A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.
Region of the body immediately surrounding and including the ELBOW JOINT.
Replacement of the knee joint.
Replacement of the hip joint.
Surgical reconstruction of a joint to relieve pain or restore motion.
Partial or total replacement of a joint.
Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.
Replacement for a hip joint.
Replacement for a knee joint.
The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
Prostheses used to partially or totally replace a human or animal joint. (from UMDNS, 1999)
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
Replacement of the ELBOW JOINT.
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the hip joint which usually appears in late middle or old age. It is characterized by growth or maturational disturbances in the femoral neck and head, as well as acetabular dysplasia. A dominant symptom is pain on weight-bearing or motion.
Infections resulting from the implantation of prosthetic devices. The infections may be acquired from intraoperative contamination (early) or hematogenously acquired from other sites (late).
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The joining of objects by means of a cement (e.g., in fracture fixation, such as in hip arthroplasty for joining of the acetabular component to the femoral component). In dentistry, it is used for the process of attaching parts of a tooth or restorative material to a natural tooth or for the attaching of orthodontic bands to teeth by means of an adhesive.
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
Replacement of the ANKLE JOINT.
Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Replacement for an elbow joint.
The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.
A vinyl polymer made from ethylene. It can be branched or linear. Branched or low-density polyethylene is tough and pliable but not to the same degree as linear polyethylene. Linear or high-density polyethylene has a greater hardness and tensile strength. Polyethylene is used in a variety of products, including implants and prostheses.
'Joint diseases' is a broad term that refers to medical conditions causing inflammation, degeneration, or functional impairment in any part of a joint, including the cartilage, bone, ligament, tendon, or bursa, thereby affecting movement and potentially causing pain, stiffness, deformity, or reduced range of motion.
Fixation and immobility of a joint.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
The part of the pelvis that comprises the pelvic socket where the head of FEMUR joins to form HIP JOINT (acetabulofemoral joint).
Displacement of the femur bone from its normal position at the HIP JOINT.
"Dislocation is a traumatic injury wherein the normal articulation between two bones at a joint is disrupted, resulting in the complete separation of the bone ends and associated soft tissues from their usual position."
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.
Pain during the period after surgery.
The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The flat, triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the KNEE.
Surgical procedures conducted with the aid of computers. This is most frequently used in orthopedic and laparoscopic surgery for implant placement and instrument guidance. Image-guided surgery interactively combines prior CT scans or MRI images with real-time video.
The replacement of intervertebral discs in the spinal column with artificial devices. The procedure is done in the lumbar or cervical spine to relieve severe pain resulting from INTERVERTEBRAL DISC DEGENERATION.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
The fitting and adjusting of artificial parts of the body. (From Stedman's, 26th ed)
Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.
A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.
Partial or total replacement of one or more FINGERS, or a FINGER JOINT.
Displacement of bones out of line in relation to joints. It may be congenital or traumatic in origin.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Aseptic or avascular necrosis of the femoral head. The major types are idiopathic (primary), as a complication of fractures or dislocations, and LEGG-CALVE-PERTHES DISEASE.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Fractures of the short, constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters. It excludes intertrochanteric fractures which are HIP FRACTURES.
Synthetic thermoplastics that are tough, flexible, inert, and resistant to chemicals and electrical current. They are often used as biocompatible materials for prostheses and implants.
A number of ligaments on either side of, and serving as a radius of movement of, a joint having a hingelike movement. They occur at the elbow, knee, wrist, metacarpo- and metatarsophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints of the hands and feet. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.
Dissolution of bone that particularly involves the removal or loss of calcium.
The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.
Procedures that avoid use of open, invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery. These generally involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device.
The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.
Loss of blood during a surgical procedure.
Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.
The surgical fixation of a joint by a procedure designed to accomplish fusion of the joint surfaces by promoting the proliferation of bone cells. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A 'Humeral Fracture' is a medical condition defined as a break in any part of the long bone (humerus) connecting the shoulder to the elbow, which may occur due to various reasons such as trauma, fall, or high-impact sports injuries.
The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).
Deformities acquired after birth as the result of injury or disease. The joint deformity is often associated with rheumatoid arthritis and leprosy.
The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.
The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Recovery of blood lost from surgical procedures for reuse by the same patient in AUTOLOGOUS BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS. It is collected during (intraoperatively) or after completion of (postoperatively) the surgical procedures.
Prolonged shortening of the muscle or other soft tissue around a joint, preventing movement of the joint.
Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm forward or upward. When referring to the foot, a combination of adduction and inversion movements of the foot.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
Fractures around joint replacement prosthetics or implants. They can occur intraoperatively or postoperatively.
Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm backward or downward. When referring to the foot, a combination of eversion and abduction movements in the tarsal and metatarsal joints (turning the foot up and in toward the midline of the body).
The removal of foreign material and devitalized or contaminated tissue from or adjacent to a traumatic or infected lesion until surrounding healthy tissue is exposed. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Congenital dislocation of the hip generally includes subluxation of the femoral head, acetabular dysplasia, and complete dislocation of the femoral head from the true acetabulum. This condition occurs in approximately 1 in 1000 live births and is more common in females than in males.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.
The sac enclosing a joint. It is composed of an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.
General or unspecified injuries involving the hip.
Arthritis is a general term used to describe inflammation in the joints, often resulting in pain, stiffness, and reduced mobility, which can be caused by various conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, or lupus.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.
A condition in which one of a pair of legs fails to grow as long as the other, which could result from injury or surgery.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.
Reinfusion of blood or blood products derived from the patient's own circulation. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
Movement of a body part initiated and maintained by a mechanical or electrical device to restore normal range of motion to joints, muscles, or tendons after surgery, prosthesis implantation, contracture flexion, or long immobilization.
Ulnar neuropathies caused by mechanical compression of the nerve at any location from its origin at the BRACHIAL PLEXUS to its terminations in the hand. Common sites of compression include the retroepicondylar groove, cubital tunnel at the elbow (CUBITAL TUNNEL SYNDROME), and Guyon's canal at the wrist. Clinical features depend on the site of injury, but may include weakness or paralysis of wrist flexion, finger flexion, and ulnar innervated intrinsic hand muscles, and impaired sensation over the ulnar aspect of the hand, fifth finger, and ulnar half of the ring finger. (Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p43)
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
Procedures which temporarily or permanently remedy insufficient cleansing of body fluids by the kidneys.
A surgical specialty which utilizes medical, surgical, and physical methods to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the skeletal system, its articulations, and associated structures.
A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the anterolateral surface of the medial condyle of the femur, passes posteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the posterior intercondylar area of the tibia.
The period following a surgical operation.
Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.
The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.
Death of a bone or part of a bone, either atraumatic or posttraumatic.
Steel wires, often threaded through the skin, soft tissues, and bone, used to fix broken bones. Kirschner wires or apparatus also includes the application of traction to the healing bones through the wires.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.
Bleeding into the joints. It may arise from trauma or spontaneously in patients with hemophilia.
Removal of an implanted therapeutic or prosthetic device.
A partial joint replacement in which only one surface of the joint is replaced with a PROSTHESIS.
Disease involving the ULNAR NERVE from its origin in the BRACHIAL PLEXUS to its termination in the hand. Clinical manifestations may include PARESIS or PARALYSIS of wrist flexion, finger flexion, thumb adduction, finger abduction, and finger adduction. Sensation over the medial palm, fifth finger, and ulnar aspect of the ring finger may also be impaired. Common sites of injury include the AXILLA, cubital tunnel at the ELBOW, and Guyon's canal at the wrist. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51 pp43-5)
Compression of the ULNAR NERVE in the cubital tunnel, which is formed by the two heads of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle, humeral-ulnar aponeurosis, and medial ligaments of the elbow. This condition may follow trauma or occur in association with processes which produce nerve enlargement or narrowing of the canal. Manifestations include elbow pain and PARESTHESIA radiating distally, weakness of ulnar innervated intrinsic hand muscles, and loss of sensation over the hypothenar region, fifth finger, and ulnar aspect of the ring finger. (Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p43)
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Procedure to accelerate the ability of a patient to walk or move about by reducing the time to AMBULATION. It is characterized by a shorter period of hospitalization or recumbency than is normally practiced.
Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.
The musculotendinous sheath formed by the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, and teres minor muscles. These help stabilize the head of the HUMERUS in the glenoid fossa and allow for rotation of the SHOULDER JOINT about its longitudinal axis.
Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.
Fractures of the femur.
Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.
Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.
A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.
A dead body, usually a human body.
Surgical insertion of synthetic material to repair injured or diseased heart valves.
Making measurements by the use of stereoscopic photographs.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A device that substitutes for a heart valve. It may be composed of biological material (BIOPROSTHESIS) and/or synthetic material.
Tuberculosis of the bones or joints.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).
The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.
A fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Hemorrhage following any surgical procedure. It may be immediate or delayed and is not restricted to the surgical wound.
Also called the shoulder blade, it is a flat triangular bone, a pair of which form the back part of the shoulder girdle.
The portion of the upper rounded extremity fitting into the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA. (from Stedman, 27th ed)
A condition caused by degenerative arthritis (see OSTEOARTHRITIS) of the METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT of the great toe and characterized by pain and limited dorsiflexion, but relatively unrestricted plantar flexion.
The period before a surgical operation.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
A fracture in which union fails to occur, the ends of the bone becoming rounded and eburnated, and a false joint occurs. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
Injuries to the part of the upper limb of the body between the wrist and elbow.
The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.
Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Rods of bone, metal, or other material used for fixation of the fragments or ends of fractured bones.
Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.
Antifibrinolytic hemostatic used in severe hemorrhage.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Pain in the joint.
Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
"Awards and prizes in a medical context refer to formal recognitions, typically bestowed upon healthcare professionals or researchers, for significant contributions to medical advancements, patient care, or professional organizations, often involving monetary rewards, certificates, or trophies."
The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle.
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Therapeutic replacement or supplementation of defective or missing enzymes to alleviate the effects of enzyme deficiency (e.g., GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE replacement for GAUCHER DISEASE).
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.
Arthritis caused by BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; MYCOPLASMA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; or PARASITES.
The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.
Surgical insertion of a prosthesis.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.
Tantalum. A rare metallic element, atomic number 73, atomic weight 180.948, symbol Ta. It is a noncorrosive and malleable metal that has been used for plates or disks to replace cranial defects, for wire sutures, and for making prosthetic devices. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Measurements of joint flexibility (RANGE OF MOTION, ARTICULAR), usually by employing an angle-measuring device (arthrometer). Arthrometry is used to measure ligamentous laxity and stability. It is often used to evaluate the outcome of ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT replacement surgery.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.
Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.
The articulation between a metatarsal bone (METATARSAL BONES) and a phalanx.
Hospitals with a much lower than average utilization by physicians and smaller number of procedures.
Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.
A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The use of metallic devices inserted into or through bone to hold a fracture in a set position and alignment while it heals.
The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.
Types of prosthetic joints in which both wear surfaces of the joint coupling are metallic.
The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.
Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.
Degenerative changes in the INTERVERTEBRAL DISC due to aging or structural damage, especially to the vertebral end-plates.
Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.
A hereditary disease of the hip joints in dogs. Signs of the disease may be evident any time after 4 weeks of age.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Restoration of an organ or other structure to its original site.
The lumbar and sacral plexuses taken together. The fibers of the lumbosacral plexus originate in the lumbar and upper sacral spinal cord (L1 to S3) and innervate the lower extremities.
Breaks in bones.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
The period during a surgical operation.
The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)
Control of bleeding during or after surgery.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A competitive nine-member team sport including softball.
Excision, in part or whole, of an INTERVERTEBRAL DISC. The most common indication is disk displacement or herniation. In addition to standard surgical removal, it can be performed by percutaneous diskectomy (DISKECTOMY, PERCUTANEOUS) or by laparoscopic diskectomy, the former being the more common.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).
A depression in the lateral angle of the scapula that articulates with the head of the HUMERUS.
Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
Union of the fragments of a fractured bone in a faulty or abnormal position. If two bones parallel to one another unite by osseous tissue, the result is a crossunion. (From Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 4th ed)
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.

Acute disassembly of a bipolar radial head arthroplasty. (1/14)

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Prosthetic replacement of elbow for intercondylar fractures (recent or ununited) of humerus in the elderly. (2/14)

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Short- to medium-term outcomes of radial head replacement arthroplasty in posttraumatic unstable elbows: 20 to 70 months follow-up. (3/14)

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Cellular response to prosthetic wear debris differs in patients with and without rheumatoid arthritis. (4/14)

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Total elbow replacement with the Coonrad-Morrey prosthesis: our medium to long-term results. (5/14)

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Specificity and responsiveness of patient-reported and clinician-rated outcome measures in the context of elbow surgery, comparing patients with and without rheumatoid arthritis. (6/14)

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Radial head arthroplasty using a metatarsal osteochondral autograft. (7/14)

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Monobloc radial head prostheses in complex elbow injuries: results after primary and secondary implantation. (8/14)

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The elbow joint, also known as the cubitus joint, is a hinge joint that connects the humerus bone of the upper arm to the radius and ulna bones of the forearm. It allows for flexion and extension movements of the forearm, as well as some degree of rotation. The main articulation occurs between the trochlea of the humerus and the trochlear notch of the ulna, while the radial head of the radius also contributes to the joint's stability and motion. Ligaments, muscles, and tendons surround and support the elbow joint, providing strength and protection during movement.

The elbow is a joint formed by the articulation between the humerus bone of the upper arm and the radius and ulna bones of the forearm. It allows for flexion, extension, and rotation of the forearm. The medical definition of "elbow" refers to this specific anatomical structure and its associated functions in human anatomy.

Arthroplasty, replacement, knee is a surgical procedure where the damaged or diseased joint surface of the knee is removed and replaced with an artificial joint or prosthesis. The procedure involves resurfacing the worn-out ends of the femur (thigh bone) and tibia (shin bone) with metal components, and the back of the kneecap with a plastic button. This surgery is usually performed to relieve pain and restore function in patients with severe knee osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or traumatic injuries that have damaged the joint beyond repair. The goal of knee replacement surgery is to improve mobility, reduce pain, and enhance the quality of life for the patient.

Hip arthroplasty, also known as hip replacement surgery, is a medical procedure where the damaged or diseased joint surfaces of the hip are removed and replaced with artificial components. These components typically include a metal or ceramic ball that replaces the head of the femur (thigh bone), and a polyethylene or ceramic socket that replaces the acetabulum (hip socket) in the pelvis.

The goal of hip arthroplasty is to relieve pain, improve joint mobility, and restore function to the hip joint. This procedure is commonly performed in patients with advanced osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, hip fractures, or other conditions that cause significant damage to the hip joint.

There are several types of hip replacement surgeries, including traditional total hip arthroplasty, partial (hemi) hip arthroplasty, and resurfacing hip arthroplasty. The choice of procedure depends on various factors, such as the patient's age, activity level, overall health, and the extent of joint damage.

After surgery, patients typically require rehabilitation to regain strength, mobility, and function in the affected hip. With proper care and follow-up, most patients can expect significant pain relief and improved quality of life following hip arthroplasty.

Arthroplasty is a surgical procedure to restore the integrity and function of a joint. The term is derived from two Greek words: "arthro" meaning joint, and "plasty" meaning to mold or form. There are several types of arthroplasty, but most involve resurfacing the damaged joint cartilage with artificial materials such as metal, plastic, or ceramic.

The goal of arthroplasty is to relieve pain, improve mobility, and restore function in a joint that has been damaged by arthritis, injury, or other conditions. The most common types of arthroplasty are total joint replacement (TJR) and partial joint replacement (PJR).

In TJR, the surgeon removes the damaged ends of the bones in the joint and replaces them with artificial components called prostheses. These prostheses can be made of metal, plastic, or ceramic materials, and are designed to mimic the natural movement and function of the joint.

In PJR, only one side of the joint is resurfaced, typically because the damage is less extensive. This procedure is less invasive than TJR and may be recommended for younger patients who are still active or have a higher risk of complications from a full joint replacement.

Other types of arthroplasty include osteotomy, in which the surgeon cuts and reshapes the bone to realign the joint; arthrodesis, in which the surgeon fuses two bones together to create a stable joint; and resurfacing, in which the damaged cartilage is removed and replaced with a smooth, artificial surface.

Arthroplasty is typically recommended for patients who have tried other treatments, such as physical therapy, medication, or injections, but have not found relief from their symptoms. While arthroplasty can be highly effective in relieving pain and improving mobility, it is not without risks, including infection, blood clots, and implant failure. Patients should discuss the benefits and risks of arthroplasty with their healthcare provider to determine if it is the right treatment option for them.

Arthroplasty, replacement, is a surgical procedure where a damaged or diseased joint surface is removed and replaced with an artificial implant or device. The goal of this surgery is to relieve pain, restore function, and improve the quality of life for patients who have severe joint damage due to arthritis or other conditions.

During the procedure, the surgeon removes the damaged cartilage and bone from the joint and replaces them with a metal, plastic, or ceramic component that replicates the shape and function of the natural joint surface. The most common types of joint replacement surgery are hip replacement, knee replacement, and shoulder replacement.

The success rate of joint replacement surgery is generally high, with many patients experiencing significant pain relief and improved mobility. However, as with any surgical procedure, there are risks involved, including infection, blood clots, implant loosening or failure, and nerve damage. Therefore, it's essential to discuss the potential benefits and risks of joint replacement surgery with a healthcare provider before making a decision.

Prosthesis failure is a term used to describe a situation where a prosthetic device, such as an artificial joint or limb, has stopped functioning or failed to meet its intended purpose. This can be due to various reasons, including mechanical failure, infection, loosening of the device, or a reaction to the materials used in the prosthesis.

Mechanical failure can occur due to wear and tear, manufacturing defects, or improper use of the prosthetic device. Infection can also lead to prosthesis failure, particularly in cases where the prosthesis is implanted inside the body. The immune system may react to the presence of the foreign material, leading to inflammation and infection.

Loosening of the prosthesis can also cause it to fail over time, as the device becomes less stable and eventually stops working properly. Additionally, some people may have a reaction to the materials used in the prosthesis, leading to tissue damage or other complications that can result in prosthesis failure.

In general, prosthesis failure can lead to decreased mobility, pain, and the need for additional surgeries or treatments to correct the problem. It is important for individuals with prosthetic devices to follow their healthcare provider's instructions carefully to minimize the risk of prosthesis failure and ensure that the device continues to function properly over time.

A hip prosthesis, also known as a total hip replacement, is a surgical implant designed to replace the damaged or diseased components of the human hip joint. The procedure involves replacing the femoral head (the ball at the top of the thigh bone) and the acetabulum (the socket in the pelvis) with artificial parts, typically made from materials such as metal, ceramic, or plastic.

The goal of a hip prosthesis is to relieve pain, improve joint mobility, and restore function, allowing patients to return to their normal activities and enjoy an improved quality of life. The procedure is most commonly performed in individuals with advanced osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or other degenerative conditions that have caused significant damage to the hip joint.

There are several different types of hip prostheses available, each with its own unique design and set of benefits and risks. The choice of prosthesis will depend on a variety of factors, including the patient's age, activity level, overall health, and specific medical needs. In general, however, all hip prostheses are designed to provide a durable, long-lasting solution for patients suffering from debilitating joint pain and stiffness.

A knee prosthesis, also known as a knee replacement or artificial knee joint, is a medical device used to replace the damaged or diseased weight-bearing surfaces of the knee joint. It typically consists of three components: the femoral component (made of metal) that fits over the end of the thighbone (femur), the tibial component (often made of metal and plastic) that fits into the top of the shinbone (tibia), and a patellar component (usually made of plastic) that replaces the damaged surface of the kneecap.

The primary goal of knee prosthesis is to relieve pain, restore function, and improve quality of life for individuals with advanced knee joint damage due to conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or traumatic injuries. The procedure to implant a knee prosthesis is called knee replacement surgery or total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

Articular Range of Motion (AROM) is a term used in physiotherapy and orthopedics to describe the amount of movement available in a joint, measured in degrees of a circle. It refers to the range through which synovial joints can actively move without causing pain or injury. AROM is assessed by measuring the degree of motion achieved by active muscle contraction, as opposed to passive range of motion (PROM), where the movement is generated by an external force.

Assessment of AROM is important in evaluating a patient's functional ability and progress, planning treatment interventions, and determining return to normal activities or sports participation. It is also used to identify any restrictions in joint mobility that may be due to injury, disease, or surgery, and to monitor the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs.

A joint prosthesis, also known as an artificial joint or a replacement joint, is a surgical implant used to replace all or part of a damaged or diseased joint. The most common types of joint prostheses are total hip replacements and total knee replacements. These prostheses typically consist of a combination of metal, plastic, and ceramic components that are designed to replicate the movement and function of a natural joint.

Joint prostheses are usually recommended for patients who have severe joint pain or mobility issues that cannot be adequately managed with other treatments such as physical therapy, medication, or lifestyle changes. The goal of joint replacement surgery is to relieve pain, improve joint function, and enhance the patient's quality of life.

Joint prostheses are typically made from materials such as titanium, cobalt-chrome alloys, stainless steel, polyethylene plastic, and ceramics. The choice of material depends on a variety of factors, including the patient's age, activity level, weight, and overall health.

While joint replacement surgery is generally safe and effective, there are risks associated with any surgical procedure, including infection, blood clots, implant loosening or failure, and nerve damage. Patients who undergo joint replacement surgery typically require several weeks of rehabilitation and physical therapy to regain strength and mobility in the affected joint.

A reoperation is a surgical procedure that is performed again on a patient who has already undergone a previous operation for the same or related condition. Reoperations may be required due to various reasons, such as inadequate initial treatment, disease recurrence, infection, or complications from the first surgery. The nature and complexity of a reoperation can vary widely depending on the specific circumstances, but it often carries higher risks and potential complications compared to the original operation.

Arthroplasty, replacement, elbow is a surgical procedure where a damaged or diseased elbow joint is replaced with an artificial one. The procedure involves removing the damaged parts of the humerus (upper arm bone) and ulna (forearm bone) and replacing them with metal or plastic components that are designed to replicate the movement of a natural elbow joint.

The goal of elbow replacement surgery is to relieve pain, improve mobility, and restore function to the elbow joint. This procedure may be recommended for individuals who have severe arthritis, joint damage due to trauma, or other conditions that cause chronic elbow pain and limit mobility. After surgery, patients typically undergo a period of rehabilitation to help them regain strength and range of motion in their elbow.

Prosthesis design is a specialized field in medical device technology that involves creating and developing artificial substitutes to replace a missing body part, such as a limb, tooth, eye, or internal organ. The design process typically includes several stages: assessment of the patient's needs, selection of appropriate materials, creation of a prototype, testing and refinement, and final fabrication and fitting of the prosthesis.

The goal of prosthesis design is to create a device that functions as closely as possible to the natural body part it replaces, while also being comfortable, durable, and aesthetically pleasing for the patient. The design process may involve collaboration between medical professionals, engineers, and designers, and may take into account factors such as the patient's age, lifestyle, occupation, and overall health.

Prosthesis design can be highly complex, particularly for advanced devices such as robotic limbs or implantable organs. These devices often require sophisticated sensors, actuators, and control systems to mimic the natural functions of the body part they replace. As a result, prosthesis design is an active area of research and development in the medical field, with ongoing efforts to improve the functionality, comfort, and affordability of these devices for patients.

The hip joint, also known as the coxal joint, is a ball-and-socket type synovial joint that connects the femur (thigh bone) to the pelvis. The "ball" is the head of the femur, while the "socket" is the acetabulum, a concave surface on the pelvic bone.

The hip joint is surrounded by a strong fibrous capsule and is reinforced by several ligaments, including the iliofemoral, ischiofemoral, and pubofemoral ligaments. The joint allows for flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, medial and lateral rotation, and circumduction movements, making it one of the most mobile joints in the body.

The hip joint is also supported by various muscles, including the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, iliopsoas, and other hip flexors and extensors. These muscles provide stability and strength to the joint, allowing for weight-bearing activities such as walking, running, and jumping.

Osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip is a degenerative joint disease that affects the articular cartilage and subchondral bone of the hip joint. It is characterized by the progressive loss of cartilage, remodeling of bone, osteophyte formation (bone spurs), cysts, and mild to moderate inflammation. The degenerative process can lead to pain, stiffness, limited range of motion, and crepitus (grating or crackling sound) during movement.

In the hip joint, OA typically affects the femoral head and acetabulum. As the articular cartilage wears away, the underlying bone becomes exposed and can lead to bone-on-bone contact, which is painful. The body responds by attempting to repair the damage through remodeling of the subchondral bone and formation of osteophytes. However, these changes can further limit joint mobility and exacerbate symptoms.

Risk factors for OA of the hip include age, obesity, genetics, previous joint injury or surgery, and repetitive stress on the joint. Treatment options may include pain management (such as NSAIDs, physical therapy, and injections), lifestyle modifications (such as weight loss and exercise), and, in severe cases, surgical intervention (such as hip replacement).

Prosthesis-related infections, also known as prosthetic joint infections (PJIs), are infections that occur around or within a prosthetic device, such as an artificial joint. These infections can be caused by bacteria, fungi, or other microorganisms and can lead to serious complications if not treated promptly and effectively.

Prosthesis-related infections can occur soon after the implantation of the prosthetic device (early infection) or months or even years later (late infection). Early infections are often caused by bacteria that enter the surgical site during the procedure, while late infections may be caused by hematogenous seeding (i.e., when bacteria from another source spread through the bloodstream and settle in the prosthetic device) or by contamination during a subsequent medical procedure.

Symptoms of prosthesis-related infections can include pain, swelling, redness, warmth, and drainage around the affected area. In some cases, patients may also experience fever, chills, or fatigue. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests (such as blood cultures, joint fluid analysis, and tissue biopsy), and imaging studies (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI).

Treatment of prosthesis-related infections usually involves a combination of antibiotics and surgical intervention. The specific treatment approach will depend on the type and severity of the infection, as well as the patient's overall health status. In some cases, it may be necessary to remove or replace the affected prosthetic device.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

In the medical field, cementation refers to the process of using a type of dental cement or bonding agent to attach a dental restoration (such as a crown, bridge, or false tooth) to a natural tooth or implant. The cement helps to create a strong and secure attachment, while also helping to seal the restoration and prevent the entry of bacteria and saliva.

Dental cement can be made from various materials, including glass ionomers, resin-modified glass ionomers, zinc phosphate, and polycarboxylate cements. The choice of cement depends on several factors, such as the type of restoration being attached, the location in the mouth, and the patient's individual needs and preferences.

Cementation is an important step in many dental procedures, as it helps to ensure the longevity and success of the restoration. Proper technique and material selection are crucial for achieving a successful cementation that will last for years to come.

The knee joint, also known as the tibiofemoral joint, is the largest and one of the most complex joints in the human body. It is a synovial joint that connects the thighbone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia). The patella (kneecap), which is a sesamoid bone, is located in front of the knee joint and helps in the extension of the leg.

The knee joint is made up of three articulations: the femorotibial joint between the femur and tibia, the femoropatellar joint between the femur and patella, and the tibiofibular joint between the tibia and fibula. These articulations are surrounded by a fibrous capsule that encloses the synovial membrane, which secretes synovial fluid to lubricate the joint.

The knee joint is stabilized by several ligaments, including the medial and lateral collateral ligaments, which provide stability to the sides of the joint, and the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments, which prevent excessive forward and backward movement of the tibia relative to the femur. The menisci, which are C-shaped fibrocartilaginous structures located between the femoral condyles and tibial plateaus, also help to stabilize the joint by absorbing shock and distributing weight evenly across the articular surfaces.

The knee joint allows for flexion, extension, and a small amount of rotation, making it essential for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and sitting.

"Recovery of function" is a term used in medical rehabilitation to describe the process in which an individual regains the ability to perform activities or tasks that were previously difficult or impossible due to injury, illness, or disability. This can involve both physical and cognitive functions. The goal of recovery of function is to help the person return to their prior level of independence and participation in daily activities, work, and social roles as much as possible.

Recovery of function may be achieved through various interventions such as physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language therapy, and other rehabilitation strategies. The specific approach used will depend on the individual's needs and the nature of their impairment. Recovery of function can occur spontaneously as the body heals, or it may require targeted interventions to help facilitate the process.

It is important to note that recovery of function does not always mean a full return to pre-injury or pre-illness levels of ability. Instead, it often refers to the person's ability to adapt and compensate for any remaining impairments, allowing them to achieve their maximum level of functional independence and quality of life.

Ankle arthroplasty, also known as ankle replacement surgery, is a surgical procedure in which the damaged or degenerated joint surfaces of the ankle are removed and replaced with artificial components. The goal of this procedure is to relieve pain, restore range of motion, and improve function in patients with severe end-stage arthritis of the ankle joint.

During the surgery, the surgeon makes an incision over the front or side of the ankle to access the damaged joint. The ends of the tibia and talus bones are then prepared by removing any remaining cartilage and a small amount of bone. The artificial components, which typically consist of metal and plastic parts, are then positioned and fixed in place with cement or screws.

After the surgery, patients will need to undergo physical therapy to help regain strength, range of motion, and mobility in the ankle. It is important to follow the surgeon's instructions carefully during the recovery period to ensure proper healing and optimal outcomes.

Ankle arthroplasty is usually recommended for patients who have tried other treatments, such as pain medication, physical therapy, or bracing, but have not found relief from their symptoms. It is typically reserved for older adults with low functional demands, as younger, more active patients may be better suited for ankle fusion surgery, which provides greater stability and durability over time.

Bone cements are medical-grade materials used in orthopedic and trauma surgery to fill gaps between bone surfaces and implants, such as artificial joints or screws. They serve to mechanically stabilize the implant and provide a smooth, load-bearing surface. The two most common types of bone cement are:

1. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement: This is a two-component system consisting of powdered PMMA and liquid methyl methacrylate monomer. When mixed together, they form a dough-like consistency that hardens upon exposure to air. PMMA cement has been widely used for decades in joint replacement surgeries, such as hip or knee replacements.
2. Calcium phosphate (CP) cement: This is a two-component system consisting of a powdered CP compound and an aqueous solution. When mixed together, they form a paste that hardens through a chemical reaction at body temperature. CP cement has lower mechanical strength compared to PMMA but demonstrates better biocompatibility, bioactivity, and the ability to resorb over time.

Both types of bone cements have advantages and disadvantages, and their use depends on the specific surgical indication and patient factors.

Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is a degenerative joint disease that affects the articular cartilage and subchondral bone in the knee joint. It is characterized by the breakdown and eventual loss of the smooth, cushioning cartilage that covers the ends of bones and allows for easy movement within joints. As the cartilage wears away, the bones rub against each other, causing pain, stiffness, and limited mobility. Osteoarthritis of the knee can also lead to the formation of bone spurs (osteophytes) and cysts in the joint. This condition is most commonly found in older adults, but it can also occur in younger people as a result of injury or overuse. Risk factors include obesity, family history, previous joint injuries, and repetitive stress on the knee joint. Treatment options typically include pain management, physical therapy, and in some cases, surgery.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

An elbow prosthesis is a medical device that is used to replace all or part of the elbow joint during a surgical procedure called elbow arthroplasty or elbow replacement. The prosthesis typically consists of a metal component that replaces the humerus (upper arm bone) and another metal or plastic component that replaces the ulna (forearm bone). These components are designed to articulate with each other in a way that replicates the normal movement of the elbow joint, allowing for flexion, extension, and rotation.

Elbow prostheses may be used to treat a variety of conditions, including severe arthritis, fractures, tumors, or other injuries that have damaged the elbow joint beyond repair. The goal of elbow replacement surgery is to relieve pain, restore function, and improve the patient's quality of life.

There are several different types of elbow prostheses available, each with its own unique design features and benefits. Some prostheses are designed to be fixed in place using cement, while others use a press-fit or semi-constrained design that allows for some degree of natural movement between the components. The choice of prosthesis will depend on several factors, including the patient's age, activity level, and overall health.

After surgery, patients typically undergo a period of rehabilitation to help them regain strength and mobility in their elbow. This may involve physical therapy, exercises, and other treatments designed to promote healing and prevent complications. With proper care and follow-up, most patients can expect to enjoy improved function and reduced pain following elbow replacement surgery with an elbow prosthesis.

The shoulder joint, also known as the glenohumeral joint, is the most mobile joint in the human body. It is a ball and socket synovial joint that connects the head of the humerus (upper arm bone) to the glenoid cavity of the scapula (shoulder blade). The shoulder joint allows for a wide range of movements including flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, internal rotation, and external rotation. It is surrounded by a group of muscles and tendons known as the rotator cuff that provide stability and enable smooth movement of the joint.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyethylene" is not a medical term. It is a type of synthetic plastic that is commonly used in various industrial and consumer products. Medical definitions typically refer to substances or conditions related to human health, treatment, or disease processes. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help!

Joint diseases is a broad term that refers to various conditions affecting the joints, including but not limited to:

1. Osteoarthritis (OA): A degenerative joint disease characterized by the breakdown of cartilage and underlying bone, leading to pain, stiffness, and potential loss of function.
2. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA): An autoimmune disorder causing inflammation in the synovial membrane lining the joints, resulting in swelling, pain, and joint damage if left untreated.
3. Infectious Arthritis: Joint inflammation caused by bacterial, viral, or fungal infections that spread through the bloodstream or directly enter the joint space.
4. Gout: A type of arthritis resulting from the buildup of uric acid crystals in the joints, typically affecting the big toe and characterized by sudden attacks of severe pain, redness, and swelling.
5. Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA): An inflammatory joint disease associated with psoriasis, causing symptoms such as pain, stiffness, and swelling in the joints and surrounding tissues.
6. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA): A group of chronic arthritis conditions affecting children, characterized by joint inflammation, pain, and stiffness.
7. Ankylosing Spondylitis: A form of arthritis primarily affecting the spine, causing inflammation, pain, and potential fusion of spinal vertebrae.
8. Bursitis: Inflammation of the fluid-filled sacs (bursae) that cushion joints, leading to pain and swelling.
9. Tendinitis: Inflammation or degeneration of tendons, which connect muscles to bones, often resulting in pain and stiffness near joints.

These conditions can impact the function and mobility of affected joints, causing discomfort and limiting daily activities. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing joint diseases and preserving joint health.

Ankylosis is a medical term that refers to the abnormal joining or fusion of bones, typically in a joint. This can occur as a result of various conditions such as injury, infection, or inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis. The fusion of bones can restrict movement and cause stiffness in the affected joint. In some cases, ankylosis can lead to deformity and disability if not treated promptly and effectively.

There are different types of ankylosis depending on the location and extent of bone fusion. For instance, when it affects the spine, it is called "ankylosing spondylitis," which is a chronic inflammatory disease that can cause stiffness and pain in the joints between the vertebrae.

Treatment for ankylosis depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, physical therapy or surgery may be necessary to restore mobility and function to the affected joint.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

The femur is the medical term for the thigh bone, which is the longest and strongest bone in the human body. It connects the hip bone to the knee joint and plays a crucial role in supporting the weight of the body and allowing movement during activities such as walking, running, and jumping. The femur is composed of a rounded head, a long shaft, and two condyles at the lower end that articulate with the tibia and patella to form the knee joint.

The acetabulum is the cup-shaped cavity in the pelvic bone (specifically, the os coxa) where the head of the femur bone articulates to form the hip joint. It provides a stable and flexible connection between the lower limb and the trunk, allowing for a wide range of movements such as flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation, and circumduction. The acetabulum is lined with articular cartilage, which facilitates smooth and frictionless movement of the hip joint. Its stability is further enhanced by various ligaments, muscles, and the labrum, a fibrocartilaginous rim that deepens the socket and increases its contact area with the femoral head.

A hip dislocation is a medical emergency that occurs when the head of the femur (thighbone) slips out of its socket in the pelvis. This can happen due to high-energy trauma, such as a car accident or a severe fall. Hip dislocations can also occur in people with certain health conditions that make their hips more prone to displacement, such as developmental dysplasia of the hip.

There are two main types of hip dislocations: posterior and anterior. In a posterior dislocation, the femur head moves out of the back of the socket, which is the most common type. In an anterior dislocation, the femur head moves out of the front of the socket. Both types of hip dislocations can cause severe pain, swelling, and difficulty moving the affected leg.

Immediate medical attention is necessary for a hip dislocation to realign the bones and prevent further damage. Treatment typically involves sedation or anesthesia to relax the muscles around the joint, followed by a closed reduction procedure to gently guide the femur head back into the socket. In some cases, surgery may be required to repair any associated injuries, such as fractures or damaged ligaments. After treatment, physical therapy and rehabilitation are usually necessary to restore strength, mobility, and function to the affected hip joint.

A dislocation is a condition in which a bone slips out of its normal position in a joint. This can happen as a result of trauma or injury, such as a fall or direct blow to the body. Dislocations can cause pain, swelling, and limited mobility in the affected area. In some cases, a dislocation may also damage surrounding tissues, such as ligaments, tendons, and nerves.

Dislocations are typically treated by reducing the dislocation, which means putting the bone back into its normal position. This is usually done with the help of medication to relieve pain and relaxation techniques to help the person stay still during the reduction. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged tissues or if the dislocation cannot be reduced through other methods. After the dislocation has been reduced, the joint may be immobilized with a splint or sling to allow it to heal properly.

