylethanolamine-agarose binding affinity. Twenty-two clones of tCRPs with different deduced amino acid sequences were obtained by PCR using oligonucleotide primers based on the N-terminal and C-terminal sequences of tCRPs and with templates including genomic DNA and cDNA of hemocytes or hepatopancreas derived from one individual. The translation products of the tCRP clones possess high molecular diversity which falls into three related groups, consistent with classification based on their biological activities. Only tCRP-3 contained a unique hydrophobic nonapeptide sequence that appears in the transmembrane domain of a major histocompatibility complex class I heavy chain of rainbow trout, suggesting the importance of the hydrophobic patch to the hemolytic activity of tCRP-3. The structural and functional diversities of tCRPs provide a good model for studying the properties of innate immunity in invertebrates, which survive without the benefit of acquired immunity. (+info)
A remarkable, precisely timed release of hyperglycemic hormone from endocrine cells in the gut is associated with ecdysis in the crab Carcinus maenas. (3/346)Molting or ecdysis is the most fundamentally important process in arthropod life history, because shedding of the exoskeleton is an absolute prerequisite for growth and metamorphosis. Although the hormonal mechanisms driving ecdysis in insects have been studied extensively, nothing is known about these processes in crustaceans. During late premolt and during ecdysis in the crab Carcinus maenas, we observed a precise and reproducible surge in hemolymph hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) levels, which was over 100-fold greater than levels seen in intermolt animals. The source of this hormone surge was not from the eyestalk neurosecretory tissues but from previously undescribed endocrine cells (paraneurons), in defined areas of the foregut and hindgut. During premolt (the only time when CHH is expressed by these tissues), the gut is the largest endocrine tissue in the crab. The CHH surge, which is a result of an unusual, almost complete discharge of the contents of the gut endocrine cell, regulates water and ion uptake during molting, thus allowing the swelling necessary for successful ecdysis and the subsequent increase in size during postmolt. This study defines an endocrine brain/gut axis in the arthropods. We propose that the ionoregulatory process controlled by CHH may be common to arthropods, in that, for insects, a similar mechanism seems to be involved in antidiuresis. It also seems likely that a cascade of very precisely coordinated release of (neuro) hormones controls ecdysis. (+info)
Characterization of an alpha-macroglobulin-like glycoprotein isolated from the plasma of the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata. (4/346)We report the identification of the first representative of the alpha-2-macroglobulin family identified in terrestrial invertebrates. An abundant acidic glycoprotein was isolated from the plasma of the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata. Its molecular mass is about 420 kDa in the native state, whereas in SDS/PAGE it migrates as one band of 190 kDa under nonreducing conditions and a band of 92 kDa when reduced. Chemical deglycosylation reveals that it is composed of two different subunits, designated A and B. The N-terminal amino-acid sequence of subunit A is similar to the N-terminus of invertebrate alpha-2-macroglobulin. Sequence analysis of several internal peptides confirms that the tick protein belongs to the alpha-2-macroglobulin family, and the protein is therefore referred to as tick alpha-macroglobulin (TAM). Functional analyses strengthen this assignment. TAM inhibits trypsin and thermolysin cleavage of the high-molecular-weight substrate azocoll in a manner similar to that of bovine alpha-2-macroglobulin. This effect is abolished by pre-treatment of TAM with methylamine. In the presence of TAM, trypsin is protected against active-site inhibition by soybean trypsin inhibitor. We cloned and sequenced a PCR product containing sequences from both subunits and spanning the N-terminus of subunit B and the putative 'bait region' (a segment of alpha-2-macroglobulin which serves as target for various proteases). This indicates that the two subunits are generated from a precursor polypeptide by post-translational processing. (+info)
Cloning and characterization of a novel nuclease from shrimp hepatopancreas, and prediction of its active site. (5/346)Approximately 95% of the amino acid sequence of a shrimp (Penaeus japonicus) nuclease was derived from protease-digested peptides. A 1461-base cDNA for the nuclease was amplified and sequenced with degenerate primers based on the amino acid sequence and then specific primers by 3' and 5' RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends). It contains an open reading frame encoding a putative 21-residue signal peptide and a 381-residue mature protein. The N-terminus of the enzyme is pyroglutamate, deduced from composition and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight MS analyses, and confirmed by a glutamine residue in the cDNA sequence. The enzyme has 11 Cys residues, forming five intramolecular disulphides. The eleventh Cys residue was linked to a thiol compound with an estimated molecular mass of between 500 and 700 Da. A sequence similarity search revealed no homologous proteins but residues 205-255 shared a conserved active-site motif within a distinct group of nucleases. His(211) in this conserved motif was shown to be very important in catalysis by site-specific modification with (14)C-labelled iodoacetate. The shrimp nuclease, previously designated DNase I, does indeed possess a low level of hydrolytic activity towards RNA in the presence of Mg(2+) and Ca(2+). The conservation of functionally important residues during distant evolution might imply that the catalytic mechanisms are similar in these nucleases, which should be classified in one subfamily. Finally, an active-site structure for shrimp nuclease was proposed on the basis of published structural data and the results of mutational and biochemical analyses of Serratia nuclease. (+info)
Structure of tick anticoagulant peptide at 1.6 A resolution complexed with bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor. (6/346)The structure of tick anticoagulant peptide (TAP) has been determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.6 A resolution complexed with bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI). The TAP-BPTI crystals are tetragonal, a = b = 46.87, c = 50.35 A, space group P41, four complexes per unit cell. The TAP molecules are highly dipolar and form an intermolecular helical array along the c-axis with a diameter of about 45 A. Individual TAP units interact in a head-to-tail fashion, the positive end of one molecule associating with the distal negative end of another, and vice versa. The BPTI molecules have a uniformly distributed positively charged surface that interacts extensively through 14 hydrogen bonds and two hydrogen bonded salt bridges with the helical groove around the helical TAP chains. Comparing the structure of TAP in TAP-BPTI with TAP bound to factor Xa(Xa) suggests a massive reorganization in the N-terminal tetrapeptide and the first disulfide loop of TAP (Cys5T-Cys15T) upon binding to Xa. The Tyr1(T)OH atom of TAP moves 14.2 A to interact with Asp189 of the S1 specificity site, Arg3(T)CZ moves 5.0 A with the guanidinium group forming a cation-pi-electron complex in the S4 subsite of Xa, while Lys7(T)NZ differs in position by 10.6 A in TAP-BPTI and TAP-Xa, all of which indicates a different pre-Xa-bound conformation for the N-terminal of TAP in its native state. In contrast to TAP, the BPTI structure of TAP-BPTI is practically the same as all those of previously determined structures of BPTI, only arginine and lysine side-chain conformations showing significant differences. (+info)
The underlying mechanism for the diversity of disulfide folding pathways. (7/346)The disulfide folding pathway of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) is characterized by the predominance of folding intermediates with native-like structures. Our laboratory has recently analyzed the folding pathway(s) of four 3-disulfide-containing proteins, including hirudin, potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor, epidermal growth factor, and tick anticoagulant peptide. Their folding mechanism(s) differ from that of BPTI by 1) a higher degree of heterogeneity of 1- and 2-disulfide intermediates and 2) the presence of 3-disulfide scrambled isomers as folding intermediates. To search for the underlying causes of these diversities, we conducted kinetic analyses of the reductive unfolding of these five proteins. The experiment of reductive unfolding was designed to evaluate the relative stability and interdependence of disulfide bonds in the native protein. It is demonstrated here that among these five proteins, there exists a striking correlation between the mechanism(s) of reductive unfolding and that of oxidative folding. Those proteins with their native disulfide bonds reduced in a collective and simultaneous manner exhibit both a high degree of heterogeneity of folding intermediates and the accumulation of scrambled isomers along the folding pathway. A sequential reduction of the native disulfide bonds is associated with the presence of predominant intermediates with native- like structures. (+info)
Synthetic endotoxin-binding peptides block endotoxin-triggered TNF-alpha production by macrophages in vitro and in vivo and prevent endotoxin-mediated toxic shock. (8/346)Lipid A, the conserved portion of endotoxin, is the major mediator of septic shock; therefore, endotoxin-neutralizing molecules could have important clinical applications. Here we show that peptides derived from Limulus anti-LPS factor (LALF), bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI) and endotoxin-binding protein, bind to lipid A and block the recombinant LALF/lipid A interaction in vitro. Because their neutralizing capacity in vitro as well as in vivo has been limited, we created hybrid peptides comprising two endotoxin-binding domains. The hybrid molecule LL-10-H-14, containing endotoxin-binding domains from LALF and endotoxin-binding protein, turned out to be the most active peptide within the series of peptides tested here to inhibit the CD14/lipid A interaction and is able in vitro to block the endotoxin-induced TNF-alpha release of murine macrophages up to 90%. Furthermore, LL-10-H-14 not only reduced peak serum levels of TNF-alpha of mice when preinjected but also reduced TNF-alpha levels when given 15 min after the endotoxin challenge. As compared with other peptides, only LL-10-H-14 is able to strongly decrease endotoxin-stimulated TNF-alpha release by human macrophage cell lines as well as by PBMC. Furthermore, the hybrid peptide is protective against endotoxin-provoked lethal shock. As such, LL-10-H-14 could have prophylactic and/or therapeutic properties in humans for the management of septic shock. (+info)
... is an elastomeric protein found in many insects and other arthropods. It provides soft rubber-elasticity to ... elastin: a vertebrate protein Deming T (2012). Peptide-Based Materials. Springer Publishing. Neurath H (1966). The Proteins ... and tri-tyrosine cross-links between proteins. Resilin is a disordered protein; however its segments may take on secondary ... Like other elastomeric proteins, the degree of cross linking in resilin is low, which ensures the low stiffness and high ...
2010). "Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences". Nature. 463 (7284): ... were arthropods, but later study shows that their affinities of being origin of arthropods are not reliable. Small arthropods ... of the evolution from Anomalocaris to true arthropods and could be at the evolutionary root of true arthropods. Arthropods ... The arthropod body plan consists of segments, each with a pair of appendages. Arthropods are bilaterally symmetrical and their ...
... s are a family defensin proteins found in mollusks, insects, and arachnids. These cysteine-rich antibacterial ... Peripheral membrane proteins, Insect immunity, All stub articles, Membrane protein stubs). ... Arthropod defensin peptides range in length from 38 to 51 amino acids. There are six conserved cysteines all involved in ... Furthermore, it was also shown that the N-terminal helix region in arthropod or insect defensins is also not required for ...
The arthropod 'Brain Tumor' protein (Brat; Q8MQJ9) is one such growth regulator that contains a 6-bladed NHL-repeat beta- ... The NHL repeat has also been used to design a family of fully symmetrical 6-blade beta-propeller proteins called "Pizza". These ... The NHL repeats are also found in serine/threonine protein kinase (STPK) in diverse range of pathogenic bacteria. These STPK ... Kano S, Miyajima N, Fukuda S, Hatakeyama S (July 2008). "Tripartite motif protein 32 facilitates cell growth and migration via ...
A Rubberlike Protein in Arthropod Cuticle". Advances in Insect Physiology Volume 2. Advances in Insect Physiology. Vol. 2. p. 1 ... Weis-Fogh then went to the University of Cambridge in England for four years, where he discovered a rubbery protein, resilin, ...
Insect winter ecology
Duman JG (2001) Antifreeze and ice nucleator proteins in terrestrial arthropods. Annual Review of Physiology. 63:327-357 Ramloy ... Freeze-tolerant insects are known to produce ice nucleating proteins. The regulated production of ice nucleating proteins ... Functional Ecology 20:323-329 Pfister TD and Storey KB (2006) "Responses of Protein Phosphatases and cAMP-Dependent Protein ... Antifreeze and ice nucleator proteins in terrestrial arthropods. Annual Review Physiology 63:327-357 Worland MR, Leinaas HP, ...
Arthropods in culture
Menassa, R.; Zhu, H.; Karatzas, C. N.; Lazaris, A.; Richman, A.; Brandle, J. (2004). "Spider dragline silk proteins in ... This article describes the roles played by arthropods in human culture. The arthropods are a phylum of animals with jointed ... Arthropods appear in folklore, in mythology, and in religion. Since Insects in mythology and in religion are covered elsewhere ... Arthropods play many roles in human culture, the social behaviour and norms in human societies transmitted through social ...
Duman JG (2001). "Antifreeze and ice nucleator proteins in terrestrial arthropods". Annual Review of Physiology. 63: 327-57. ... Thermal hysteresis or Antifreeze protein) at the PDBe-KB. (Protein articles without symbol, Protein pages needing a picture, ... Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) or ice structuring proteins refer to a class of polypeptides produced by certain animals, plants, ... They are alpha helical proteins rich in glutamate and glutamine. This protein is approximately 12KDa in size and consists of a ...
These proteins are involved in the process of sclerotization of arthropod cuticle, in wound healing, and humoral immune defense ... Also, larval storage proteins in many insects appear to be derived from hemocyanins. The arthropod hemocyanin superfamily is ... Beintema JJ, Stam WT, Hazes B, Smidt MP (May 1994). "Evolution of arthropod hemocyanins and insect storage proteins (hexamerins ... Terwilliger NB, Dangott L, Ryan M (March 1999). "Cryptocyanin, a crustacean molting protein: evolutionary link with arthropod ...
... proteins, and lipids). The primary oxygen transporter molecule is hemocyanin. Arthropod hemolymph contains high levels of free ... Proteins present in the hemolymph vary in quantity during the course of development. These proteins are classified by their ... and those involved in the immune responses of arthropods. Some hemolymphic proteins incorporate carbohydrates and lipids into ... Arthropod hormones are present, most notably the juvenile hormone. Trehalose can be present and sometimes in great amounts ...
... "dachshund encodes a nuclear protein required for normal eye and leg development in Drosophila". Development. 120 (12): 3473- ... but before the radiation of arthropods. This view is supported if a stem-arthropod position is supported for compound-eye ... And while many arthropods today have three, four, or even six, the lack of a common pathway suggests that a pair is the most ... "Evolution of eye development in arthropods: Phylogenetic aspects", Arthropod Structure & Development, 35 (4): 319-340, doi: ...