It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you suspect that you have a dislocation. If left untreated, a dislocation can lead to further complications, such as joint instability and chronic pain.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Joint instability is a condition characterized by the loss of normal joint function and increased risk of joint injury due to impaired integrity of the supporting structures, such as ligaments, muscles, or cartilage. This can result in excessive movement or laxity within the joint, leading to decreased stability and increased susceptibility to dislocations or subluxations. Joint instability may cause pain, swelling, and limited range of motion, and it can significantly impact a person's mobility and quality of life. It is often caused by trauma, degenerative conditions, or congenital abnormalities and may require medical intervention, such as physical therapy, bracing, or surgery, to restore joint stability.

Postoperative pain is defined as the pain or discomfort experienced by patients following a surgical procedure. It can vary in intensity and duration depending on the type of surgery performed, individual pain tolerance, and other factors. The pain may be caused by tissue trauma, inflammation, or nerve damage resulting from the surgical intervention. Proper assessment and management of postoperative pain is essential to promote recovery, prevent complications, and improve patient satisfaction.

The femoral head is the rounded, ball-like top portion of the femur (thigh bone) that fits into the hip socket (acetabulum) to form the hip joint. It has a smooth, articular cartilage surface that allows for smooth and stable articulation with the pelvis. The femoral head is connected to the femoral neck, which is a narrower section of bone that angles downward and leads into the shaft of the femur. Together, the femoral head and neck provide stability and range of motion to the hip joint.

Biomechanics is the application of mechanical laws to living structures and systems, particularly in the field of medicine and healthcare. A biomechanical phenomenon refers to a observable event or occurrence that involves the interaction of biological tissues or systems with mechanical forces. These phenomena can be studied at various levels, from the molecular and cellular level to the tissue, organ, and whole-body level.

Examples of biomechanical phenomena include:

1. The way that bones and muscles work together to produce movement (known as joint kinematics).
2. The mechanical behavior of biological tissues such as bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments under various loads and stresses.
3. The response of cells and tissues to mechanical stimuli, such as the way that bone tissue adapts to changes in loading conditions (known as Wolff's law).
4. The biomechanics of injury and disease processes, such as the mechanisms of joint injury or the development of osteoarthritis.
5. The use of mechanical devices and interventions to treat medical conditions, such as orthopedic implants or assistive devices for mobility impairments.

Understanding biomechanical phenomena is essential for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies for a wide range of medical conditions, from musculoskeletal injuries to neurological disorders.

The patella, also known as the kneecap, is a sesamoid bone located at the front of the knee joint. It is embedded in the tendon of the quadriceps muscle and serves to protect the knee joint and increase the leverage of the extensor mechanism, allowing for greater extension force of the lower leg. The patella moves within a groove on the femur called the trochlea during flexion and extension of the knee.

Computer-assisted surgery (CAS) refers to the use of computer systems and technologies to assist and enhance surgical procedures. These systems can include a variety of tools such as imaging software, robotic systems, and navigation devices that help surgeons plan, guide, and perform surgeries with greater precision and accuracy.

In CAS, preoperative images such as CT scans or MRI images are used to create a three-dimensional model of the surgical site. This model can be used to plan the surgery, identify potential challenges, and determine the optimal approach. During the surgery, the surgeon can use the computer system to navigate and guide instruments with real-time feedback, allowing for more precise movements and reduced risk of complications.

Robotic systems can also be used in CAS to perform minimally invasive procedures with smaller incisions and faster recovery times. The surgeon controls the robotic arms from a console, allowing for greater range of motion and accuracy than traditional hand-held instruments.

Overall, computer-assisted surgery provides a number of benefits over traditional surgical techniques, including improved precision, reduced risk of complications, and faster recovery times for patients.

Total disc replacement (TDR), also known as total disc arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure in which the damaged or degenerated intervertebral disc in the spine is removed and replaced with an artificial device. The primary goal of this procedure is to maintain motion within the spinal segment while alleviating pain and other symptoms caused by the damaged disc.

The artificial disc, typically made from materials such as metal or polymer, is designed to replicate the natural movement and function of a healthy intervertebral disc. The surgery can be performed at various levels of the spine, including cervical (neck) and lumbar (lower back), depending on the location of the damaged disc.

TDR is generally considered for patients with degenerative disc disease who have not responded to non-surgical treatments such as physical therapy or pain management. The potential benefits of TDR over traditional spinal fusion surgery include preserving motion, reducing the risk of adjacent segment degeneration, and potentially faster recovery times. However, as with any surgical procedure, there are risks involved, including infection, implant wear, dislocation, or subsidence (sinking of the implant into the bone). It is essential to discuss these potential risks and benefits with a qualified medical professional before making a decision about undergoing TDR surgery.

Pain measurement, in a medical context, refers to the quantification or evaluation of the intensity and/or unpleasantness of a patient's subjective pain experience. This is typically accomplished through the use of standardized self-report measures such as numerical rating scales (NRS), visual analog scales (VAS), or categorical scales (mild, moderate, severe). In some cases, physiological measures like heart rate, blood pressure, and facial expressions may also be used to supplement self-reported pain ratings. The goal of pain measurement is to help healthcare providers better understand the nature and severity of a patient's pain in order to develop an effective treatment plan.

Prosthesis fitting is the process of selecting, designing, fabricating, and fitting a prosthetic device to replace a part of an individual's body that is missing due to congenital absence, illness, injury, or amputation. The primary goal of prosthesis fitting is to restore the person's physical function, mobility, and independence, as well as improve their overall quality of life.

The process typically involves several steps:

1. Assessment: A thorough evaluation of the patient's medical history, physical condition, and functional needs is conducted to determine the most appropriate type of prosthesis. This may include measurements, castings, or digital scans of the residual limb.

2. Design: Based on the assessment, a customized design plan is created for the prosthetic device, taking into account factors such as the patient's lifestyle, occupation, and personal preferences.

3. Fabrication: The prosthesis is manufactured using various materials, components, and techniques to meet the specific requirements of the patient. This may involve the use of 3D printing, computer-aided design (CAD), or traditional handcrafting methods.

4. Fitting: Once the prosthesis is fabricated, it is carefully fitted to the patient's residual limb, ensuring optimal comfort, alignment, and stability. Adjustments may be made as needed to achieve the best fit and function.

5. Training: The patient receives training on how to use and care for their new prosthetic device, including exercises to strengthen the residual limb and improve overall mobility. Follow-up appointments are scheduled to monitor progress, make any necessary adjustments, and provide ongoing support.

The humerus is the long bone in the upper arm that extends from the shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint) to the elbow joint. It articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula to form the shoulder joint and with the radius and ulna bones at the elbow joint. The proximal end of the humerus has a rounded head that provides for movement in multiple planes, making it one of the most mobile joints in the body. The greater and lesser tubercles are bony prominences on the humeral head that serve as attachment sites for muscles that move the shoulder and arm. The narrow shaft of the humerus provides stability and strength for weight-bearing activities, while the distal end forms two articulations: one with the ulna (trochlea) and one with the radius (capitulum). Together, these structures allow for a wide range of motion in the shoulder and elbow joints.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a type of joint disease that is characterized by the breakdown and eventual loss of cartilage - the tissue that cushions the ends of bones where they meet in the joints. This breakdown can cause the bones to rub against each other, causing pain, stiffness, and loss of mobility. OA can occur in any joint, but it most commonly affects the hands, knees, hips, and spine. It is often associated with aging and can be caused or worsened by obesity, injury, or overuse.

The medical definition of osteoarthritis is: "a degenerative, non-inflammatory joint disease characterized by the loss of articular cartilage, bone remodeling, and the formation of osteophytes (bone spurs). It is often associated with pain, stiffness, and decreased range of motion in the affected joint."

Arthroplasty, replacement, finger is a surgical procedure in which a damaged or arthritic joint in a finger is replaced with an artificial component, typically made from materials such as metal, plastic, or ceramic. This procedure is usually considered when non-surgical treatments have failed to provide adequate pain relief and improve joint function.

The goal of finger joint replacement surgery is to alleviate pain, restore motion, and enhance the overall functionality of the affected finger. During the procedure, the surgeon removes the damaged surfaces of the joint and inserts the artificial component, which is designed to replicate the natural movement of the joint. After the surgery, patients typically undergo a period of rehabilitation to regain strength, range of motion, and dexterity in the affected finger.

Finger joint replacement surgery can be performed on various joints in the fingers, including the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint, located at the tip of the finger, and the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint, situated between the middle and last bone segments. The choice of surgical approach depends on several factors, such as the severity of joint damage, the patient's age, overall health, and occupational demands.

It is essential to consult with a medical professional for a proper diagnosis and treatment plan tailored to individual needs and circumstances.

Bone malalignment is a term used to describe the abnormal alignment or positioning of bones in relation to each other. This condition can occur as a result of injury, deformity, surgery, or disease processes that affect the bones and joints. Bone malalignment can cause pain, stiffness, limited mobility, and an increased risk of further injury. In some cases, bone malalignment may require treatment such as bracing, physical therapy, or surgery to correct the alignment and improve function.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Femoral head necrosis, also known as avascular necrosis of the femoral head, is a medical condition that results from the interruption of blood flow to the femoral head, which is the rounded end of the thigh bone that fits into the hip joint. This lack of blood supply can cause the bone tissue to die, leading to the collapse of the femoral head and eventually resulting in hip joint damage or arthritis.

The condition can be caused by a variety of factors, including trauma, alcohol abuse, corticosteroid use, radiation therapy, and certain medical conditions such as sickle cell disease and lupus. Symptoms may include pain in the hip or groin, limited range of motion, and difficulty walking. Treatment options depend on the severity and progression of the necrosis and may include medication, physical therapy, or surgical intervention.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Osteotomy is a surgical procedure in which a bone is cut to shorten, lengthen, or change its alignment. It is often performed to correct deformities or to realign bones that have been damaged by trauma or disease. The bone may be cut straight across (transverse osteotomy) or at an angle (oblique osteotomy). After the bone is cut, it can be realigned and held in place with pins, plates, or screws until it heals. This procedure is commonly performed on bones in the leg, such as the femur or tibia, but can also be done on other bones in the body.

A femoral neck fracture is a type of hip fracture that occurs in the narrow, vertical section of bone just below the ball of the femur (thigh bone) that connects to the hip socket. This area is called the femoral neck. Femoral neck fractures can be categorized into different types based on their location and the direction of the fractured bone.

These fractures are typically caused by high-energy trauma, such as car accidents or falls from significant heights, in younger individuals. However, in older adults, particularly those with osteoporosis, femoral neck fractures can also result from low-energy trauma, like a simple fall from standing height.

Femoral neck fractures are often serious and require prompt medical attention. Treatment usually involves surgery to realign and stabilize the broken bone fragments, followed by rehabilitation to help regain mobility and strength. Potential complications of femoral neck fractures include avascular necrosis (loss of blood flow to the femoral head), nonunion or malunion (improper healing), and osteoarthritis in the hip joint.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question as Polyethylenes are not a medical term, but rather a category of synthetic polymers commonly used in various industrial and medical applications. Here's a brief overview:

Polyethylene (PE) is a type of thermoplastic polymer made from the monomer ethylene. It is a versatile material with numerous applications due to its chemical resistance, durability, and flexibility. There are several types of polyethylenes, including:

1. Low-density polyethylene (LDPE): This type has a lower density and more branching in its molecular structure, which results in less crystallinity. LDPE is known for its flexibility and is often used in packaging films, bags, and containers.
2. High-density polyethylene (HDPE): HDPE has a higher density and less branching, resulting in greater crystallinity. It is more rigid than LDPE and is commonly used in applications such as bottles, pipes, and containers.
3. Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE): This type combines the flexibility of LDPE with some of the strength and rigidity of HDPE. LLDPE has fewer branches than LDPE but more than HDPE. It is often used in film applications, such as stretch wrap and agricultural films.
4. Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE): UHMWPE has an extremely high molecular weight, resulting in exceptional wear resistance, impact strength, and chemical resistance. It is commonly used in medical applications, such as orthopedic implants and joint replacements, due to its biocompatibility and low friction coefficient.

While polyethylenes are not a medical term per se, they do have significant medical applications, particularly UHMWPE in orthopedic devices.

Collateral ligaments are a pair of strong bands of tissue located on the lateral (outer) and medial (inner) sides of joints, particularly in the knee and ankle. They help to stabilize and limit the side-to-side movement of the joint by preventing excessive abnormal displacement or dislocation.

In the knee, there are two collateral ligaments:

1. Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL): It runs along the inner side of the knee and connects the femur (thigh bone) to the tibia (shin bone). The MCL helps to prevent excessive inward movement or valgus stress of the knee joint.
2. Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL): It is located on the outer side of the knee and connects the femur to the fibula (the smaller bone in the lower leg). The LCL helps to prevent excessive outward movement or varus stress of the knee joint.

In the ankle, there are also two collateral ligaments:

1. Deltoid Ligament: It is a group of ligaments located on the inner side of the ankle and connects the tibia to the talus (ankle bone) and calcaneus (heel bone). The deltoid ligament helps to prevent excessive inward movement or eversion of the ankle joint.
2. Anterior Talofibular Ligament: It is a ligament located on the outer side of the ankle, connecting the talus to the fibula. The anterior talofibular ligament helps to prevent excessive outward movement or inversion of the ankle joint.

Bone transplantation, also known as bone grafting, is a surgical procedure in which bone or bone-like material is transferred from one part of the body to another or from one person to another. The graft may be composed of cortical (hard outer portion) bone, cancellous (spongy inner portion) bone, or a combination of both. It can be taken from different sites in the same individual (autograft), from another individual of the same species (allograft), or from an animal source (xenograft). The purpose of bone transplantation is to replace missing bone, provide structural support, and stimulate new bone growth. This procedure is commonly used in orthopedic, dental, and maxillofacial surgeries to repair bone defects caused by trauma, tumors, or congenital conditions.

Osteolysis is a medical term that refers to the loss or resorption of bone tissue. It's a process where the body's normal bone remodeling cycle is disrupted, leading to an imbalance between bone formation and bone breakdown. This results in the progressive deterioration and destruction of bone.

Osteolysis can occur due to various reasons such as chronic inflammation, mechanical stress, or certain medical conditions like rheumatoid arthritis, Paget's disease, or bone tumors. It can also be a side effect of some medications, such as those used in cancer treatment or for managing osteoporosis.

In severe cases, osteolysis can lead to weakened bones, increased risk of fractures, and deformities. Treatment typically aims to address the underlying cause and may include medication, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

The ulna is one of the two long bones in the forearm, the other being the radius. It runs from the elbow to the wrist and is located on the medial side of the forearm, next to the bone called the humerus in the upper arm. The ulna plays a crucial role in the movement of the forearm and also serves as an attachment site for various muscles.

Minimally invasive surgical procedures are a type of surgery that is performed with the assistance of specialized equipment and techniques to minimize trauma to the patient's body. This approach aims to reduce blood loss, pain, and recovery time as compared to traditional open surgeries. The most common minimally invasive surgical procedure is laparoscopy, which involves making small incisions (usually 0.5-1 cm) in the abdomen or chest and inserting a thin tube with a camera (laparoscope) to visualize the internal organs.

The surgeon then uses long, slender instruments inserted through separate incisions to perform the necessary surgical procedures, such as cutting, coagulation, or suturing. Other types of minimally invasive surgical procedures include arthroscopy (for joint surgery), thoracoscopy (for chest surgery), and hysteroscopy (for uterine surgery). The benefits of minimally invasive surgical procedures include reduced postoperative pain, shorter hospital stays, quicker return to normal activities, and improved cosmetic results. However, not all surgeries can be performed using minimally invasive techniques, and the suitability of a particular procedure depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the nature and extent of the surgical problem, and the surgeon's expertise.

Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a medical condition where bone tissue forms outside the skeleton, in locations where it does not typically exist. This process can occur in various soft tissues, such as muscles, tendons, ligaments, or even inside joint capsules. The abnormal bone growth can lead to pain, stiffness, limited range of motion, and, in some cases, loss of function in the affected area.

There are several types of heterotopic ossification, including:

1. Myositis ossificans - This form is often associated with trauma or injury, such as muscle damage from a fracture, surgery, or direct blow. It typically affects young, active individuals and usually resolves on its own within months to a few years.
2. Neurogenic heterotopic ossification (NHO) - Also known as "traumatic heterotopic ossification," this form is often linked to spinal cord injuries, brain injuries, or central nervous system damage. NHO can cause significant impairment and may require surgical intervention in some cases.
3. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) - This rare, genetic disorder causes progressive heterotopic ossification throughout the body, starting in early childhood. The condition significantly impacts mobility and quality of life, with no known cure.

The exact mechanisms behind heterotopic ossification are not fully understood, but it is believed that a combination of factors, including inflammation, tissue injury, and genetic predisposition, contribute to its development. Treatment options may include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), radiation therapy, physical therapy, or surgical removal of the abnormal bone growth, depending on the severity and location of the HO.

Surgical blood loss is the amount of blood that is lost during a surgical procedure. It can occur through various routes such as incisions, punctures or during the removal of organs or tissues. The amount of blood loss can vary widely depending on the type and complexity of the surgery being performed.

Surgical blood loss can be classified into three categories:

1. Insensible losses: These are small amounts of blood that are lost through the skin, respiratory tract, or gastrointestinal tract during surgery. They are not usually significant enough to cause any clinical effects.
2. Visible losses: These are larger amounts of blood that can be seen and measured directly during surgery. They may require transfusion or other interventions to prevent hypovolemia (low blood volume) and its complications.
3. Hidden losses: These are internal bleeding that cannot be easily seen or measured during surgery. They can occur in the abdominal cavity, retroperitoneal space, or other areas of the body. They may require further exploration or imaging studies to diagnose and manage.

Surgical blood loss can lead to several complications such as hypovolemia, anemia, coagulopathy (disorders of blood clotting), and organ dysfunction. Therefore, it is essential to monitor and manage surgical blood loss effectively to ensure optimal patient outcomes.

Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) is a medical treatment that involves the use of hormones to replace or supplement those that the body is no longer producing or no longer producing in sufficient quantities. It is most commonly used to help manage symptoms associated with menopause and conditions related to hormonal imbalances.

In women, HRT typically involves the use of estrogen and/or progesterone to alleviate hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal dryness, and mood changes that can occur during menopause. In some cases, testosterone may also be prescribed to help improve energy levels, sex drive, and overall sense of well-being.

In men, HRT is often used to treat low testosterone levels (hypogonadism) and related symptoms such as fatigue, decreased muscle mass, and reduced sex drive.

It's important to note that while HRT can be effective in managing certain symptoms, it also carries potential risks, including an increased risk of blood clots, stroke, breast cancer (in women), and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, the decision to undergo HRT should be made carefully and discussed thoroughly with a healthcare provider.

Arthrodesis is a surgical procedure to fuse together the bones of a joint, in order to restrict its movement and provide stability. This procedure is typically performed when a joint has been severely damaged by injury, arthritis, or other conditions, and non-surgical treatments have failed to relieve symptoms such as pain and instability.

During the surgery, the cartilage that normally cushions the ends of the bones is removed, and the bones are realigned and held in place with hardware such as plates, screws, or rods. Over time, the bones grow together, forming a solid fusion that restricts joint motion.

Arthrodesis can be performed on various joints throughout the body, including the spine, wrist, ankle, and knee. While this procedure can provide significant pain relief and improve function, it does limit the range of motion in the fused joint, which may impact mobility and daily activities. Therefore, arthrodesis is typically considered a last resort when other treatments have failed.

A humeral fracture is a medical term that refers to a break in the humerus bone, which is the long bone located in the upper arm that runs from the shoulder to the elbow. Humeral fractures can occur anywhere along the length of the bone and can vary in severity, from small hairline cracks to complete breaks that separate the bone into several pieces.

These types of fractures can be caused by a variety of factors, including trauma, falls, sports injuries, or repetitive stress injuries. Symptoms of a humeral fracture may include pain, swelling, bruising, deformity, limited mobility, and difficulty moving the arm.

Humeral fractures are typically diagnosed through physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as X-rays or CT scans. Treatment options for humeral fractures depend on the severity and location of the break, and may include immobilization with a sling or cast, surgery to realign and stabilize the bone with plates, screws, or rods, or physical therapy to help restore mobility and strength to the arm.

Osseointegration is a direct structural and functional connection between living bone and the surface of an implant. It's a process where the bone grows in and around the implant, which is typically made of titanium or another biocompatible material. This process provides a solid foundation for dental prosthetics, such as crowns, bridges, or dentures, or for orthopedic devices like artificial limbs. The success of osseointegration depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the quality and quantity of available bone, and the surgical technique used for implant placement.

Acquired joint deformities refer to structural changes in the alignment and shape of a joint that develop after birth, due to various causes such as injury, disease, or wear and tear. These deformities can affect the function and mobility of the joint, causing pain, stiffness, and limited range of motion. Examples of conditions that can lead to acquired joint deformities include arthritis, infection, trauma, and nerve damage. Treatment may involve medication, physical therapy, or surgery to correct the deformity and alleviate symptoms.

Estrogen Replacement Therapy (ERT) is a medical treatment in which estrogen hormones are administered to replace the estrogen that is naturally produced by the ovaries but declines, especially during menopause. This therapy is often used to help manage symptoms of menopause such as hot flashes, night sweats, and vaginal dryness. It can also help prevent bone loss in postmenopausal women. ERT typically involves the use of estrogen alone, but in some cases, a combination of estrogen and progestin may be prescribed for women with a uterus to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. However, ERT is associated with certain risks, including an increased risk of breast cancer, blood clots, and stroke, so it's important for women to discuss the potential benefits and risks with their healthcare provider before starting this therapy.

Postoperative care refers to the comprehensive medical treatment and nursing attention provided to a patient following a surgical procedure. The goal of postoperative care is to facilitate the patient's recovery, prevent complications, manage pain, ensure proper healing of the incision site, and maintain overall health and well-being until the patient can resume their normal activities.

This type of care includes monitoring vital signs, managing pain through medication or other techniques, ensuring adequate hydration and nutrition, helping the patient with breathing exercises to prevent lung complications, encouraging mobility to prevent blood clots, monitoring for signs of infection or other complications, administering prescribed medications, providing wound care, and educating the patient about postoperative care instructions.

The duration of postoperative care can vary depending on the type and complexity of the surgical procedure, as well as the individual patient's needs and overall health status. It may be provided in a hospital setting, an outpatient surgery center, or in the patient's home, depending on the level of care required.

Operative blood salvage, also known as intraoperative blood recovery or cell salvage, is a medical procedure that involves the collection, washing, and reinfusion of a patient's own blood during surgery. The blood is collected from the surgical site using a suction device and then processed to remove any debris, clots, and free hemoglobin. The resulting red blood cells are then washed and suspended in a sterile solution before being returned to the patient through a transfusion.

This technique is commonly used during surgeries where significant blood loss is expected, such as orthopedic, cardiovascular, and major cancer surgeries. It offers several advantages over allogeneic (donor) blood transfusions, including reduced exposure to potential transfusion reactions, decreased risk of infectious disease transmission, and lower costs. However, it may not be appropriate for all patients or surgical procedures, and its use should be carefully considered based on the individual patient's medical history and condition.

A contracture, in a medical context, refers to the abnormal shortening and hardening of muscles, tendons, or other tissue, which can result in limited mobility and deformity of joints. This condition can occur due to various reasons such as injury, prolonged immobilization, scarring, neurological disorders, or genetic conditions.

Contractures can cause significant impairment in daily activities and quality of life, making it difficult for individuals to perform routine tasks like dressing, bathing, or walking. Treatment options may include physical therapy, splinting, casting, medications, surgery, or a combination of these approaches, depending on the severity and underlying cause of the contracture.

Supination is a term used in the medical field, particularly in the study of anatomy and orthopedics. It refers to the external rotation of the forearm so that the palm faces forward or upward. This motion allows for the hand to be in a position to perform actions such as lifting, holding, or throwing objects. It's also used to describe the movement of the foot when it rolls outward, which is important for normal walking and running gait. Abnormal supination can lead to issues with mobility and pain in the affected limb.

The tibia, also known as the shin bone, is the larger of the two bones in the lower leg and part of the knee joint. It supports most of the body's weight and is a major insertion point for muscles that flex the foot and bend the leg. The tibia articulates with the femur at the knee joint and with the fibula and talus bone at the ankle joint. Injuries to the tibia, such as fractures, are common in sports and other activities that put stress on the lower leg.

Periprosthetic fractures are defined as fractures that occur in close proximity to a prosthetic joint, such as those found in total hip or knee replacements. These types of fractures typically occur as a result of low-energy trauma, and can be caused by a variety of factors including osteoporosis, bone weakness, or loosening of the prosthetic implant.

Periprosthetic fractures are classified based on the location of the fracture in relation to the prosthesis, as well as the stability of the implant. Treatment options for periprosthetic fractures may include non-surgical management, such as immobilization with a brace or cast, or surgical intervention, such as open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) or revision arthroplasty.

The management of periprosthetic fractures can be complex and requires careful consideration of various factors, including the patient's age, overall health status, bone quality, and functional needs. As such, these types of fractures are typically managed by orthopedic surgeons with experience in joint replacement surgery and fracture care.

Pronation is a term used in the medical field, particularly in the study of human biomechanics and orthopedics. It refers to the normal motion that occurs in the subtalar joint of the foot, which allows the foot to adapt to various surfaces and absorb shock during walking or running.

During pronation, the arch of the foot collapses, and the heel rolls inward, causing the forefoot to rotate outward. This motion helps distribute the forces of impact evenly across the foot and lower limb, reducing stress on individual structures and providing stability during weight-bearing activities.

However, excessive pronation can lead to biomechanical issues and increase the risk of injuries such as plantar fasciitis, shin splints, and knee pain. Proper assessment and management of foot mechanics, including orthotics or physical therapy interventions, may be necessary to address excessive pronation and related conditions.

Debridement is a medical procedure that involves the removal of dead, damaged, or infected tissue to improve the healing process or prevent further infection. This can be done through various methods such as surgical debridement (removal of tissue using scalpel or scissors), mechanical debridement (use of wound irrigation or high-pressure water jet), autolytic debridement (using the body's own enzymes to break down and reabsorb dead tissue), and enzymatic debridement (application of topical enzymes to dissolve necrotic tissue). The goal of debridement is to promote healthy tissue growth, reduce the risk of infection, and improve overall wound healing.

Congenital hip dislocation, also known as developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), is a condition where the hip joint fails to develop normally in utero or during early infancy. In a healthy hip, the head of the femur (thigh bone) fits snugly into the acetabulum (hip socket). However, in congenital hip dislocation, the femoral head is not held firmly in place within the acetabulum due to abnormal development or laxity of the ligaments that support the joint.

There are two types of congenital hip dislocations:

1. Teratologic dislocation: This type is present at birth and occurs due to abnormalities in the development of the hip joint during fetal growth. The femoral head may be completely outside the acetabulum or partially dislocated.

2. Developmental dysplasia: This type develops after birth, often within the first few months of life, as a result of ligamentous laxity and shallow acetabulum. In some cases, it can progress to a complete hip dislocation if left untreated.

Risk factors for congenital hip dislocation include family history, breech presentation during delivery, and female gender. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term complications such as pain, limited mobility, and osteoarthritis. Treatment options may include bracing, closed reduction, or surgical intervention, depending on the severity and age of the child at diagnosis.

The femoral nerve is a major nerve in the thigh region of the human body. It originates from the lumbar plexus, specifically from the ventral rami (anterior divisions) of the second, third, and fourth lumbar nerves (L2-L4). The femoral nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to various muscles and areas in the lower limb.

Motor Innervation:
The femoral nerve is responsible for providing motor innervation to several muscles in the anterior compartment of the thigh, including:

1. Iliacus muscle
2. Psoas major muscle
3. Quadriceps femoris muscle (consisting of four heads: rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius)

These muscles are involved in hip flexion, knee extension, and stabilization of the hip joint.

Sensory Innervation:
The sensory distribution of the femoral nerve includes:

1. Anterior and medial aspects of the thigh
2. Skin over the anterior aspect of the knee and lower leg (via the saphenous nerve, a branch of the femoral nerve)

The saphenous nerve provides sensation to the skin on the inner side of the leg and foot, as well as the medial malleolus (the bony bump on the inside of the ankle).

In summary, the femoral nerve is a crucial component of the lumbar plexus that controls motor functions in the anterior thigh muscles and provides sensory innervation to the anterior and medial aspects of the thigh and lower leg.

A surgical wound infection, also known as a surgical site infection (SSI), is defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as an infection that occurs within 30 days after surgery (or within one year if an implant is left in place) and involves either:

1. Purulent drainage from the incision;
2. Organisms isolated from an aseptically obtained culture of fluid or tissue from the incision;
3. At least one of the following signs or symptoms of infection: pain or tenderness, localized swelling, redness, or heat; and
4. Diagnosis of surgical site infection by the surgeon or attending physician.

SSIs can be classified as superficial incisional, deep incisional, or organ/space infections, depending on the depth and extent of tissue involvement. They are a common healthcare-associated infection and can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs.

A joint capsule is the fibrous sac that encloses a synovial joint, which is a type of joint characterized by the presence of a cavity filled with synovial fluid. The joint capsule provides stability and strength to the joint, while also allowing for a range of motion. It consists of two layers: an outer fibrous layer and an inner synovial membrane. The fibrous layer is made up of dense connective tissue that helps to stabilize the joint, while the synovial membrane produces synovial fluid, which lubricates the joint and reduces friction during movement.

Hip injuries refer to damages or harm caused to the hip joint or its surrounding structures, including bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, and cartilage. These injuries can occur due to various reasons such as falls, accidents, sports-related activities, or degenerative conditions. Common hip injuries include fractures, dislocations, strains, sprains, bursitis, and labral tears. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, bruising, stiffness, limited mobility, and inability to bear weight on the affected leg. Proper diagnosis and treatment are crucial to ensure optimal recovery and prevent long-term complications.

Arthritis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation in one or more joints, leading to symptoms such as pain, stiffness, swelling, and reduced range of motion. There are many different types of arthritis, including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, gout, and lupus, among others.

Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis and is caused by wear and tear on the joints over time. Rheumatoid arthritis, on the other hand, is an autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the joint lining, causing inflammation and damage.

Arthritis can affect people of all ages, including children, although it is more common in older adults. Treatment for arthritis may include medications to manage pain and reduce inflammation, physical therapy, exercise, and in some cases, surgery.

The Ulnar nerve is one of the major nerves in the forearm and hand, which provides motor function to the majority of the intrinsic muscles of the hand (except for those innervated by the median nerve) and sensory innervation to the little finger and half of the ring finger. It originates from the brachial plexus, passes through the cubital tunnel at the elbow, and continues down the forearm, where it runs close to the ulna bone. The ulnar nerve then passes through the Guyon's canal in the wrist before branching out to innervate the hand muscles and provide sensation to the skin on the little finger and half of the ring finger.

'Leg length inequality' (LLIS) is a condition where there is a discrepancy in the lengths of an individual's lower extremities, specifically the bones of the thigh (femur) and/or the leg (tibia/fibula). This discrepancy can be congenital or acquired due to various causes such as fractures, infections, or surgical procedures. The inequality can lead to functional scoliosis, lower back pain, and other musculoskeletal issues. It is typically diagnosed through physical examination and imaging studies like X-rays, and may be treated with various methods including orthotics, shoe lifts, or in some cases, surgical intervention.

Equipment Failure Analysis is a process of identifying the cause of failure in medical equipment or devices. This involves a systematic examination and evaluation of the equipment, its components, and operational history to determine why it failed. The analysis may include physical inspection, chemical testing, and review of maintenance records, as well as assessment of design, manufacturing, and usage factors that may have contributed to the failure.

The goal of Equipment Failure Analysis is to identify the root cause of the failure, so that corrective actions can be taken to prevent similar failures in the future. This is important in medical settings to ensure patient safety and maintain the reliability and effectiveness of medical equipment.

In medical terms, the arm refers to the upper limb of the human body, extending from the shoulder to the wrist. It is composed of three major bones: the humerus in the upper arm, and the radius and ulna in the lower arm. The arm contains several joints, including the shoulder joint, elbow joint, and wrist joint, which allow for a wide range of motion. The arm also contains muscles, blood vessels, nerves, and other soft tissues that are essential for normal function.

Autologous blood transfusion is a medical procedure in which a patient receives their own blood that has been collected and stored prior to surgery or a medical treatment that may cause significant blood loss. The blood is drawn from the patient, typically in the days or weeks leading up to the scheduled procedure, and then stored until it is needed during or after the surgery.

The primary advantage of autologous blood transfusion is that it eliminates the risk of transfusion reactions, infectious disease transmission, and immunomodulation associated with allogeneic (donor) blood transfusions. However, not all patients are candidates for this type of transfusion due to various factors such as medical conditions, low hemoglobin levels, or insufficient time to collect and store the blood before the procedure.

Autologous blood transfusion can be performed using several methods, including preoperative blood donation, acute normovolemic hemodilution, intraoperative cell salvage, and postoperative blood collection. The choice of method depends on various factors, such as the patient's medical condition, the type and extent of surgery, and the availability of resources.

In summary, autologous blood transfusion is a safe and effective way to reduce the need for allogeneic blood transfusions during or after surgical procedures, but it may not be suitable for all patients.

Fracture fixation, internal, is a surgical procedure where a fractured bone is fixed using metal devices such as plates, screws, or rods that are implanted inside the body. This technique helps to maintain the alignment and stability of the broken bone while it heals. The implants may be temporarily or permanently left inside the body, depending on the nature and severity of the fracture. Internal fixation allows for early mobilization and rehabilitation, which can result in a faster recovery and improved functional outcome.

"Weight-bearing" is a term used in the medical field to describe the ability of a body part or limb to support the weight or pressure exerted upon it, typically while standing, walking, or performing other physical activities. In a clinical setting, healthcare professionals often use the term "weight-bearing exercise" to refer to physical activities that involve supporting one's own body weight, such as walking, jogging, or climbing stairs. These exercises can help improve bone density, muscle strength, and overall physical function, particularly in individuals with conditions affecting the bones, joints, or muscles.

In addition, "weight-bearing" is also used to describe the positioning of a body part during medical imaging studies, such as X-rays or MRIs. For example, a weight-bearing X-ray of the foot or ankle involves taking an image while the patient stands on the affected limb, allowing healthcare providers to assess any alignment or stability issues that may not be apparent in a non-weight-bearing position.

Continuous Passive Motion (CPM) therapy is a type of motion therapy that is often used in physical rehabilitation following surgery or injury. In CPM therapy, the affected body part is moved continuously through a range of motion without any active participation from the patient. This is typically accomplished with the use of a motorized device that gently and slowly moves the limb.

The goal of CPM therapy is to help prevent stiffness, reduce pain, improve circulation, and promote healing in the affected area. It is often used following joint replacement surgery, such as knee or hip replacements, as well as after injuries that limit mobility and range of motion. By providing continuous, passive movement to the affected limb, CPM therapy can help prevent the formation of scar tissue and adhesions, which can restrict movement and cause pain.

CPM therapy is usually prescribed by a healthcare provider and administered under the supervision of a physical therapist or other rehabilitation specialist. The range of motion and speed of the movement are carefully controlled to ensure safety and effectiveness. While CPM therapy can be an important part of the recovery process, it is typically used in conjunction with other rehabilitation techniques, such as exercises and manual therapy, to achieve optimal outcomes.

Ulnar nerve compression syndromes refer to a group of conditions characterized by the entrapment or compression of the ulnar nerve, leading to various symptoms. The ulnar nerve provides motor function to the hand muscles and sensation to the little finger and half of the ring finger.

There are several sites along the course of the ulnar nerve where it can become compressed, resulting in different types of ulnar nerve compression syndromes:

1. Cubital Tunnel Syndrome: This occurs when the ulnar nerve is compressed at the elbow, within the cubital tunnel - a narrow passage located on the inner side of the elbow. Symptoms may include numbness and tingling in the little finger and half of the ring finger, weakness in gripping or pinching, and pain or discomfort in the elbow.

2. Guyon's Canal Syndrome: This type of ulnar nerve compression syndrome happens when the nerve is compressed at the wrist, within the Guyon's canal. Causes can include ganglion cysts, bone fractures, or repetitive motion injuries. Symptoms may include numbness and tingling in the little finger and half of the ring finger, weakness or paralysis in the hand muscles, and muscle wasting in severe cases.

Treatment for ulnar nerve compression syndromes depends on the severity and location of the compression. Conservative treatments such as physical therapy, bracing, or anti-inflammatory medications may be recommended for milder cases. Severe or persistent symptoms may require surgical intervention to relieve the pressure on the ulnar nerve.

Patient satisfaction is a concept in healthcare quality measurement that reflects the patient's perspective and evaluates their experience with the healthcare services they have received. It is a multidimensional construct that includes various aspects such as interpersonal mannerisms of healthcare providers, technical competence, accessibility, timeliness, comfort, and communication.

Patient satisfaction is typically measured through standardized surveys or questionnaires that ask patients to rate their experiences on various aspects of care. The results are often used to assess the quality of care provided by healthcare organizations, identify areas for improvement, and inform policy decisions. However, it's important to note that patient satisfaction is just one aspect of healthcare quality and should be considered alongside other measures such as clinical outcomes and patient safety.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease that primarily affects the joints. It is characterized by persistent inflammation, synovial hyperplasia, and subsequent damage to the articular cartilage and bone. The immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own tissues, specifically targeting the synovial membrane lining the joint capsule. This results in swelling, pain, warmth, and stiffness in affected joints, often most severely in the hands and feet.

RA can also have extra-articular manifestations, affecting other organs such as the lungs, heart, skin, eyes, and blood vessels. The exact cause of RA remains unknown, but it is believed to involve a complex interplay between genetic susceptibility and environmental triggers. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial in managing rheumatoid arthritis to prevent joint damage, disability, and systemic complications.

Renal replacement therapy (RRT) is a medical treatment that takes over the normal function of the kidneys when they fail. The main objectives of RRT are to remove waste products and excess fluid, correct electrolyte imbalances, and maintain acid-base balance in the body. There are several types of RRT, including hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and kidney transplantation.

Hemodialysis involves circulating the patient's blood through an external filter called a dialyzer, which removes waste products and excess fluid. The cleaned blood is then returned to the patient's body. Hemodialysis can be performed in a hospital or dialysis center, or at home with appropriate training.

Peritoneal dialysis involves instilling a special solution called dialysate into the patient's abdominal cavity, where it remains for a period of time to allow waste products and excess fluid to move from the bloodstream into the dialysate through a membrane in the peritoneum. The used dialysate is then drained out of the body and replaced with fresh dialysate. Peritoneal dialysis can be performed continuously or intermittently, and it can also be done at home.

Kidney transplantation involves surgically implanting a healthy kidney from a donor into the patient's body to replace the failed kidneys. This is usually the most effective form of RRT, but it requires major surgery and long-term immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the transplanted organ.

Overall, RRT is a life-sustaining treatment for patients with end-stage kidney disease, and it can significantly improve their quality of life and longevity.

Orthopedics is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disorders of the musculoskeletal system, which includes the bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, tendons, and nerves. The goal of orthopedic care is to help patients maintain or restore their mobility, function, and quality of life through a variety of treatments, including medication, physical therapy, bracing, and surgery. Orthopedic surgeons are medical doctors who have completed additional training in the diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal conditions, and they may specialize in specific areas such as sports medicine, spine care, joint replacement, or pediatric orthopedics.

The Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) is one of the major ligaments in the knee, providing stability to the joint. It is a strong band of tissue located in the back of the knee, connecting the thighbone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia). The PCL limits the backward motion of the tibia relative to the femur and provides resistance to forces that tend to push the tibia backwards. It also assists in maintaining the overall alignment and function of the knee joint during various movements and activities. Injuries to the PCL are less common compared to injuries to the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) but can still occur due to high-energy trauma, such as motor vehicle accidents or sports incidents involving direct impact to the front of the knee.

The postoperative period is the time following a surgical procedure during which the patient's response to the surgery and anesthesia is monitored, and any complications or adverse effects are managed. This period can vary in length depending on the type of surgery and the individual patient's needs, but it typically includes the immediate recovery phase in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) or recovery room, as well as any additional time spent in the hospital for monitoring and management of pain, wound healing, and other aspects of postoperative care.

The goals of postoperative care are to ensure the patient's safety and comfort, promote optimal healing and rehabilitation, and minimize the risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, or other postoperative issues. The specific interventions and treatments provided during this period will depend on a variety of factors, including the type and extent of surgery performed, the patient's overall health and medical history, and any individualized care plans developed in consultation with the patient and their healthcare team.

Chromium alloys are materials made by combining chromium with other metals, such as nickel, cobalt, or iron. The addition of chromium to these alloys enhances their properties, making them resistant to corrosion and high temperatures. These alloys have a wide range of applications in various industries, including automotive, aerospace, and medical devices.

Chromium alloys can be classified into two main categories: stainless steels and superalloys. Stainless steels are alloys that contain at least 10.5% chromium by weight, which forms a passive oxide layer on the surface of the material, protecting it from corrosion. Superalloys, on the other hand, are high-performance alloys designed to operate in extreme environments, such as jet engines and gas turbines. They contain significant amounts of chromium, along with other elements like nickel, cobalt, and molybdenum.

Chromium alloys have several medical applications due to their excellent properties. For instance, they are used in surgical instruments, dental implants, and orthopedic devices because of their resistance to corrosion and biocompatibility. Additionally, some chromium alloys exhibit superelasticity, a property that allows them to return to their original shape after being deformed, making them suitable for use in stents and other medical devices that require flexibility and durability.

The radius is one of the two bones in the forearm in humans and other vertebrates. In humans, it runs from the lateral side of the elbow to the thumb side of the wrist. It is responsible for rotation of the forearm and articulates with the humerus at the elbow and the carpals at the wrist. Any medical condition or injury that affects the radius can impact the movement and function of the forearm and hand.

Osteonecrosis is a medical condition characterized by the death of bone tissue due to the disruption of blood supply. Also known as avascular necrosis, this process can lead to the collapse of the bone and adjacent joint surfaces, resulting in pain, limited mobility, and potential deformity if left untreated. Osteonecrosis most commonly affects the hips, shoulders, and knees, but it can occur in any bone. The condition may be caused by trauma, corticosteroid use, alcohol abuse, certain medical conditions (like sickle cell disease or lupus), or for no apparent reason (idiopathic).

I'm not aware of a medical term called "bone wires." The term "wiring" is used in orthopedic surgery to describe the use of metal wire to hold bones or fractures in place during healing. However, I couldn't find any specific medical definition or term related to "bone wires." It may be a colloquialism, a term used in a specific context, or a term from science fiction. If you could provide more context about where you encountered this term, I might be able to give a more accurate answer.

Electromyography (EMG) is a medical diagnostic procedure that measures the electrical activity of skeletal muscles during contraction and at rest. It involves inserting a thin needle electrode into the muscle to record the electrical signals generated by the muscle fibers. These signals are then displayed on an oscilloscope and may be heard through a speaker.

EMG can help diagnose various neuromuscular disorders, such as muscle weakness, numbness, or pain, and can distinguish between muscle and nerve disorders. It is often used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests, such as nerve conduction studies, to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the nervous system.

EMG is typically performed by a neurologist or a physiatrist, and the procedure may cause some discomfort or pain, although this is usually minimal. The results of an EMG can help guide treatment decisions and monitor the progression of neuromuscular conditions over time.

In medical terms, the hip is a ball-and-socket joint where the rounded head of the femur (thigh bone) fits into the cup-shaped socket, also known as the acetabulum, of the pelvis. This joint allows for a wide range of movement in the lower extremities and supports the weight of the upper body during activities such as walking, running, and jumping. The hip joint is surrounded by strong ligaments, muscles, and tendons that provide stability and enable proper functioning.

Hemarthrosis is a medical term that refers to the presence of blood in a joint space. This condition usually occurs as a result of trauma or injury that causes bleeding into the joint, such as a fracture or dislocation. Certain medical conditions like hemophilia and other bleeding disorders can also make a person more prone to hemarthrosis.

The accumulation of blood in the joint space can cause pain, swelling, warmth, and stiffness, making it difficult for the individual to move the affected joint. In some cases, hemarthrosis may require medical intervention, such as draining the excess blood from the joint or administering clotting factors to help stop the bleeding. If left untreated, hemarthrosis can lead to complications like joint damage and chronic pain.

"Device Removal" in a medical context generally refers to the surgical or nonsurgical removal of a medical device that has been previously implanted in a patient's body. The purpose of removing the device may vary, depending on the individual case. Some common reasons for device removal include infection, malfunction, rejection, or when the device is no longer needed.

Examples of medical devices that may require removal include pacemakers, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), artificial joints, orthopedic hardware, breast implants, cochlear implants, and intrauterine devices (IUDs). The procedure for device removal will depend on the type of device, its location in the body, and the reason for its removal.

It is important to note that device removal carries certain risks, such as bleeding, infection, damage to surrounding tissues, or complications related to anesthesia. Therefore, the decision to remove a medical device should be made carefully, considering both the potential benefits and risks of the procedure.

Hemiarthroplasty is a surgical procedure where only one half (hemi-) of a joint is replaced with an artificial component, usually a metal ball attached to a stem that fits into the bone. This procedure is most commonly performed on the shoulder or hip joints. In a hip hemiarthroplasty, it involves replacing the femoral head (the ball part of the thighbone) which has been damaged due to fracture or arthritis. The acetabulum (socket part of the pelvis) is not replaced and remains as it is. This procedure aims to relieve pain, restore mobility, and improve joint function.

Ulnar neuropathies refer to conditions that cause damage or dysfunction to the ulnar nerve, which is one of the major nerves in the arm. The ulnar nerve runs down the forearm and through the wrist to the hand, where it provides sensation to the pinky finger and half of the ring finger, as well as motor function to the muscles that control finger movements.

Ulnar neuropathies can result from various causes, including trauma, compression, entrapment, or inflammation. Common symptoms include numbness, tingling, or weakness in the hand and fingers, particularly in the pinky and ring fingers. In more severe cases, muscle wasting and loss of dexterity may occur.

There are several types of ulnar neuropathies, depending on the location and cause of the nerve damage. For example, cubital tunnel syndrome is a type of ulnar neuropathy that results from compression of the ulnar nerve at the elbow, while ulnar nerve entrapment at the wrist (also known as Guyon's canal syndrome) can also cause ulnar neuropathies. Treatment options for ulnar neuropathies may include physical therapy, medication, or surgery, depending on the severity and underlying cause of the condition.

Cubital Tunnel Syndrome is a medical condition that affects the ulnar nerve, which runs down the arm and through a narrow tunnel inside the elbow, also known as the cubital tunnel. When this nerve becomes compressed or irritated in this area, it can lead to various symptoms such as numbness, tingling, and pain in the ring and little fingers, as well as weakness in the hand and forearm.

The condition is often caused by repetitive motion or prolonged pressure on the elbow, such as from leaning on the arm or bending the elbow for extended periods of time. In some cases, it may also be due to bone spurs, cysts, or other abnormalities that narrow the cubital tunnel and put pressure on the ulnar nerve.

Treatment for Cubital Tunnel Syndrome typically involves avoiding activities that aggravate the condition, wearing a splint or brace to keep the elbow straight during sleep, and taking anti-inflammatory medications to reduce swelling and pain. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to relieve pressure on the ulnar nerve and alleviate symptoms.

In the context of medicine, there is no specific medical definition for 'metals.' However, certain metals have significant roles in biological systems and are thus studied in physiology, pathology, and pharmacology. Some metals are essential to life, serving as cofactors for enzymatic reactions, while others are toxic and can cause harm at certain levels.

Examples of essential metals include:

1. Iron (Fe): It is a crucial component of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and various enzymes involved in energy production, DNA synthesis, and electron transport.
2. Zinc (Zn): This metal is vital for immune function, wound healing, protein synthesis, and DNA synthesis. It acts as a cofactor for over 300 enzymes.
3. Copper (Cu): Copper is essential for energy production, iron metabolism, antioxidant defense, and connective tissue formation. It serves as a cofactor for several enzymes.
4. Magnesium (Mg): Magnesium plays a crucial role in many biochemical reactions, including nerve and muscle function, protein synthesis, and blood pressure regulation.
5. Manganese (Mn): This metal is necessary for bone development, protein metabolism, and antioxidant defense. It acts as a cofactor for several enzymes.
6. Molybdenum (Mo): Molybdenum is essential for the function of certain enzymes involved in the metabolism of nucleic acids, proteins, and drugs.
7. Cobalt (Co): Cobalt is a component of vitamin B12, which plays a vital role in DNA synthesis, fatty acid metabolism, and nerve function.

Examples of toxic metals include:

1. Lead (Pb): Exposure to lead can cause neurological damage, anemia, kidney dysfunction, and developmental issues.
2. Mercury (Hg): Mercury is highly toxic and can cause neurological problems, kidney damage, and developmental issues.
3. Arsenic (As): Arsenic exposure can lead to skin lesions, cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.
4. Cadmium (Cd): Cadmium is toxic and can cause kidney damage, bone demineralization, and lung irritation.
5. Chromium (Cr): Excessive exposure to chromium can lead to skin ulcers, respiratory issues, and kidney and liver damage.

Early ambulation, also known as early mobilization or early rehabilitation, refers to the practice of encouraging patients to get out of bed and start moving around as soon as possible after a surgical procedure or medical event such as a stroke. The goal of early ambulation is to prevent complications associated with prolonged bed rest, including muscle weakness, joint stiffness, blood clots, pneumonia, and pressure ulcers. It can also help improve patients' overall recovery, strength, and functional ability.

The specific timeline for early ambulation will depend on the individual patient's medical condition and healthcare provider's recommendations. However, in general, it is recommended to start mobilizing patients as soon as they are medically stable and able to do so safely, often within the first 24-48 hours after surgery or an event. This may involve sitting up in bed, standing, taking a few steps with assistance, or walking a short distance with the help of a walker or other assistive device.

Healthcare providers such as physicians, nurses, and physical therapists work together to develop a safe and effective early ambulation plan for each patient, taking into account their individual needs, abilities, and limitations.

In the context of medicine, particularly in anatomy and physiology, "rotation" refers to the movement of a body part around its own axis or the long axis of another structure. This type of motion is three-dimensional and can occur in various planes. A common example of rotation is the movement of the forearm bones (radius and ulna) around each other during pronation and supination, which allows the hand to be turned palm up or down. Another example is the rotation of the head during mastication (chewing), where the mandible moves in a circular motion around the temporomandibular joint.

Prostheses: Artificial substitutes or replacements for missing body parts, such as limbs, eyes, or teeth. They are designed to restore the function, appearance, or mobility of the lost part. Prosthetic devices can be categorized into several types, including:

1. External prostheses: Devices that are attached to the outside of the body, like artificial arms, legs, hands, and feet. These may be further classified into:
a. Cosmetic or aesthetic prostheses: Primarily designed to improve the appearance of the affected area.
b. Functional prostheses: Designed to help restore the functionality and mobility of the lost limb.
2. Internal prostheses: Implanted artificial parts that replace missing internal organs, bones, or tissues, such as heart valves, hip joints, or intraocular lenses.

Implants: Medical devices or substances that are intentionally placed inside the body to replace or support a missing or damaged biological structure, deliver medication, monitor physiological functions, or enhance bodily functions. Examples of implants include:

1. Orthopedic implants: Devices used to replace or reinforce damaged bones, joints, or cartilage, such as knee or hip replacements.
2. Cardiovascular implants: Devices that help support or regulate heart function, like pacemakers, defibrillators, and artificial heart valves.
3. Dental implants: Artificial tooth roots that are placed into the jawbone to support dental prostheses, such as crowns, bridges, or dentures.
4. Neurological implants: Devices used to stimulate nerves, brain structures, or spinal cord tissues to treat various neurological conditions, like deep brain stimulators for Parkinson's disease or cochlear implants for hearing loss.
5. Ophthalmic implants: Artificial lenses that are placed inside the eye to replace a damaged or removed natural lens, such as intraocular lenses used in cataract surgery.

Aluminum oxide is a chemical compound with the formula Al2O3. It is also known as alumina and it is a white solid that is widely used in various industries due to its unique properties. Aluminum oxide is highly resistant to corrosion, has a high melting point, and is an electrical insulator.

In the medical field, aluminum oxide is used in a variety of applications such as:

1. Dental crowns and implants: Aluminum oxide is used in the production of dental crowns and implants due to its strength and durability.
2. Orthopedic implants: Aluminum oxide is used in some types of orthopedic implants, such as knee and hip replacements, because of its biocompatibility and resistance to wear.
3. Medical ceramics: Aluminum oxide is used in the production of medical ceramics, which are used in various medical devices such as pacemakers and hearing aids.
4. Pharmaceuticals: Aluminum oxide is used as an excipient in some pharmaceutical products, such as tablets and capsules, to improve their stability and shelf life.
5. Medical research: Aluminum oxide is used in medical research, for example, as a substrate material for growing cells or as a coating material for medical devices.

It's important to note that while aluminum oxide has many useful applications in the medical field, exposure to high levels of aluminum can be harmful to human health. Therefore, it is important to use aluminum oxide and other aluminum-containing materials safely and according to established guidelines.

The rotator cuff is a group of four muscles and their tendons that attach to the shoulder blade (scapula) and help stabilize and move the shoulder joint. These muscles are the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis. The rotator cuff helps to keep the head of the humerus (upper arm bone) centered in the glenoid fossa (shoulder socket), providing stability during shoulder movements. It also allows for rotation and elevation of the arm. Rotator cuff injuries or conditions, such as tears or tendinitis, can cause pain and limit shoulder function.

Orthopedic procedures are surgical or nonsurgical methods used to treat musculoskeletal conditions, including injuries, deformities, or diseases of the bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, and tendons. These procedures can range from simple splinting or casting to complex surgeries such as joint replacements, spinal fusions, or osteotomies (cutting and repositioning bones). The primary goal of orthopedic procedures is to restore function, reduce pain, and improve the quality of life for patients.

A femoral fracture is a medical term that refers to a break in the thigh bone, which is the longest and strongest bone in the human body. The femur extends from the hip joint to the knee joint and is responsible for supporting the weight of the upper body and allowing movement of the lower extremity. Femoral fractures can occur due to various reasons such as high-energy trauma, low-energy trauma in individuals with weak bones (osteoporosis), or as a result of a direct blow to the thigh.

Femoral fractures can be classified into different types based on their location, pattern, and severity. Some common types of femoral fractures include:

1. Transverse fracture: A break that occurs straight across the bone.
2. Oblique fracture: A break that occurs at an angle across the bone.
3. Spiral fracture: A break that occurs in a helical pattern around the bone.
4. Comminuted fracture: A break that results in multiple fragments of the bone.
5. Open or compound fracture: A break in which the bone pierces through the skin.
6. Closed or simple fracture: A break in which the bone does not pierce through the skin.

Femoral fractures can cause severe pain, swelling, bruising, and difficulty walking or bearing weight on the affected leg. Diagnosis typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as X-rays or CT scans. Treatment may involve surgical intervention, including the use of metal rods, plates, or screws to stabilize the bone, followed by rehabilitation and physical therapy to restore mobility and strength.

Biocompatible coated materials refer to surfaces or substances that are treated or engineered with a layer or film designed to interact safely and effectively with living tissues or biological systems, without causing harm or adverse reactions. The coating material is typically composed of biomaterials that can withstand the conditions of the specific application while promoting a positive response from the body.

The purpose of these coatings may vary depending on the medical device or application. For example, they might be used to enhance the lubricity and wear resistance of implantable devices, reduce the risk of infection, promote integration with surrounding tissues, control drug release, or prevent the formation of biofilms.

Biocompatible coated materials must undergo rigorous testing and evaluation to ensure their safety and efficacy in various clinical settings. This includes assessing potential cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, sensitization, hemocompatibility, carcinogenicity, and other factors that could impact the body's response to the material.

Examples of biocompatible coating materials include:

1. Hydrogels: Cross-linked networks of hydrophilic polymers that can be used for drug delivery, tissue engineering, or as lubricious coatings on medical devices.
2. Self-assembling monolayers (SAMs): Organosilane or thiol-based molecules that form a stable, well-ordered film on surfaces, which can be further functionalized to promote specific biological interactions.
3. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG): A biocompatible polymer often used as a coating material due to its ability to reduce protein adsorption and cell attachment, making it useful for preventing biofouling or thrombosis on medical devices.
4. Bioactive glass: A type of biomaterial composed of silica-based glasses that can stimulate bone growth and healing when used as a coating material in orthopedic or dental applications.
5. Drug-eluting coatings: Biocompatible polymers impregnated with therapeutic agents, designed to release the drug over time to promote healing, prevent infection, or inhibit restenosis in various medical devices.

In anatomical terms, the shoulder refers to the complex joint of the human body that connects the upper limb to the trunk. It is formed by the union of three bones: the clavicle (collarbone), scapula (shoulder blade), and humerus (upper arm bone). The shoulder joint is a ball-and-socket type of synovial joint, allowing for a wide range of movements such as flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, internal rotation, and external rotation.

The shoulder complex includes not only the glenohumeral joint but also other structures that contribute to its movement and stability, including:

1. The acromioclavicular (AC) joint: where the clavicle meets the acromion process of the scapula.
2. The coracoclavicular (CC) ligament: connects the coracoid process of the scapula to the clavicle, providing additional stability to the AC joint.
3. The rotator cuff: a group of four muscles (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis) that surround and reinforce the shoulder joint, contributing to its stability and range of motion.
4. The biceps tendon: originates from the supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula and passes through the shoulder joint, helping with flexion, supination, and stability.
5. Various ligaments and capsular structures that provide additional support and limit excessive movement in the shoulder joint.

The shoulder is a remarkable joint due to its wide range of motion, but this also makes it susceptible to injuries and disorders such as dislocations, subluxations, sprains, strains, tendinitis, bursitis, and degenerative conditions like osteoarthritis. Proper care, exercise, and maintenance are essential for maintaining shoulder health and function throughout one's life.

Chromium is an essential trace element that is necessary for human health. It is a key component of the glucose tolerance factor, which helps to enhance the function of insulin in regulating blood sugar levels. Chromium can be found in various foods such as meat, fish, whole grains, and some fruits and vegetables. However, it is also available in dietary supplements for those who may not get adequate amounts through their diet.

The recommended daily intake of chromium varies depending on age and gender. For adults, the adequate intake (AI) is 20-35 micrograms per day for women and 35-50 micrograms per day for men. Chromium deficiency is rare but can lead to impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

It's important to note that while chromium supplements are marketed as a way to improve insulin sensitivity and blood sugar control, there is limited evidence to support these claims. Moreover, excessive intake of chromium can have adverse effects on health, including liver and kidney damage, stomach irritation, and hypoglycemia. Therefore, it's recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before taking any dietary supplements containing chromium.

A cadaver is a deceased body that is used for medical research or education. In the field of medicine, cadavers are often used in anatomy lessons, surgical training, and other forms of medical research. The use of cadavers allows medical professionals to gain a deeper understanding of the human body and its various systems without causing harm to living subjects. Cadavers may be donated to medical schools or obtained through other means, such as through consent of the deceased or their next of kin. It is important to handle and treat cadavers with respect and dignity, as they were once living individuals who deserve to be treated with care even in death.

Heart valve prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure where an artificial heart valve is inserted to replace a damaged or malfunctioning native heart valve. This can be necessary for patients with valvular heart disease, including stenosis (narrowing) or regurgitation (leaking), who do not respond to medical management and are at risk of heart failure or other complications.

There are two main types of artificial heart valves used in prosthesis implantation: mechanical valves and biological valves. Mechanical valves are made of synthetic materials, such as carbon and metal, and can last a long time but require lifelong anticoagulation therapy to prevent blood clots from forming. Biological valves, on the other hand, are made from animal or human tissue and typically do not require anticoagulation therapy but may have a limited lifespan and may need to be replaced in the future.

The decision to undergo heart valve prosthesis implantation is based on several factors, including the patient's age, overall health, type and severity of valvular disease, and personal preferences. The procedure can be performed through traditional open-heart surgery or minimally invasive techniques, such as robotic-assisted surgery or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Recovery time varies depending on the approach used and individual patient factors.

Photogrammetry is not typically considered a medical term, but rather it is a technique used in various fields including engineering, architecture, and geology. However, it has found some applications in the medical field, particularly in orthopedics and wound care. Here's a definition that covers its general use as well as its medical applications:

Photogrammetry is the science of making measurements from photographs, especially for recovering the exact positions of surface points on an object. It involves the use of photography to accurately measure and map three-dimensional objects or environments. In the medical field, photogrammetry can be used to create 3D models of body parts (such as bones or wounds) by capturing multiple images from different angles and then processing them using specialized software. These 3D models can help healthcare professionals plan treatments, monitor progress, and assess outcomes in a more precise manner.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

A heart valve prosthesis is a medical device that is implanted in the heart to replace a damaged or malfunctioning heart valve. The prosthetic valve can be made of biological tissue (such as from a pig or cow) or artificial materials (such as carbon or polyester). Its function is to allow for the proper directional flow of blood through the heart, opening and closing with each heartbeat to prevent backflow of blood.

There are several types of heart valve prostheses, including:

1. Mechanical valves: These are made entirely of artificial materials and have a longer lifespan than biological valves. However, they require the patient to take blood-thinning medication for the rest of their life to prevent blood clots from forming on the valve.
2. Bioprosthetic valves: These are made of biological tissue and typically last 10-15 years before needing replacement. They do not require the patient to take blood-thinning medication, but there is a higher risk of reoperation due to degeneration of the tissue over time.
3. Homografts or allografts: These are human heart valves that have been donated and preserved for transplantation. They have similar longevity to bioprosthetic valves and do not require blood-thinning medication.
4. Autografts: In this case, the patient's own pulmonary valve is removed and used to replace the damaged aortic valve. This procedure is called the Ross procedure and has excellent long-term results, but it requires advanced surgical skills and is not widely available.

The choice of heart valve prosthesis depends on various factors, including the patient's age, overall health, lifestyle, and personal preferences.

Osteoarticular tuberculosis is a form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) that involves the bones and joints. It is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The infection can spread to the bones and joints through the bloodstream or from nearby infected organs, such as the lungs.

The most commonly affected sites are the spine (Pott's disease), hip, knee, wrist, and small bones of the hands and feet. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, stiffness, and decreased range of motion in the affected joint or bone. In some cases, the infection can lead to deformity, chronic disability, or even death if left untreated.

Diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI), and laboratory tests (such as blood tests, sputum cultures, or biopsy). Treatment usually consists of a long course of antibiotics (usually for at least six months) to kill the bacteria. Surgery may also be necessary in some cases to remove infected tissue or stabilize damaged joints.

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. It is a complex phenomenon that can result from various stimuli, such as thermal, mechanical, or chemical irritation, and it can be acute or chronic. The perception of pain involves the activation of specialized nerve cells called nociceptors, which transmit signals to the brain via the spinal cord. These signals are then processed in different regions of the brain, leading to the conscious experience of pain. It's important to note that pain is a highly individual and subjective experience, and its perception can vary widely among individuals.

In the field of medicine, ceramics are commonly referred to as inorganic, non-metallic materials that are made up of compounds such as oxides, carbides, and nitrides. These materials are often used in medical applications due to their biocompatibility, resistance to corrosion, and ability to withstand high temperatures. Some examples of medical ceramics include:

1. Bioceramics: These are ceramic materials that are used in medical devices and implants, such as hip replacements, dental implants, and bone grafts. They are designed to be biocompatible, which means they can be safely implanted into the body without causing an adverse reaction.
2. Ceramic coatings: These are thin layers of ceramic material that are applied to medical devices and implants to improve their performance and durability. For example, ceramic coatings may be used on orthopedic implants to reduce wear and tear, or on cardiovascular implants to prevent blood clots from forming.
3. Ceramic membranes: These are porous ceramic materials that are used in medical filtration systems, such as hemodialysis machines. They are designed to selectively filter out impurities while allowing essential molecules to pass through.
4. Ceramic scaffolds: These are three-dimensional structures made of ceramic material that are used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. They provide a framework for cells to grow and multiply, helping to repair or replace damaged tissues.

Overall, medical ceramics play an important role in modern healthcare, providing safe and effective solutions for a wide range of medical applications.

The wrist joint, also known as the radiocarpal joint, is a condyloid joint that connects the distal end of the radius bone in the forearm to the proximal row of carpal bones in the hand (scaphoid, lunate, and triquetral bones). It allows for flexion, extension, radial deviation, and ulnar deviation movements of the hand. The wrist joint is surrounded by a capsule and reinforced by several ligaments that provide stability and strength to the joint.

The ankle joint, also known as the talocrural joint, is the articulation between the bones of the lower leg (tibia and fibula) and the talus bone in the foot. It is a synovial hinge joint that allows for dorsiflexion and plantarflexion movements, which are essential for walking, running, and jumping. The ankle joint is reinforced by strong ligaments on both sides to provide stability during these movements.

A comminuted fracture is a type of bone break where the bone is shattered into three or more pieces. This type of fracture typically occurs after high-energy trauma, such as a car accident or a fall from a great height. Commminuted fractures can also occur in bones that are weakened by conditions like osteoporosis or cancer. Because of the severity and complexity of comminuted fractures, they often require extensive treatment, which may include surgery to realign and stabilize the bone fragments using metal screws, plates, or rods.

Postoperative hemorrhage is a medical term that refers to bleeding that occurs after a surgical procedure. This condition can range from minor oozing to severe, life-threatening bleeding. Postoperative hemorrhage can occur soon after surgery or even several days later, as the surgical site begins to heal.

The causes of postoperative hemorrhage can vary, but some common factors include:

1. Inadequate hemostasis during surgery: This means that all bleeding was not properly controlled during the procedure, leading to bleeding after surgery.
2. Blood vessel injury: During surgery, blood vessels may be accidentally cut or damaged, causing bleeding after the procedure.
3. Coagulopathy: This is a condition in which the body has difficulty forming blood clots, increasing the risk of postoperative hemorrhage.
4. Use of anticoagulant medications: Medications that prevent blood clots can increase the risk of bleeding after surgery.
5. Infection: An infection at the surgical site can cause inflammation and bleeding.

Symptoms of postoperative hemorrhage may include swelling, pain, warmth, or discoloration around the surgical site, as well as signs of shock such as rapid heartbeat, low blood pressure, and confusion. Treatment for postoperative hemorrhage depends on the severity of the bleeding and may include medications to control bleeding, transfusions of blood products, or additional surgery to stop the bleeding.

The scapula, also known as the shoulder blade, is a flat, triangular bone located in the upper back region of the human body. It serves as the site of attachment for various muscles that are involved in movements of the shoulder joint and arm. The scapula has several important features:

1. Three borders (anterior, lateral, and medial)
2. Three angles (superior, inferior, and lateral)
3. Spine of the scapula - a long, horizontal ridge that divides the scapula into two parts: supraspinous fossa (above the spine) and infraspinous fossa (below the spine)
4. Glenoid cavity - a shallow, concave surface on the lateral border that articulates with the humerus to form the shoulder joint
5. Acromion process - a bony projection at the top of the scapula that forms part of the shoulder joint and serves as an attachment point for muscles and ligaments
6. Coracoid process - a hook-like bony projection extending from the anterior border, which provides attachment for muscles and ligaments

Understanding the anatomy and function of the scapula is essential in diagnosing and treating various shoulder and upper back conditions.

The humeral head is the rounded, articular surface at the proximal end of the humerus bone in the human body. It forms the upper part of the shoulder joint and articulates with the glenoid fossa of the scapula to form the glenohumeral joint, allowing for a wide range of motion in the arm. The humeral head is covered with cartilage that helps to provide a smooth, lubricated surface for movement and shock absorption.

Hallux rigidus is a degenerative arthritis condition that affects the joint at the base of the big toe, also known as the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint. This condition is characterized by stiffness and limited motion in the big toe joint, leading to difficulty with walking and pushing off during the gait cycle.

The degenerative changes in the joint can cause bone spurs, or osteophytes, to form on the top of the joint, which can further limit motion and cause pain. The condition may also result in decreased shock absorption and increased stress on other parts of the foot, potentially leading to additional foot problems.

Hallux rigidus is typically caused by wear and tear on the joint over time, although it can also be associated with trauma or injury to the big toe joint. Treatment options for hallux rigidus may include pain relief medications, physical therapy, shoe modifications, orthotics, or in severe cases, surgery.

The preoperative period is the time period before a surgical procedure during which various preparations are made to ensure the best possible outcome for the surgery. This includes evaluating the patient's overall health status, identifying and managing any underlying medical conditions that could increase the risk of complications, obtaining informed consent from the patient, and providing preoperative instructions regarding medications, food and drink intake, and other aspects of preparation for the surgery.

The specific activities that occur during the preoperative period may vary depending on the type and complexity of the surgical procedure, as well as the individual needs and medical history of the patient. However, some common elements of the preoperative period include:

* A thorough medical history and physical examination to assess the patient's overall health status and identify any potential risk factors for complications
* Diagnostic tests such as blood tests, imaging studies, or electrocardiograms (ECGs) to provide additional information about the patient's health status
* Consultation with anesthesia providers to determine the appropriate type and dosage of anesthesia for the procedure
* Preoperative teaching to help the patient understand what to expect before, during, and after the surgery
* Management of any underlying medical conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, or lung disease to reduce the risk of complications
* Administration of medications such as antibiotics or anti-coagulants to prevent infection or bleeding
* Fasting instructions to ensure that the stomach is empty during the surgery and reduce the risk of aspiration (inhalation of stomach contents into the lungs)

Overall, the preoperative period is a critical time for ensuring the safety and success of surgical procedures. By taking a thorough and systematic approach to preparing patients for surgery, healthcare providers can help to minimize the risks of complications and ensure the best possible outcomes for their patients.

Skeletal muscle, also known as striated or voluntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is attached to bones by tendons or aponeuroses and functions to produce movements and support the posture of the body. It is composed of long, multinucleated fibers that are arranged in parallel bundles and are characterized by alternating light and dark bands, giving them a striped appearance under a microscope. Skeletal muscle is under voluntary control, meaning that it is consciously activated through signals from the nervous system. It is responsible for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and lifting objects.

A registry in the context of medicine is a collection or database of standardized information about individuals who share a certain condition or attribute, such as a disease, treatment, exposure, or demographic group. These registries are used for various purposes, including:

* Monitoring and tracking the natural history of diseases and conditions
* Evaluating the safety and effectiveness of medical treatments and interventions
* Conducting research and generating hypotheses for further study
* Providing information to patients, clinicians, and researchers
* Informing public health policy and decision-making

Registries can be established for a wide range of purposes, including disease-specific registries (such as cancer or diabetes registries), procedure-specific registries (such as joint replacement or cardiac surgery registries), and population-based registries (such as birth defects or cancer registries). Data collected in registries may include demographic information, clinical data, laboratory results, treatment details, and outcomes.

Registries can be maintained by a variety of organizations, including hospitals, clinics, academic medical centers, professional societies, government agencies, and industry. Participation in registries is often voluntary, although some registries may require informed consent from participants. Data collected in registries are typically de-identified to protect the privacy of individuals.

Ununited fracture is a medical term used to describe a fractured bone that has failed to heal properly. This condition is also known as a nonunion fracture. In a normal healing process, the broken ends of the bone will grow together, or "unite," over time as new bone tissue forms. However, in some cases, the bones may not reconnect due to various reasons such as infection, poor blood supply, excessive motion at the fracture site, or inadequate stabilization of the fracture.

Ununited fractures can cause significant pain, swelling, and deformity in the affected area. They may also lead to a decreased range of motion, weakness, and instability in the joint near the fracture. Treatment for ununited fractures typically involves surgical intervention to promote bone healing, such as bone grafting or internal fixation with screws or plates. In some cases, electrical stimulation or ultrasound therapy may also be used to help promote bone growth and healing.

Intra-articular injections refer to the administration of medication directly into a joint space. This route of administration is used for treating various joint conditions such as inflammation, pain, and arthritis. Commonly injected medications include corticosteroids, local anesthetics, and viscosupplementation agents. The procedure is usually performed using imaging guidance, like ultrasound or fluoroscopy, to ensure accurate placement of the medication within the joint.

Forearm injuries refer to damages or traumas that affect the anatomy and function of the forearm, which is the area between the elbow and wrist. This region consists of two long bones (the radius and ulna) and several muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves, and blood vessels that enable movements such as flexion, extension, pronation, and supination of the hand and wrist.

Common forearm injuries include:

1. Fractures: Breaks in the radius or ulna bones can occur due to high-energy trauma, falls, or sports accidents. These fractures may be simple (stable) or compound (displaced), and might require immobilization, casting, or surgical intervention depending on their severity and location.

2. Sprains and Strains: Overstretching or tearing of the ligaments connecting the bones in the forearm or the muscles and tendons responsible for movement can lead to sprains and strains. These injuries often cause pain, swelling, bruising, and limited mobility.

3. Dislocations: In some cases, forceful trauma might result in the dislocation of the radioulnar joint, where the ends of the radius and ulna meet. This injury can be extremely painful and may necessitate immediate medical attention to realign the bones and stabilize the joint.

4. Tendonitis: Repetitive motions or overuse can cause inflammation and irritation of the tendons in the forearm, resulting in a condition known as tendonitis. This injury typically presents with localized pain, swelling, and stiffness that worsen with activity.

5. Nerve Injuries: Direct trauma, compression, or stretching can damage nerves in the forearm, leading to numbness, tingling, weakness, or paralysis in the hand and fingers. Common nerve injuries include radial nerve neuropathy and ulnar nerve entrapment.

6. Compartment Syndrome: Forearm compartment syndrome occurs when increased pressure within one of the forearm's fascial compartments restricts blood flow to the muscles, nerves, and tissues inside. This condition can result from trauma, bleeding, or swelling and requires immediate medical intervention to prevent permanent damage.

Accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial for managing forearm injuries and ensuring optimal recovery. Patients should consult with a healthcare professional if they experience persistent pain, swelling, stiffness, weakness, or numbness in their forearms or hands.

Muscle strength, in a medical context, refers to the amount of force a muscle or group of muscles can produce during contraction. It is the maximum amount of force that a muscle can generate through its full range of motion and is often measured in units of force such as pounds or newtons. Muscle strength is an important component of physical function and mobility, and it can be assessed through various tests, including manual muscle testing, dynamometry, and isokinetic testing. Factors that can affect muscle strength include age, sex, body composition, injury, disease, and physical activity level.

Preoperative care refers to the series of procedures, interventions, and preparations that are conducted before a surgical operation. The primary goal of preoperative care is to ensure the patient's well-being, optimize their physical condition, reduce potential risks, and prepare them mentally and emotionally for the upcoming surgery.