... eats arthropod prey, animal proteins, carbohydrates and protein. They will eat caterpillars, flies, ants, ... They use the scavenged animal protein from both vertebrates and arthropods such as: caterpillars, flies, alate ants, termites, ... and hunt arthropod prey or scavenge animal proteins." Water is used for the following processes: nest cooling, construction, ... Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification Web. 21 Sept. 2014. . West-Eberhard, M.J. (1969). The social biology of polistine ...
"Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences". Nature. 463 (7284): 1079-1083. ... crown-group arthropods). Their positions within arthropod stem-group are indicated by numerous arthropod groundplans and ... via dinocaridids to arthropods, would lead to an arthropod body plan. Aysheaia's surface ornamentation, if homologous with ... were originally thought to be associated within the arthropod stem-group based on its apparently arthropod-like (arthropodized ...
"Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences". Nature. 463 (7284): 1079-1083. ... Crustaceans portal Arthropods portal Data related to Anostraca at Wikispecies Media related to Anostraca at Wikimedia Commons ( ... ISBN 978-0-471-35837-4. D. R. Khanna (2004). "Segmentation in arthropods". Biology of Arthropoda. Discovery Publishing House. ... Fortey, R.; Thomas, H. (2012). Arthropod Relationships. Berlin: Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 104-105. Minelli, A. ( ...
"Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences". Nature. 463 (7284): 1079-1083. ... Inferences from expressed sequence tags and comparisons with neural cladistics". Arthropod Structure & Development. 40 (3): 289 ...
"Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences". Nature. 463 (7284): 1079-1083. ...
"Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences". Nature. 463 (7284): 1079-1083. ... Recent analysis based on nuclear protein-coding genes implies that remipedes (along with Cephalocarida) are the sister group of ... Giribet, Gonzalo; Edgecombe, Gregory D. (2012-01-07). "Reevaluating the Arthropod Tree of Life". Annual Review of Entomology. ... arthropods most closely related to insects. Remipedia and Cephalocarida are grouped together form the clade Xenocarida. The ...
"Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences". Nature. 463 (7284): 1079-1083. ... 2010-03-01). "Arthropod phylogeny revisited, with a focus on crustacean relationships". Arthropod Structure & Development. 39 ( ... "Crustacean (arthropod)". Encyclopædia Britannica. G. L. Pesce. "Remipedia Yager, 1981". D. E. Aiken; V. Tunnicliffe; C. T. Shih ... Although most crustaceans are small, their morphology varies greatly and includes both the largest arthropod in the world - the ...
"Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences". Nature. 463 (7284): 1079-1083. ... The name "Mandibulata" refers to the mandibles or jaws, which are the characterizing feature of its member arthropods. ... Molecular phylogenetic studies suggest that the living arthropods are related as shown in the cladogram below. Crustaceans do ... Mandibulata, termed "mandibulates", is a clade of arthropods that comprises the extant subphyla Myriapoda (millipedes and ...
"Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences". Nature. 463 (7284): 1079-83. ... the anterior part of the arthropod brain and found in the first head segment that in all other arthropods give rise to the eyes ... One theory is that this reflects how a common ancestor of all arthropods evolved; starting its life as a small animal with a ... This is in dispute, however, as genetic evidence suggests they may be the sister group to all other living arthropods. Sea ...
"Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences". Nature. 463 (7284): 1079-1083. ...
Jeffrey W. Shultz & Jerome C. Regier (22 May 2000). "Phylogenetic analysis of arthropods using two nuclear protein-encoding ... "Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences". Nature. 463 (7284): 1079-1083. ... used the signal in the 62 protein-coding genes assembled by Regier et al. in 2010 to improve the knowledge of the internal ... Gonzalo Giribet & Carles Ribera (June 2000). "A review of arthropod phylogeny: new data based on ribosomal DNA sequences and ...
"Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences". Nature. 463 (7284): 1079-1083. ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Arthropod taxonomy, All stub articles, Arthropod ... The Myriochelata or Paradoxopoda, is a proposed grouping of arthropods comprising the Myriapoda (including millipedes and ... and protein-coding genes. More recent molecular studies, however, favour grouping the myriapods with the Pancrustacea, rather ...
"Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences". Nature. 463 (7284): 1079-1083. ... Like all arthropods, arachnids have an exoskeleton, and they also have an internal structure of cartilage-like tissue, called ... Extant (living) arthropods are a monophyletic group and are divided into three main clades: chelicerates (including arachnids ... Arthropods portal Arachnophobia Endangered spiders Glossary of spider terms List of extinct arachnids Cracraft, Joel & Donoghue ...
"Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences". Nature. 463 (7284): 1079-1083. ... Arthropod phylogeny: taxonomic congruence, total evidence and conditional combination approaches to morphological and molecular ...
"Antifreeze and ice nucleator proteins in terrestrial arthropods". Annual Review of Physiology. 63: 327-357. doi:10.1146/annurev ... The winter flounder is one such fish that utilizes these proteins to survive in its frigid environment. Noncolligative proteins ... There are many mechanisms that aid in maintaining a liquid state, such as the production of antifreeze proteins, which bind to ... There are many techniques that aid in maintaining a liquid state, such as the production of antifreeze proteins, or AFPs, which ...
Duman JG (2001). "Antifreeze and ice nucleator proteins in terrestrial arthropods". Annu. Rev. Physiol. 63: 327-57. doi:10.1146 ... It is a type V antifreeze protein with a molecular weight of 12.8 kDa; this type of AFP is noted for its hyperactivity. R. ... The TxTxTxT domains are irregularly spaced within the protein and have been shown to be conserved from the TxT binding motif of ... These data suggest that RiAFP is a well-folded β-helical protein, having six β-strand regions consisting of 13-amino acids ( ...
Its protein source is small arthropods such as insects. It is normally solitary and can be found at varying heights above the ... and feeds on insects and other small insect-like arthropods as a source of protein. It seems to prefer epiphytes. It is a ...
The wasps acquire protein from hunting several groups of arthropods. Foraging wasps crush their caught prey and carry the ... Foraging for animal proteins is the most complex task for worker wasps. In order to successfully hunt prey, wasps require prey ... P. exigua are small wasps that find nourishment from nectar and prey on arthropods. Their nests are disc-shaped and hang from ... Wasps were reported to share this food with other adults and offer the protein in a macerated form to larvae. The water ...
Protein is acquired through the general predation of land arthropods. A. vicina are known to prey most heavily on insects of ... They are predators of land arthropods, consuming both insects and spiders alike. Recent sperm morphology studies have shown ... Colonies forage for water, plant tissue, protein and carbohydrates. ...
However, recent studies show that the disease can be transmitted to both humans and arthropods. The camelpox virus is spread in ... When all of the structural proteins have been produced, viral assembly takes place. The newly formed virus particles can be ...
Endless Forms Most Beautiful (book)
... of their proteins, a figure that rises to 95% for humans and mice. Thus we can't exclude protein-sequence evolution as an ... Carroll explains how shifting the pattern of Hox gene expression shaped the bodies of different types of arthropods and ... Most of the changes are in genetic control, not in proteins. 11. Endless Forms Most Beautiful Carroll concludes by revisiting ... specialising arthropod limbs from all being alike to "all of the different implements a humble crayfish carries", with (he ...