Preoperative care typically includes:

1. Preoperative assessment: A thorough evaluation of the patient's overall health status, including medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and diagnostic imaging, to identify any potential risk factors or comorbidities that may impact the surgical procedure and postoperative recovery.
2. Informed consent: The process of ensuring the patient understands the nature of the surgery, its purpose, associated risks, benefits, and alternative treatment options. The patient signs a consent form indicating they have been informed and voluntarily agree to undergo the surgery.
3. Preoperative instructions: Guidelines provided to the patient regarding their diet, medication use, and other activities in the days leading up to the surgery. These instructions may include fasting guidelines, discontinuing certain medications, or arranging for transportation after the procedure.
4. Anesthesia consultation: A meeting with the anesthesiologist to discuss the type of anesthesia that will be used during the surgery and address any concerns related to anesthesia risks, side effects, or postoperative pain management.
5. Preparation of the surgical site: Cleaning and shaving the area where the incision will be made, as well as administering appropriate antimicrobial agents to minimize the risk of infection.
6. Medical optimization: Addressing any underlying medical conditions or correcting abnormalities that may negatively impact the surgical outcome. This may involve adjusting medications, treating infections, or managing chronic diseases such as diabetes.
7. Emotional and psychological support: Providing counseling, reassurance, and education to help alleviate anxiety, fear, or emotional distress related to the surgery.
8. Preoperative holding area: The patient is transferred to a designated area near the operating room where they are prepared for surgery by changing into a gown, having intravenous (IV) lines inserted, and receiving monitoring equipment.

By following these preoperative care guidelines, healthcare professionals aim to ensure that patients undergo safe and successful surgical procedures with optimal outcomes.

I believe you are referring to "bone pins" or "bone nails" rather than "bone nails." These terms are used in the medical field to describe surgical implants made of metal or biocompatible materials that are used to stabilize and hold together fractured bones during the healing process. They can also be used in spinal fusion surgery to provide stability and promote bone growth between vertebrae.

Bone pins or nails typically have a threaded or smooth shaft, with a small diameter that allows them to be inserted into the medullary canal of long bones such as the femur or tibia. They may also have a head or eyelet on one end that allows for attachment to external fixation devices or other surgical instruments.

The use of bone pins and nails has revolutionized orthopedic surgery, allowing for faster healing times, improved stability, and better functional outcomes for patients with fractures or spinal deformities.

Disability Evaluation is the process of determining the nature and extent of a person's functional limitations or impairments, and assessing their ability to perform various tasks and activities in order to determine eligibility for disability benefits or accommodations. This process typically involves a medical examination and assessment by a licensed healthcare professional, such as a physician or psychologist, who evaluates the individual's symptoms, medical history, laboratory test results, and functional abilities. The evaluation may also involve input from other professionals, such as vocational experts, occupational therapists, or speech-language pathologists, who can provide additional information about the person's ability to perform specific tasks and activities in a work or daily living context. Based on this information, a determination is made about whether the individual meets the criteria for disability as defined by the relevant governing authority, such as the Social Security Administration or the Americans with Disabilities Act.

Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic medication that is used to reduce or prevent bleeding. It works by inhibiting the activation of plasminogen to plasmin, which is a protease that degrades fibrin clots. By preventing the breakdown of blood clots, tranexamic acid helps to reduce bleeding and promote clot formation.

Tranexamic acid is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and injectable solutions. It is used in a variety of clinical settings, such as surgery, trauma, and heavy menstrual bleeding. The medication can be taken orally or administered intravenously, depending on the severity of the bleeding and the patient's medical condition.

Common side effects of tranexamic acid include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and headache. Less commonly, the medication may cause allergic reactions, visual disturbances, or seizures. It is important to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking tranexamic acid to minimize the risk of side effects and ensure its safe and effective use.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Arthralgia is a medical term that refers to pain in the joints. It does not involve inflammation, which would be referred to as arthritis. The pain can range from mild to severe and may occur in one or multiple joints. Arthralgia can have various causes, including injuries, infections, degenerative conditions, or systemic diseases. In some cases, the underlying cause of arthralgia remains unknown. Treatment typically focuses on managing the pain and addressing the underlying condition if it can be identified.

Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure where an orthopedic surgeon uses an arthroscope (a thin tube with a light and camera on the end) to diagnose and treat problems inside a joint. The surgeon makes a small incision, inserts the arthroscope into the joint, and then uses the attached camera to view the inside of the joint on a monitor. They can then insert other small instruments through additional incisions to repair or remove damaged tissue.

Arthroscopy is most commonly used for joints such as the knee, shoulder, hip, ankle, and wrist. It offers several advantages over traditional open surgery, including smaller incisions, less pain and bleeding, faster recovery time, and reduced risk of infection. The procedure can be used to diagnose and treat a wide range of conditions, including torn ligaments or cartilage, inflamed synovial tissue, loose bone or cartilage fragments, and joint damage caused by arthritis.

"Length of Stay" (LOS) is a term commonly used in healthcare to refer to the amount of time a patient spends receiving care in a hospital, clinic, or other healthcare facility. It is typically measured in hours, days, or weeks and can be used as a metric for various purposes such as resource planning, quality assessment, and reimbursement. The length of stay can vary depending on the type of illness or injury, the severity of the condition, the patient's response to treatment, and other factors. It is an important consideration in healthcare management and can have significant implications for both patients and providers.

"Awards and prizes" in a medical context generally refer to recognitions given to individuals or organizations for significant achievements, contributions, or advancements in the field of medicine. These can include:

1. Research Awards: Given to researchers who have made significant breakthroughs or discoveries in medical research.
2. Lifetime Achievement Awards: Recognizing individuals who have dedicated their lives to advancing medicine and healthcare.
3. Humanitarian Awards: Presented to those who have provided exceptional service to improving the health and well-being of underserved populations.
4. Innovation Awards: Given to recognize groundbreaking new treatments, technologies, or approaches in medicine.
5. Educator Awards: Honoring medical educators for their contributions to teaching and mentoring future healthcare professionals.
6. Patient Care Awards: Recognizing excellence in patient care and advocacy.
7. Public Health Awards: Given for outstanding work in preventing disease and promoting health at the population level.
8. Global Health Awards: Honoring those who have made significant contributions to improving health outcomes in low-resource settings around the world.

These awards can be given by various organizations, including medical societies, hospitals, universities, pharmaceutical companies, and government agencies.

The aortic valve is the valve located between the left ventricle (the lower left chamber of the heart) and the aorta (the largest artery in the body, which carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body). It is made up of three thin flaps or leaflets that open and close to regulate blood flow. During a heartbeat, the aortic valve opens to allow blood to be pumped out of the left ventricle into the aorta, and then closes to prevent blood from flowing back into the ventricle when it relaxes. Any abnormality or damage to this valve can lead to various cardiovascular conditions such as aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, or infective endocarditis.

Titanium is not a medical term, but rather a chemical element (symbol Ti, atomic number 22) that is widely used in the medical field due to its unique properties. Medically, it is often referred to as a biocompatible material used in various medical applications such as:

1. Orthopedic implants: Titanium and its alloys are used for making joint replacements (hips, knees, shoulders), bone plates, screws, and rods due to their high strength-to-weight ratio, excellent corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility.
2. Dental implants: Titanium is also commonly used in dental applications like implants, crowns, and bridges because of its ability to osseointegrate, or fuse directly with bone tissue, providing a stable foundation for replacement teeth.
3. Cardiovascular devices: Titanium alloys are used in the construction of heart valves, pacemakers, and other cardiovascular implants due to their non-magnetic properties, which prevent interference with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans.
4. Medical instruments: Due to its resistance to corrosion and high strength, titanium is used in the manufacturing of various medical instruments such as surgical tools, needles, and catheters.

In summary, Titanium is a chemical element with unique properties that make it an ideal material for various medical applications, including orthopedic and dental implants, cardiovascular devices, and medical instruments.

Enzyme Replacement Therapy (ERT) is a medical treatment approach in which functional copies of a missing or deficient enzyme are introduced into the body to compensate for the lack of enzymatic activity caused by a genetic disorder. This therapy is primarily used to manage lysosomal storage diseases, such as Gaucher disease, Fabry disease, Pompe disease, and Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS), among others.

In ERT, the required enzyme is produced recombinantly in a laboratory using biotechnological methods. The purified enzyme is then administered to the patient intravenously at regular intervals. Once inside the body, the exogenous enzyme is taken up by cells, particularly those affected by the disorder, and helps restore normal cellular functions by participating in essential metabolic pathways.

ERT aims to alleviate disease symptoms, slow down disease progression, improve quality of life, and increase survival rates for patients with lysosomal storage disorders. However, it does not cure the underlying genetic defect responsible for the enzyme deficiency.

A nerve block is a medical procedure in which an anesthetic or neurolytic agent is injected near a specific nerve or bundle of nerves to block the transmission of pain signals from that area to the brain. This technique can be used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, such as identifying the source of pain, providing temporary or prolonged relief, or facilitating surgical procedures in the affected region.

The injection typically contains a local anesthetic like lidocaine or bupivacaine, which numbs the nerve, preventing it from transmitting pain signals. In some cases, steroids may also be added to reduce inflammation and provide longer-lasting relief. Depending on the type of nerve block and its intended use, the injection might be administered close to the spine (neuraxial blocks), at peripheral nerves (peripheral nerve blocks), or around the sympathetic nervous system (sympathetic nerve blocks).

While nerve blocks are generally safe, they can have side effects such as infection, bleeding, nerve damage, or in rare cases, systemic toxicity from the anesthetic agent. It is essential to consult with a qualified medical professional before undergoing this procedure to ensure proper evaluation, technique, and post-procedure care.

A blood transfusion is a medical procedure in which blood or its components are transferred from one individual (donor) to another (recipient) through a vein. The donated blood can be fresh whole blood, packed red blood cells, platelets, plasma, or cryoprecipitate, depending on the recipient's needs. Blood transfusions are performed to replace lost blood due to severe bleeding, treat anemia, support patients undergoing major surgeries, or manage various medical conditions such as hemophilia, thalassemia, and leukemia. The donated blood must be carefully cross-matched with the recipient's blood type to minimize the risk of transfusion reactions.

Cobalt is a chemical element with the symbol Co and atomic number 27. It is a hard, silver-white, lustrous, and brittle metal that is found naturally only in chemically combined form, except for small amounts found in meteorites. Cobalt is used primarily in the production of magnetic, wear-resistant, and high-strength alloys, as well as in the manufacture of batteries, magnets, and pigments.

In a medical context, cobalt is sometimes used in the form of cobalt-60, a radioactive isotope, for cancer treatment through radiation therapy. Cobalt-60 emits gamma rays that can be directed at tumors to destroy cancer cells. Additionally, small amounts of cobalt are present in some vitamin B12 supplements and fortified foods, as cobalt is an essential component of vitamin B12. However, exposure to high levels of cobalt can be harmful and may cause health effects such as allergic reactions, lung damage, heart problems, and neurological issues.

Infectious arthritis, also known as septic arthritis, is a type of joint inflammation that is caused by a bacterial or fungal infection. The infection can enter the joint through the bloodstream or directly into the synovial fluid of the joint, often as a result of a traumatic injury, surgery, or an underlying condition such as diabetes or a weakened immune system.

The most common symptoms of infectious arthritis include sudden onset of severe pain and swelling in the affected joint, fever, chills, and difficulty moving the joint. If left untreated, infectious arthritis can lead to serious complications such as joint damage or destruction, sepsis, and even death. Treatment typically involves antibiotics or antifungal medications to eliminate the infection, along with rest, immobilization, and sometimes surgery to drain the infected synovial fluid.

It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you experience symptoms of infectious arthritis, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent long-term complications and improve outcomes.

The cervical vertebrae are the seven vertebrae that make up the upper part of the spine, also known as the neck region. They are labeled C1 to C7, with C1 being closest to the skull and C7 connecting to the thoracic vertebrae in the chest region. The cervical vertebrae have unique structures to allow for a wide range of motion in the neck while also protecting the spinal cord and providing attachment points for muscles and ligaments.

Prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure where an artificial device or component, known as a prosthesis, is placed inside the body to replace a missing or damaged body part. The prosthesis can be made from various materials such as metal, plastic, or ceramic and is designed to perform the same function as the original body part.

The implantation procedure involves making an incision in the skin to create a pocket where the prosthesis will be placed. The prosthesis is then carefully positioned and secured in place using screws, cement, or other fixation methods. In some cases, tissue from the patient's own body may be used to help anchor the prosthesis.

Once the prosthesis is in place, the incision is closed with sutures or staples, and the area is bandaged. The patient will typically need to undergo rehabilitation and physical therapy to learn how to use the new prosthesis and regain mobility and strength.

Prosthesis implantation is commonly performed for a variety of reasons, including joint replacement due to arthritis or injury, dental implants to replace missing teeth, and breast reconstruction after mastectomy. The specific procedure and recovery time will depend on the type and location of the prosthesis being implanted.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

Activities of Daily Living (ADL) are routine self-care activities that individuals usually do every day without assistance. These activities are widely used as a measure to determine the functional status and independence of a person, particularly in the elderly or those with disabilities or chronic illnesses. The basic ADLs include:

1. Personal hygiene: Bathing, washing hands and face, brushing teeth, grooming, and using the toilet.
2. Dressing: Selecting appropriate clothes and dressing oneself.
3. Eating: Preparing and consuming food, either independently or with assistive devices.
4. Mobility: Moving in and out of bed, chairs, or wheelchairs, walking independently or using mobility aids.
5. Transferring: Moving from one place to another, such as getting in and out of a car, bath, or bed.

There are also more complex Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs) that assess an individual's ability to manage their own life and live independently. These include managing finances, shopping for groceries, using the telephone, taking medications as prescribed, preparing meals, and housekeeping tasks.

Tantalum is not a medical term, but a chemical element with the symbol Ta and atomic number 73. It is a rare, hard, blue-gray, lustrous transition metal that is highly corrosion-resistant. In the field of medicine, tantalum is often used in the production of medical implants such as surgical pins, screws, plates, and stents due to its biocompatibility and resistance to corrosion. For example, tantalum mesh is used in hernia repair and tantalum rods are used in spinal fusion surgery.

Arthrometry is a measurement technique used in the field of orthopedics and rheumatology to assess the integrity and mobility of joints. When qualified with the term "articular," it specifically refers to the measurement of articular motion or range of motion (ROM) within a synovial joint.

Articular arthrometry involves using specialized instruments, such as goniometers, inclinometers, or digital devices like smartphone applications and wearable sensors, to quantify the degree of flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation, or other movements in a joint. This information can help medical professionals evaluate joint function, diagnose injuries or conditions affecting joint mobility, monitor disease progression, and assess treatment outcomes.

In summary, articular arthrometry is the measurement of articular motion within synovial joints to evaluate joint health and function.

Dura Mater: The tough, outer membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord.

Hydroxyapatite: A naturally occurring mineral form of calcium apatite, also known as dahllite, with the formula Ca5(PO4)3(OH), is the primary mineral component of biological apatites found in bones and teeth.

Therefore, "Durapatite" isn't a recognized medical term, but it seems like it might be a combination of "dura mater" and "hydroxyapatite." If you meant to ask about a material used in medical or dental applications that combines properties of both dura mater and hydroxyapatite, please provide more context.

The brachial plexus is a network of nerves that originates from the spinal cord in the neck region and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the upper limb. It is formed by the ventral rami (branches) of the lower four cervical nerves (C5-C8) and the first thoracic nerve (T1). In some cases, contributions from C4 and T2 may also be included.

The brachial plexus nerves exit the intervertebral foramen, pass through the neck, and travel down the upper chest before branching out to form major peripheral nerves of the upper limb. These include the axillary, radial, musculocutaneous, median, and ulnar nerves, which further innervate specific muscles and sensory areas in the arm, forearm, and hand.

Damage to the brachial plexus can result in various neurological deficits, such as weakness or paralysis of the upper limb, numbness, or loss of sensation in the affected area, depending on the severity and location of the injury.

Intraoperative care refers to the medical care and interventions provided to a patient during a surgical procedure. This care is typically administered by a team of healthcare professionals, including anesthesiologists, surgeons, nurses, and other specialists as needed. The goal of intraoperative care is to maintain the patient's physiological stability throughout the surgery, minimize complications, and ensure the best possible outcome.

Intraoperative care may include:

1. Anesthesia management: Administering and monitoring anesthetic drugs to keep the patient unconscious and free from pain during the surgery.
2. Monitoring vital signs: Continuously tracking the patient's heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, body temperature, and other key physiological parameters to ensure they remain within normal ranges.
3. Fluid and blood product administration: Maintaining adequate intravascular volume and oxygen-carrying capacity through the infusion of fluids and blood products as needed.
4. Intraoperative imaging: Utilizing real-time imaging techniques, such as X-ray, ultrasound, or CT scans, to guide the surgical procedure and ensure accurate placement of implants or other devices.
5. Neuromonitoring: Using electrophysiological methods to monitor the functional integrity of nerves and neural structures during surgery, particularly in procedures involving the brain, spine, or peripheral nerves.
6. Intraoperative medication management: Administering various medications as needed for pain control, infection prophylaxis, or the treatment of medical conditions that may arise during the surgery.
7. Temperature management: Regulating the patient's body temperature to prevent hypothermia or hyperthermia, which can have adverse effects on surgical outcomes and overall patient health.
8. Communication and coordination: Ensuring effective communication among the members of the surgical team to optimize patient care and safety.

The metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint is the joint in the foot where the metatarsal bones of the foot (the long bones behind the toes) connect with the proximal phalanges of the toes. It's a synovial joint, which means it's surrounded by a capsule containing synovial fluid to allow for smooth movement. The MTP joint is responsible for allowing the flexion and extension movements of the toes, and is important for maintaining balance and pushing off during walking and running. Issues with the MTP joint can lead to conditions such as hallux valgus (bunions) or hammertoe.

"Low-volume hospitals" is a term used to describe healthcare facilities that have relatively few admissions or procedures for specific conditions or treatments within a given period. While there is no universally accepted threshold for what constitutes "low volume," some studies and guidelines define it as fewer than 100 cases per year for certain surgical procedures.

The significance of low-volume hospitals lies in the potential relationship between hospital volume and patient outcomes. Research has shown that, for many complex medical conditions and procedures, higher-volume hospitals often have better outcomes and lower complication rates compared to their lower-volume counterparts. This is thought to be due to several factors, including greater experience, specialized resources, and more efficient processes in high-volume hospitals.

However, it's essential to note that hospital volume is just one factor among many that can influence patient outcomes. Other elements, such as the quality of care, individual physician expertise, patient characteristics, and access to follow-up care, also play crucial roles in determining treatment success. Therefore, while low-volume hospitals may present additional challenges for specific procedures or conditions, they should not be automatically dismissed as suboptimal choices for all patients. Instead, a comprehensive evaluation of various factors is necessary when selecting the most appropriate healthcare facility for an individual's needs.

Intraoperative complications refer to any unforeseen problems or events that occur during the course of a surgical procedure, once it has begun and before it is completed. These complications can range from minor issues, such as bleeding or an adverse reaction to anesthesia, to major complications that can significantly impact the patient's health and prognosis.

Examples of intraoperative complications include:

1. Bleeding (hemorrhage) - This can occur due to various reasons such as injury to blood vessels or organs during surgery.
2. Infection - Surgical site infections can develop if the surgical area becomes contaminated during the procedure.
3. Anesthesia-related complications - These include adverse reactions to anesthesia, difficulty maintaining the patient's airway, or cardiovascular instability.
4. Organ injury - Accidental damage to surrounding organs can occur during surgery, leading to potential long-term consequences.
5. Equipment failure - Malfunctioning surgical equipment can lead to complications and compromise the safety of the procedure.
6. Allergic reactions - Patients may have allergies to certain medications or materials used during surgery, causing an adverse reaction.
7. Prolonged operative time - Complications may arise if a surgical procedure takes longer than expected, leading to increased risk of infection and other issues.

Intraoperative complications require prompt identification and management by the surgical team to minimize their impact on the patient's health and recovery.

A forelimb is a term used in animal anatomy to refer to the upper limbs located in the front of the body, primarily involved in movement and manipulation of the environment. In humans, this would be equivalent to the arms, while in quadrupedal animals (those that move on four legs), it includes the structures that are comparable to both the arms and legs of humans, such as the front legs of dogs or the forepaws of cats. The bones that make up a typical forelimb include the humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Fracture fixation is a surgical procedure in orthopedic trauma surgery where a fractured bone is stabilized using various devices and techniques to promote proper healing and alignment. The goal of fracture fixation is to maintain the broken bone ends in correct anatomical position and length, allowing for adequate stability during the healing process.

There are two main types of fracture fixation:

1. Internal fixation: In this method, metal implants like plates, screws, or intramedullary rods are inserted directly into the bone to hold the fragments in place. These implants can be either removed or left in the body once healing is complete, depending on the type and location of the fracture.

2. External fixation: This technique involves placing pins or screws through the skin and into the bone above and below the fracture site. These pins are then connected to an external frame that maintains alignment and stability. External fixators are typically used when there is significant soft tissue damage, infection, or when internal fixation is not possible due to the complexity of the fracture.

The choice between internal and external fixation depends on various factors such as the type and location of the fracture, patient's age and overall health, surgeon's preference, and potential complications. Both methods aim to provide a stable environment for bone healing while minimizing the risk of malunion, nonunion, or deformity.

The Quadriceps muscle, also known as the Quadriceps Femoris, is a large muscle group located in the front of the thigh. It consists of four individual muscles - the Rectus Femoris, Vastus Lateralis, Vastus Intermedius, and Vastus Medialis. These muscles work together to extend the leg at the knee joint and flex the thigh at the hip joint. The Quadriceps muscle is crucial for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and kicking.

A Metal-on-Metal (MoM) joint prosthesis is a type of artificial joint replacement where both the ball and socket components are made of metal materials, typically cobalt-chromium alloys. This design was initially developed to offer increased durability, reduced wear, and improved range of motion compared to other types of joint prostheses. However, recent studies have raised concerns about potential adverse effects such as metallosis (metal debris accumulation in the tissue), local soft-tissue reactions, and elevated metal ion levels in the bloodstream, which may lead to systemic health issues. As a result, the use of MoM joint prostheses has become less common in recent years.

Venous thrombosis is a medical condition characterized by the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) in the deep veins, often in the legs (deep vein thrombosis or DVT), but it can also occur in other parts of the body such as the arms, pelvis, or lungs (pulmonary embolism).

The formation of a venous thrombus can be caused by various factors, including injury to the blood vessel wall, changes in blood flow, and alterations in the composition of the blood. These factors can lead to the activation of clotting factors and platelets, which can result in the formation of a clot that blocks the vein.

Symptoms of venous thrombosis may include swelling, pain, warmth, and redness in the affected area. In some cases, the clot can dislodge and travel to other parts of the body, causing potentially life-threatening complications such as pulmonary embolism.

Risk factors for venous thrombosis include advanced age, obesity, smoking, pregnancy, use of hormonal contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy, cancer, recent surgery or trauma, prolonged immobility, and a history of previous venous thromboembolism. Treatment typically involves the use of anticoagulant medications to prevent further clotting and dissolve existing clots.

Articular ligaments, also known as fibrous ligaments, are bands of dense, fibrous connective tissue that connect and stabilize bones to each other at joints. They help to limit the range of motion of a joint and provide support, preventing excessive movement that could cause injury. Articular ligaments are composed mainly of collagen fibers arranged in a parallel pattern, making them strong and flexible. They have limited blood supply and few nerve endings, which makes them less prone to injury but also slower to heal if damaged. Examples of articular ligaments include the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) in the knee joint, and the medial collateral ligament (MCL) and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) in the elbow joint.

Intervertebral disc degeneration is a physiological and biochemical process that occurs in the spinal discs, which are located between each vertebra in the spine. These discs act as shock absorbers and allow for movement and flexibility of the spine.

The degenerative process involves changes in the structure and composition of the disc, including loss of water content, decreased production of proteoglycans (which help to maintain the disc's elasticity), and disorganization of the collagen fibers that make up the disc's outer layer (annulus fibrosus). These changes can lead to a decrease in the disc's height and mobility, as well as the development of tears or cracks in the annulus fibrosus.

In advanced stages of degeneration, the disc may herniate or bulge outward, causing pressure on nearby nerves and potentially leading to pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected area. It's worth noting that while intervertebral disc degeneration is a normal part of aging, certain factors such as injury, smoking, obesity, and repetitive stress can accelerate the process.

Antibiotic prophylaxis refers to the use of antibiotics to prevent infection from occurring in the first place, rather than treating an existing infection. This practice is commonly used before certain medical procedures or surgeries that have a high risk of infection, such as joint replacements, heart valve surgery, or organ transplants. The goal of antibiotic prophylaxis is to reduce the risk of infection by introducing antibiotics into the body before bacteria have a chance to multiply and cause an infection.

The choice of antibiotic for prophylaxis depends on several factors, including the type of procedure being performed, the patient's medical history and allergies, and the most common types of bacteria that can cause infection in that particular situation. The antibiotic is typically given within one hour before the start of the procedure, and may be continued for up to 24 hours afterward, depending on the specific guidelines for that procedure.

It's important to note that antibiotic prophylaxis should only be used when it is truly necessary, as overuse of antibiotics can contribute to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, the decision to use antibiotic prophylaxis should be made carefully and in consultation with a healthcare provider.

Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is a common skeletal disorder in dogs, particularly in large and giant breeds, characterized by the abnormal development and degeneration of the coxofemoral joint - the joint where the head of the femur (thigh bone) meets the acetabulum (hip socket) of the pelvis. This condition is often caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors that lead to laxity (looseness) of the joint, which can result in osteoarthritis (OA), pain, and decreased mobility over time.

In a healthy hip joint, the femoral head fits snugly into the acetabulum, allowing smooth and stable movement. However, in dogs with CHD, the following abnormalities may occur:

1. Shallow acetabulum: The hip socket may not be deep enough to provide adequate coverage of the femoral head, leading to joint instability.
2. Flared acetabulum: The rim of the acetabulum may become stretched and flared due to excessive forces exerted on it by the lax joint.
3. Misshapen or malformed femoral head: The femoral head may not have a normal round shape, further contributing to joint instability.
4. Laxity of the joint: The ligament that holds the femoral head in place within the acetabulum (ligamentum teres) can become stretched, allowing for excessive movement and abnormal wear of the joint surfaces.

These changes can lead to the development of osteoarthritis, which is characterized by the breakdown and loss of cartilage within the joint, as well as the formation of bone spurs (osteophytes) and thickening of the joint capsule. This results in pain, stiffness, and decreased range of motion, making it difficult for affected dogs to perform everyday activities such as walking, running, or climbing stairs.

Canine hip dysplasia is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging techniques such as radiographs (X-rays). Treatment options may include conservative management, such as weight management, exercise modification, joint supplements, and pain medication, or surgical intervention, such as total hip replacement. The choice of treatment depends on the severity of the disease, the age and overall health of the dog, and the owner's financial resources.

Preventing canine hip dysplasia is best achieved through selective breeding practices that aim to eliminate affected animals from breeding populations. Additionally, maintaining a healthy weight, providing appropriate exercise, and ensuring proper nutrition throughout a dog's life can help reduce the risk of developing this debilitating condition.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

An intervertebral disc is a fibrocartilaginous structure found between the vertebrae of the spinal column in humans and other animals. It functions as a shock absorber, distributes mechanical stress during weight-bearing activities, and allows for varying degrees of mobility between adjacent vertebrae.

The disc is composed of two parts: the annulus fibrosus, which forms the tough, outer layer; and the nucleus pulposus, which is a gel-like substance in the center that contains proteoglycans and water. The combination of these components provides the disc with its unique ability to distribute forces and allow for movement.

The intervertebral discs are essential for the normal functioning of the spine, providing stability, flexibility, and protection to the spinal cord and nerves. However, they can also be subject to degeneration and injury, which may result in conditions such as herniated discs or degenerative disc disease.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Replantation is a surgical procedure in which a body part that has been completely detached or amputated is reattached to the body. This procedure involves careful reattachment of bones, muscles, tendons, nerves, and blood vessels to restore function and sensation to the greatest extent possible. The success of replantation depends on various factors such as the level of injury, the condition of the amputated part, and the patient's overall health.

The lumbosacral plexus is a complex network of nerves that arises from the lower part of the spinal cord, specifically the lumbar (L1-L5) and sacral (S1-S4) roots. This plexus is responsible for providing innervation to the lower extremities, including the legs, feet, and some parts of the abdomen and pelvis.

The lumbosacral plexus can be divided into several major branches:

1. The femoral nerve: It arises from the L2-L4 roots and supplies motor innervation to the muscles in the anterior compartment of the thigh, as well as sensation to the anterior and medial aspects of the leg and thigh.
2. The obturator nerve: It originates from the L2-L4 roots and provides motor innervation to the adductor muscles of the thigh and sensation to the inner aspect of the thigh.
3. The sciatic nerve: This is the largest nerve in the body, formed by the union of the tibial and common fibular (peroneal) nerves. It arises from the L4-S3 roots and supplies motor innervation to the muscles of the lower leg and foot, as well as sensation to the posterior aspect of the leg and foot.
4. The pudendal nerve: It originates from the S2-S4 roots and is responsible for providing motor innervation to the pelvic floor muscles and sensory innervation to the genital region.
5. Other smaller nerves, such as the ilioinguinal, iliohypogastric, and genitofemoral nerves, also arise from the lumbosacral plexus and supply sensation to various regions in the lower abdomen and pelvis.

Damage or injury to the lumbosacral plexus can result in significant neurological deficits, including muscle weakness, numbness, and pain in the lower extremities.

A bone fracture is a medical condition in which there is a partial or complete break in the continuity of a bone due to external or internal forces. Fractures can occur in any bone in the body and can vary in severity from a small crack to a shattered bone. The symptoms of a bone fracture typically include pain, swelling, bruising, deformity, and difficulty moving the affected limb. Treatment for a bone fracture may involve immobilization with a cast or splint, surgery to realign and stabilize the bone, or medication to manage pain and prevent infection. The specific treatment approach will depend on the location, type, and severity of the fracture.

The Chi-square distribution is a continuous probability distribution that is often used in statistical hypothesis testing. It is the distribution of a sum of squares of k independent standard normal random variables. The resulting quantity follows a chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom, denoted as χ²(k).

The probability density function (pdf) of the Chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom is given by:

f(x; k) = (1/ (2^(k/2) * Γ(k/2))) \* x^((k/2)-1) \* e^(-x/2), for x > 0 and 0, otherwise.

Where Γ(k/2) is the gamma function evaluated at k/2. The mean and variance of a Chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom are k and 2k, respectively.

The Chi-square distribution has various applications in statistical inference, including testing goodness-of-fit, homogeneity of variances, and independence in contingency tables.

The intraoperative period is the phase of surgical treatment that refers to the time during which the surgery is being performed. It begins when the anesthesia is administered and the patient is prepared for the operation, and it ends when the surgery is completed, the anesthesia is discontinued, and the patient is transferred to the recovery room or intensive care unit (ICU).

During the intraoperative period, the surgical team, including surgeons, anesthesiologists, nurses, and other healthcare professionals, work together to carry out the surgical procedure safely and effectively. The anesthesiologist monitors the patient's vital signs, such as heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and body temperature, throughout the surgery to ensure that the patient remains stable and does not experience any complications.

The surgeon performs the operation, using various surgical techniques and instruments to achieve the desired outcome. The surgical team also takes measures to prevent infection, control bleeding, and manage pain during and after the surgery.

Overall, the intraoperative period is a critical phase of surgical treatment that requires close collaboration and communication among members of the healthcare team to ensure the best possible outcomes for the patient.

The term "upper extremity" is used in the medical field to refer to the portion of the upper limb that extends from the shoulder to the hand. This includes the arm, elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand. The upper extremity is responsible for various functions such as reaching, grasping, and manipulating objects, making it an essential part of a person's daily activities.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

Bone plates are medical devices used in orthopedic surgery to stabilize and hold together fractured or broken bones during the healing process. They are typically made of surgical-grade stainless steel, titanium, or other biocompatible materials. The plate is shaped to fit the contour of the bone and is held in place with screws that are inserted through the plate and into the bone on either side of the fracture. This provides stability and alignment to the broken bones, allowing them to heal properly. Bone plates can be used to treat a variety of fractures, including those that are complex or unstable. After healing is complete, the bone plate may be left in place or removed, depending on the individual's needs and the surgeon's recommendation.

Surgical hemostasis refers to the methods and techniques used during surgical procedures to stop bleeding or prevent hemorrhage. This can be achieved through various means, including the use of surgical instruments such as clamps, ligatures, or staples to physically compress blood vessels and stop the flow of blood. Electrosurgical tools like cautery may also be used to coagulate and seal off bleeding vessels using heat. Additionally, topical hemostatic agents can be applied to promote clotting and control bleeding in wounded tissues. Effective surgical hemostasis is crucial for ensuring a successful surgical outcome and minimizing the risk of complications such as excessive blood loss, infection, or delayed healing.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

I apologize for any confusion, but "baseball" is not a medical term. It is a sport that involves two teams of nine players each trying to score runs by hitting a ball with a bat and running around four bases on a field. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

Diskectomy is a surgical procedure in which all or part of an intervertebral disc (the cushion between two vertebrae) is removed. This procedure is typically performed to alleviate pressure on nerve roots or the spinal cord caused by a herniated or degenerative disc. In a diskectomy, the surgeon accesses the damaged disc through an incision in the back or neck and removes the portion of the disc that is causing the compression. This can help to relieve pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected limb. Diskectomy may be performed as an open surgery or using minimally invasive techniques, depending on the individual case.

Mechanical stress, in the context of physiology and medicine, refers to any type of force that is applied to body tissues or organs, which can cause deformation or displacement of those structures. Mechanical stress can be either external, such as forces exerted on the body during physical activity or trauma, or internal, such as the pressure changes that occur within blood vessels or other hollow organs.

Mechanical stress can have a variety of effects on the body, depending on the type, duration, and magnitude of the force applied. For example, prolonged exposure to mechanical stress can lead to tissue damage, inflammation, and chronic pain. Additionally, abnormal or excessive mechanical stress can contribute to the development of various musculoskeletal disorders, such as tendinitis, osteoarthritis, and herniated discs.

In order to mitigate the negative effects of mechanical stress, the body has a number of adaptive responses that help to distribute forces more evenly across tissues and maintain structural integrity. These responses include changes in muscle tone, joint positioning, and connective tissue stiffness, as well as the remodeling of bone and other tissues over time. However, when these adaptive mechanisms are overwhelmed or impaired, mechanical stress can become a significant factor in the development of various pathological conditions.

A hip fracture is a medical condition referring to a break in the upper part of the femur (thigh) bone, which forms the hip joint. The majority of hip fractures occur due to falls or direct trauma to the area. They are more common in older adults, particularly those with osteoporosis, a condition that weakens bones and makes them more prone to breaking. Hip fractures can significantly impact mobility and quality of life, often requiring surgical intervention and rehabilitation.

The glenoid cavity, also known as the glenoid fossa, is a medical term that refers to the shallow, pear-shaped depression or socket located on the lateral or outer side of the scapula (shoulder blade) bone. It serves as the articulation surface for the head of the humerus bone, forming the glenohumeral joint, which is the primary shoulder joint. This cavity is lined with hyaline cartilage to provide a smooth surface for articulation and help facilitate movements of the shoulder joint, including flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, internal rotation, and external rotation.

Isometric contraction is a type of muscle activation where the muscle contracts without any change in the length of the muscle or movement at the joint. This occurs when the force generated by the muscle matches the external force opposing it, resulting in a balanced state with no visible movement. It is commonly experienced during activities such as holding a heavy object in static position or trying to push against an immovable object. Isometric contractions are important in maintaining posture and providing stability to joints.

Malunited fractures refer to a type of fracture where the bones do not heal in their proper alignment or position. This can occur due to various reasons such as inadequate reduction of the fracture fragments during initial treatment, improper casting or immobilization, or failure of the patient to follow proper immobilization instructions. Malunited fractures can result in deformity, limited range of motion, and decreased functionality of the affected limb. Additional treatments such as surgery may be required to correct the malunion and restore normal function.

A tendon is the strong, flexible band of tissue that connects muscle to bone. It helps transfer the force produced by the muscle to allow various movements of our body parts. Tendons are made up of collagen fibers arranged in parallel bundles and have a poor blood supply, making them prone to injuries and slow to heal. Examples include the Achilles tendon, which connects the calf muscle to the heel bone, and the patellar tendon, which connects the kneecap to the shinbone.

Foreign-body migration is a medical condition that occurs when a foreign object, such as a surgical implant, tissue graft, or trauma-induced fragment, moves from its original position within the body to a different location. This displacement can cause various complications and symptoms depending on the type of foreign body, the location it migrated to, and the individual's specific physiological response.

Foreign-body migration may result from insufficient fixation or anchoring of the object during implantation, inadequate wound healing, infection, or an inflammatory reaction. Symptoms can include pain, swelling, redness, or infection at the new location, as well as potential damage to surrounding tissues and organs. Diagnosis typically involves imaging techniques like X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs to locate the foreign body, followed by a surgical procedure to remove it and address any resulting complications.

A rupture, in medical terms, refers to the breaking or tearing of an organ, tissue, or structure in the body. This can occur due to various reasons such as trauma, injury, increased pressure, or degeneration. A ruptured organ or structure can lead to serious complications, including internal bleeding, infection, and even death, if not treated promptly and appropriately. Examples of ruptures include a ruptured appendix, ruptured eardrum, or a ruptured disc in the spine.