... the microsporidia shrunk its genome eliminating almost 1000 genes and reduced even the size of protein and protein-coding genes ... an anaerobic intracellular parasite of arthropods evolved from aerobic fungi. During this process the mitosomes was formed ... Wernegreen, J. J.; Moran, N. A. (1999-01-01). "Evidence for genetic drift in endosymbionts (Buchnera): analyses of protein- ... Distinct roles for mediator proteins in mitosis and meiosis". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 98 (15): 8411- ...
In some organisms the mineral content may exceed 95%. The role of the chitin and proteins in such structures is more than just ... In arthropods and other organisms however, it generally is a component of a complex matrix of materials. It practically always ... In arthropods, the integument, the external "skin", or "shell", is the product of a single layer of ectodermal epithelium. That ... The tough and flexible endocuticle is a laminated structure of layers of interwoven fibrous chitin and protein molecules, while ...
However, the protein is not found in arthropods, or insects, which is interesting because those organisms also existed in that ... The predicted structures are below for both proteins. MENTHA interacting proteins for FAM178B. STRING interacting proteins for ... The protein is most readily found in primates, and other non-primate mammals. The protein is also conserved across reptiles, ... There is currently no known structure for the protein. ZNF598 is a zinc finger protein and the value is .13. It plays a key ...
The strong immune reaction in response to exposure to the salivary protein indicates the protein's potential use in the field ... Graça-Souza, C. Maya-Monteiro, G. O. Paiva-Silva et al., "Adaptations against heme toxicity in blood-feeding arthropods," ... The strong immune reaction in response to exposure to the salivary protein indicates the protein's potential use in the field ... Blood is rich in proteins, consisting mainly of hemoglobin (Hb), which accounts for approximately 60% of the blood protein ...
To develop, the larvae must be fed both nectar for carbohydrates and pollen for protein. Bumblebees feed nectar to the larvae ... Deciphering the Mystery of Bee Flight Portals: Insects Arthropods Animals Biology (All articles with dead external links, ... Arthropod-Plant Interactions. 7 (4): 467-474. doi:10.1007/s11829-013-9264-1. hdl:10533/128436. S2CID 2212551. Shao, Z.-Y.; Mao ... Arthropod-Plant Interactions. 1 (2): 119-127. doi:10.1007/s11829-007-9011-6. S2CID 40995470. Saleh, Nehal; Chittka, Lars (2006 ...
Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral proteins to host glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which mediate ... Vertebrates, including mammals and humans, and arthropods serve as natural hosts. There are 12 species in this genus. Diseases ... Late genes are expressed from 140 min to 48 hours postinfection, producing all viral structural proteins. Assembly of progeny ... Natural hosts of orthopoxviruses are mammals and arthropods. Member viruses are transmitted by respiratory droplets, contact, ...
List of animals that produce silk
Goats have been genetically modified to produce milk containing extractable silk proteins. "Home". wormspit.com. "Bees Are The ... ". "Tobacco Hornworm (parasitoid and hyperparasite) - BugGuide.Net". Diplura "Silk production and use in arthropods". Map of ...
Ross River virus
The virions (virus particles) themselves contain their genome in a protein capsid 700 Å in diameter. They are characterised by ... Because RRV is transmitted by mosquitos, it is considered an arbovirus, a non-taxonomic term for viruses borne by arthropod ... Scherer WF, Funkenbusch M, Buescher EL, Izumit (1962). "Sagiyama virus, a new group A arthropod-borne virus from Japan. I. ... directly contributes to disease since mice deficient in the C3 protein do not suffer from severe disease following infection. ...
Within the tick midgut, the Borrelia's outer surface protein A (OspA) binds to the tick receptor for OspA, known as TROSPA. ... Dotters-Katz SK, Kuller J, Heine RP (September 2013). "Arthropod-borne bacterial diseases in pregnancy". Obstetrical & ... After the bacteria migrate from the midgut to the salivary glands, OspC binds to Salp15, a tick salivary protein that appears ... The vaccine contains mRNAs for the body to build 19 proteins in tick saliva which, by enabling quick development of erythema ( ...
Many wasp species are parasitoids; the females deposit eggs on or in a host arthropod on which the larvae then feed. Some ... These include both sugars and amino acids, and may provide essential protein-building nutrients that are otherwise unavailable ... Arthropod Structure & Development. 31 (2): 103-120. doi:10.1016/s1467-8039(02)00025-7. PMID 18088974. Hoell, H.V.; Doyen, J.T ... and discussion on small size limits in arthropods". Journal of Hymenoptera Research. 32: 17-44. doi:10.3897/jhr.32.4663. Ward, ...
A combination of pharyngitis, pain behind the sternum, presence of excess protein in the urine and fever can indicate Lassa ... Arthropod-borne viral fevers and viral haemorrhagic fevers, Biological weapons, Hemorrhagic fevers, Rodent-carried diseases, ...
Nordgren, I. K.; Tavassoli, A. (2014). "A bidirectional fluorescent two-hybrid system for monitoring protein-protein ... and terrestrial arthropods such as fireflies. In some animals, the light is bacteriogenic, produced by symbiotic bacteria such ... In this early paper, he suggested that proto-bioluminescence could have arisen from respiratory chain proteins that hold ... In Vivo luminescence cell and animal imaging uses dyes and fluorescent proteins as chromophores. The characteristics of each ...
Crustacea and Arthropod Relationships, CRC Press, pp. 3-14, ISBN 978-0-8493-3498-6, retrieved 15 October 2008 Benton, M. J. ( ... a practical guide to the analysis of genes and proteins (2nd ed.), pp. 323-358, archived from the original (PDF) on 20 October ...
... to nuclear receptors induces a conformation of the receptor that preferentially binds coactivator proteins. These proteins ... While orphan receptors had known arthropod homologs, no orthologs of liganded vertebrate receptors had been identified outside ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-1178. Bibcode: ... Additional proteins including RNA polymerase are then recruited to the NR/DNA complex that transcribe DNA into messenger RNA. ...
Arthropods of India, Arthropods of Nepal, Arthropods of Pakistan, Arthropods of Sri Lanka, Animals described in 1798, Taxa ... tamulus consists of a complex mixture of proteins. Some major components have been isolated, including the toxin tamapin. ...
This is in contrast to the more variable, terminally located genes that have been shown to encode a diverse array of proteins ... Turkeypox, like all avipoxviruses, is transmitted either through skin contact or by arthropods (typically mosquitos) acting as ... The concatameric intermediates produced earlier are now resolved into double strand DNA and packaged in the late viral proteins ... Late viral genes are now being transcribed (most encode for structural proteins, enzymes and transcriptions factors) and are ...
Asparagus virus 1
Proteins constitute around 94% of the virus by weight. The viral genome encodes structural proteins and non-structural proteins ... The virus is transmitted by arthropods of the order Hemiptera, family Aphididae; Aphis craccivora, Myzus persicae. The ...
The protein makeup of the middle of the lens is different from that along the edges. Scientists have found that this disparity ... Arthropod Structure & Development. 36 (4): 449-462. doi:10.1016/j.asd.2007.08.003. ISSN 1467-8039. PMID 18089121. Mandapaka, ... Arthropod Structure & Development. 36 (4): 449-462. doi:10.1016/j.asd.2007.08.003. PMID 18089121. Mandapaka, Karunyakanth; ...
They often arise by hydroxylation of phenols.Arthropod cuticle consists of chitin linked by a catechol moiety to protein. The ...
African swine fever virus
Viral membrane proteins with similarity to cellular adhesion proteins modulate interaction of virus-infected cells and ... It is the only virus with a double-stranded DNA genome known to be transmitted by arthropods. ASFV is a large (175-215 nm), ... structural proteins, and many proteins that are not essential for replication in cells, but instead have roles in virus ... Based on sequence variation in the C-terminal region of the B646L gene encoding the major capsid protein p72, 22 ASFV genotypes ...
... including various proteins and lipids. In H. helluo, females have a higher protein diet when cannibalizing males than when ... However, in arthropods this size dimorphism ratio is reversed, with females commonly larger than males. Sexual cannibalism may ... Arthropods portal Interlocus sexual conflict Evolutionary arms race Femme fatale Sexual conflict Spider cannibalism Traumatic ... Further studies show that Argiope keyserlingi females with high-protein/low-lipid diets resulting from sexual cannibalism may ...
Adults capture arthropod prey, including other Diptera (including other empidids), Hemiptera, Homoptera, Lepidoptera, ... At least a few groups (Iteaphila, Anthepiscopus, Anthalia, Allanthalia and Euthyneura) obtain all their protein needs by ... or in aquatic habitats and also appear to be predaceous on various arthropods, particularly other Diptera larvae. Some ...
Comparison of butterflies and moths
Most butterfly caterpillars, on the other hand, form an exposed pupa made from a hardened protein, also termed a chrysalis. ... Lepidoptera: Hedyloidea): a nocturnal butterfly with superposition optics". Arthropod Structure & Development. 36 (1): 11-22. ...
v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Arthropod infestations, All stub articles, Parasite ... due to the fact that they are rich in proteins and they are traditionally consumed as food in many Asian countries. The insect ...
... amiloride-sensitive ion channel protein related to epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs). This protein, called MEC-4, forms a ... Insect and arthropod mechanoreceptors include: Campaniform sensilla: Small domes in the exoskeleton that are distributed all ... Mechanoreceptor proteins are ion channels whose ion flow is induced by touch. Early research showed that touch transduction in ...
Many of the latter were present below the water line and fed on the carcass; with only their Spiracle (arthropods) protruding ... Hide beetles are the only beetle with the enzymes necessary for breaking down keratin, a protein component of hair. Scarab ... Forensic entomology is the scientific study of the colonization of a dead body by arthropods. This includes the study of insect ... The pig carcass represents a human body and can be used to illustrate various environmental effects on both arthropod ...
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are commonly found in the venom of arthropods, and these proteins function by breaking up ... These new proteins showed effective antimicrobial activity against four strains of bacteria (B. subtilis, S. aureus, E. coli, ... and P. aeruginosa) and a yeast pathogen (C. albicans). While these proteins isolated from H. sexcinctus venom show good ...
Non-structural proteins of arthropod-borne bunyaviruses: roles and functions - PubMed
Non-structural proteins of arthropod-borne bunyaviruses: roles and functions Saleh Eifan et al. Viruses. 2013. . ... Non-structural proteins of arthropod-borne bunyaviruses: roles and functions Saleh Eifan 1 , Esther Schnettler, Isabelle ... in addition to the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the different structural proteins, one or several non-structural proteins. ... These non-structural proteins are not always essential for virus growth and replication but can play an important role in viral ...
Wuhan arthropod virus 1 strain WHCC81862 hypothetical protein genes, c - Nucleotide - NCBI
Wuhan arthropod virus 1 strain WHCC81862 hypothetical protein genes, complete cd... Wuhan arthropod virus 1 strain WHCC81862 ... Wuhan arthropod virus 1 strain WHCC81862 hypothetical protein genes, complete cds. NCBI Reference Sequence: NC_033421.1 ... The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in ... The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in ...
Physician's Guide to Arthropods of Medical Importance, 5th Edition - Volume 13, Number 9-September 2007 - Emerging Infectious...
... oxygen free radicals and several proteins ..."; 2) the CD-ROM included has technical problems-under BugCoach, none of the 4 ... and in its emphasis on arthropods as the cause of disease. A specific arthropod is described in each section, which begins with ... Physicians Guide to Arthropods of Medical Importance, 5th Edition On This Page ... The concept of symptomatic treatment at the local level may no longer be sufficient to treat certain major types of arthropod- ...
NOT-AI-21-059: Notice of Special Interest (NOSI): Immune Responses to Arthropod Feeding on Vertebrate Hosts
Immune Responses to Arthropod Feeding on Vertebrate Hosts NOT-AI-21-059. NIAID ... factors secreted into vertebrate skin during feedingand their role in immune modulation.Salivary factors include proteins, RNA ... and systemically during and after feeding by hematophagous and ectoparasitic arthropods. Exploratory research on arthropod ... Identify and characterize arthropod salivary components that exhibit immune modulatory properties;. *Determine the factors and ...
Immunization against arthropod protein impairs transmission of rickettsial pathogen from ticks to the vertebrate host *P. P. ... ASP-2/Trans-sialidase chimeric protein induces robust protective immunity in experimental models of Chagas disease *Julia T. ... Analyzing immune responses to varied mRNA and protein vaccine sequences *Hyeong-Jun Park ...
Parasteatoda tepidariorum</em>'>Expression-linked patterns of codon usage, amino acid frequency and protein length in the...
Expression-linked patterns of codon usage, amino acid frequency and protein length in the basally branching arthropod ... Expression-linked patterns of codon usage, amino acid frequency and protein length in the basally branching arthropod ... amino acid frequency and protein length in the basally branching arthropod Parasteatoda tepidariorum. March 2016. /in EGC /by ... amino acid frequency and protein length in the basally branching arthropod Parasteatoda tepidariorum. ...
Indoor Air Pollution: Introduction for Health Professionals | CPSC.gov
Probably most proteins of non-human origin can cause asthma in a subset of any appropriately exposed population34. ... Sources include outdoor air and human occupants who shed viruses and bacteria, animal occupants (insects and other arthropods, ... Notable triggers for these diseases are allergens derived from house dust mites; other arthropods, including cockroaches; pets ... cats, dogs, birds, rodents); molds; and protein-containing furnishings, including feathers, kapok, etc. In occupational ...
Horseshoe Crab Research Database
Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences. Submitted by admin_notgoodus... ... Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences. Science 463:1079-1083. ... Read more about Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences ... Tan, S.S.H., P.M.L. Ng, B. Ho, J.L. Ding 2005 The antimicrobial properties of C-reactive protein (CRP). Innate Immunity 11: 249 ...