Conduction anesthesia is a type of local anesthesia in which an anesthetic agent is administered near a peripheral nerve to block the transmission of painful stimuli. It is called "conduction" anesthesia because it works by blocking the conduction of nerve impulses along the nerve fibers.

There are several types of conduction anesthesia, including:

1. Infiltration anesthesia: In this technique, the anesthetic agent is injected directly into the tissue where the surgical procedure will be performed. This type of anesthesia can be used for minor surgeries such as wound closure or repair of simple lacerations.
2. Nerve block anesthesia: In this technique, the anesthetic agent is injected near a specific nerve or bundle of nerves to block sensation in a larger area of the body. For example, a brachial plexus block can be used to numb the arm and hand for procedures such as shoulder surgery or fracture reduction.
3. Field block anesthesia: In this technique, the anesthetic agent is injected around the periphery of the surgical site to create a "field" of anesthesia that blocks sensation in the area. This type of anesthesia is often used for procedures such as hernia repair or circumcision.

Conduction anesthesia has several advantages over general anesthesia, including reduced risk of complications, faster recovery time, and lower cost. However, it may not be appropriate for all types of surgical procedures or patients, and its effectiveness can vary depending on the skill of the practitioner and the individual patient's response to the anesthetic agent.

In medical terms, the knee is referred to as the largest and one of the most complex joints in the human body. It is a hinge joint that connects the thigh bone (femur) to the shin bones (tibia and fibula), enabling movements like flexion, extension, and a small amount of rotation. The knee also contains several other components such as menisci, ligaments, tendons, and bursae, which provide stability, cushioning, and protection during movement.

Patient selection, in the context of medical treatment or clinical research, refers to the process of identifying and choosing appropriate individuals who are most likely to benefit from a particular medical intervention or who meet specific criteria to participate in a study. This decision is based on various factors such as the patient's diagnosis, stage of disease, overall health status, potential risks, and expected benefits. The goal of patient selection is to ensure that the selected individuals will receive the most effective and safe care possible while also contributing to meaningful research outcomes.

A shoulder fracture refers to a break in one or more bones that make up the shoulder joint, which includes the humerus (upper arm bone), scapula (shoulder blade), and clavicle (collarbone). These types of fractures can occur due to various reasons such as high-energy trauma, falls, or degenerative conditions. Symptoms may include severe pain, swelling, bruising, limited range of motion, deformity, and in some cases, numbness or tingling sensations. Treatment options depend on the severity and location of the fracture but can include immobilization with a sling or brace, surgery, or physical therapy.

"High-volume hospitals" is a term used to describe healthcare facilities that treat a large number of patients or perform a high volume of specific procedures on an annual basis. While there isn't a universally accepted threshold for what constitutes a "high volume," some studies and organizations define it as the top 10-25% of hospitals based on the number of procedures performed.

Research has shown that high-volume hospitals often have better patient outcomes, such as lower mortality rates and fewer complications, for certain complex surgical procedures compared to low-volume hospitals. This is attributed to factors like greater expertise, specialized resources, and standardized processes that come with handling a higher volume of similar cases. Examples of high-volume procedures include cardiac bypass surgery, hip replacement, and major cancer surgeries.

However, it's important to note that being a high-volume hospital doesn't automatically guarantee better outcomes for all types of treatments or conditions. The relationship between volume and quality varies depending on the specific procedure or medical specialty.

Quality of Life (QOL) is a broad, multidimensional concept that usually includes an individual's physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, personal beliefs, and their relationship to salient features of their environment. It reflects the impact of disease and treatment on a patient's overall well-being and ability to function in daily life.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines QOL as "an individual's perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." It is a subjective concept, meaning it can vary greatly from person to person.

In healthcare, QOL is often used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and other research studies to assess the impact of interventions or treatments on overall patient well-being.

Treatment failure is a term used in medicine to describe the situation when a prescribed treatment or intervention is not achieving the desired therapeutic goals or objectives. This may occur due to various reasons, such as:

1. Development of drug resistance by the pathogen or disease being treated.
2. Inadequate dosage or frequency of the medication.
3. Poor adherence or compliance to the treatment regimen by the patient.
4. The presence of underlying conditions or comorbidities that may affect the efficacy of the treatment.
5. The severity or progression of the disease despite appropriate treatment.

When treatment failure occurs, healthcare providers may need to reassess the patient's condition and modify the treatment plan accordingly, which may include adjusting the dosage, changing the medication, adding new medications, or considering alternative treatments.

Thromboembolism is a medical condition that refers to the obstruction of a blood vessel by a thrombus (blood clot) that has formed elsewhere in the body and then been transported by the bloodstream to a narrower vessel, where it becomes lodged. This process can occur in various parts of the body, leading to different types of thromboembolisms:

1. Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT): A thrombus forms in the deep veins, usually in the legs or pelvis, and then breaks off and travels to the lungs, causing a pulmonary embolism.
2. Pulmonary Embolism (PE): A thrombus formed elsewhere, often in the deep veins of the legs, dislodges and travels to the lungs, blocking one or more pulmonary arteries. This can lead to shortness of breath, chest pain, and potentially life-threatening complications if not treated promptly.
3. Cerebral Embolism: A thrombus formed in another part of the body, such as the heart or carotid artery, dislodges and travels to the brain, causing a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA).
4. Arterial Thromboembolism: A thrombus forms in an artery and breaks off, traveling to another part of the body and blocking blood flow to an organ or tissue, leading to potential damage or loss of function. Examples include mesenteric ischemia (intestinal damage due to blocked blood flow) and retinal artery occlusion (vision loss due to blocked blood flow in the eye).

Prevention, early detection, and appropriate treatment are crucial for managing thromboembolism and reducing the risk of severe complications.

Shoulder pain is a condition characterized by discomfort or hurt in the shoulder joint, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or surrounding structures. The shoulder is one of the most mobile joints in the body, and this mobility makes it prone to injury and pain. Shoulder pain can result from various causes, including overuse, trauma, degenerative conditions, or referred pain from other areas of the body.

The shoulder joint is a ball-and-socket joint made up of three bones: the humerus (upper arm bone), scapula (shoulder blade), and clavicle (collarbone). The rotator cuff, a group of four muscles that surround and stabilize the shoulder joint, can also be a source of pain if it becomes inflamed or torn.

Shoulder pain can range from mild to severe, and it may be accompanied by stiffness, swelling, bruising, weakness, numbness, tingling, or reduced mobility in the affected arm. The pain may worsen with movement, lifting objects, or performing certain activities, such as reaching overhead or behind the back.

Medical evaluation is necessary to determine the underlying cause of shoulder pain and develop an appropriate treatment plan. Treatment options may include rest, physical therapy, medication, injections, or surgery, depending on the severity and nature of the condition.

Antifibrinolytic agents are a class of medications that inhibit the breakdown of blood clots. They work by blocking the action of enzymes called plasminogen activators, which convert plasminogen to plasmin, the main enzyme responsible for breaking down fibrin, a protein that forms the framework of a blood clot.

By preventing the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, antifibrinolytic agents help to stabilize existing blood clots and prevent their premature dissolution. These medications are often used in clinical settings where excessive bleeding is a concern, such as during or after surgery, childbirth, or trauma.

Examples of antifibrinolytic agents include tranexamic acid, aminocaproic acid, and epsilon-aminocaproic acid. While these medications can be effective in reducing bleeding, they also carry the risk of thromboembolic events, such as deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, due to their pro-coagulant effects. Therefore, they should be used with caution and only under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Arthrography is a medical imaging technique used to diagnose problems within joints. It involves the injection of a contrast agent, such as a radiopaque dye or air, into the joint space, followed by the use of fluoroscopy or X-ray imaging to visualize the internal structures of the joint. This can help to identify injuries, tears, or other abnormalities in the cartilage, ligaments, tendons, or bones within the joint.

The procedure is typically performed on an outpatient basis and may be used to diagnose conditions such as shoulder dislocations, rotator cuff tears, meniscal tears in the knee, or hip labral injuries. It is a relatively safe and minimally invasive procedure, although there may be some temporary discomfort or swelling at the injection site. Patients are usually advised to avoid strenuous activity for a day or two following the procedure to allow the contrast agent to fully dissipate from the joint.

The pelvic bones, also known as the hip bones, are a set of three irregularly shaped bones that connect to form the pelvic girdle in the lower part of the human body. They play a crucial role in supporting the spine and protecting the abdominal and pelvic organs.

The pelvic bones consist of three bones:

1. The ilium: This is the largest and uppermost bone, forming the majority of the hip bone and the broad, flaring part of the pelvis known as the wing of the ilium or the iliac crest, which can be felt on the side of the body.
2. The ischium: This is the lower and back portion of the pelvic bone that forms part of the sitting surface or the "sit bones."
3. The pubis: This is the front part of the pelvic bone, which connects to the other side at the pubic symphysis in the midline of the body.

The pelvic bones are joined together at the acetabulum, a cup-shaped socket that forms the hip joint and articulates with the head of the femur (thigh bone). The pelvic bones also have several openings for the passage of blood vessels, nerves, and reproductive and excretory organs.

The shape and size of the pelvic bones differ between males and females due to their different roles in childbirth and locomotion. Females typically have a wider and shallower pelvis than males to accommodate childbirth, while males usually have a narrower and deeper pelvis that is better suited for weight-bearing and movement.

Gait is a medical term used to describe the pattern of movement of the limbs during walking or running. It includes the manner or style of walking, including factors such as rhythm, speed, and step length. A person's gait can provide important clues about their physical health and neurological function, and abnormalities in gait may indicate the presence of underlying medical conditions, such as neuromuscular disorders, orthopedic problems, or injuries.

A typical human gait cycle involves two main phases: the stance phase, during which the foot is in contact with the ground, and the swing phase, during which the foot is lifted and moved forward in preparation for the next step. The gait cycle can be further broken down into several sub-phases, including heel strike, foot flat, midstance, heel off, and toe off.

Gait analysis is a specialized field of study that involves observing and measuring a person's gait pattern using various techniques, such as video recordings, force plates, and motion capture systems. This information can be used to diagnose and treat gait abnormalities, improve mobility and function, and prevent injuries.

Therapeutic irrigation, also known as lavage, is a medical procedure that involves the introduction of fluids or other agents into a body cavity or natural passageway for therapeutic purposes. This technique is used to cleanse, flush out, or introduce medication into various parts of the body, such as the bladder, lungs, stomach, or colon.

The fluid used in therapeutic irrigation can be sterile saline solution, distilled water, or a medicated solution, depending on the specific purpose of the procedure. The flow and pressure of the fluid are carefully controlled to ensure that it reaches the desired area without causing damage to surrounding tissues.

Therapeutic irrigation is used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including infections, inflammation, obstructions, and toxic exposures. It can also be used as a diagnostic tool to help identify abnormalities or lesions within body cavities.

Overall, therapeutic irrigation is a valuable technique in modern medicine that allows healthcare providers to deliver targeted treatment directly to specific areas of the body, improving patient outcomes and quality of life.

Muscle contraction is the physiological process in which muscle fibers shorten and generate force, leading to movement or stability of a body part. This process involves the sliding filament theory where thick and thin filaments within the sarcomeres (the functional units of muscles) slide past each other, facilitated by the interaction between myosin heads and actin filaments. The energy required for this action is provided by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Muscle contractions can be voluntary or involuntary, and they play a crucial role in various bodily functions such as locomotion, circulation, respiration, and posture maintenance.

Tendinopathy is a general term referring to the degeneration or dysrepair of a tendon, which can result in pain and impaired function. It was previously referred to as tendinitis or tendinosis, but tendinopathy is now preferred because it describes various pathological conditions within the tendon, rather than a specific diagnosis.

Tendinopathy often develops due to overuse, repetitive strain, or age-related wear and tear. The condition typically involves collagen breakdown in the tendon, along with an increase in disorganized tenocytes (tendon cells) and vascular changes. This process can lead to thickening of the tendon, loss of elasticity, and the formation of calcium deposits or nodules.

Commonly affected tendons include the Achilles tendon, patellar tendon, rotator cuff tendons in the shoulder, and the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon in the elbow (also known as tennis elbow). Treatment for tendinopathy often includes rest, physical therapy, exercise, pain management, and occasionally, surgical intervention.

The "femur neck" is the narrow, upper part of the femur (thigh bone) where it connects to the pelvis. It is the region through which the femoral head articulates with the acetabulum to form the hip joint. The femur neck is a common site for fractures, especially in older adults with osteoporosis.

Surgical casts are medical devices used to immobilize and protect injured body parts, typically fractured or broken bones, during the healing process. They are usually made of plaster or fiberglass materials that harden when wet and conform to the shape of the affected area once applied. The purpose of a surgical cast is to restrict movement and provide stability to the injured site, allowing for proper alignment and healing of the bones.

The casting process involves first aligning the broken bone fragments into their correct positions, often through manual manipulation or surgical intervention. Once aligned, the cast material is applied in layers, with each layer being allowed to dry before adding the next. This creates a rigid structure that encases and supports the injured area. The cast must be kept dry during the healing process to prevent it from becoming weakened or damaged.

Surgical casts come in various shapes and sizes depending on the location and severity of the injury. They may also include additional components such as padding, Velcro straps, or window openings to allow for regular monitoring of the skin and underlying tissue. In some cases, removable splints or functional braces may be used instead of traditional casts, providing similar support while allowing for limited movement and easier adjustments.

It is essential to follow proper care instructions when wearing a surgical cast, including elevating the injured limb, avoiding excessive weight-bearing, and monitoring for signs of complications such as swelling, numbness, or infection. Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider are necessary to ensure proper healing and adjust the cast if needed.

Vitallium is not a medical term per se, but rather a trademarked name for a specific alloy that is often used in the medical field, particularly in orthopedic and dental applications. The term "Vitallium" was first coined by the International Nickel Company in 1932 to describe their cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy.

Medical Vitallium is typically composed of approximately 60% cobalt, 25% chromium, and 7.5% molybdenum, with trace amounts of other elements like carbon, manganese, silicon, and iron. This specific combination of metals results in an alloy that has several desirable properties for medical applications:

1. High strength-to-weight ratio: Vitallium is exceptionally strong and durable, making it suitable for load-bearing implants such as artificial hip or knee joints.
2. Corrosion resistance: The alloy exhibits excellent corrosion resistance in the human body, which helps to ensure the longevity of medical devices made from it.
3. Biocompatibility: Vitallium has been shown to be biocompatible, meaning that it does not typically cause adverse reactions or rejection when implanted into the human body.
4. Wear resistance: The alloy's hardness and durability make it resistant to wear, which is particularly important in dental applications where components like crowns and bridges must withstand constant use.
5. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatibility: Vitallium is generally considered safe for use in MRI scans, as it does not interfere significantly with the magnetic field or radiofrequency pulses used during the procedure.

Overall, while "Vitallium" may not be a medical term itself, it represents an important alloy that has contributed significantly to advancements in orthopedic and dental medicine.

Patient positioning in a medical context refers to the arrangement and placement of a patient's body in a specific posture or alignment on a hospital bed, examination table, or other medical device during medical procedures, surgeries, or diagnostic imaging examinations. The purpose of patient positioning is to optimize the patient's comfort, ensure their safety, facilitate access to the surgical site or area being examined, enhance the effectiveness of medical interventions, and improve the quality of medical images in diagnostic tests.

Proper patient positioning can help prevent complications such as pressure ulcers, nerve injuries, and respiratory difficulties. It may involve adjusting the height and angle of the bed, using pillows, blankets, or straps to support various parts of the body, and communicating with the patient to ensure they are comfortable and aware of what to expect during the procedure.

In surgical settings, patient positioning is carefully planned and executed by a team of healthcare professionals, including surgeons, anesthesiologists, nurses, and surgical technicians, to optimize surgical outcomes and minimize risks. In diagnostic imaging examinations, such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs, patient positioning is critical for obtaining high-quality images that can aid in accurate diagnosis and treatment planning.

A tendon transfer is a surgical procedure where a healthy tendon is moved to rebalance or reinforce a muscle that has become weak or paralyzed due to injury, disease, or nerve damage. The transferred tendon attaches to the bone in a new position, allowing it to power a different movement or stabilize a joint. This procedure helps restore function and improve mobility in the affected area.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

A joint is the location at which two or more bones make contact. They are constructed to allow movement and provide support and stability to the body during motion. Joints can be classified in several ways, including structure, function, and the type of tissue that forms them. The three main types of joints based on structure are fibrous (or fixed), cartilaginous, and synovial (or diarthrosis). Fibrous joints do not have a cavity and have limited movement, while cartilaginous joints allow for some movement and are connected by cartilage. Synovial joints, the most common and most movable type, have a space between the articular surfaces containing synovial fluid, which reduces friction and wear. Examples of synovial joints include hinge, pivot, ball-and-socket, saddle, and condyloid joints.

Elective surgical procedures are operations that are scheduled in advance because they do not involve a medical emergency. These surgeries are chosen or "elective" based on the patient's and doctor's decision to improve the patient's quality of life or to treat a non-life-threatening condition. Examples include but are not limited to:

1. Aesthetic or cosmetic surgery such as breast augmentation, rhinoplasty, etc.
2. Orthopedic surgeries like knee or hip replacements
3. Cataract surgery
4. Some types of cancer surgeries where the tumor is not spreading or causing severe symptoms
5. Gastric bypass for weight loss

It's important to note that while these procedures are planned, they still require thorough preoperative evaluation and preparation, and carry risks and benefits that need to be carefully considered by both the patient and the healthcare provider.

Bone screws are medical devices used in orthopedic and trauma surgery to affix bone fracture fragments or to attach bones to other bones or to metal implants such as plates, rods, or artificial joints. They are typically made of stainless steel or titanium alloys and have a threaded shaft that allows for purchase in the bone when tightened. The head of the screw may have a hexagonal or star-shaped design to allow for precise tightening with a screwdriver. Bone screws come in various shapes, sizes, and designs, including fully threaded, partially threaded, cannulated (hollow), and headless types, depending on their intended use and location in the body.

A foreign-body reaction is an immune response that occurs when a non-native substance, or "foreign body," is introduced into the human body. This can include things like splinters, surgical implants, or even injected medications. The immune system recognizes these substances as foreign and mounts a response to try to eliminate them.

The initial response to a foreign body is often an acute inflammatory reaction, characterized by the release of chemical mediators that cause vasodilation, increased blood flow, and the migration of white blood cells to the site. This can result in symptoms such as redness, swelling, warmth, and pain.

If the foreign body is not eliminated, a chronic inflammatory response may develop, which can lead to the formation of granulation tissue, fibrosis, and encapsulation of the foreign body. In some cases, this reaction can cause significant tissue damage or impede proper healing.

It's worth noting that not all foreign bodies necessarily elicit a strong immune response. The nature and size of the foreign body, as well as its location in the body, can all influence the severity of the reaction.

Arm injuries refer to any damage or harm sustained by the structures of the upper limb, including the bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves, and blood vessels. These injuries can occur due to various reasons such as trauma, overuse, or degenerative conditions. Common arm injuries include fractures, dislocations, sprains, strains, tendonitis, and nerve damage. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, bruising, limited mobility, numbness, or weakness in the affected area. Treatment varies depending on the type and severity of the injury, and may include rest, ice, compression, elevation, physical therapy, medication, or surgery.

Brachial plexus neuropathies refer to a group of conditions that affect the brachial plexus, which is a network of nerves that originates from the spinal cord in the neck and travels down the arm. These nerves are responsible for providing motor and sensory function to the shoulder, arm, and hand.

Brachial plexus neuropathies can occur due to various reasons, including trauma, compression, inflammation, or tumors. The condition can cause symptoms such as pain, numbness, weakness, or paralysis in the affected arm and hand.

The specific medical definition of brachial plexus neuropathies is:

"A group of conditions that affect the brachial plexus, characterized by damage to the nerves that results in motor and/or sensory impairment of the upper limb. The condition can be congenital or acquired, with causes including trauma, compression, inflammation, or tumors."

Physical therapy modalities refer to the various forms of treatment that physical therapists use to help reduce pain, promote healing, and restore function to the body. These modalities can include:

1. Heat therapy: This includes the use of hot packs, paraffin baths, and infrared heat to increase blood flow, relax muscles, and relieve pain.
2. Cold therapy: Also known as cryotherapy, this involves the use of ice packs, cold compresses, or cooling gels to reduce inflammation, numb the area, and relieve pain.
3. Electrical stimulation: This uses electrical currents to stimulate nerves and muscles, which can help to reduce pain, promote healing, and improve muscle strength and function.
4. Ultrasound: This uses high-frequency sound waves to penetrate deep into tissues, increasing blood flow, reducing inflammation, and promoting healing.
5. Manual therapy: This includes techniques such as massage, joint mobilization, and stretching, which are used to improve range of motion, reduce pain, and promote relaxation.
6. Traction: This is a technique that uses gentle pulling on the spine or other joints to help relieve pressure and improve alignment.
7. Light therapy: Also known as phototherapy, this involves the use of low-level lasers or light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to promote healing and reduce pain and inflammation.
8. Therapeutic exercise: This includes a range of exercises that are designed to improve strength, flexibility, balance, and coordination, and help patients recover from injury or illness.

Physical therapy modalities are often used in combination with other treatments, such as manual therapy and therapeutic exercise, to provide a comprehensive approach to rehabilitation and pain management.

Local anesthetics are a type of medication that is used to block the sensation of pain in a specific area of the body. They work by temporarily numbing the nerves in that area, preventing them from transmitting pain signals to the brain. Local anesthetics can be administered through various routes, including topical application (such as creams or gels), injection (such as into the skin or tissues), or regional nerve blocks (such as epidural or spinal anesthesia).

Some common examples of local anesthetics include lidocaine, prilocaine, bupivacaine, and ropivacaine. These medications can be used for a variety of medical procedures, ranging from minor surgeries (such as dental work or skin biopsies) to more major surgeries (such as joint replacements or hernia repairs).

Local anesthetics are generally considered safe when used appropriately, but they can have side effects and potential complications. These may include allergic reactions, toxicity (if too much is administered), and nerve damage (if the medication is injected into a nerve). It's important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully when using local anesthetics, and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Developmental bone diseases are a group of medical conditions that affect the growth and development of bones. These diseases are present at birth or develop during childhood and adolescence, when bones are growing rapidly. They can result from genetic mutations, hormonal imbalances, or environmental factors such as poor nutrition.

Some examples of developmental bone diseases include:

1. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI): Also known as brittle bone disease, OI is a genetic disorder that affects the body's production of collagen, a protein necessary for healthy bones. People with OI have fragile bones that break easily and may also experience other symptoms such as blue sclerae (whites of the eyes), hearing loss, and joint laxity.
2. Achondroplasia: This is the most common form of dwarfism, caused by a genetic mutation that affects bone growth. People with achondroplasia have short limbs and a large head relative to their body size.
3. Rickets: A condition caused by vitamin D deficiency or an inability to absorb or use vitamin D properly. This leads to weak, soft bones that can bow or bend easily, particularly in children.
4. Fibrous dysplasia: A rare bone disorder where normal bone is replaced with fibrous tissue, leading to weakened bones and deformities.
5. Scoliosis: An abnormal curvature of the spine that can develop during childhood or adolescence. While not strictly a developmental bone disease, scoliosis can be caused by various underlying conditions such as cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, or spina bifida.

Treatment for developmental bone diseases varies depending on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment may include medication, physical therapy, bracing, or surgery to correct deformities and improve function. Regular follow-up with a healthcare provider is essential to monitor growth, manage symptoms, and prevent complications.

A pulmonary embolism (PE) is a medical condition that occurs when a blood clot, often formed in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis), breaks off and travels to the lungs, blocking one or more pulmonary arteries. This blockage can lead to various symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest pain, rapid heart rate, and coughing up blood. In severe cases, it can cause life-threatening complications like low oxygen levels, hypotension, and even death if not promptly diagnosed and treated with anticoagulant medications or thrombolytic therapy to dissolve the clot.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

Muscle fatigue is a condition characterized by a reduction in the ability of a muscle to generate force or power, typically after prolonged or strenuous exercise. It is often accompanied by sensations of tiredness, weakness, and discomfort in the affected muscle(s). The underlying mechanisms of muscle fatigue are complex and involve both peripheral factors (such as changes in muscle metabolism, ion handling, and neuromuscular transmission) and central factors (such as changes in the nervous system's ability to activate muscles). Muscle fatigue can also occur as a result of various medical conditions or medications that impair muscle function.

Spinal anesthesia is a type of regional anesthesia that involves injecting local anesthetic medication into the cerebrospinal fluid in the subarachnoid space, which is the space surrounding the spinal cord. This procedure is typically performed by introducing a needle into the lower back, between the vertebrae, to reach the subarachnoid space.

Once the local anesthetic is introduced into this space, it spreads to block nerve impulses from the corresponding levels of the spine, resulting in numbness and loss of sensation in specific areas of the body below the injection site. The extent and level of anesthesia depend on the amount and type of medication used, as well as the patient's individual response.

Spinal anesthesia is often used for surgeries involving the lower abdomen, pelvis, or lower extremities, such as cesarean sections, hernia repairs, hip replacements, and knee arthroscopies. It can also be utilized for procedures like epidural steroid injections to manage chronic pain conditions affecting the spine and lower limbs.

While spinal anesthesia provides effective pain relief during and after surgery, it may cause side effects such as low blood pressure, headache, or difficulty urinating. These potential complications should be discussed with the healthcare provider before deciding on this type of anesthesia.

Aortic valve stenosis is a cardiac condition characterized by the narrowing or stiffening of the aortic valve, which separates the left ventricle (the heart's main pumping chamber) from the aorta (the large artery that carries oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body). This narrowing or stiffening prevents the aortic valve from opening fully, resulting in reduced blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta and the rest of the body.

The narrowing can be caused by several factors, including congenital heart defects, calcification (hardening) of the aortic valve due to aging, or scarring of the valve due to rheumatic fever or other inflammatory conditions. As a result, the left ventricle must work harder to pump blood through the narrowed valve, which can lead to thickening and enlargement of the left ventricular muscle (left ventricular hypertrophy).

Symptoms of aortic valve stenosis may include chest pain or tightness, shortness of breath, fatigue, dizziness or fainting, and heart palpitations. Severe aortic valve stenosis can lead to serious complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias, or even sudden cardiac death. Treatment options may include medications to manage symptoms, lifestyle changes, or surgical intervention such as aortic valve replacement.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Ligaments are bands of dense, fibrous connective tissue that surround joints and provide support, stability, and limits the range of motion. They are made up primarily of collagen fibers arranged in a parallel pattern to withstand tension and stress. Ligaments attach bone to bone, and their function is to prevent excessive movement that could cause injury or dislocation.

There are two main types of ligaments: extracapsular and intracapsular. Extracapsular ligaments are located outside the joint capsule and provide stability to the joint by limiting its range of motion. Intracapsular ligaments, on the other hand, are found inside the joint capsule and help maintain the alignment of the joint surfaces.

Examples of common ligaments in the body include the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) in the knee, the medial collateral ligament (MCL) and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) in the elbow, and the coracoacromial ligament in the shoulder.

Injuries to ligaments can occur due to sudden trauma or overuse, leading to sprains, strains, or tears. These injuries can cause pain, swelling, bruising, and limited mobility, and may require medical treatment such as immobilization, physical therapy, or surgery.

Nonparametric statistics is a branch of statistics that does not rely on assumptions about the distribution of variables in the population from which the sample is drawn. In contrast to parametric methods, nonparametric techniques make fewer assumptions about the data and are therefore more flexible in their application. Nonparametric tests are often used when the data do not meet the assumptions required for parametric tests, such as normality or equal variances.

Nonparametric statistical methods include tests such as the Wilcoxon rank-sum test (also known as the Mann-Whitney U test) for comparing two independent groups, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for comparing two related groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparing more than two independent groups. These tests use the ranks of the data rather than the actual values to make comparisons, which allows them to be used with ordinal or continuous data that do not meet the assumptions of parametric tests.

Overall, nonparametric statistics provide a useful set of tools for analyzing data in situations where the assumptions of parametric methods are not met, and can help researchers draw valid conclusions from their data even when the data are not normally distributed or have other characteristics that violate the assumptions of parametric tests.

Posture is the position or alignment of body parts supported by the muscles, especially the spine and head in relation to the vertebral column. It can be described as static (related to a stationary position) or dynamic (related to movement). Good posture involves training your body to stand, walk, sit, and lie in positions where the least strain is placed on supporting muscles and ligaments during movement or weight-bearing activities. Poor posture can lead to various health issues such as back pain, neck pain, headaches, and respiratory problems.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTDs) are a group of conditions that result from repeated exposure to biomechanical stressors, often related to work activities. These disorders can affect the muscles, tendons, nerves, and joints, leading to symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, weakness, and reduced range of motion.

CTDs are also known as repetitive strain injuries (RSIs) or overuse injuries. They occur when there is a mismatch between the demands placed on the body and its ability to recover from those demands. Over time, this imbalance can lead to tissue damage and inflammation, resulting in chronic pain and functional limitations.

Examples of CTDs include carpal tunnel syndrome, tendonitis, epicondylitis (tennis elbow), rotator cuff injuries, and trigger finger. Prevention strategies for CTDs include proper ergonomics, workstation design, body mechanics, taking regular breaks to stretch and rest, and performing exercises to strengthen and condition the affected muscles and joints.

Analgesia is defined as the absence or relief of pain in a patient, achieved through various medical means. It is derived from the Greek word "an-" meaning without and "algein" meaning to feel pain. Analgesics are medications that are used to reduce pain without causing loss of consciousness, and they work by blocking the transmission of pain signals to the brain.

Examples of analgesics include over-the-counter medications such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and naproxen (Aleve). Prescription opioid painkillers, such as oxycodone (OxyContin, Percocet) and hydrocodone (Vicodin), are also used for pain relief but carry a higher risk of addiction and abuse.

Analgesia can also be achieved through non-pharmacological means, such as through nerve blocks, spinal cord stimulation, acupuncture, and other complementary therapies. The choice of analgesic therapy depends on the type and severity of pain, as well as the patient's medical history and individual needs.

Tendon injuries, also known as tendinopathies, refer to the damage or injury of tendons, which are strong bands of tissue that connect muscles to bones. Tendon injuries typically occur due to overuse or repetitive motion, causing micro-tears in the tendon fibers. The most common types of tendon injuries include tendinitis, which is inflammation of the tendon, and tendinosis, which is degeneration of the tendon's collagen.

Tendon injuries can cause pain, swelling, stiffness, and limited mobility in the affected area. The severity of the injury can vary from mild discomfort to severe pain that makes it difficult to move the affected joint. Treatment for tendon injuries may include rest, ice, compression, elevation (RICE) therapy, physical therapy, medication, or in some cases, surgery. Preventing tendon injuries involves warming up properly before exercise, using proper form and technique during physical activity, gradually increasing the intensity and duration of workouts, and taking regular breaks to rest and recover.

The Kaplan-Meier estimate is a statistical method used to calculate the survival probability over time in a population. It is commonly used in medical research to analyze time-to-event data, such as the time until a patient experiences a specific event like disease progression or death. The Kaplan-Meier estimate takes into account censored data, which occurs when some individuals are lost to follow-up before experiencing the event of interest.

The method involves constructing a survival curve that shows the proportion of subjects still surviving at different time points. At each time point, the survival probability is calculated as the product of the conditional probabilities of surviving from one time point to the next. The Kaplan-Meier estimate provides an unbiased and consistent estimator of the survival function, even when censoring is present.

In summary, the Kaplan-Meier estimate is a crucial tool in medical research for analyzing time-to-event data and estimating survival probabilities over time while accounting for censored observations.

In medical terms, the thumb is referred to as "pollex" and it's the first digit of the hand, located laterally to the index finger. It's opposable, meaning it can move opposite to the other fingers, allowing for powerful gripping and precise manipulation. The thumb contains two phalanges bones - the distal and proximal - and is connected to the hand by the carpometacarpal joint, which provides a wide range of motion.

The Radial nerve is a major peripheral nerve in the human body that originates from the brachial plexus, which is a network of nerves formed by the union of the ventral rami (anterior divisions) of spinal nerves C5-T1. The radial nerve provides motor function to extensor muscles of the upper limb and sensation to parts of the skin on the back of the arm, forearm, and hand.

More specifically, the radial nerve supplies motor innervation to:

* Extensor muscles of the shoulder (e.g., teres minor, infraspinatus)
* Rotator cuff muscles
* Elbow joint stabilizers (e.g., lateral head of the triceps)
* Extensors of the wrist, fingers, and thumb

The radial nerve also provides sensory innervation to:

* Posterior aspect of the upper arm (from the lower third of the humerus to the elbow)
* Lateral forearm (from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus to the wrist)
* Dorsum of the hand (skin over the radial side of the dorsum, including the first web space)

Damage or injury to the radial nerve may result in various symptoms, such as weakness or paralysis of the extensor muscles, numbness or tingling sensations in the affected areas, and difficulty with extension movements of the wrist, fingers, and thumb. Common causes of radial nerve injuries include fractures of the humerus bone, compression during sleep or prolonged pressure on the nerve (e.g., from crutches), and entrapment syndromes like radial tunnel syndrome.

An amide is a functional group or a compound that contains a carbonyl group (a double-bonded carbon atom) and a nitrogen atom. The nitrogen atom is connected to the carbonyl carbon atom by a single bond, and it also has a lone pair of electrons. Amides are commonly found in proteins and peptides, where they form amide bonds (also known as peptide bonds) between individual amino acids.

The general structure of an amide is R-CO-NHR', where R and R' can be alkyl or aryl groups. Amides can be classified into several types based on the nature of R and R' substituents:

* Primary amides: R-CO-NH2
* Secondary amides: R-CO-NHR'
* Tertiary amides: R-CO-NR''R'''

Amides have several important chemical properties. They are generally stable and resistant to hydrolysis under neutral or basic conditions, but they can be hydrolyzed under acidic conditions or with strong bases. Amides also exhibit a characteristic infrared absorption band around 1650 cm-1 due to the carbonyl stretching vibration.

In addition to their prevalence in proteins and peptides, amides are also found in many natural and synthetic compounds, including pharmaceuticals, dyes, and polymers. They have a wide range of applications in chemistry, biology, and materials science.

Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is a type of synthetic resin that is widely used in the medical field due to its biocompatibility and versatility. It is a transparent, rigid, and lightweight material that can be easily molded into different shapes and forms. Here are some of the medical definitions of PMMA:

1. A biocompatible acrylic resin used in various medical applications such as bone cement, intraocular lenses, dental restorations, and drug delivery systems.
2. A type of synthetic material that is used as a bone cement to fix prosthetic joint replacements and vertebroplasty for the treatment of spinal fractures.
3. A transparent and shatter-resistant material used in the manufacture of medical devices such as intravenous (IV) fluid bags, dialyzer housings, and oxygenators.
4. A drug delivery system that can be used to administer drugs locally or systemically, such as intraocular sustained-release drug implants for the treatment of chronic eye diseases.
5. A component of dental restorations such as fillings, crowns, and bridges due to its excellent mechanical properties and esthetic qualities.

Overall, PMMA is a versatile and valuable material in the medical field, with numerous applications that take advantage of its unique properties.

The carpometacarpal (CMC) joints are the articulations between the carpal bones of the wrist and the metacarpal bones of the hand. There are five CMC joints in total, with one located at the base of each finger and thumb. The CMC joint of the thumb, also known as the first CMC joint or trapeziometacarpal joint, is the most commonly affected by osteoarthritis. These joints play a crucial role in hand function and movement, allowing for various grips and grasping motions.

Hand strength refers to the measure of force or power that an individual can generate using the muscles of the hand and forearm. It is often assessed through various tests, such as grip strength dynamometry, which measures the maximum force exerted by the hand when squeezing a device called a handgrip dynanometer. Hand strength is important for performing daily activities, maintaining independence, and can be indicative of overall health and well-being. Reduced hand strength may be associated with conditions such as neuromuscular disorders, arthritis, or injuries.

Muscle weakness is a condition in which muscles cannot develop the expected level of physical force or power. This results in reduced muscle function and can be caused by various factors, including nerve damage, muscle diseases, or hormonal imbalances. Muscle weakness may manifest as difficulty lifting objects, maintaining posture, or performing daily activities. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment of muscle weakness.

Medical science often defines and describes "walking" as a form of locomotion or mobility where an individual repeatedly lifts and sets down each foot to move forward, usually bearing weight on both legs. It is a complex motor activity that requires the integration and coordination of various systems in the human body, including the musculoskeletal, neurological, and cardiovascular systems.

Walking involves several components such as balance, coordination, strength, and endurance. The ability to walk independently is often used as a measure of functional mobility and overall health status. However, it's important to note that the specific definition of walking may vary depending on the context and the medical or scientific field in question.

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) is a medical condition that includes both deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). DVT is a blood clot that forms in the deep veins, usually in the legs, while PE occurs when a clot breaks off and travels to the lungs, blocking a pulmonary artery or one of its branches. This condition can be life-threatening if not diagnosed and treated promptly.

The medical definition of Venous Thromboembolism is:

"The formation of a blood clot (thrombus) in a deep vein, most commonly in the legs, which can then dislodge and travel to the lungs, causing a potentially life-threatening blockage of the pulmonary artery or one of its branches (pulmonary embolism). VTE is a complex disorder resulting from an interplay of genetic and environmental factors that affect the balance between thrombosis and fibrinolysis."