Virology | Hantavirus | DHCPP | CDC
The L protein produces nascent genomes by replication via a positive-sense RNA intermediate. Hantavirions are believed to form ... All these genera include arthropod-borne viruses, with the exception of hantavirus, which is rodent-borne. ... The S RNA encodes the nucleocapsid (N) protein. The M RNA encodes a polyprotein that is cotranslationally cleaved to yield the ... The L RNA encodes the L protein, which functions as the viral transcriptase/replicase. Within virions, the genomic RNAs of ...
BMC Bioinformatics | Articles
... a relational database of Arthropod cuticular proteins The insect exoskeleton or cuticle is a bi-partite composite of proteins ... Information assessment on predicting protein-protein interactions Identifying protein-protein interactions is fundamental for ... Functionally specified protein signatures distinctive for each of the different blue copper proteins Proteins having similar ... Gapped alignment of protein sequence motifs through Monte Carlo optimization of a hidden Markov model Certain protein families ...
7. cDNA and gene sequence of Manduca sexta arylphorin, an aromatic amino acid-rich larval serum protein. Homology to arthropod ... 9. Cloning and sequencing of a cDNA for the hemolymph juvenile hormone binding protein of larval Manduca sexta.. Lerro KA; ... 5. Molecular cloning and sequence of a novel ommochrome-binding protein cDNA from an insect, Manduca sexta.. Yepiz-Plascencia ... 3. cDNA cloning and deduced amino acid sequence of microvitellogenin, a female specific hemolymph and egg protein from the ...
Food + Garden Archives - Page 31 of 36 - Science Friday
Antiviral, Immunomodulatory, and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of a Protein-Enriched Fraction from the Larvae of the...
Insects and other arthropods used as drugs in Korean traditional medicine. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 65:207-216. Google ... Antioxidant activities of protein-enriched fraction from the larvae of housefly, Musca domestica. Natural Product Research 22(6 ... 1996; Prete 1997). And some antibacterial proteins have been found in larvae of the M. domestica (Fu et al. 2009; Dang et al. ... 2007), protein-enriched fraction (PEF) was isolated from the larvae of M. domestica and hepatoprotective effects were evaluated ...
Carlos POLANCO | Head of Department | Post-doctoral Researcher | Instituto Nacional de Cardiología, Mexico City | Department of...
Bioinformatics-based Identification of Proteins Expressed by Arthropod- borne Viruses Transmitted by Aedes Aegypti Mosquito ... In the last two decades, a group of proteins whose mutations are associated with a disease manifested by episodes of muscle ... To date, there are 4,388 overrepresented BrS mutated proteins underlying this disease reported in the UniProt database. In an ... On the regularities of the polar profiles of proteins related to the Ebola virus infection and their functional domains ...
Bloom, Marshall 2022 - Office of NIH History and Stetten Museum
The salivary gland of an arthropod is like a bunch of grapes. There is a stem and branches of the stems and then the grapes. ... And then we did some confocal microscopy looking at the viral proteins and salivary gland structure. And we were able to see ... The flaviviruses are a rather large group of viruses, most of which are transmitted by arthropod vectors, either ticks or ... Once its in a double-stranded conformation, then it can make RNA, direct the synthesis of proteins, and reproduce. ...
Browsing by Title
Camerini D[au] - Search Results - PubMed
Biodegradation of the chitin-protein complex in crustacean cuticle
Quantitative analysis of amino acids (by HPLC) and chitin showed that the major loss of proteins and chitin occurred between ... While there is some experimental evidence that this chitin-protein complex may resist decay, the chemical changes that occur ... Arthropod cuticles consist predominantly of chitin cross-linked with proteins. ... Arthropod cuticles consist predominantly of chitin cross-linked with proteins. While there is some experimental evidence that ...
June 2023 DAIT Council-Approved Concepts | NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Arthropod salivary factors, including proteins, RNA, peptides, lipids, nucleosides, and small molecules, have been shown to ... arthropod exposure) against arthropod vectors and/or vector-borne-diseases. ... Only a few of these molecules have been characterized in select arthropod vectors and additional types of factors are likely to ... Notice of Special Interest (NOSI)-Immune Responses to Arthropod Feeding on Vertebrate Hosts. Notice of Special Interest (NOSI)- ...
NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View
Note that a separate heading for INSECT PROTEINS is listed under this heading.. Terms. Arthropod Proteins Preferred Term Term ... Arachnid Proteins Crustacean Proteins Horseshoe Crab Proteins Spider Proteins Tick Proteins Registry Number. 0. Public MeSH ... Arthropod Proteins Preferred Concept UI. M0555602. Registry Number. 0. Scope Note. Proteins synthesized by organisms belonging ... Tick Proteins Narrower Concept UI. M0555605. Registry Number. 0. Terms. Tick Proteins Preferred Term Term UI T787092. Date03/14 ...
When the Firefly's Light Went Out
They eat protein from insects and other Arthropods. With all the obstacles mankind has placed before bird survival, we now ... This disruptive change has led to the demise of insect fauna that provides the protein needs of all the animals. ... In the case of insects and other Arthropods, we kill them off by removing native plants, genetically modifying food crop ...
Natural human humoral response to salivary gland proteins of Anopheles mosquitoes in Thailand<...
During blood feeding, arthropod vectors inject saliva into vertebrate hosts. The saliva is biochemically complex and ... Comparison using Anopheles and Aedes salivary proteins suggests that the anti-salivary protein antibodies detected in malaria ... Comparison using Anopheles and Aedes salivary proteins suggests that the anti-salivary protein antibodies detected in malaria ... Comparison using Anopheles and Aedes salivary proteins suggests that the anti-salivary protein antibodies detected in malaria ...
3 ACCELERATING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT | Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century |The National...
The fact that the activity of Bt toxins and other protein-based toxins is limited to arthropods is encouraging. Industry is ... and academic research in arthropod physiology and biochemistry is likely to help identify arthropod-specific targets and novel ... Knowledge that some arthropod and nematode pests must locate and recognize a crop as a food source can guide scientists to ... Scientists are now limited to use of a few toxic proteins such as Bt toxins, but this may change based on (a) screening of ...
4 Innovations That Can Shape Future Of Food Production
Beef, Chicken, And Lamb Are Going To Be Replaced Soon By Insect Protein Eating insects like arthropods have been the trend of ... Insect protein contains vitamin 12, around 60% of protein and much more calcium than milk. On the other hand, it also supplies ... As per the key players of the companies, insect protein is going to be the next-big-thing for the world. Undoubtedly, the chefs ... The Kickstarter companies like Exo are trying to bring this change by making insect protein bars common in our daily diet. ...
Detection of RNA from a Novel West Nile-like Virus and High Prevalence of an Insect-specific Flavivirus in Mosquitoes in the...
... homology between the nonstructural proteins encoded by CFA and the nonstructural proteins encoded by arthropod-borne ... homology between the nonstructural proteins encoded by CFA and the nonstructural proteins encoded by arthropod-borne ... Protein database searches using compositionally adjusted substitution matrices. FEBS J 272 :5101-5109. ... Protein database searches using compositionally adjusted substitution matrices. FEBS J 272. :. 5101. -5109.. ), false ...