Some common risk factors for VTE include immobility, surgery, trauma, cancer, hormonal therapy, pregnancy, advanced age, and inherited or acquired thrombophilia. Symptoms of DVT may include swelling, pain, warmth, and redness in the affected limb, while symptoms of PE can range from shortness of breath and chest pain to coughing up blood or even sudden death. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical assessment, imaging studies (such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI), and laboratory tests (such as D-dimer). Treatment usually includes anticoagulation therapy to prevent further clot formation and reduce the risk of recurrence.

Crutches are medical devices that provide support and assistance for mobility, typically used by individuals who have difficulty walking or standing due to injury, illness, or disability. They help to reduce weight-bearing stress on the affected limb, improve balance, and increase stability during ambulation. Crutches can be either manually operated or designed with special features such as springs or shock absorbers to enhance comfort and functionality. Proper fit, adjustment, and usage of crutches are crucial for ensuring safety, preventing further injury, and promoting rehabilitation.

A finger joint, also known as an articulation, is the point where two bones in a finger connect and allow for movement. The majority of finger joints are classified as hinge joints, permitting flexion and extension movements. These joints consist of several components:

1. Articular cartilage: Smooth tissue that covers the ends of the bones, enabling smooth movement and protecting the bones from friction.
2. Joint capsule: A fibrous sac enclosing the joint, providing stability and producing synovial fluid for lubrication.
3. Synovial membrane: Lines the inner surface of the joint capsule and produces synovial fluid to lubricate the joint.
4. Volar plate (palmar ligament): A strong band of tissue located on the palm side of the joint, preventing excessive extension and maintaining alignment.
5. Collateral ligaments: Two bands of tissue located on each side of the joint, providing lateral stability and limiting radial and ulnar deviation.
6. Flexor tendons: Tendons that attach to the bones on the palmar side of the finger joints, facilitating flexion movements.
7. Extensor tendons: Tendons that attach to the bones on the dorsal side of the finger joints, enabling extension movements.

Finger joints are essential for hand function and enable activities such as grasping, holding, writing, and manipulating objects.

Proprioception is the unconscious perception of movement and spatial orientation arising from stimuli within the body itself. It is sometimes described as the "sixth sense" and it's all about knowing where your body parts are, how they are moving, and the effort being used to move them. This information is crucial for motor control, balance, and coordination.

The proprioceptive system includes sensory receptors called proprioreceptors located in muscles, tendons, and joints that send messages to the brain through nerves regarding body position and movement. These messages are then integrated with information from other senses, such as vision and vestibular sense (related to balance), to create a complete understanding of the body's position and motion in space.

Deficits in proprioception can lead to problems with coordination, balance, and fine motor skills.

Radiostereometric Analysis (RSA) is a highly accurate and precise method used in medical research and clinical practice to evaluate the motion, migration, or displacement of surgically implanted orthopedic devices such as joint prostheses, screws, or plates. It involves taking simultaneous biplanar X-ray images of the implant from two different angles using a calibration device for size and distance measurements. The resulting stereo images are then digitized and processed to create a 3D model that allows for precise measurement of even small movements of the implant relative to surrounding bone structures. This technique is particularly useful in studying implant stability, wear, and micromotion, which can help optimize surgical techniques and implant designs to improve patient outcomes.

An operating room, also known as an operating theatre or surgery suite, is a specially equipped and staffed hospital department where surgical procedures are performed. It is a sterile environment with controlled temperature, humidity, and air quality to minimize the risk of infection during surgeries. The room is typically equipped with medical equipment such as an operating table, surgical lights, anesthesia machines, monitoring equipment, and various surgical instruments. Access to the operating room is usually restricted to trained medical personnel to maintain a sterile environment and ensure patient safety.

Medicare Part A is the hospital insurance component of Medicare, which is a federal health insurance program in the United States. Specifically, Part A helps cover the costs associated with inpatient care in hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, and some types of home health care. This can include things like semi-private rooms, meals, nursing services, and any other necessary hospital services and supplies.

Part A coverage also extends to hospice care for individuals who are terminally ill and have a life expectancy of six months or less. In this case, Part A helps cover the costs associated with hospice care, including pain management, symptom control, and emotional and spiritual support for both the patient and their family.

It's important to note that Medicare Part A is not completely free, as most people do not pay a monthly premium for this coverage. However, there are deductibles and coinsurance costs associated with using Part A services, which can vary depending on the specific service being provided.

The patellofemoral joint is the articulation between the patella (kneecap) and the femur (thigh bone). It is a synovial joint, which means it is surrounded by a joint capsule containing synovial fluid to lubricate the joint. This joint is responsible for providing stability to the knee extensor mechanism and allows for smooth movement of the patella during activities like walking, running, and jumping. Pain or dysfunction in this joint can result in various conditions such as patellofemoral pain syndrome, chondromalacia patella, or patellar dislocation.

A muscle strength dynamometer is a medical device used to measure the force or strength of a muscle or group of muscles. It typically consists of a handheld handle connected to a spring scale or digital force gauge, which measures the amount of force applied by the individual being tested. The person being tested pushes or pulls against the handle with as much force as possible, and the dynamometer provides an objective measurement of their muscle strength in units such as pounds or kilograms.

Muscle strength dynamometers are commonly used in clinical settings to assess muscle weakness or dysfunction, monitor changes in muscle strength over time, and evaluate the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions. They can be used to test various muscle groups, including the handgrip, quadriceps, hamstrings, biceps, triceps, and shoulder muscles.

When using a muscle strength dynamometer, it is important to follow standardized testing protocols to ensure accurate and reliable measurements. This may include positioning the individual in a specific way, providing standardized instructions, and averaging multiple trials to obtain an accurate measure of their muscle strength.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

I'm happy to help! However, I must clarify that "materials testing" is not a medical term per se. It is a term used in various fields, including engineering and materials science, to describe the process of subjecting materials to different tests to evaluate their properties and performance under various conditions.

In the context of medical devices or implants, materials testing may refer to the evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of materials used in their construction. These tests can include assessments of strength, durability, biocompatibility, and other factors that are critical to ensuring the safety and efficacy of medical devices.

Medical device manufacturers must comply with regulatory standards for materials testing to ensure that their products meet specific requirements for performance, safety, and quality. These standards may vary depending on the type of device, its intended use, and the country or region in which it will be marketed and sold.

Internal fixators are medical devices that are implanted into the body through surgery to stabilize and hold broken or fractured bones in the correct position while they heal. These devices can be made from various materials, such as metal (stainless steel or titanium) or bioabsorbable materials. Internal fixators can take many forms, including plates, screws, rods, nails, wires, or cages, depending on the type and location of the fracture.

The main goal of using internal fixators is to promote bone healing by maintaining accurate reduction and alignment of the fractured bones, allowing for early mobilization and rehabilitation. This can help reduce the risk of complications such as malunion, nonunion, or deformity. Internal fixators are typically removed once the bone has healed, although some bioabsorbable devices may not require a second surgery for removal.

It is important to note that while internal fixators provide stability and support for fractured bones, they do not replace the need for proper immobilization, protection, or rehabilitation during the healing process. Close follow-up with an orthopedic surgeon is essential to ensure appropriate healing and address any potential complications.

Comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional health conditions or diseases alongside a primary illness or condition. These co-occurring health issues can have an impact on the treatment plan, prognosis, and overall healthcare management of an individual. Comorbidities often interact with each other and the primary condition, leading to more complex clinical situations and increased healthcare needs. It is essential for healthcare professionals to consider and address comorbidities to provide comprehensive care and improve patient outcomes.

Anticoagulants are a class of medications that work to prevent the formation of blood clots in the body. They do this by inhibiting the coagulation cascade, which is a series of chemical reactions that lead to the formation of a clot. Anticoagulants can be given orally, intravenously, or subcutaneously, depending on the specific drug and the individual patient's needs.

There are several different types of anticoagulants, including:

1. Heparin: This is a naturally occurring anticoagulant that is often used in hospitalized patients who require immediate anticoagulation. It works by activating an enzyme called antithrombin III, which inhibits the formation of clots.
2. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH): LMWH is a form of heparin that has been broken down into smaller molecules. It has a longer half-life than standard heparin and can be given once or twice daily by subcutaneous injection.
3. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs): These are newer oral anticoagulants that work by directly inhibiting specific clotting factors in the coagulation cascade. Examples include apixaban, rivaroxaban, and dabigatran.
4. Vitamin K antagonists: These are older oral anticoagulants that work by inhibiting the action of vitamin K, which is necessary for the formation of clotting factors. Warfarin is an example of a vitamin K antagonist.

Anticoagulants are used to prevent and treat a variety of conditions, including deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), atrial fibrillation, and prosthetic heart valve thrombosis. It is important to note that anticoagulants can increase the risk of bleeding, so they must be used with caution and regular monitoring of blood clotting times may be required.

Femoral neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the femur, which is the long thigh bone in the human body. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign femoral neoplasms are slow-growing and rarely spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms are aggressive and can invade nearby tissues and organs, as well as metastasize (spread) to distant sites.

There are various types of femoral neoplasms, including osteochondromas, enchondromas, chondrosarcomas, osteosarcomas, and Ewing sarcomas, among others. The specific type of neoplasm is determined by the cell type from which it arises and its behavior.

Symptoms of femoral neoplasms may include pain, swelling, stiffness, or weakness in the thigh, as well as a palpable mass or limited mobility. Diagnosis typically involves imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI, as well as biopsy to determine the type and grade of the tumor. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches, depending on the type, size, location, and stage of the neoplasm.

Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is a method of pain management that allows patients to self-administer doses of analgesic medication through a controlled pump system. With PCA, the patient can press a button to deliver a predetermined dose of pain medication, usually an opioid, directly into their intravenous (IV) line.

The dosage and frequency of the medication are set by the healthcare provider based on the patient's individual needs and medical condition. The PCA pump is designed to prevent overinfusion by limiting the amount of medication that can be delivered within a specific time frame.

PCA provides several benefits, including improved pain control, increased patient satisfaction, and reduced sedation compared to traditional methods of opioid administration. It also allows patients to take an active role in managing their pain and provides them with a sense of control during their hospital stay. However, it is essential to monitor patients closely while using PCA to ensure safe and effective use.

Paralysis is a loss of muscle function in part or all of your body. It can be localized, affecting only one specific area, or generalized, impacting multiple areas or even the entire body. Paralysis often occurs when something goes wrong with the way messages pass between your brain and muscles. In most cases, paralysis is caused by damage to the nervous system, especially the spinal cord. Other causes include stroke, trauma, infections, and various neurological disorders.

It's important to note that paralysis doesn't always mean a total loss of movement or feeling. Sometimes, it may just cause weakness or numbness in the affected area. The severity and extent of paralysis depend on the underlying cause and the location of the damage in the nervous system.

The perioperative period is a term used to describe the time frame surrounding a surgical procedure, encompassing the preoperative (before surgery), intraoperative (during surgery), and postoperative (after surgery) phases. This period begins with the initial decision for surgery, continues through the surgical intervention itself, and extends until the patient has fully recovered from the effects of the surgery and anesthesia. The perioperative period involves a multidisciplinary approach to patient care, involving surgeons, anesthesiologists, nurses, and other healthcare professionals working together to optimize patient outcomes, minimize complications, and ensure a smooth transition back to normal daily activities.

A splint is a device used to support, protect, and immobilize injured body parts, such as bones, joints, or muscles. It can be made from various materials like plastic, metal, or fiberglass. Splints are often used to keep the injured area in a stable position, reducing pain, swelling, and further damage while the injury heals. They come in different shapes and sizes, tailored to fit specific body parts and injuries. A splint can be adjustable or custom-made, depending on the patient's needs. It is essential to follow healthcare professionals' instructions for using and caring for a splint to ensure proper healing and prevent complications.

Reconstructive surgical procedures are a type of surgery aimed at restoring the form and function of body parts that are defective or damaged due to various reasons such as congenital abnormalities, trauma, infection, tumors, or disease. These procedures can involve the transfer of tissue from one part of the body to another, manipulation of bones, muscles, and tendons, or use of prosthetic materials to reconstruct the affected area. The goal is to improve both the physical appearance and functionality of the body part, thereby enhancing the patient's quality of life. Examples include breast reconstruction after mastectomy, cleft lip and palate repair, and treatment of severe burns.

Equipment failure is a term used in the medical field to describe the malfunction or breakdown of medical equipment, devices, or systems that are essential for patient care. This can include simple devices like syringes and thermometers, as well as complex machines such as ventilators, infusion pumps, and imaging equipment.

Equipment failure can have serious consequences for patients, including delayed or inappropriate treatment, injury, or even death. It is therefore essential that medical equipment is properly maintained, tested, and repaired to ensure its safe and effective operation.

There are many potential causes of equipment failure, including:

* Wear and tear from frequent use
* Inadequate cleaning or disinfection
* Improper handling or storage
* Power supply issues
* Software glitches or bugs
* Mechanical failures or defects
* Human error or misuse

To prevent equipment failure, healthcare facilities should have established policies and procedures for the acquisition, maintenance, and disposal of medical equipment. Staff should be trained in the proper use and handling of equipment, and regular inspections and testing should be performed to identify and address any potential issues before they lead to failure.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, "movement" refers to the act or process of changing physical location or position. It involves the contraction and relaxation of muscles, which allows for the joints to move and the body to be in motion. Movement can also refer to the ability of a patient to move a specific body part or limb, which is assessed during physical examinations. Additionally, "movement" can describe the progression or spread of a disease within the body.

Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphyses (SCFE) is a pediatric orthopedic condition that affects the growth plate (epiphysis) at the top of the thigh bone (femur). In SCFE, the epiphysis slips or shifts off the end of the femur, leading to abnormal hip function and potentially causing pain, stiffness, and limping. This condition typically occurs during periods of rapid growth, particularly in early adolescence, and is more common in overweight children. If left untreated, SCFE can result in significant long-term complications such as osteoarthritis or avascular necrosis (death of bone tissue due to lack of blood supply). Early diagnosis and appropriate medical intervention are crucial for optimal outcomes.

Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) is a joint condition that occurs when a piece of cartilage or bone in the joint separates from its underlying bone due to a lack of blood supply. This condition most commonly affects the knee, but it can also occur in other joints such as the elbow, ankle, and wrist.

In OCD, the affected area of cartilage and bone may form a loose body that can move around within the joint, causing pain, swelling, and limited mobility. In some cases, the loose body may eventually heal on its own, but in other cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove or repair the damaged tissue.

OCD is more common in children and adolescents, particularly those who participate in sports that involve repetitive joint trauma. Treatment for OCD typically involves a combination of rest, physical therapy, and possibly surgery, depending on the severity of the condition.

Shoulder dislocation is a medical condition where the head of the humerus (upper arm bone) gets displaced from its normal position in the glenoid fossa of the scapula (shoulder blade). This can occur anteriorly, posteriorly, or inferiorly, with anterior dislocations being the most common. It is usually caused by trauma or forceful movement and can result in pain, swelling, bruising, and limited range of motion in the shoulder joint. Immediate medical attention is required to relocate the joint and prevent further damage.

Fat embolism is a medical condition that occurs when fat globules enter the bloodstream and block small blood vessels (arterioles and capillaries) in various tissues and organs. This can lead to inflammation, tissue damage, and potentially life-threatening complications.

Fat embolism typically occurs as a result of trauma, such as long bone fractures or orthopedic surgeries, where fat cells from the marrow of the broken bone enter the bloodstream. It can also occur in other conditions that cause fat to be released into the circulation, such as pancreatitis, decompression sickness, and certain medical procedures like liposuction.

Symptoms of fat embolism may include respiratory distress, fever, confusion, petechial rash (small purple or red spots on the skin), and a decrease in oxygen levels. In severe cases, it can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and even death. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, and medications to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

A medical definition of the wrist is the complex joint that connects the forearm to the hand, composed of eight carpal bones arranged in two rows. The wrist allows for movement and flexibility in the hand, enabling us to perform various activities such as grasping, writing, and typing. It also provides stability and support for the hand during these movements. Additionally, numerous ligaments, tendons, and nerves pass through or near the wrist, making it susceptible to injuries and conditions like carpal tunnel syndrome.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

Biocompatible materials are non-toxic and non-reacting substances that can be used in medical devices, tissue engineering, and drug delivery systems without causing harm or adverse reactions to living tissues or organs. These materials are designed to mimic the properties of natural tissues and are able to integrate with biological systems without being rejected by the body's immune system.

Biocompatible materials can be made from a variety of substances, including metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites. The specific properties of these materials, such as their mechanical strength, flexibility, and biodegradability, are carefully selected to meet the requirements of their intended medical application.

Examples of biocompatible materials include titanium used in dental implants and joint replacements, polyethylene used in artificial hips, and hydrogels used in contact lenses and drug delivery systems. The use of biocompatible materials has revolutionized modern medicine by enabling the development of advanced medical technologies that can improve patient outcomes and quality of life.

Aortic valve insufficiency, also known as aortic regurgitation or aortic incompetence, is a cardiac condition in which the aortic valve does not close properly during the contraction phase of the heart cycle. This allows blood to flow back into the left ventricle from the aorta, instead of being pumped out to the rest of the body. As a result, the left ventricle must work harder to maintain adequate cardiac output, which can lead to left ventricular enlargement and heart failure over time if left untreated.

The aortic valve is a trileaflet valve that lies between the left ventricle and the aorta. During systole (the contraction phase of the heart cycle), the aortic valve opens to allow blood to be pumped out of the left ventricle into the aorta and then distributed to the rest of the body. During diastole (the relaxation phase of the heart cycle), the aortic valve closes to prevent blood from flowing back into the left ventricle.

Aortic valve insufficiency can be caused by various conditions, including congenital heart defects, infective endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, Marfan syndrome, and trauma. Symptoms of aortic valve insufficiency may include shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain, palpitations, and edema (swelling). Diagnosis is typically made through physical examination, echocardiography, and other imaging studies. Treatment options depend on the severity of the condition and may include medication, surgery to repair or replace the aortic valve, or a combination of both.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

A single-blind method in medical research is a study design where the participants are unaware of the group or intervention they have been assigned to, but the researchers conducting the study know which participant belongs to which group. This is done to prevent bias from the participants' expectations or knowledge of their assignment, while still allowing the researchers to control the study conditions and collect data.

In a single-blind trial, the participants do not know whether they are receiving the active treatment or a placebo (a sham treatment that looks like the real thing but has no therapeutic effect), whereas the researcher knows which participant is receiving which intervention. This design helps to ensure that the participants' responses and outcomes are not influenced by their knowledge of the treatment assignment, while still allowing the researchers to assess the effectiveness or safety of the intervention being studied.

Single-blind methods are commonly used in clinical trials and other medical research studies where it is important to minimize bias and control for confounding variables that could affect the study results.

Hallux Valgus is a medical condition that affects the foot, specifically the big toe joint. It is characterized by the deviation of the big toe (hallux) towards the second toe, resulting in a prominent bump on the inner side of the foot at the base of the big toe. This bump is actually the metatarsal head of the first bone in the foot that becomes exposed due to the angulation.

The deformity can lead to pain, stiffness, and difficulty wearing shoes. In severe cases, it can also cause secondary arthritis in the joint. Hallux Valgus is more common in women than men and can be caused by genetic factors, foot shape, or ill-fitting shoes that put pressure on the big toe joint.

Surface properties in the context of medical science refer to the characteristics and features of the outermost layer or surface of a biological material or structure, such as cells, tissues, organs, or medical devices. These properties can include physical attributes like roughness, smoothness, hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, and electrical conductivity, as well as chemical properties like charge, reactivity, and composition.

In the field of biomaterials science, understanding surface properties is crucial for designing medical implants, devices, and drug delivery systems that can interact safely and effectively with biological tissues and fluids. Surface modifications, such as coatings or chemical treatments, can be used to alter surface properties and enhance biocompatibility, improve lubricity, reduce fouling, or promote specific cellular responses like adhesion, proliferation, or differentiation.

Similarly, in the field of cell biology, understanding surface properties is essential for studying cell-cell interactions, cell signaling, and cell behavior. Cells can sense and respond to changes in their environment, including variations in surface properties, which can influence cell shape, motility, and function. Therefore, characterizing and manipulating surface properties can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of cellular processes and offer new strategies for developing therapies and treatments for various diseases.

Ketorolac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is used to treat moderate to severe pain. It works by reducing the levels of prostaglandins, chemicals in the body that cause inflammation and trigger pain signals in the brain. By blocking the production of prostaglandins, ketorolac helps to reduce pain, swelling, and fever.

Ketorolac is available in several forms, including tablets, injection solutions, and suppositories. It is typically used for short-term pain relief, as it can increase the risk of serious side effects such as stomach ulcers, bleeding, and kidney problems with long-term use.

Like other NSAIDs, ketorolac may also increase the risk of heart attack and stroke, especially in people who already have cardiovascular disease or risk factors for it. It should be used with caution and only under the supervision of a healthcare provider.

Fracture healing is the natural process by which a broken bone repairs itself. When a fracture occurs, the body responds by initiating a series of biological and cellular events aimed at restoring the structural integrity of the bone. This process involves the formation of a hematoma (a collection of blood) around the fracture site, followed by the activation of inflammatory cells that help to clean up debris and prepare the area for repair.

Over time, specialized cells called osteoblasts begin to lay down new bone matrix, or osteoid, along the edges of the broken bone ends. This osteoid eventually hardens into new bone tissue, forming a bridge between the fracture fragments. As this process continues, the callus (a mass of newly formed bone and connective tissue) gradually becomes stronger and more compact, eventually remodeling itself into a solid, unbroken bone.

The entire process of fracture healing can take several weeks to several months, depending on factors such as the severity of the injury, the patient's age and overall health, and the location of the fracture. In some cases, medical intervention may be necessary to help promote healing or ensure proper alignment of the bone fragments. This may include the use of casts, braces, or surgical implants such as plates, screws, or rods.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

'Alloys' is not a medical term. It is a term used in materials science and engineering to describe a mixture or solid solution composed of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal. The components are typically present in significant amounts (>1% by weight). The properties of alloys, such as their strength, durability, and corrosion resistance, often differ from those of the constituent elements.

While not directly related to medicine, some alloys do have medical applications. For example, certain alloys are used in orthopedic implants, dental restorations, and other medical devices due to their desirable properties such as biocompatibility, strength, and resistance to corrosion.

Fluoroscopy is a type of medical imaging that uses X-rays to obtain real-time moving images of the internal structures of the body. A continuous X-ray beam is passed through the body part being examined, and the resulting fluoroscopic images are transmitted to a monitor, allowing the medical professional to view the structure and movement of the internal organs and bones in real time.

Fluoroscopy is often used to guide minimally invasive procedures such as catheterization, stent placement, or joint injections. It can also be used to diagnose and monitor a variety of medical conditions, including gastrointestinal disorders, musculoskeletal injuries, and cardiovascular diseases.

It is important to note that fluoroscopy involves exposure to ionizing radiation, and the risks associated with this exposure should be carefully weighed against the benefits of the procedure. Medical professionals are trained to use the lowest possible dose of radiation necessary to obtain the desired diagnostic information.

Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a medical condition that affects the hip joint. It occurs when there is abnormal contact between the femoral head (the ball at the top of the thigh bone) and the acetabulum (the socket in the pelvis) during normal movement of the hip. This abnormal contact can cause damage to the cartilage and labrum (a ring of cartilage that helps to stabilize the hip joint) leading to pain, stiffness and decreased range of motion.

FAI is classified into two types: cam impingement and pincer impingement. Cam impingement occurs when there is an abnormal shape of the femoral head or neck, which leads to abnormal contact with the acetabulum during hip flexion and internal rotation. Pincer impingement occurs when there is overcoverage of the acetabulum, leading to abnormal contact with the femoral head or neck.

In some cases, both cam and pincer impingement can be present, which is referred to as mixed impingement. Symptoms of FAI may include hip pain, stiffness, limping, and reduced range of motion. Treatment options for FAI may include physical therapy, activity modification, medications, and in some cases, surgery.

Intramedullary fracture fixation is a surgical technique used to stabilize and align bone fractures. In this procedure, a metal rod or nail is inserted into the marrow cavity (intramedullary canal) of the affected bone, spanning the length of the fracture. The rod is then secured to the bone using screws or other fixation devices on either side of the fracture. This provides stability and helps maintain proper alignment during the healing process.

The benefits of intramedullary fixation include:

1. Load sharing: The intramedullary rod shares some of the load bearing capacity with the bone, which can help reduce stress on the healing bone.
2. Minimal soft tissue dissection: Since the implant is inserted through the medullary canal, there is less disruption to the surrounding muscles, tendons, and ligaments compared to other fixation methods.
3. Biomechanical stability: Intramedullary fixation provides rotational and bending stiffness, which helps maintain proper alignment of the fracture fragments during healing.
4. Early mobilization: Patients with intramedullary fixation can often begin weight bearing and rehabilitation exercises earlier than those with other types of fixation, leading to faster recovery times.

Common indications for intramedullary fracture fixation include long bone fractures in the femur, tibia, humerus, and fibula, as well as certain pelvic and spinal fractures. However, the choice of fixation method depends on various factors such as patient age, fracture pattern, location, and associated injuries.

Urinary retention is a medical condition in which the bladder cannot empty completely or at all, resulting in the accumulation of urine in the bladder. This can lead to discomfort, pain, and difficulty in passing urine. Urinary retention can be acute (sudden onset) or chronic (long-term). Acute urinary retention is a medical emergency that requires immediate attention, while chronic urinary retention may be managed with medications or surgery. The causes of urinary retention include nerve damage, bladder muscle weakness, prostate gland enlargement, and side effects of certain medications.

The forearm is the region of the upper limb between the elbow and the wrist. It consists of two bones, the radius and ulna, which are located side by side and run parallel to each other. The forearm is responsible for movements such as flexion, extension, supination, and pronation of the hand and wrist.

Osteochondromatosis is a benign (non-cancerous) condition where bone and cartilage grow outside the ends of bones, forming growths known as osteochondromas. These growths typically occur in areas where bones are growing actively, such as near the joints.

Osteochondromatosis can be hereditary or may develop sporadically. The hereditary form is called hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) or multiple osteochondromas, and it affects several bones in the body. In contrast, the sporadic form typically affects only one bone or a small number of bones.

Osteochondromatosis can cause various symptoms depending on the location and size of the growths. Some people with this condition may not experience any symptoms at all. However, if the osteochondromas grow near joints, they can cause pain, stiffness, or limited mobility. In some cases, the growths may also compress nerves or blood vessels, leading to additional complications such as numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected limbs.

It is important to note that while osteochondromatosis itself is not cancerous, there is a small risk that the osteochondromas may undergo malignant transformation and develop into chondrosarcoma, a type of bone cancer. Regular follow-up with an orthopedic specialist is recommended to monitor any changes in the growths over time.

"Second-look surgery" is a medical term that refers to a second surgical procedure performed after an initial operation, usually to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment or to check for any potential complications. This type of surgery is often used in cancer treatment, where it can help determine if the tumor has responded to chemotherapy or radiation therapy. During the second-look surgery, surgeons may remove additional tissue or tumor cells, or they may perform other procedures to manage any complications that have arisen since the first surgery.

It's worth noting that the use of second-look surgery is not always necessary or appropriate, and the decision to perform this type of procedure will depend on a variety of factors, including the patient's overall health, the type and stage of cancer, and the specific goals of treatment. As with any surgical procedure, there are risks associated with second-look surgery, and patients should discuss these risks thoroughly with their healthcare provider before making a decision about treatment.

Femoral neuropathy is a medical condition that affects the femoral nerve, which is one of the largest nerves in the body. It originates from the lumbar plexus in the lower back and supplies sensation to the front of the thigh and controls the muscles that help straighten the leg and move the knee.

Femoral neuropathy can result from various causes, including nerve compression, trauma, diabetes, tumors, or surgical injury. The symptoms of femoral neuropathy may include numbness, tingling, or weakness in the thigh, difficulty lifting the leg or walking, and decreased knee reflexes.

Diagnosis of femoral neuropathy typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as nerve conduction studies or an MRI to identify any underlying causes. Treatment for femoral neuropathy depends on the cause but may include physical therapy, pain management, and in some cases, surgery.

Knee dislocation is a serious and uncommon orthopedic injury that occurs when the bones that form the knee joint (femur, tibia, and patella) are forced out of their normal position due to extreme trauma or force. This injury often requires immediate medical attention and reduction (repositioning) by a healthcare professional. If left untreated, it can lead to serious complications such as compartment syndrome, nerve damage, and long-term joint instability. It's important to note that knee dislocation is different from a kneecap (patellar) dislocation, which involves the patella sliding out of its groove in the femur.

Radiculopathy is a medical term that refers to the condition where there is damage or disturbance in the nerve roots as they exit the spinal column. These nerve roots, also known as radicles, can become damaged due to various reasons such as compression, inflammation, or injury, leading to a range of symptoms.

Radiculopathy may occur in any part of the spine, but it is most commonly found in the cervical (neck) and lumbar (lower back) regions. When the nerve roots in the cervical region are affected, it can result in symptoms such as neck pain, shoulder pain, arm pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the arms or fingers. On the other hand, when the nerve roots in the lumbar region are affected, it can cause lower back pain, leg pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the legs or feet.

The symptoms of radiculopathy can vary depending on the severity and location of the damage to the nerve roots. In some cases, the condition may resolve on its own with rest and conservative treatment. However, in more severe cases, medical intervention such as physical therapy, medication, or surgery may be necessary to alleviate the symptoms and prevent further damage.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "friction" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Friction is a physical concept that describes the force that resists the sliding of one surface over another. It is commonly described as the "roughness" between two surfaces. While friction can have effects on various biological processes and medical devices, it does not have a unique medical meaning in and of itself.

The mitral valve, also known as the bicuspid valve, is a two-leaflet valve located between the left atrium and left ventricle in the heart. Its function is to ensure unidirectional flow of blood from the left atrium into the left ventricle during the cardiac cycle. The mitral valve consists of two leaflets (anterior and posterior), the chordae tendineae, papillary muscles, and the left atrial and ventricular myocardium. Dysfunction of the mitral valve can lead to various heart conditions such as mitral regurgitation or mitral stenosis.

Drainage, in medical terms, refers to the removal of excess fluid or accumulated collections of fluids from various body parts or spaces. This is typically accomplished through the use of medical devices such as catheters, tubes, or drains. The purpose of drainage can be to prevent the buildup of fluids that may cause discomfort, infection, or other complications, or to treat existing collections of fluid such as abscesses, hematomas, or pleural effusions. Drainage may also be used as a diagnostic tool to analyze the type and composition of the fluid being removed.

The metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint is the joint that connects the bones of the hand (metacarpals) to the bones of the fingers and thumb (phalanges). It's also commonly referred to as the "knuckle" joint. The MCP joint allows for flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction movements of the fingers and thumb. It is a synovial joint, which means it contains a lubricating fluid called synovial fluid that helps reduce friction during movement.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "France" is not a medical term or concept. France is the largest country in Western Europe and the third-largest in Europe after Russia and Ukraine. It has been a major player in world affairs for centuries, with a significant cultural and artistic influence. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help answer those for you.

The ilium is the largest and broadest of the three parts that make up the hip bone or coxal bone. It is the uppermost portion of the pelvis and forms the side of the waist. The ilium has a curved, fan-like shape and articulates with the sacrum at the back to form the sacroiliac joint. The large, concave surface on the top of the ilium is called the iliac crest, which can be felt as a prominent ridge extending from the front of the hip to the lower back. This region is significant in orthopedics and physical examinations for its use in assessing various medical conditions and performing certain maneuvers during the physical examination.

Bone lengthening is a surgical procedure that involves cutting and then gradually stretching the bone apart, allowing new bone to grow in its place. This process is also known as distraction osteogenesis. The goal of bone lengthening is to increase the length of a bone, either to improve function or to correct a deformity.

The procedure typically involves making an incision in the skin over the bone and using specialized tools to cut through the bone. Once the bone is cut, a device called an external fixator is attached to the bone on either side of the cut. The external fixator is then gradually adjusted over time to slowly stretch the bone apart, creating a gap between the two ends of the bone. As the bone is stretched, new bone tissue begins to grow in the space between the two ends, eventually filling in the gap and lengthening the bone.

Bone lengthening can be used to treat a variety of conditions, including limb length discrepancies, congenital deformities, and injuries that result in bone loss. It is typically performed by an orthopedic surgeon and may require several months of follow-up care to ensure proper healing and growth of the new bone tissue.

Heart valve diseases are a group of conditions that affect the function of one or more of the heart's four valves (tricuspid, pulmonic, mitral, and aortic). These valves are responsible for controlling the direction and flow of blood through the heart. Heart valve diseases can cause the valves to become narrowed (stenosis), leaky (regurgitation or insufficiency), or improperly closed (prolapse), leading to disrupted blood flow within the heart and potentially causing symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain, and irregular heart rhythms. The causes of heart valve diseases can include congenital defects, age-related degenerative changes, infections, rheumatic heart disease, and high blood pressure. Treatment options may include medications, surgical repair or replacement of the affected valve(s), or transcatheter procedures.

Spinal fusion is a surgical procedure where two or more vertebrae in the spine are fused together to create a solid bone. The purpose of this procedure is to restrict movement between the fused vertebrae, which can help reduce pain and stabilize the spine. This is typically done using bone grafts or bone graft substitutes, along with hardware such as rods, screws, or cages to hold the vertebrae in place while they heal together. The procedure may be recommended for various spinal conditions, including degenerative disc disease, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, scoliosis, or fractures.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Norway" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country in Northern Europe, known officially as the Kingdom of Norway. If you have any questions about medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help!

Bone remodeling is the normal and continuous process by which bone tissue is removed from the skeleton (a process called resorption) and new bone tissue is formed (a process called formation). This ongoing cycle allows bones to repair microdamage, adjust their size and shape in response to mechanical stress, and maintain mineral homeostasis. The cells responsible for bone resorption are osteoclasts, while the cells responsible for bone formation are osteoblasts. These two cell types work together to maintain the structural integrity and health of bones throughout an individual's life.

During bone remodeling, the process can be divided into several stages:

1. Activation: The initiation of bone remodeling is triggered by various factors such as microdamage, hormonal changes, or mechanical stress. This leads to the recruitment and activation of osteoclast precursor cells.
2. Resorption: Osteoclasts attach to the bone surface and create a sealed compartment called a resorption lacuna. They then secrete acid and enzymes that dissolve and digest the mineralized matrix, creating pits or cavities on the bone surface. This process helps remove old or damaged bone tissue and releases calcium and phosphate ions into the bloodstream.
3. Reversal: After resorption is complete, the osteoclasts undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death), and mononuclear cells called reversal cells appear on the resorbed surface. These cells prepare the bone surface for the next stage by cleaning up debris and releasing signals that attract osteoblast precursors.
4. Formation: Osteoblasts, derived from mesenchymal stem cells, migrate to the resorbed surface and begin producing a new organic matrix called osteoid. As the osteoid mineralizes, it forms a hard, calcified structure that gradually replaces the resorbed bone tissue. The osteoblasts may become embedded within this newly formed bone as they differentiate into osteocytes, which are mature bone cells responsible for maintaining bone homeostasis and responding to mechanical stress.
5. Mineralization: Over time, the newly formed bone continues to mineralize, becoming stronger and more dense. This process helps maintain the structural integrity of the skeleton and ensures adequate calcium storage.

Throughout this continuous cycle of bone remodeling, hormones, growth factors, and mechanical stress play crucial roles in regulating the balance between resorption and formation. Disruptions to this delicate equilibrium can lead to various bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, where excessive resorption results in weakened bones and increased fracture risk.

Epidural anesthesia is a type of regional anesthesia that involves the injection of local anesthetic medication into the epidural space in the spine, which is the space surrounding the dura mater, a membrane that covers the spinal cord. The injection is typically administered through a catheter placed in the lower back using a needle.

The local anesthetic drug blocks nerve impulses from the affected area, numbing it and relieving pain. Epidural anesthesia can be used for various surgical procedures, such as cesarean sections, knee or hip replacements, and hernia repairs. It is also commonly used during childbirth to provide pain relief during labor and delivery.

The effects of epidural anesthesia can vary depending on the dose and type of medication used, as well as the individual's response to the drug. The anesthetic may take several minutes to start working, and its duration of action can range from a few hours to a day or more. Epidural anesthesia is generally considered safe when administered by trained medical professionals, but like any medical procedure, it carries some risks, including infection, bleeding, nerve damage, and respiratory depression.

In medical terms, the "groin" refers to the area where the lower abdomen meets the thigh. It is located on both sides of the body, in front of the upper part of each leg. The groin contains several important structures such as the inguinal canal, which contains blood vessels and nerves, and the femoral artery and vein, which supply blood to and from the lower extremities. Issues in this region, such as pain or swelling, may indicate a variety of medical conditions, including muscle strains, hernias, or infections.

Stress fractures are defined as small cracks or severe bruising in bones that occur from repetitive stress or overuse. They most commonly occur in weight-bearing bones, such as the legs and feet, but can also occur in the arms, hips, and back. Stress fractures differ from regular fractures because they typically do not result from a single, traumatic event. Instead, they are caused by repeated stress on the bone that results in microscopic damage over time. Athletes, military personnel, and individuals who engage in high-impact activities or have weak bones (osteoporosis) are at increased risk of developing stress fractures. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, tenderness, and difficulty walking or bearing weight on the affected bone.

Analgesics, opioid are a class of drugs used for the treatment of pain. They work by binding to specific receptors in the brain and spinal cord, blocking the transmission of pain signals to the brain. Opioids can be synthetic or natural, and include drugs such as morphine, codeine, oxycodone, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, fentanyl, and methadone. They are often used for moderate to severe pain, such as that resulting from injury, surgery, or chronic conditions like cancer. However, opioids can also produce euphoria, physical dependence, and addiction, so they are tightly regulated and carry a risk of misuse.

Kinesthesia, also known as proprioception, refers to the perception or awareness of the position and movement of the body parts in space. It is a type of sensory information that comes from receptors located in muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joints, which detect changes in tension, length, and pressure of these tissues during movement. This information is then sent to the brain, where it is integrated with visual and vestibular (inner ear) inputs to create a sense of body position and movement.

Kinesthesia allows us to perform complex movements and maintain balance without having to consciously think about each movement. It helps us to coordinate our movements, adjust our posture, and navigate through our environment with ease. Deficits in kinesthetic perception can lead to difficulties with motor coordination, balance, and mobility.

A suture anchor is a medical device used in surgical procedures, particularly in orthopedic and cardiovascular surgeries. It is typically made of biocompatible materials such as metal (titanium or absorbable steel) or polymer (absorbable or non-absorbable). The suture anchor serves to attach a suture to bone securely, providing a stable fixation point for soft tissue reattachment or repair.

Suture anchors come in various shapes and sizes, including screws, hooks, or buttons, designed to fit specific surgical needs. Surgeons insert the anchor into a predrilled hole in the bone, and then pass the suture through the eyelet or loop of the anchor. Once the anchor is securely in place, the surgeon can tie the suture to attach tendons, ligaments, or other soft tissues to the bone.

The use of suture anchors has revolutionized many surgical procedures by providing a more reliable and less invasive method for reattaching soft tissues to bones compared to traditional methods such as drill holes and staples.

Colonic pseudo-obstruction, also known as Ogilvie's syndrome, is a medical condition characterized by the absence of an actual physical obstruction in the colon, but with symptoms and radiologic findings that mimic a mechanical intestinal obstruction. It is caused by a dysfunction of the nervous system or muscles in the colon, leading to severe dilation and potential perforation if not treated promptly.

The condition is often associated with underlying medical conditions such as surgery, trauma, infection, electrolyte imbalances, neurologic disorders, and certain medications. The symptoms may include abdominal pain, distention, nausea, vomiting, constipation, and in severe cases, fever and sepsis.

Treatment typically involves decompression of the colon using a nasogastric tube or colonoscopy, as well as addressing any underlying causes. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the excess gas and stool from the colon or to repair a perforation.

Bone resorption is the process by which bone tissue is broken down and absorbed into the body. It is a normal part of bone remodeling, in which old or damaged bone tissue is removed and new tissue is formed. However, excessive bone resorption can lead to conditions such as osteoporosis, in which bones become weak and fragile due to a loss of density. This process is carried out by cells called osteoclasts, which break down the bone tissue and release minerals such as calcium into the bloodstream.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tennis" is generally not a term that has a medical definition. It is most commonly known as a sport or game played with rackets and a ball on a court with a net dividing the space in half. If you have any questions about a specific medical condition or term, I'd be happy to help if I can!

Methyl Methacrylate (MMA) is not a medical term itself, but it is a chemical compound that is used in various medical applications. Therefore, I will provide you with a general definition and some of its medical uses.

Methyl methacrylate (C5H8O2) is an organic compound, specifically an ester of methacrylic acid and methanol. It is a colorless liquid at room temperature, with a characteristic sweet odor. MMA is primarily used in the production of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), a transparent thermoplastic often referred to as acrylic glass or plexiglass.

In the medical field, PMMA has several applications:

1. Intraocular lenses: PMMA is used to create artificial intraocular lenses (IOLs) that replace natural lenses during cataract surgery. These IOLs are biocompatible and provide excellent optical clarity.
2. Bone cement: MMA is mixed with a powdered polymer to form polymethyl methacrylate bone cement, which is used in orthopedic and trauma surgeries for fixation of prosthetic joint replacements, vertebroplasty, and kyphoplasty.
3. Dental applications: PMMA is used in the fabrication of dental crowns, bridges, and dentures due to its excellent mechanical properties and biocompatibility.
4. Surgical implants: PMMA is also used in various surgical implants, such as cranial plates and reconstructive surgery, because of its transparency and ability to be molded into specific shapes.

The Predictive Value of Tests, specifically the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV), are measures used in diagnostic tests to determine the probability that a positive or negative test result is correct.

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with a positive test result who actually have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true positives divided by the total number of positive results (true positives + false positives). A higher PPV indicates that a positive test result is more likely to be a true positive, and therefore the disease is more likely to be present.

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) is the proportion of patients with a negative test result who do not have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of negative results (true negatives + false negatives). A higher NPV indicates that a negative test result is more likely to be a true negative, and therefore the disease is less likely to be present.

The predictive value of tests depends on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A test with high sensitivity and specificity will generally have higher predictive values than a test with low sensitivity and specificity. However, even a highly sensitive and specific test can have low predictive values if the prevalence of the disease is low in the population being tested.

Spondylosis is a general term that refers to degenerative changes in the spine, particularly in the joints (facets) between vertebrae and/or intervertebral discs. It's a common age-related condition, which can also be caused by stresses on the spine due to poor posture, repetitive movements, or injury.

The degenerative process often involves loss of hydration and elasticity in the intervertebral discs, leading to decreased disc height and potential disc herniation. This can cause narrowing of the spinal canal (spinal stenosis) or nerve root canal (foraminal stenosis), resulting in pressure on the spinal cord and/or nerves.

Spondylosis can occur throughout the spine, but it is most commonly found in the cervical (neck) and lumbar (lower back) regions. Symptoms may include pain, stiffness, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the neck, arms, legs, or back, depending on the location and severity of the degeneration. However, it's worth noting that many people with spondylosis might not experience any symptoms at all. Treatment options typically include pain management, physical therapy, and, in severe cases, surgery.

Hemoglobin (Hb or Hgb) is the main oxygen-carrying protein in the red blood cells, which are responsible for delivering oxygen throughout the body. It is a complex molecule made up of four globin proteins and four heme groups. Each heme group contains an iron atom that binds to one molecule of oxygen. Hemoglobin plays a crucial role in the transport of oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues, and also helps to carry carbon dioxide back to the lungs for exhalation.

There are several types of hemoglobin present in the human body, including:

* Hemoglobin A (HbA): This is the most common type of hemoglobin, making up about 95-98% of total hemoglobin in adults. It consists of two alpha and two beta globin chains.
* Hemoglobin A2 (HbA2): This makes up about 1.5-3.5% of total hemoglobin in adults. It consists of two alpha and two delta globin chains.
* Hemoglobin F (HbF): This is the main type of hemoglobin present in fetal life, but it persists at low levels in adults. It consists of two alpha and two gamma globin chains.
* Hemoglobin S (HbS): This is an abnormal form of hemoglobin that can cause sickle cell disease when it occurs in the homozygous state (i.e., both copies of the gene are affected). It results from a single amino acid substitution in the beta globin chain.
* Hemoglobin C (HbC): This is another abnormal form of hemoglobin that can cause mild to moderate hemolytic anemia when it occurs in the homozygous state. It results from a different single amino acid substitution in the beta globin chain than HbS.

Abnormal forms of hemoglobin, such as HbS and HbC, can lead to various clinical disorders, including sickle cell disease, thalassemia, and other hemoglobinopathies.

Dependent ambulation is a term used in medical context to describe a person's ability to walk or move around, but only with assistance from another person or the use of assistive devices such as crutches, walkers, or wheelchairs. This means that the person is not able to safely and independently navigate their environment on their own due to physical limitations, balance issues, mobility impairments, or other health conditions.

Dependent ambulation can be temporary or permanent, depending on the underlying cause of the impairment. For example, a person who has undergone surgery may require dependent ambulation during the recovery period, while someone with a progressive neurological condition may require long-term assistance with mobility.

Healthcare professionals, such as physical therapists and occupational therapists, often work with individuals who require dependent ambulation to help them improve their strength, balance, and mobility through various exercises and interventions. The goal is to help the person become as independent as possible and reduce their reliance on assistive devices or other people for mobility.

The synovial membrane, also known as the synovium, is the soft tissue that lines the inner surface of the capsule of a synovial joint, which is a type of joint that allows for smooth movement between bones. This membrane secretes synovial fluid, a viscous substance that lubricates and nourishes the cartilage and helps to reduce friction within the joint during movement.

The synovial membrane has a highly specialized structure, consisting of two layers: the intima and the subintima. The intima is a thin layer of cells that are in direct contact with the synovial fluid, while the subintima is a more fibrous layer that contains blood vessels and nerves.

The main function of the synovial membrane is to produce and regulate the production of synovial fluid, as well as to provide nutrients to the articular cartilage. It also plays a role in the immune response within the joint, helping to protect against infection and inflammation. However, abnormalities in the synovial membrane can lead to conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, where the membrane becomes inflamed and produces excess synovial fluid, leading to pain, swelling, and joint damage.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

The pelvis is the lower part of the trunk, located between the abdomen and the lower limbs. It is formed by the fusion of several bones: the ilium, ischium, and pubis (which together form the hip bone on each side), and the sacrum and coccyx in the back. The pelvis has several functions including supporting the weight of the upper body when sitting, protecting the lower abdominal organs, and providing attachment for muscles that enable movement of the lower limbs. In addition, it serves as a bony canal through which the reproductive and digestive tracts pass. The pelvic cavity contains several vital organs such as the bladder, parts of the large intestine, and in females, the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes.

Corrosion is a process of deterioration or damage to a material, usually a metal, caused by chemical reactions with its environment. In the medical context, corrosion may refer to the breakdown and destruction of living tissue due to exposure to harsh substances or environmental conditions. This can occur in various parts of the body, such as the skin, mouth, or gastrointestinal tract, and can be caused by factors like acid reflux, infection, or exposure to chemicals.

In the case of medical devices made of metal, corrosion can also refer to the degradation of the device due to chemical reactions with bodily fluids or tissues. This can compromise the function and safety of the device, potentially leading to complications or failure. Therefore, understanding and preventing corrosion is an important consideration in the design and use of medical devices made of metal.

Robotics, in the medical context, refers to the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots in medical fields. These machines are capable of performing a variety of tasks that can aid or replicate human actions, often with high precision and accuracy. They can be used for various medical applications such as surgery, rehabilitation, prosthetics, patient care, and diagnostics. Surgical robotics, for example, allows surgeons to perform complex procedures with increased dexterity, control, and reduced fatigue, while minimizing invasiveness and improving patient outcomes.

Nerve compression syndromes refer to a group of conditions characterized by the pressure or irritation of a peripheral nerve, causing various symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, and weakness in the affected area. This compression can occur due to several reasons, including injury, repetitive motion, bone spurs, tumors, or swelling. Common examples of nerve compression syndromes include carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, radial nerve compression, and ulnar nerve entrapment at the wrist or elbow. Treatment options may include physical therapy, splinting, medications, injections, or surgery, depending on the severity and underlying cause of the condition.

Orthopedic equipment refers to devices or appliances used in the practice of orthopedics, which is a branch of medicine focused on the correction, support, and prevention of disorders, injuries, or deformities of the skeletal system, including bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, and muscles. These devices can be categorized into various types based on their function and application:

1. Mobility aids: Equipment that helps individuals with impaired mobility to move around more easily, such as walkers, crutches, canes, wheelchairs, and scooters.
2. Immobilization devices: Used to restrict movement of a specific body part to promote healing, prevent further injury, or provide support during rehabilitation, including casts, braces, splints, slings, and collars.
3. Prosthetics: Artificial limbs that replace missing body parts due to amputation, illness, or congenital defects, enabling individuals to perform daily activities and maintain independence.
4. Orthotics: Custom-made or off-the-shelf devices worn inside shoes or on the body to correct foot alignment issues, provide arch support, or alleviate pain in the lower extremities.
5. Rehabilitation equipment: Devices used during physical therapy sessions to improve strength, flexibility, balance, and coordination, such as resistance bands, exercise balls, balance boards, and weight training machines.
6. Surgical instruments: Specialized tools used by orthopedic surgeons during operations to repair fractures, replace joints, or correct deformities, including saws, drills, retractors, and screwdrivers.
7. Diagnostic equipment: Imaging devices that help healthcare professionals assess musculoskeletal conditions, such as X-ray machines, CT scanners, MRI machines, and ultrasound systems.

These various types of orthopedic equipment play a crucial role in the diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation, and management of orthopedic disorders and injuries, enhancing patients' quality of life and functional abilities.

Operative time, in medical terms, refers to the duration from when an incision is made in the surgical procedure until the closure of the incision. This period includes any additional time needed for re-exploration or reopening during the same operation. It does not include any time spent performing other procedures that may be necessary but are carried out at a later stage. Operative time is an essential metric used in surgery to assess efficiency, plan resources, and determine costs.

Observer variation, also known as inter-observer variability or measurement agreement, refers to the difference in observations or measurements made by different observers or raters when evaluating the same subject or phenomenon. It is a common issue in various fields such as medicine, research, and quality control, where subjective assessments are involved.

In medical terms, observer variation can occur in various contexts, including:

1. Diagnostic tests: Different radiologists may interpret the same X-ray or MRI scan differently, leading to variations in diagnosis.
2. Clinical trials: Different researchers may have different interpretations of clinical outcomes or adverse events, affecting the consistency and reliability of trial results.
3. Medical records: Different healthcare providers may document medical histories, physical examinations, or treatment plans differently, leading to inconsistencies in patient care.
4. Pathology: Different pathologists may have varying interpretations of tissue samples or laboratory tests, affecting diagnostic accuracy.

Observer variation can be minimized through various methods, such as standardized assessment tools, training and calibration of observers, and statistical analysis of inter-rater reliability.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pilot projects" is not a medical term per se. Instead, it is a general term used in various fields, including healthcare and medicine, to describe a small-scale initiative that is implemented on a temporary basis to evaluate its feasibility, effectiveness, or impact before deciding whether to expand or continue it.

In the context of healthcare, pilot projects might involve testing new treatment protocols, implementing innovative care models, or introducing technology solutions in a limited setting to assess their potential benefits and drawbacks. The results of these projects can help inform decisions about broader implementation and provide valuable insights for improving the quality and efficiency of healthcare services.

In medical terms, a hand is the part of the human body that is attached to the forearm and consists of the carpus (wrist), metacarpus, and phalanges. It is made up of 27 bones, along with muscles, tendons, ligaments, and other soft tissues. The hand is a highly specialized organ that is capable of performing a wide range of complex movements and functions, including grasping, holding, manipulating objects, and communicating through gestures. It is also richly innervated with sensory receptors that provide information about touch, temperature, pain, and proprioception (the sense of the position and movement of body parts).

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS) is a broad term used to describe pain arising from the front of the knee, specifically where the patella (kneecap) meets the femur (thigh bone). It is often described as a diffuse, aching pain in the anterior knee, typically worsening with activities that load the patellofemoral joint such as climbing stairs, running, jumping or prolonged sitting.

PFPS can be caused by various factors including overuse, muscle imbalances, poor biomechanics, or abnormal tracking of the patella. Treatment usually involves a combination of physical therapy to improve strength and flexibility, activity modification, and sometimes bracing or orthotics for better alignment.

In medical terms, "volition" refers to the conscious and deliberate process of making decisions and initiating actions based on personal choice. It is the ability to choose or decide on a course of action and then carry it out willfully. Volition involves the integration of cognitive, emotional, and motor functions to achieve a specific goal-oriented behavior.

Volitional processes are often impaired in certain neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as dementia, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and depression, among others. Assessing volition is important for evaluating an individual's capacity to make informed decisions and take responsibility for their actions.

Intervertebral disc displacement, also known as a slipped disc or herniated disc, is a medical condition where the inner, softer material (nucleus pulposus) of the intervertebral disc bulges or ruptures through its outer, tougher ring (annulus fibrosus). This can put pressure on nearby nerves and cause pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected area, often in the lower back or neck. The displacement may also lead to inflammation and irritation of the surrounding spinal structures, further exacerbating the symptoms. The condition is typically caused by age-related wear and tear (degenerative disc disease) or sudden trauma.

Synovitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the synovial membrane, which is the soft tissue that lines the inner surface of joint capsules and tendon sheaths. The synovial membrane produces synovial fluid, which lubricates the joint and allows for smooth movement.

Inflammation of the synovial membrane can cause it to thicken, redden, and become painful and swollen. This can lead to stiffness, limited mobility, and discomfort in the affected joint or tendon sheath. Synovitis may occur as a result of injury, overuse, infection, or autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.

If left untreated, synovitis can cause irreversible damage to the joint and surrounding tissues, including cartilage loss and bone erosion. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, physical therapy, and lifestyle modifications to reduce inflammation and manage pain.

Bone density refers to the amount of bone mineral content (usually measured in grams) in a given volume of bone (usually measured in cubic centimeters). It is often used as an indicator of bone strength and fracture risk. Bone density is typically measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, which provide a T-score that compares the patient's bone density to that of a young adult reference population. A T-score of -1 or above is considered normal, while a T-score between -1 and -2.5 indicates osteopenia (low bone mass), and a T-score below -2.5 indicates osteoporosis (porous bones). Regular exercise, adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, and medication (if necessary) can help maintain or improve bone density and prevent fractures.

Bupivacaine is a long-acting local anesthetic drug, which is used to cause numbness or loss of feeling in a specific area of the body during certain medical procedures such as surgery, dental work, or childbirth. It works by blocking the nerves that transmit pain signals to the brain.

Bupivacaine is available as a solution for injection and is usually administered directly into the tissue surrounding the nerve to be blocked (nerve block) or into the spinal fluid (epidural). The onset of action of bupivacaine is relatively slow, but its duration of action is long, making it suitable for procedures that require prolonged pain relief.

Like all local anesthetics, bupivacaine carries a risk of side effects such as allergic reactions, nerve damage, and systemic toxicity if accidentally injected into a blood vessel or given in excessive doses. It should be used with caution in patients with certain medical conditions, including heart disease, liver disease, and neurological disorders.

Athletic injuries are damages or injuries to the body that occur while participating in sports, physical activities, or exercise. These injuries can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Trauma: Direct blows, falls, collisions, or crushing injuries can cause fractures, dislocations, contusions, lacerations, or concussions.
2. Overuse: Repetitive motions or stress on a particular body part can lead to injuries such as tendonitis, stress fractures, or muscle strains.
3. Poor technique: Using incorrect form or technique during exercise or sports can put additional stress on muscles, joints, and ligaments, leading to injury.
4. Inadequate warm-up or cool-down: Failing to properly prepare the body for physical activity or neglecting to cool down afterwards can increase the risk of injury.
5. Lack of fitness or flexibility: Insufficient strength, endurance, or flexibility can make individuals more susceptible to injuries during sports and exercise.
6. Environmental factors: Extreme weather conditions, poor field or court surfaces, or inadequate equipment can contribute to the risk of athletic injuries.

Common athletic injuries include ankle sprains, knee injuries, shoulder dislocations, tennis elbow, shin splints, and concussions. Proper training, warm-up and cool-down routines, use of appropriate protective gear, and attention to technique can help prevent many athletic injuries.

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

General anesthesia is a state of controlled unconsciousness, induced by administering various medications, that eliminates awareness, movement, and pain sensation during medical procedures. It involves the use of a combination of intravenous and inhaled drugs to produce a reversible loss of consciousness, allowing patients to undergo surgical or diagnostic interventions safely and comfortably. The depth and duration of anesthesia are carefully monitored and adjusted throughout the procedure by an anesthesiologist or certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA) to ensure patient safety and optimize recovery. General anesthesia is typically used for more extensive surgical procedures, such as open-heart surgery, major orthopedic surgeries, and neurosurgery.

Site-directed mutagenesis is a molecular biology technique used to introduce specific and targeted changes to a specific DNA sequence. This process involves creating a new variant of a gene or a specific region of interest within a DNA molecule by introducing a planned, deliberate change, or mutation, at a predetermined site within the DNA sequence.

The methodology typically involves the use of molecular tools such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, and/or ligases to introduce the desired mutation(s) into a plasmid or other vector containing the target DNA sequence. The resulting modified DNA molecule can then be used to transform host cells, allowing for the production of large quantities of the mutated gene or protein for further study.

Site-directed mutagenesis is a valuable tool in basic research, drug discovery, and biotechnology applications where specific changes to a DNA sequence are required to understand gene function, investigate protein structure/function relationships, or engineer novel biological properties into existing genes or proteins.

Asepsis is a state or practice of being free from infection or contamination, especially by pathogenic microorganisms. It is a set of procedures and practices used in medicine and healthcare to prevent infection and the spread of disease-causing microorganisms. Aseptic techniques include the use of sterile equipment, barriers, and environmental controls to prevent the introduction of microorganisms into a susceptible host.

There are two types of asepsis: medical and surgical. Medical asepsis involves practices that reduce the number of microorganisms in the environment, such as hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and cleaning and disinfection of surfaces and equipment. Surgical asepsis is a more stringent form of asepsis that aims to create a sterile field during surgical procedures, using sterilized instruments, drapes, gowns, gloves, and other materials to prevent the introduction of microorganisms into the surgical site.

Maintaining aseptic techniques is critical in healthcare settings to prevent the transmission of infectious agents and protect patients from harm. Failure to follow aseptic practices can result in healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), which can cause significant morbidity, mortality, and increased healthcare costs.

Cefuroxime is a type of antibiotic known as a cephalosporin, which is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, which is necessary for its survival. Without a functional cell wall, the bacteria are unable to grow and multiply, and are eventually destroyed by the body's immune system.

Cefuroxime is effective against many different types of bacteria, including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. It is often used to treat respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and bone and joint infections.

Like all antibiotics, cefuroxime should be used only under the direction of a healthcare provider, and it is important to take the full course of treatment as prescribed, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished. Misuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of drug-resistant bacteria, which are more difficult to treat and can pose a serious threat to public health.

Surgical gloves are a form of personal protective equipment (PPE) used by healthcare professionals during medical procedures, particularly surgical procedures. They are designed to provide a barrier between the healthcare professional's hands and the patient's sterile field, helping to prevent contamination and reduce the risk of infection.

Surgical gloves are typically made of latex, nitrile rubber, or vinyl and come in various sizes to fit different hand shapes and sizes. They have a powder-free interior and an exterior that is coated with a substance to make them easier to put on and remove. The gloves are usually sterile and are packaged in pairs, often with a protective covering to maintain their sterility until they are ready to be used.

The use of surgical gloves is a critical component of standard precautions, which are measures taken to prevent the transmission of infectious agents from patients to healthcare professionals or from one patient to another. By wearing surgical gloves, healthcare professionals can protect themselves and their patients from potentially harmful bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms that may be present during medical procedures.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Anatomic models are three-dimensional representations of body structures used for educational, training, or demonstration purposes. They can be made from various materials such as plastic, wax, or rubber and may depict the entire body or specific regions, organs, or systems. These models can be used to provide a visual aid for understanding anatomy, physiology, and pathology, and can be particularly useful in situations where actual human specimens are not available or practical to use. They may also be used for surgical planning and rehearsal, as well as in medical research and product development.

Longitudinal ligaments, in the context of anatomy, refer to the fibrous bands that run lengthwise along the spine. They are named as such because they extend in the same direction as the long axis of the body. The main function of these ligaments is to provide stability and limit excessive movement in the spinal column.

There are three layers of longitudinal ligaments in the spine:

1. Anterior Longitudinal Ligament (ALL): This ligament runs down the front of the vertebral bodies, attached to their anterior aspects. It helps to prevent hyperextension of the spine.
2. Posterior Longitudinal Ligament (PLL): The PLL is located on the posterior side of the vertebral bodies and extends from the axis (C2) to the sacrum. Its primary function is to limit hyperflexion of the spine.
3. Ligamentum Flavum: Although not strictly a 'longitudinal' ligament, it is often grouped with them due to its longitudinal orientation. The ligamentum flavum is a pair of elastic bands that connect adjacent laminae (posterior bony parts) of the vertebral arch in the spine. Its main function is to maintain tension and stability while allowing slight movement between the vertebrae.

These longitudinal ligaments play an essential role in maintaining spinal alignment, protecting the spinal cord, and facilitating controlled movements within the spine.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sweden" is not a medical term. It is a country located in northern Europe. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help answer those!

Three-dimensional (3D) imaging in medicine refers to the use of technologies and techniques that generate a 3D representation of internal body structures, organs, or tissues. This is achieved by acquiring and processing data from various imaging modalities such as X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, or confocal microscopy. The resulting 3D images offer a more detailed visualization of the anatomy and pathology compared to traditional 2D imaging techniques, allowing for improved diagnostic accuracy, surgical planning, and minimally invasive interventions.

In 3D imaging, specialized software is used to reconstruct the acquired data into a volumetric model, which can be manipulated and viewed from different angles and perspectives. This enables healthcare professionals to better understand complex anatomical relationships, detect abnormalities, assess disease progression, and monitor treatment response. Common applications of 3D imaging include neuroimaging, orthopedic surgery planning, cancer staging, dental and maxillofacial reconstruction, and interventional radiology procedures.

Immobilization is a medical term that refers to the restriction of normal mobility or motion of a body part, usually to promote healing and prevent further injury. This is often achieved through the use of devices such as casts, splints, braces, slings, or traction. The goal of immobilization is to keep the injured area in a fixed position so that it can heal properly without additional damage. It may be used for various medical conditions, including fractures, dislocations, sprains, strains, and soft tissue injuries. Immobilization helps reduce pain, minimize swelling, and protect the injured site from movement that could worsen the injury or impair healing.

A tibial fracture is a medical term that refers to a break in the shin bone, which is called the tibia. The tibia is the larger of the two bones in the lower leg and is responsible for supporting much of your body weight. Tibial fractures can occur in various ways, such as from high-energy trauma like car accidents or falls, or from low-energy trauma in individuals with weakened bones due to osteoporosis or other medical conditions.

Tibial fractures can be classified into different types based on the location, pattern, and severity of the break. Some common types of tibial fractures include:

1. Transverse fracture: A straight break that goes across the bone.
2. Oblique fracture: A diagonal break that slopes across the bone.
3. Spiral fracture: A break that spirals around the bone, often caused by twisting or rotational forces.
4. Comminuted fracture: A break where the bone is shattered into multiple pieces.
5. Open fracture: A break in which the bone pierces through the skin, increasing the risk of infection.
6. Closed fracture: A break in which the bone does not pierce through the skin.

Tibial fractures can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, bruising, deformity, and difficulty walking or bearing weight on the affected leg. Treatment for tibial fractures may include immobilization with a cast or brace, surgery to realign and stabilize the bone with plates, screws, or rods, and rehabilitation to restore strength, mobility, and function to the injured limb.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Hemophilia A is a genetic bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency in clotting factor VIII. This results in impaired blood clotting and prolonged bleeding, particularly after injuries or surgeries. Symptoms can range from mild to severe, with the most severe form resulting in spontaneous bleeding into joints and muscles, leading to pain, swelling, and potential joint damage over time. Hemophilia A primarily affects males, as it is an X-linked recessive disorder, and is usually inherited from a carrier mother. However, about one third of cases result from a spontaneous mutation in the gene for factor VIII. Treatment typically involves replacement therapy with infusions of factor VIII concentrates to prevent or control bleeding episodes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Ontario" is not a medical term. It is the name of a province in Canada, similar to how "California" is the name of a state in the United States. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health conditions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

In the context of medical research, "methods" refers to the specific procedures or techniques used in conducting a study or experiment. This includes details on how data was collected, what measurements were taken, and what statistical analyses were performed. The methods section of a medical paper allows other researchers to replicate the study if they choose to do so. It is considered one of the key components of a well-written research article, as it provides transparency and helps establish the validity of the findings.

Paresis is a medical term that refers to a partial loss of voluntary muscle function. It is often described as muscle weakness, and it can affect one or several parts of the body. Paresis can be caused by various conditions, including nerve damage, stroke, spinal cord injuries, multiple sclerosis, and infections like polio or botulism. The severity of paresis can range from mild to severe, depending on the underlying cause and the specific muscles involved. Treatment for paresis typically focuses on addressing the underlying condition causing it.

Enoxaparin is a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) medication that is used as an anticoagulant to prevent and treat blood clots. It works by binding to and inhibiting the activity of factor Xa, a clotting factor in the blood. This helps to reduce the risk of clot formation and can help to prevent conditions such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Enoxaparin is typically given by injection under the skin (subcutaneously) and is available under the brand names Lovenox and Clexane, among others. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare professional when using enoxaparin, as it can increase the risk of bleeding.

A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a type of clinical study in which participants are randomly assigned to receive either the experimental intervention or the control condition, which may be a standard of care, placebo, or no treatment. The goal of an RCT is to minimize bias and ensure that the results are due to the intervention being tested rather than other factors. This design allows for a comparison between the two groups to determine if there is a significant difference in outcomes. RCTs are often considered the gold standard for evaluating the safety and efficacy of medical interventions, as they provide a high level of evidence for causal relationships between the intervention and health outcomes.

Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a systematic process used to compare the costs and benefits of different options to determine which one provides the greatest net benefit. In a medical context, CBA can be used to evaluate the value of medical interventions, treatments, or policies by estimating and monetizing all the relevant costs and benefits associated with each option.

The costs included in a CBA may include direct costs such as the cost of the intervention or treatment itself, as well as indirect costs such as lost productivity or time away from work. Benefits may include improved health outcomes, reduced morbidity or mortality, and increased quality of life.

Once all the relevant costs and benefits have been identified and quantified, they are typically expressed in monetary terms to allow for a direct comparison. The option with the highest net benefit (i.e., the difference between total benefits and total costs) is considered the most cost-effective.

It's important to note that CBA has some limitations and can be subject to various biases and assumptions, so it should be used in conjunction with other evaluation methods to ensure a comprehensive understanding of the value of medical interventions or policies.

Perioperative care is a multidisciplinary approach to the management of patients before, during, and after surgery with the goal of optimizing outcomes and minimizing complications. It encompasses various aspects such as preoperative evaluation and preparation, intraoperative monitoring and management, and postoperative recovery and rehabilitation. The perioperative period begins when a decision is made to pursue surgical intervention and ends when the patient has fully recovered from the procedure. This care is typically provided by a team of healthcare professionals including anesthesiologists, surgeons, nurses, physical therapists, and other specialists as needed.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

A stretch reflex, also known as myotatic reflex, is a rapid muscle contraction in response to stretching within the muscle itself. It is a type of reflex that helps to maintain muscle tone, protect muscles and tendons from injury, and assists in coordinating movements.

The stretch reflex is mediated by the stretch (or length) receptors called muscle spindles, which are located within the muscle fibers. When a muscle is stretched suddenly or rapidly, the muscle spindles detect the change in muscle length and activate a rapid motor neuron response, leading to muscle contraction. This reflex helps to stabilize the joint and prevent further stretching or injury.

The most common example of a stretch reflex is the knee-jerk reflex (also known as the patellar reflex), which is elicited by tapping the patellar tendon just below the knee, causing the quadriceps muscle to stretch and contract. This results in a quick extension of the lower leg. Other examples of stretch reflexes include the ankle jerk reflex (Achilles reflex) and the biceps reflex.