Salivary proteinsPeptidesVectorsVertebratesZikaStructural proteinsVirusesAmino AcidsCuticleInsectsMultifunctionalNucleicMosquitoesViralSuggestsHomologousVaccinesPredominantlyMitesTransmembraneVaccineChitinImportanceVectorDiseasesSyndromeImmuneImmunomodulatoryReplicationStudyImpactPatientsANIMALSSkinComplexControlCurrentVirus
- study of salivary proteins). (nih.gov)
- Besides, antibody levels against mosquito salivary proteins in malaria patients were highly variable, which may be related to the levels of mosquito exposure. (elsevier.com)
- Comparison using Anopheles and Aedes salivary proteins suggests that the anti-salivary protein antibodies detected in malaria patients were Anopheles-specific, consistent with the major malaria vector status of An. (elsevier.com)
- This invention claims nine major salivary proteins from the sand fly vector of Leishmania major , Phlebotomus papatasi , nucleic acids encoding the proteins, vaccines comprising the proteins and/or nucleic acids, and methods of producing an immune response to prevent Leshmaniasis . (nih.gov)
- The inventors have shown that one of these salivary proteins was able to protect vaccinated mice challenged with parasites plus salivary gland homogenates (SGH). (nih.gov)
- Arthropod vectors or vector-derived components, like salivary proteins, can significantly impact host-pathogen interactions. (nih.gov)
- In arthropods, haemocyanin has been identified as a source of broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides during infection. (stir.ac.uk)
- The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), promotes and supports a broad range of research programs focused on advancing the understanding of immunology, vector biology, and transmission of vector-borne pathogens.A large number of pathogens are transmitted to humans by arthropod vectors, but how these pathogens are transmitted from arthropod vectors to vertebrate hosts is not well-defined. (nih.gov)
- A common feature shared among hematophagous arthropod vectors during blood feeding is the exchange of biologically active molecules and microbiota between the arthropod and the vertebrate host at the bite site. (nih.gov)
- However, few of these salivary immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive molecules have been characterized in select arthropod vectors. (nih.gov)
- Yet their occurrence in specific regions, their association with different vectors and hosts and the infection rate of arthropod-vectors with these agents remain poorly studied in South-east Asia. (nih.gov)
- During blood feeding, arthropod vectors inject saliva into vertebrate hosts. (elsevier.com)
- The VEE-SARS-CoV-2 vectors developed will be an important and versatile tool for investigating SARS-CoV-2 molecular virology, developing antiviral agents targeting receptor binding, and studying RNA genome packaging and function of the essential but not well studied structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2. (bvsalud.org)
- To improve transgene expression of repRNA, we introduced point mutations in the non-structural protein 1-4 (nsP1-4) coding region of VEE replicon vectors. (bvsalud.org)
- The current increase in vector-borne disease worldwide necessitates novel approaches to combating the pathogens delivered by blood-feeding arthropod vectors into the human host skin. (nih.gov)
- An apparent exception involves DM domain proteins, including MAB-3 , which control sexual differentiation in nematodes, arthropods, and vertebrates. (wormbook.org)
- Importantly, this "recognition pocket" is found not only in RVF virus but also in the envelope proteins of other viral families transmitted by arthropods, such as the dengue, Zika and chikungunya viruses, which have caused major worldwide epidemics in recent years. (pasteur.fr)
- He has led the field in studying mechanisms of pathogenesis of Zika virus infection and disease including in pregnancy, and more recently studied how the microbiome modulates immunity and infection of arthropod-transmitted viruses His group also has generated, characterized, and mapped thousands of neutralizing antibodies against Zika, West Nile, Dengue, Mayaro, and Chikungunya viruses. (nih.gov)
- Depending on the genus, bunyaviruses encode, in addition to the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and the different structural proteins, one or several non-structural proteins. (nih.gov)
- These non-structural proteins are not always essential for virus growth and replication but can play an important role in viral pathogenesis through their interaction with the host innate immune system. (nih.gov)
- Here, we report the development of a novel SARS-CoV-2 viral vector composed of all 4 SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins, the packaging signal sequence of SARS-CoV-2, a reporter gene, and an RNA amplification component of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV). (bvsalud.org)
- This VEE-SARS-CoV-2 viral vector transduces target cells in an ACE2-dependent manner, and all 4 structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2 are indispensable for its transduction activity. (bvsalud.org)
- All these genera include arthropod-borne viruses, with the exception of hantavirus, which is rodent-borne. (cdc.gov)
- Quantitative analysis of amino acids (by HPLC) and chitin showed that the major loss of proteins and chitin occurred between weeks 1 and 2. (usgs.gov)
- They have an external cuticle, though it is built up from a protein compound called an albuminoid, rather than from the chitin that comprises the insect cuticle. (earthlife.net)
- The exoskeleton of arthropod, the cuticle, is intrinsically multifunctional as it has to serve both as a skin and a skeleton and as it carries a diverse set of tools and a myriad of sensors. (tu-dresden.de)
- It has long been hypothesized that the helicoidal arrangement of chitin fibers in the arthropod cuticle results from the solidification of a cholesteric liquid crystalline phase. (tu-dresden.de)
- Insects pack a protein punch. (sciencefriday.com)
- For example, research investigations of chemical signaling between insects and plants and production of toxic proteins by bacteria have been instrumental in developing biological-control products such as semiochemicals and biological insecticides. (nationalacademies.org)
- Haemocyanins present in invertebrate hemolymph are multifunctional proteins, responsible for oxygen transport and contributing to innate immunity through phenoloxidase-like activity. (stir.ac.uk)
- The use of protein or nucleic acid scaffolds to enhance enzyme properties has been reported for applications such as microbial production of chemicals, biosensor development and bioremediation. (mdpi.com)
- The purpose of this NOSI is to encourage transdisciplinary research to understand the immunologic events in the vertebrate host that occur during and after feeding by hematophagous (e.g., mosquitoes, ticks) and ectoparasitic (e.g., mites, chiggers, bed bugs) arthropods at the bite site and systemically.Given current knowledge gaps, some research areas may involve or require descriptive projects. (nih.gov)
- Hummingbirds for example, need nectar and regular doses of protein from mosquitoes, spiders, thrips, gnats and other arthropods to round out their diet. (nwf.org)
- The L RNA encodes the L protein, which functions as the viral transcriptase/replicase. (cdc.gov)
- Transcription of viral genes is initiated by association of the L protein with the three nucleocapsid species. (cdc.gov)
- In addition to transcriptase and replicase functions, the viral L protein is also thought to have an endonuclease activity that cleaves cellular messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for the production of capped primers used to initiate transcription of viral mRNAs. (cdc.gov)
- They have demonstrated that the viral envelope protein has a "pocket" that specifically recognizes a category of lipids in the cell membrane. (pasteur.fr)
- His laboratory made a seminal discovery by identifying a novel pathogen-associated molecular pattern (lack of 2′-O methylation on the 5′ viral RNA cap) and mechanism of innate immune restriction through IFIT1 proteins. (nih.gov)
- The rapid rate of decay in the experiments suggests that where chitin and protein are preserved in fossil cuticles degradation must have been inhibited.Arthropod cuticles consist predominantly of chitin cross-linked with proteins. (usgs.gov)
- Similarity of TRA-2 to patched receptors and of TRA-1 to GLI proteins suggests that parts of the global pathway originally derived from a Hedgehog signaling pathway. (wormbook.org)
- In the homologous protein of the chikungunya virus, the scientists pinpointed one of the residues of the recognition pocket as amino acid 226. (pasteur.fr)
- Identification and characterization of novel immunologically active molecules from blood-feeding arthropods could lead to the identification of new vaccine adjuvants, therapeutic drugs for the treatment of inflammation or autoimmune disease, or new antigenic targets for the development of vaccines against arthropod saliva or as biomarkers of exposure to vector bite. (nih.gov)
- Arthropod cuticles consist predominantly of chitin cross-linked with proteins. (usgs.gov)
- Here we have demonstrated that anti-Anopheles salivary protein antibodies occurred predominantly in patients with acute Plasmodium falciparum or P. vivax malaria, whereas people from a non-malarious area had no such antibodies. (elsevier.com)
- These could cause causing allergens include: arthropods (dust mites, various types of allergy in some people ( 6 ). (who.int)
- Herein, we report the transmembrane protein gene repertoires involved in chemoreception from Achelura yunnanensis (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae) through transcriptome sequencing, bioinformatics, phylogenetics and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approaches. (nih.gov)
- HER-1 is a secreted protein that controls a regulatory module consisting of a transmembrane receptor, TRA-2 , three intracellular FEM proteins, and the zinc finger transcription factor TRA-1 . (wormbook.org)
- A DNA vaccine containing the cDNA for the same protein provided this same protection. (nih.gov)
- While there is some experimental evidence that this chitin-protein complex may resist decay, the chemical changes that occur during degradation have not been investigated in detail. (usgs.gov)
- We study the relationships between structure-properties-function in a variety of biological materials mainly chitin-based cuticular materials from arthropods, but also mineralized structures such as the sea urchin test and spines. (tu-dresden.de)
- We have recently shown that this organization is the result of chitin-protein co-assembly and that the epidermal cells are cable of overriding this tendency and guide the alignment of parallel fibers similar to an aligned nematic phase. (tu-dresden.de)
- The fifth edition of Physician's Guide to Arthropods of Medical Importance has been thoroughly updated to ensure authoritative coverage of this complex and fast-moving discipline of arthropodborne diseases, and serves as a reliable reference covering all of the major aspects of entomology. (cdc.gov)
- A specific arthropod is described in each section, which begins with illustrations for identification, life cycle drawings (if applicable), and succinct text regarding the arthropod's general importance, geographic distribution, and behavior. (cdc.gov)
- In addition, the recent increase in allergic responses to red meat and other animal-derived products following tick bites has highlighted the importance of the interplay between arthropod-derived salivary factors and the vertebrate host's immune system. (nih.gov)
- Thus, this NOSI supports studies to better understand the role of arthropod salivary factors in the establishment of vector-borne infections and immune-mediated diseases (e.g., alpha-gal syndrome), and local as well as systemic immune modulation. (nih.gov)
- Because of the growing number of challenges these diseases pose to human health, arthropods have garnered heightened concern in the medical community. (cdc.gov)
- The concept of symptomatic treatment at the local level may no longer be sufficient to treat certain major types of arthropod-transmitted diseases, such as West Nile virus encephalitis. (cdc.gov)
- Rickettsioses and bartonelloses are arthropod-borne diseases of mammals with widespread geographical distributions. (nih.gov)
- In our previous study, protein-enriched fraction (PEF) that was isolated from the larvae of the housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), showed excellent hepatoprotective activity as well as the potential for clinical application in therapy for liver diseases. (bioone.org)
- Allergenic arthropods are crucial agents in inducing medically important respiratory diseases like asthma and the inflammation of the respiratory tract worldwide. (who.int)
- Health surveillance and prevention of infes- tation for these arthropods could have an immense impact on the control of the allergenic arthropod community, preven- tion of respiratory diseases, and personal health in Shiraz. (who.int)
- The arthropod Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) gene can generate tens of thousands of protein isoforms via combinatorial splicing of numerous alternative exons encoding immunoglobulin variable domains organized into three clusters referred to as the exon 4, 6, and 9 clusters. (nih.gov)
- Exploratory research on arthropod blood feeding was formerly supported by NIAID through the expired FOA, PAR-18-860, "Immune Response to Arthropod Blood Feeding (R21 Clinical Trial Not Allowed). (nih.gov)
- Dscam protein diversity is important for nervous system development and immune functions. (nih.gov)
- During this process, the arthropod releases salivary factors into the vertebrate host skin and ingests vertebrate bioactive molecules.It is well-established that arthropod salivary factors have immunomodulatory effects in the vertebrate host and play a significant role in pathogen transmission and pathogenesis. (nih.gov)
- The L protein produces nascent genomes by replication via a positive-sense RNA intermediate. (cdc.gov)
- This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of all arthropods in the dwellings of people referred to the asthma and allergy clinic in Shiraz. (who.int)
- The uniqueness of this book lies in its portrayal of all arthropod pests, with and without human impact, and in its emphasis on arthropods as the cause of disease. (cdc.gov)
- Mapping SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Epitopes in COVID-19 Patients with a Multi-Coronavirus Protein Microarray. (nih.gov)
- The allergies induced in these patients could likely be attributed to other arthropods that are not considered main allergens in asthma and allergy clinics in the Islamic Republic of Iran. (who.int)
- This disruptive change has led to the demise of insect fauna that provides the protein needs of all the animals. (txmn.org)
- This Notice of Special Interest (NOSI) solicits transdisciplinary research projects to understand the immunologic events in the vertebrate host that occur at the bite site (skin) and systemically during and after feeding by hematophagous and ectoparasitic arthropods. (nih.gov)
- Written in a clear and readable style, the text presents complex, academic information on the biodiversity of arthropod pests that even a lay person can understand. (cdc.gov)
- Within virions, the genomic RNAs of hantaviruses are thought to complex with the N protein to form helical nucleocapsids, which circularize due to sequence complementarity between the 5′ and 3′ terminal sequences of each genomic segment. (cdc.gov)
- They also determined the atomic structure of this new protein-lipid complex, demonstrating that this protein has a "pocket" which specifically recognizes the hydrophilic heads of some of the lipids that make up the cell membrane. (pasteur.fr)
- Any plan to cockroaches, etc.), animal hair or dander, dust, respired control and prevent the spread of these arthropods must chemicals, mould, pollen and tobacco smoke ( 1 ). (who.int)
- In this review, we will summarize current knowledge and understanding of insect-borne bunyavirus non-structural protein function(s) in vertebrate, plant and arthropod. (nih.gov)
- The author and the publishers are highly commended for presenting such a comprehensive, highly useful volume on the status of arthropods in current medical concerns. (cdc.gov)
- Scientists from the Institut Pasteur and the CNRS, working with the University of Göttingen, have characterized the mechanism used by the virus to insert one of its envelope proteins into the host cell membrane, thereby enabling it to infect the cell. (pasteur.fr)
- Scientists in the Structural Virology Unit (Institut Pasteur/CNRS) directed by Félix Rey, in collaboration with the University of Göttingen, characterized the mechanism used by the virus to insert one of its surface proteins into the host cell membrane and drive fusion. (pasteur.fr)