When the damage to the joint is severe, fascial arthroplasty or elbow joint replacement may be considered. Olecranon bursitis, ... Two of the most common injuries at the elbow are overuse injuries: tennis elbow and golfer's elbow. Golfer's elbow involves the ... The elbow is the region between the upper arm and the forearm that surrounds the elbow joint. The elbow includes prominent ... Elbow dislocations constitute 10% to 25% of all injuries to the elbow. The elbow is one of the most commonly dislocated joints ...
Pupello D (2016). "Origins of Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty and Common Misconceptions". Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty. pp. 3-18 ... Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery. 21 (4): 514-22. doi:10.1016/j.jse.2011.03.006. PMID 21641825. Werner BC, Wong AC, Mahony ... Reverse shoulder replacement is a type of shoulder replacement in which the normal ball and socket relationship of glenohumeral ... Traditional shoulder replacement (known as anatomic shoulder replacement) was developed to treat glenohumeral arthritis and ...
... , also known as shoulder arthroplasty or glenohumeral arthroplasty, was pioneered by the French surgeon ... Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery. 22 (9): e1-6. doi:10.1016/j.jse.2012.12.005. PMID 23419604. Gunther, Stephen B.; Lynch, ... Wirth MA, Rockwood CA (April 1996). "Complications of total shoulder-replacement arthroplasty". The Journal of Bone and Joint ... "Shoulder Joint Replacement" (Web Article). Retrieved 22 October 2007. "Most shoulder replacements last longer than a decade". ...
For those who had total hip replacement or total hip arthroplasty, postoperative single low-dose radiation with three weeks of ... "Radiation therapy for the prevention of heterotopic ossification at the elbow". The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. British ... "Prevention of heterotopic ossification in high-risk patients with total hip arthroplasty: the experience of a combined ... "Prevention of heterotopic ossification after total hip replacement. A prospective, randomised study using acetylsalicylic acid ...
... total elbow arthroplasties, cup arthroplasty, THAs [total hip arthroplasties], ivory plates, screws, Rush pins, and even a ... San Baw got the idea to use ivory for hip replacements during his days at Penn. Hip replacements using ivory had been performed ... He read the paper "Ivory Hip Replacements for Ununited Fractures of the Neck of Femur", and reported an 88% success rate with ... As of 2014, at least one patient who had received an ivory hip replacement performed by San Baw's former assistant Prof. Meik ...
Baksi, D. P.; Pal, A. K.; Chatterjee, N. D.; Baksi, Debadyuti (2008). "Prosthetic replacement of elbow in postburn bony ... Ikävalko, M.; Lehto, M. U. K.; Repo, A.; Kautiainen, H.; Hämäläinen, M. (2002). "The Souter-Strathclyde elbow arthroplasty". ... Austin-Moore prosthesis for fracture of the neck of femur Baksi's prosthesis for elbow replacement Charnley prosthesis for ... plate for intertrochanteric fracture Seidel nail for fracture of the shaft of humerus Souter's prosthesis for elbow replacement ...
... knee replacements (both total and unicompartmental), shoulder replacements, ankle replacements and elbow replacements. Some ... A joint replacement registry is a system of collecting information of arthroplasty outcomes at a population (often national) ... There are currently 31 national members of the International Society of Arthroplasty Registers (ISAR). In addition, in the ... Registers collect information on a combination of hip replacements, ...
Zuckerman is a design surgeon for the Exactech Equinoxe shoulder arthroplasty system. Zuckerman was born in the Bronx and ... Joseph D. Zuckerman is an American orthopedic surgeon specializing in shoulder, hip and knee replacement surgery. Zuckerman is ... He also previously served as president of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons. "Joseph D. Zuckerman, MD". PinnacleCare. ... Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, Clinical Orthopedics and Related Research, Journal of Orthopedic Trauma and has co- ...
Bankes, M. J.; Emery, R. J. (1995). Marcus J.K. Bankes and Roger J.H. Emery (ed.). "Pioneers of shoulder replacement: ... "The early history of arthroplasty of the wrist. From amputation to total wrist implant". J Hand Surg Br. 19 (6): 778-82. doi: ... Themistocles Gluck and Jules Emile Péan". Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery. United States: Elsevier. 4 (4): 259-62. doi: ... 100 years artificial joint replacement]". Zeitschrift für Orthopädie und ihre Grenzgebiete. Germany. 129 (5): 383-8. doi: ...
Knee arthroplasty and hip replacement were in the top five OR procedures for adults aged 45 years and older. Medicine portal ... Joint replacements are available for other joints on a variable basis, most notably the hip, shoulder, elbow, wrist, ankle, ... Since Charnley, improvements have been continuous in the design and technique of joint replacement (arthroplasty) with many ... As well as the standard total knee replacement surgery, the uni-compartmental knee replacement, in which only one weight- ...
In addition, the center offers less-common joint arthroplasty procedures including unicompartmental knee replacement, ... arthroscopic treatment of the elbow, hip, foot, and ankle; as well as arthroscopic knee reconstructions.[citation needed] St. ... Francis Joint Replacement Center The Joint Replacement Center offers treatments for over 100 different conditions. The surgeons ... The most modern innovations such as bone graft substitutes to the latest joint replacements are used to relieve pain and ...
J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2006 May-Jun;15(3):290-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jse.2005.09.017. PMID 16679227. Citations: 668 Bigliani LU, ... Shoulder Arthroplasty. Louis U. Bigliani, Evan L. Flatow (editors). Springer, 2005. ISBN 0-387-22336-3 The Rotator Cuff. Part I ... Flatow co-developed humeral stem and glenoid socket designs and procedures for coated and uncoated shoulder replacements. The ... He is the former North American editor and chair, board of trustees, for the Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery. He is a ...
"Cementless or hybrid total elbow arthroplasty with titanium-alloy implants". The Journal of Arthroplasty. 9 (3): 269-278. doi: ... Hip replacement failure; Metal toxicity from grinding metal components; and Necessary subsequent hip replacement revision or ... "Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty in Hip Joints With Metallosis". The Journal of Arthroplasty. 20 (5): 568-573. doi:10.1016/j. ... DePuy recalled its hip replacement systems ASR XL Acetabular Hip Replacement System and ASR Hip Resurfacing System due to ...
Journal of Arthroplasty, 784-787, doi:10.1016/S0883-5403(98)90031-6 Harvey, Lisa A; Katalinic, Owen M; Herbert, Robert D; ... Sanchez-Sotelo, Joaquin (2018-01-01), Morrey, Bernard F.; Sanchez-Sotelo, Joaquin; Morrey, Mark E. (eds.), "56 - Elbow ... Home continuous passive motion machine versus professional physical therapy following total knee replacement. ... Stiffness: Rehabilitation After Surgical Contracture Release", Morrey's the Elbow and its Disorders (Fifth Edition), ...
Elective Foot and ankle Soft-tissue knee reconstruction Knee arthroplasty Hip arthroplasty Spinal Upper limb (shoulder & elbow ... English pioneer of hip replacements Nicolas Andry, b. 1658, d. 1742 (aged 83), French physician Consultant of Orthopedic and ... Rehabilitation Physical therapy Orthotics Descriptive terms Displacement Comminution General procedure types Arthroplasty ...
American Joint Replacement Registry - Amphiarthrosis - Andersson lesion - Aneurysmal bone cyst - Ankle replacement - Anterior ... Elbow examination - Elbow extension test - Ellis-van Creveld syndrome - Enchondroma - Enchondromatosis - Ender's nail - ... Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty - Upington disease Valgus deformity - Valgus stress test - Vancouver classification - Varus ... Joint replacement - Joint replacement registry - Joint stiffness - Joint - Jones fracture - Juvenile osteoporosis Kanavel's ...
Mansat P, Huser L, Mansat M, Bellumore Y, Rongières M, Bonnevialle P (March 2005). "Shoulder arthroplasty for atraumatic ... or joint replacement. About 15,000 cases occur per year in the United States. People 30 to 50 years old are most commonly ... Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery. 14 (2): 114-20. doi:10.1016/j.jse.2004.06.019. PMID 15789002. Jacobs MA, Loeb PE, ... Bergman NR, Rand JA (December 1991). "Total knee arthroplasty in osteonecrosis" (Free full text). Clinical Orthopaedics and ...
Arthroplasty and repair of shoulder and elbow (81.80) Total shoulder replacement (81.81) Partial shoulder replacement (81.82) ... Total elbow replacement (81.85) Other repair of elbow (81.9) Other operations on joint structures (82) Operations on muscle, ... Total ankle replacement (81.57) Replacement of joint of foot and toe (81.59) Revision of joint replacement of lower extremity, ... Joint replacement of lower extremity (81.51) Total hip replacement (81.52) Partial hip replacement (81.53) Revision of hip ...
"Pseudoaneurysm of the Distal Thigh After Manipulation of a Total Knee Arthroplasty". The Journal of Arthroplasty. 27 (7): 1414. ... Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery. 20 (3): e23-6. doi:10.1016/j.jse.2010.11.024. PMID 21397785. Roubal, Paul J; Placzek, ... "Manipulation under anaesthesia post total knee replacement: Long term follow up". The Knee. 19 (4): 329-31. doi:10.1016/j.knee. ... Ghani, H; Maffulli, N; Khanduja, V (2012). "Management of stiffness following total knee arthroplasty: A systematic review". ...
"Postoperative Cryotherapy After Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Prospective Study of 86 Patients". The Journal of Arthroplasty. 21 ( ... Tennis elbow Torn rotator cuff Kullenberg, Björn; Ylipää, Staffan; Söderlund, Kerstin; Resch, Sylvia (2006-12-01). " ... "The use of cold compression dressings after total knee replacement: a randomized controlled trial". Orthopedics. 21 (1): 59-61 ... Levy AS, Marmar E (1993). "The role of cold compression dressings in the postoperative treatment of total knee arthroplasty". ...
About every third patient who has total hip arthroplasty (joint replacement) or a severe fracture of the long bones of the ... Treatment volumes include the peri-articular region, and can be used for hip, knee, elbow, shoulder, jaw or in patients after ... Between 50% and 90% of patients who developed heterotopic ossification following a previous hip arthroplasty will develop ... have shown some effect in preventing recurrence of heterotopic ossification after total hip replacement. Conservative ...
He pioneered the hip replacement operation, which is now one of the most common operations both in the UK and elsewhere in the ... The studies led to the development of the Low Friction Arthroplasty concept, which assumed that the low friction depended ... Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery. 18 (3): 333-338. doi:10.1016/j.jse.2009.01.033. PMID 19393927. Wroblewski, B. M. (2002 ... His contributions to the field are found in the hip replacement surgery method, in the optimization of the surgery flows and in ...
In young and active patients a partial shoulder replacement with a non-prosthetic glenoid arthroplasty may also be a ... If tendinitis involves the biceps tendon (the tendon located in front of the shoulder that helps bend the elbow and turn the ... The most common surgical treatment, known as resection arthroplasty, involves cutting a very small portion off the clavicle end ... shoulder replacement surgery for arthritis may be considered. In this operation, a surgeon replaces the shoulder joint with an ...
... arthroplasty). Specifically, this is a reverse shoulder replacement, a more constrained form of shoulder arthroplasty that ... Pain related to rotator cuff tendinopathy is typically on the front side of the shoulder, down to the elbow, and worse reaching ... If the cuff is incompetent, a reverse shoulder arthroplasty is available and, although not as robust a prosthesis, does not ... Al Mana L, Rajaratnam K (November 2020). "Cochrane in CORR®: Shoulder Replacement Surgery For Osteoarthritis And Rotator Cuff ...
Finger, E; Willis, F. (2008). "Dynamic splinting for knee flexion contracture following total knee arthroplasty: a case report ... Hallux rigidus or limitus ACL reconstruction Plantar fasciitis Total Knee Replacement Open reduction internal fixation External ... Pierre Robin malformation There are more than eighty Dynasplint Systems that stretch in extension and flexion of the elbow, ...
Arthroplasty, (surgery to replace the remove/replace bones to improve structure) is also suggested when the ankylosis has ... "Bilateral Spontaneous Bony Ankylosis of the Elbow Following Burn: A Case Report and Review of the Literature". Journal of ... "Outcome of Stock Total Joint Replacement With Fat Grafting in Adult Temporomandibular Joint Ankylosis Patients". Journal of ... Xia, L.; He, Y.; An, J.; Chen, S.; Zhang, Y. (2019). "Condyle-preserved arthroplasty versus costochondral grafting in ...
A review of eight thousand five hundred and seventy-nine primary arthroplasties from the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register". The ... Revision is the replacement of a prosthesis. This means that a prosthesis previously implanted in the body is removed and ... Bone cements have been used very successfully to anchor artificial joints (hip joints, knee joints, shoulder and elbow joints) ... Hip and knee registers for artificial joint replacements such as those in Sweden and Norway clearly demonstrate the advantages ...
... can occur after total knee replacement or partial knee replacement, when excessive scar tissue (collagen fibril ... elbow (stiff elbow), wrist, hand joints as well as spinal vertebrae. It can occur after injury or surgery or may arise without ... In the case of AF after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) management traditionally consisted of aggressive physical therapy, and in ... Arthrofibrosis can follow knee injury and knee surgeries like arthroscopic knee surgery or knee replacement. Scar tissue can ...
A boy named Alex was also born with a missing arm from just above the elbow. The team was able to use 3D printing to upload an ... Research is also being conducted on methods to bio-print replacements for lost tissue due to arthritis and cancer[citation ... Varacallo, Matthew; Luo, T. David; Johanson, Norman A. (2022), "Total Hip Arthroplasty Techniques", StatPearls, Treasure Island ... human tissue replacement), fashion, footwear, jewelry, eyewear, education, geographic information systems, food, and many other ...
A replacement prosthesis is usually not inserted at the time of removal to allow antibiotics to clear infection of the region. ... Hip, shoulder, wrist and elbow joints are less commonly affected. Spine, sternoclavicular and sacroiliac joints can also be ... revision arthroplasty, and surgical site infections. Staphylococci (40%) Staphylococcus aureus - the most common cause in most ...
Nevada offers revision elbow replacement and revision total elbow arthroplasty. ... What is Revision Elbow Replacement? Revision elbow replacement is a surgery performed to replace a loose or worn out initial ... Persistent pain in your elbow long after the initial replacement is the obvious indication for revision elbow replacement. ... The procedure, also called revision elbow arthroplasty, can often be more complicated than the original replacement surgery. ...
What is Total Elbow Arthroplasty (replacement)?. Total Elbow Arthroplasty (replacement) is a procedure that Savvos Health can ... Arm/Elbow like Total Elbow Arthroplasty (replacement) can be very costly procedures. Our members can save up to 90% on ... Arm/Elbow are a common type of procedure that Savvos Health coordinates with scheduling, approvals, communication, and payment ... Biceps Repair of Rupture at Distal End to Restore Elbow Function. *Biceps or Triceps Repair - Reattachment of torn or separated ...
MD offers elbow joint replacement surgery also called total elbow arthroplasty to treat elbow fracture and elbow pain. ... Elbow surgeon, Dr Syed Hasan in Columbia, and Baltimore, ... Elbow Joint Replacement, also referred to as Total Elbow ... Elbow Joint Replacement surgery, also called Total Elbow Arthroplasty, is surgery to treat the symptoms of arthritis that have ... The goal of elbow joint replacement surgery is to eliminate your pain and increase the mobility of your elbow joint. The ...
Elbow replacement is surgery to replace the elbow joint with artificial joint parts (prosthetics). ... Total elbow arthroplasty; Endoprosthetic elbow replacement; Arthritis - elbow arthroplasty; Osteoarthritis - elbow arthroplasty ... Elbow replacement surgery is usually done if the elbow joint is badly damaged and you have pain or cannot use your arm. Some ... Elbow replacement surgery eases pain for most people. It can also increase the range of motion of your elbow joint. A second ...
Shoulder replacement surgery Spire Regency Hospital Macclesfield Spire Nantwich Clinic * Trigger finger release Spire Regency ... Arthroplasty; Cartiva thumb hemiarthroplasty; WALANT surgery; Lipogems injection treatment; Endoscopic carpal tunnel release. ... Elbow surgery Hand surgery Shoulder surgery Sports injury Upper limb surgery Wrist surgery Special Clinical Interests: Rotator ... I specialise in the treatment of conditions affecting the shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand including degenerative conditions, ...
Prosthetic finger joint replacement. *Elbow arthroplasty. *Wrist reconstruction. *Arterial reconstruction. *Bone osteotomies ... Our surgeons have expertise in hand and upper extremity care from microsurgery to total elbow arthroplasty and sophisticated ... Treating Numbness & Pain in the Hand, Wrist, and Elbow From common hand problems with pain and numbness to those requiring ...
Arthroplasty - total knee/shoulder/hip/elbow: G&S. *Changing hip prosthesis: 2 Units ... Total ankle replacement: 2 Units. General Surgery *Cholecystectomy and exploration of common bile duct: G&S ...
When the damage to the joint is severe, fascial arthroplasty or elbow joint replacement may be considered. Olecranon bursitis, ... Two of the most common injuries at the elbow are overuse injuries: tennis elbow and golfers elbow. Golfers elbow involves the ... The elbow is the region between the upper arm and the forearm that surrounds the elbow joint. The elbow includes prominent ... Elbow dislocations constitute 10% to 25% of all injuries to the elbow. The elbow is one of the most commonly dislocated joints ...
Symptoms of elbow arthritis can include pain, swelling, instability and lack of full movement. First treatments of the disorder ... Arthritis of the elbow can cause pain when the joint is bent or straightened. Rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and injuries ... A total joint replacement is usually reserved for patients over 60 years old or patients with RA in advanced stages. ... Arthroplasty. The surgeon creates an artificial joint using either an internal prosthesis or an external fixation device. ...
Arthroplasty is a surgical procedure to restore the function of a joint. A joint can be restored by resurfacing the bones. An ... There may be other reasons for your healthcare provider to recommend arthroplasty. Please see hip replacement and knee ... Most joint surgery involves the hip and knee, with surgery on the ankle, elbow, shoulder, and fingers being done less often. ... What is arthroplasty? Arthroplasty is a surgical procedure to restore the function of a joint. A joint can be restored by ...
Joint Replacement. *Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Elbow. *Debridement of the joint with spur excision ... Elbow. *Tendon problems: tendinitis around the elbow is very common and may occur on the outside (tennis elbow) or in the ... The elbow is an intricate hinged joint, also with many attached soft tissues. Shoulder and elbow conditions may occur from ... The shoulder and elbow allow the upper extremity to move in all different directions, to allow the hand to be put in the ...
Arthroscopic surgery of shoulder and elbow, Shoulder / elbow /arm fracture surgery, Elbow replacement, Elbow reconstruction, ... Pyrocarbon humeral head replacement. Clinical outcome after shoulder replacement. Clinical outcome after elbow replacement. ... 3D kinematics of the shoulder girdle after arthroplasty 66 Total Publications. * close Scott L. Delp, Ph.D.. Director, Wu Tsai ... Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, Shoulder replacement, Rotator cuff repair surgery, ...
Joint Replacement in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Take Quiz. Rheumatoid Arthritis and Depression. Take Quiz. ... Which is the most common mode of failure for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who undergo total elbow arthroplasty (TEA ... Total hip arthroplasty in ankylosing spondylitis. Take Quiz. Racial differences among patients with ankylosing spondylitis. ...
View other providers who treat All Shoulder or Elbow Replacement Procedures Arthroplasty ... the muscle sparing MIS approach is used for knee replacement and anterior MIS approach is used for hip replacement. Also, bone ... This includes joint replacement of the hips, knees and shoulders. I believe in a thorough discussion about the diagnosis and ... Shoulder replacements are also advancing in techniques and materials. In short, there have been significant advances in joint ...
Reconstruction and Joint Replacement of the Shoulder, Elbow, Wrist and Hand. Virtual Visit ... Arthroplasty. Arthroscopy of the Shoulder, Elbow and Wrist. Arthroscopy of the Wrist and Elbow ...
Joint replacements (hand, wrist and elbow). *Wrist and scapholunate instability. *Distal radioulnar joint arthritis and ... Wrist and hand arthritis and arthroplasty. *Dupuytrens disease. *Arthroscopy and TFCC injury ...
If youre experiencing severe shoulder or elbow pain, there are several nonsurgical treatments available as well as surgical ... anti-inflammatory medication and physical therapy before considering a shoulder replacement, or arthroplasty. ... Chronic Elbow Pain Patients as young as their 30s may seek treatment for chronic elbow pain-sometimes called tennis elbow or ... Alleviating Shoulder and Elbow Pain November 16, 2021 • 10:54 a.m. ...
Expendable stem RHA is often successful at allowing your elbow joint to regain range of motion and mobility after an injury or ... The radial head is the part of the radius where it joins with your elbow. A radial head arthroplasty (RHA) is done to repair ... Total hip replacement is one of the most common procedures in the United States. ... You may need an expandable stem radial head arthroplasty if your elbow joint is unstable, if arthritis has made moving your ...
... book chapter on indications for reverse shoulder arthroplasty as well as conducting research on shoulder and elbow replacements ... Cincinnati Elbow and Shoulder Fellowship with Dr. Michael Greiwe, Dr. Samar Hasan and Dr. Paul Favorito ... He is a Fellow Member of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons. ...
Left Total Elbow Replacement Surgery (Arthroplasty). $395.00. Posterior intraoperative view of left elbow showing replacement ...
Total Shoulder Arthroplasty in Patients Aged 80 Years and Older: A Systematic Review. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2023 Sep 9:S1058- ... Shoulder arthroplasties are divided into three categories: reverse shoulder arthroplasty, total shoulder arthroplasty, and ... Complications of reverse shoulder arthroplasty: a concise review. Journal of the Korean Shoulder and Elbow Society. 2021 Feb 19 ... 8 Liu H, Huang TC, Yu H, Wang Y, Wang D, Long Z. Total shoulder arthroplasty versus reverse total shoulder arthroplasty: ...
Total Shoulder Replacement Arthroplasty, Trigger Finger Surgery, Ultrasound Guided Injection, Uni shoulder replacement ... Elbow Surgery, Dupuytrens Contracture Surgery, Disc Removal, Bunionectomy, Ankle Sprain, Bilateral Knee Replacement Surgery, ... Shoulder Resection Arthroplasty, Hip Replacement Surgery Partial or Total, Knee Arthroscopic Washout Procedure, Knee ... Carpal Tunnel Surgery, Disc Hernia Surgery, Arthroplasty, Anterior Approach to Hip Replacement, Ankle Fusion, Traumatic brain ...
Arthroplasty, Replacement - methods. Joint Prosthesis. Arthroplasty, Replacement, Elbow. Shoulder - surgery. Format. Book. ... Joint replacement arthroplasty : basic science, elbow and shoulder https://libcat.nshealth.ca/en/permalink/provcat25238 ...
Arthroplasty, Replacement - methods. Joint Prosthesis. Arthroplasty, Replacement, Elbow. Shoulder - surgery. Format. Book. ... Joint replacement arthroplasty : basic science, elbow and shoulder https://libcat.nshealth.ca/en/permalink/provcat25238 ...
Roth, E., & Chew, F. S. (2015). Imaging of Elbow Replacement Arthroplasty. Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology, 19:60-66. ... Loosening of the ulna component is a major cause of revision in Total Elbow Arthroplasty (TEA). The Nexel total elbow ... Sanchez-Sotelo, J. (2017). Primary elbow arthroplasty: problems and solutions. Shoulder & Elbow, 9(1):61-70. ... Elbow arthroplasty is not a frequent procedure. We want to use this as an opportunity to review our results and to share our ...
Continuing its successful tradition in knee and hip arthroplasty, replacements are also performed for shoulder, elbow, wrist ... WRIST, ELBOW AND SHOULDER ARTHROSCOPY WRIST, ELBOW AND SHOULDER ARTHROSCOPY. The use of a small camera and special tools ... Even smaller cameras and tools now permit surgeons to also operate on the elbow, wrist and finger joints using the same method ... The introduction of minimally invasive techniques and new materials has changed the state of affairs in shoulder, elbow and ...
In: Shoulder and Elbow, 2022, p. 1-11.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › Research › peer-review ... reverse total shoulder replacement", ... KW - reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. KW - reverse total ... Functional outcomes of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty in boileau class 1 and class 2 proximal humeral fracture sequelae: A ... Functional outcomes of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty in boileau class 1 and class 2 proximal humeral fracture sequelae: A ...
Long term follow-up of "Nexel" total elbow replacement. In Research - Current Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty: Comparative ... An example of a questionnaire commonly used in shoulder and elbow research is the American Shoulder and Elbow Society rating ... Reverse Total Shoulder Replacement - Long Term Follow Up with the Constant Score. ... Rate of P Acnes in arthritic shoulders undergoing primary total shoulder replacement surgery using a strict specimen collection ...
METHODS: We identified three groups of consecutive patients who had undergone prosthetic elbow arthroplasty with the Souter- ... Surviving patients in whom the elbow had not been revised were followed for a mean of sixty-one months after treatment with the ... There were thirty-three elbows in each group. All procedures were done by or under the supervision of one surgeon. ... As the English-language literature on prosthetic elbow arthroplasty contains only two comparative studies of implants in ...
  • I specialise in the treatment of conditions affecting the shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand including degenerative conditions, sports injuries and fractures with an emphasis on minimally invasive and arthroscopic surgery. (spirehealthcare.com)
  • He has written a book chapter on indications for reverse shoulder arthroplasty as well as conducting research on shoulder and elbow replacements and fractures of the upper extremity. (stelizabeth.com)
  • The Joint Arthroplasty service emphasizes reconstructive surgery of the hip, including proximal femoral and pelvic osteotomies, arthroplasty, and fixation of pelvic fractures. (utmb.edu)
  • They are trained in the anatomy and function of the elbow to offer the expertise you need, from mending elbow fractures to performing arthroscopic surgery, so you can get back to doing what you love. (spoc-ortho.com)
  • Indications for Prosthetic Replacement in Proximal Humeral Fractures. (llu.edu)
  • Neer originally designed the humeral head prosthesis for the treatment of fractures about the humeral head, and later went on to describe shoulder arthroplasty in the treatment of glenohumeral arthritis. (medscape.com)
  • The use of elbow arthroplasty for primary management of comminuted elbow fractures is rising, because the procedure produces better long-term results than several decades ago. (medscape.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Total elbow replacement (TER) is an accepted treatment for complex intra-articular distal humerus fractures in elderly patients. (bvsalud.org)
  • Revision elbow replacement is a surgery performed to replace a loose or worn out initial elbow replacement. (lasvegasshoulderelbow.com)
  • The procedure, also called 'revision elbow arthroplasty', can often be more complicated than the original replacement surgery. (lasvegasshoulderelbow.com)
  • A bandage or a plaster (slab) will be applied to your new elbow soon after the surgery. (lasvegasshoulderelbow.com)
  • Elbow joint replacement surgery may be recommended by your surgeon for the treatment of severe arthritis that has not responded to conservative treatment options such as medications or steroid injections. (syedashfaqhasanmd.com)
  • Elbow joint replacement surgery is an option that your surgeon may recommend if your overall health is good and you have not had success with conservative treatment options. (syedashfaqhasanmd.com)
  • The goal of elbow joint replacement surgery is to eliminate your pain and increase the mobility of your elbow joint. (syedashfaqhasanmd.com)
  • Occupational Therapy (OT) will begin soon after surgery and continue for about 3 months to regain full range of motion of the elbow joint. (syedashfaqhasanmd.com)
  • Elbow replacement is surgery to replace the elbow joint with artificial joint parts ( prosthetics ). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Elbow replacement surgery is usually done if the elbow joint is badly damaged and you have pain or cannot use your arm. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some people can start to use their new elbow as soon as 12 weeks after surgery. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Elbow replacement surgery eases pain for most people. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A second elbow replacement surgery is usually not as successful as the first one. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Our surgeons have expertise in hand and upper extremity care from microsurgery to total elbow arthroplasty and sophisticated grafts to congenital hand surgery. (utah.edu)
  • Most joint surgery involves the hip and knee, with surgery on the ankle, elbow, shoulder, and fingers being done less often. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • We have a nearby modern outpatient surgery center where we perform a myriad of orthopedic procedures including joint replacement surgery. (proliancesurgeons.com)
  • Dr. Jeremy Somerson , UTMB Health orthopedic surgeon specializing in shoulder and elbow surgery, sees patients of all ages, with rotator cuff issues making up the largest part of his practice. (utmb.edu)
  • He says the main goal of the procedure is to help people return to living and enjoying their daily lives, and as shoulder replacements generally have a 15-to-20-year lifespan, most patients will not need another surgery in their lifetime, as shoulder replacement is most common in individuals at or near retirement age. (utmb.edu)
  • Many patients have excellent outcomes following shoulder replacement surgery. (caringmedical.com)
  • People have very successful shoulder replacements, some doctors suggest, however, shoulder replacement surgery may make things worse. (caringmedical.com)
  • Complications from shoulder replacement surgery are a risk factor of the surgery. (caringmedical.com)
  • Back in 2015, researchers from Texas Orthopedic Hospital, the University of Houston, University of Texas, ( 1 ) noted great increases in the number of shoulder replacements being performed and that with more shoulder replacements being done, more shoulder replacement revision surgeries with be needed to address complications from the first surgery. (caringmedical.com)
  • In September 2022, research from the Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University published in the Journal of orthopaedics ( 2 ) assessed the risk factors for shoulder instability following reverse total shoulder replacement in patients with no history of shoulder surgery. (caringmedical.com)
  • In this study of 194 reverse total shoulder replacements, a small number of patients, seven, just over 3.5% sustained a post-surgery dislocation. (caringmedical.com)
  • To verify which, if any, patient related factors (BMI, hand dominance, underlying pathology, sex or age at the time of surgery) and surgical related factors (radial head replacement or resection, revision surgery, visible impingement) are related to osteolysis around the implants. (ssri.net.au)
  • Journal of Shoulder Elbow Surgery, 21:1229-1235. (ssri.net.au)
  • Results with a minimum of 10 years follow-up of the Coonrad/Morrey total elbow arthroplasty.Orthopaedics & Tramatology: Surgery & Research, 99:S337-S343. (ssri.net.au)
  • She later went on to complete additional specialty training through a shoulder and elbow surgery fellowship at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. (spoc-ortho.com)
  • The department performs both partial and total replacement surgery. (bookinghealth.com)
  • Our elbow specialists have particular expertise in the management of complex elbow conditions including elbow instability and elbow stiffness, with extensive experience in performing joint replacement surgery (arthroplasty) for more serious joint damage. (fortiusclinic.com)
  • Our knee specialists are world leaders in the treatment of knee conditions, and have particular expertise in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, treatment of joint surface (chondral) damage/ osteoarthritis, meniscal surgery, osteotomies and total or partial knee replacement. (fortiusclinic.com)
  • Hip and groin specialists at the Fortius Clinic are highly skilled in the management of both traumatic and degenerative conditions of the hip, including carrying out total hip replacement for the treatment of arthritis and revision hip replacement where previous surgery has been unsuccessful. (fortiusclinic.com)
  • Like elbow treatments, a broad range of shoulder treatments are available, including nonoperative options and shoulder surgery, such as shoulder replacement, or shoulder arthroplasty, and rotator cuff repair surgery. (spoc-ortho.com)
  • When Should I Seek Elbow Surgery or Other Care From a Specialist? (spoc-ortho.com)
  • Pay attention to your symptoms so when you meet with a doctor or surgeon, you can provide him or her with detailed information to help determine what care you need, such as nonsurgical methods, elbow surgery, or even shoulder treatments. (spoc-ortho.com)
  • When elbow surgery is necessary, our elbow surgeons utilize the state-of-the-art Summit Surgical facility and employ advanced techniques and procedures, such as elbow arthroscopy and other minimally invasive surgeries. (spoc-ortho.com)
  • At this point, your doctor may recommend surgery to fuse the elbow. (eorthopod.com)
  • Why do I need elbow fusion surgery? (eorthopod.com)
  • You will not be able to bend your elbow after fusion surgery. (eorthopod.com)
  • What happens during elbow fusion surgery? (eorthopod.com)
  • Advances in Small Animal Total Joint Replacement provides an up-to-date, comprehensive examination of joint replacement in veterinary surgery. (okvet.co.kr)
  • Part of the Advances in Veterinary Surgery series copublished with the ACVS Foundation, the book presents an evidence-based, multi-system examination of the current state of hip, knee, and elbow replacement in dogs and cats, including information on biomechanics and biomaterials not found in other sources. (okvet.co.kr)
  • J Shoulder Elbow Surgery 20(4):e1-4, June, 2011. (llu.edu)
  • J Shoulder Elbow Surgery 15(1):84-87, Jan-Feb, 2006. (llu.edu)
  • From shoulder pain relief to joint replacement surgery, we offer innovative surgical solutions that provide effective results. (buderimprivatehospital.com.au)
  • Elbow and forearm surgery. (buderimprivatehospital.com.au)
  • Buderim Private Hospital's orthopaedic surgeons have access to a Mako orthopaedic robot, which is designed to improve outcomes for patients requiring total or partial hip or knee replacement surgery. (buderimprivatehospital.com.au)
  • Matthew Jenkins, a partner at Puget Sound Orthopaedics, is fellowship-trained in shoulder and elbow surgery. (pugetsoundorthopaedics.com)
  • [ 6 ] Elbow arthroplasty can be an option in oncologic surgery when resection of primary or secondary cancer is necessary. (medscape.com)
  • Rapid growth of shoulder replacement surgery highlights a disparity in service provision, with two-thirds occurring privately. (bvsalud.org)
  • IT opioids can be administered as an adjunct to general anesthesia (e.g., for scoliosis surgery) or combined with local anesthetics and administered during spinal anesthesia (e.g., for total hip arthroplasty). (medscape.com)
  • A study by Okura et al reported that out of 67 patients who underwent primary elective elbow, wrist, or hand surgery for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), almost 85% expressed satisfaction with the treatment's outcome at the involved site, particularly with regard to pain relief, at 10-year follow-up. (medscape.com)
  • The surgical treatments for RA of the hand and wrist include synovectomy, tenosynovectomy, tendon realignment, reconstructive surgery or arthroplasty, and arthrodesis. (medscape.com)
  • Ability to use arthroscopic diagnostic and surgical techniques for managing disorders of the shoulder, knee, elbow, and ankle. (utmb.edu)
  • Total ankle replacement. (asterhospitals.in)
  • Dr. Lee specializes in the latest techniques and procedures in elbow and shoulder treatment, including shoulder arthroscopy, shoulder and elbow joint replacement, elbow and shoulder fracture repair, and rotator cuff repair, to help her patients achieve their goals. (spoc-ortho.com)
  • Dr. Littleton's practice includes wrist, elbow and shoulder arthroscopy, fracture care, adult and pediatric hand injuries, and work injuries. (orthoatlanta.com)
  • Dr. Littleton has a special interest in endoscopic and mini open carpal tunnel release, rotator cuff repair, shoulder replacement and complex elbow and wrist reconstruction. (orthoatlanta.com)
  • A total knee replacement prosthesis before implantation. (medscape.com)
  • One required open reduction with osteophyte removal, and one was converted to a resection arthroplasty (the ball of the shoulder or prosthesis is removed and this is considered salvage operation of failed shoulder replacement). (caringmedical.com)
  • The Nexel total elbow form #11 - Physician Radiographic Assessment form (published by the prosthesis manufacturer, Zimmer) will be used by the independent observers to qualify and quantify osteolysis on the X-ray. (ssri.net.au)
  • Four of these people had noticeable pain and lost some movement in their elbow joint until the prosthesis was taken out. (healthline.com)
  • How vigorously you use your elbow joint after the procedure has a major impact on the risk that the prosthesis will loosen. (healthline.com)
  • Your prosthesis is more likely to loosen or fail if you frequently use your elbow to lift or throw or if you strain your arm. (healthline.com)
  • Revision usually means that the surgeon has to open an incision to access your elbow joint again and change the prosthesis so it fits more comfortably in your joint. (healthline.com)
  • Replacement means that the surgeon uses a new or different prosthesis in the joint. (healthline.com)
  • Your surgeon may choose to do this if the prosthesis is causing you a lot of pain or keeping you from fully moving your elbow joint. (healthline.com)
  • Broadly, shoulder arthroplasty encompasses surgeries using hemiarthroplasty (humeral prosthesis without replacement of the glenoid), total shoulder arthroplasty (humeral prosthesis with glenoid resurfacing via prosthesis), and reverse total shoulder replacement (humeral cup prosthesis with glenosphere implantation). (medscape.com)
  • Methods: Patients recorded by the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry (AOANJRR) between 1 September 1999 and 31 December 2020 who underwent hemiarthroplasty for the treatment of a hip fracture with the following implants were included: a cemented monoblock Exeter Trauma Stem (ETS), cemented Exeter V40 with a bipolar head, a monoblock Thompsons prosthesis (Cobalt/Chromium or Titanium), and an Exeter V40 with a Unitrax head. (bvsalud.org)
  • The most common cause of arthritis of the elbow is rheumatoid arthritis . (cedars-sinai.org)
  • Having pain in both elbows or pain at the wrists or shoulders (or both) as well as pain in the elbows is a symptom of rheumatoid arthritis. (cedars-sinai.org)
  • Which is the most common mode of failure for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who undergo total elbow arthroplasty (TEA)? (mdedge.com)
  • Outcomes of total elbow arthroplasty for rheumatoid arthritis: comparative study of three implants. (ox.ac.uk)
  • METHODS: We identified three groups of consecutive patients who had undergone prosthetic elbow arthroplasty with the Souter-Strathclyde, Kudo, or Coonrad-Morrey implant for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The most common type of elbow arthritis is rheumatoid arthritis, which causes joint lining, or synovium, swelling and joint space narrowing. (izadihand.com)
  • Rheumatoid arthritis progressively destroys the bones and soft tissues of both elbows and other joints of the body, in particular hand and wrist joints. (izadihand.com)
  • In the early stages of rheumatoid arthritis , pain may be primarily on the outer side of the elbow joint and it may get worse as you extend your arm. (izadihand.com)
  • Swelling of the elbow joint is more common with rheumatoid arthritis. (izadihand.com)
  • Limited range of motion where you are not able to straighten or bend the elbow may be experienced in both rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. (izadihand.com)
  • Arm/Elbow like Total Elbow Arthroplasty (replacement) can be very costly procedures. (savvos.com)
  • Please see hip replacement and knee replacement surgical procedures for more specific information. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Among these procedures, hip and knee total joint replacements, which are the focus of this article, are by far the most common. (medscape.com)
  • Advances in Small Animal Total Joint Replacement is an unparalleled repository of information for veterinary surgeons, residents, and practitioners with an interest in these procedures. (okvet.co.kr)
  • Many of our orthopaedic surgeries - including joint replacements - offer minimally invasive procedures. (buderimprivatehospital.com.au)
  • He treats conditions of the shoulder and elbow with the most advanced surgical techniques, including minimally invasive and arthroscopic procedures, as well as shoulder replacements and fracture repair. (pugetsoundorthopaedics.com)
  • He's done 4 procedures, 2 where reattached the ligament that detached from my elbows, and removed gout build up in my elbows, he is a highly skilled surgeon/ doctor very knowledgeable well known in the hospitals he works, very good person takes the time to fully explain what is going on with you. (pugetsoundorthopaedics.com)
  • 3] Representing 3.1% of all joint replacements procedures, approximately 30,000 shoulder arthroplasties, half of which were hemiarthroplasties, are performed annually in the United States. (medscape.com)
  • The number of procedures for total hip and knee replacements has increased during the past 13 years ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • METHODS: Data obtained from the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry from May 2, 2005, to December 31, 2021, included all procedures for primary elbow replacement with primary diagnosis of fracture/dislocation. (bvsalud.org)
  • A retrospective, single-center study by Tominaga et al found that over a 20-year period, there was a 50.3% decrease in the total half-year period prevalence proportion (HPP) of RA-related surgeries, with significant reductions in knee, hip, shoulder/elbow, and hand procedures. (medscape.com)
  • Total Elbow Arthroplasty (replacement) is a procedure that Savvos Health can help members save up to 90% in medical costs. (savvos.com)
  • Arm/Elbow are a common type of procedure that Savvos Health coordinates with scheduling, approvals, communication, and payment to save members and payors time and money, and to orchestrate immediate cash payment for health care providers. (savvos.com)
  • Elbow Joint Replacement, also referred to as Total Elbow Arthroplasty is an operative procedure to treat the symptoms of arthritis that have not responded to non-surgical treatments. (syedashfaqhasanmd.com)
  • Arthroplasty is a surgical procedure to restore the function of a joint. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Less than 5 percent of people I see with tennis elbow end up having a procedure. (utmb.edu)
  • Elbow arthroplasty is not a frequent procedure. (ssri.net.au)
  • A radial head arthroplasty (RHA) is a procedure to replace the head of the radius bone - one of the two biggest bones in your arm that connect your wrist and elbow joints. (healthline.com)
  • Total shoulder replacement, also known as total shoulder arthroplasty, is a major surgical procedure in which your orthopedic surgeon replaces the damaged ball and socket joint of the shoulder with a metal replacement ball on a plastic surface on the socket. (kcorthopedics.com)
  • The elbow is the region between the upper arm and the forearm that surrounds the elbow joint. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are joints between the three bones of the elbow, the humerus of the upper arm, and the radius and the ulna of the forearm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tennis elbow, also called lateral epicondylitis, is a condition where the forearm muscles and tendons become damaged from overuse. (spoc-ortho.com)
  • The radius bone of the forearm is usually not part of the elbow fusion. (eorthopod.com)
  • Radial Head Subluxation (Nursemaid's Elbow) Elbow dislocations occur when the lower end of the upper arm bone (humerus) loses contact with the tops (heads) of the forearm bones (radius and ulna). (msdmanuals.com)
  • In these cases, doctors usually recommend surgeries such as interposition arthroplasty or elbow joint replacement . (eorthopod.com)
  • Hip replacement and Knee replacement are the most common types of arthroplasty surgeries that are performed. (asterhospitals.in)
  • This includes the CORI robotic system used specifically for knee replacement surgeries. (buderimprivatehospital.com.au)
  • The upper arm bone or humerus connects from the shoulder to the elbow forming the top of the hinge joint. (syedashfaqhasanmd.com)
  • The elbow includes prominent landmarks such as the olecranon, the cubital fossa (also called the chelidon, or the elbow pit), and the lateral and the medial epicondyles of the humerus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Left elbow extended and flexed At the surface of the humerus where it faces the joint is the trochlea. (wikipedia.org)
  • It affects the cushioning cartilage on the ends of elbow joint bones (humerus, radius and ulna) that enables them to move smoothly in the joint. (izadihand.com)
  • You may be a candidate for reverse shoulder replacement if you have cuff tear arthropathy or a severe fracture of the proximal humerus. (kcorthopedics.com)
  • The ulna and the humerus bones meet at the elbow to form a hinge. (eorthopod.com)
  • Patients as young as their 30s may seek treatment for chronic elbow pain-sometimes called tennis elbow or golfer's elbow. (utmb.edu)
  • Elbow specialists often see athletes who develop repetitive stress injuries known as tennis elbow or golfer's elbow. (spoc-ortho.com)
  • Golfer's elbow, or medial epicondylitis, is another source of tendon pain. (spoc-ortho.com)
  • Side note reference: A February 2023 German paper ( 23 ) explained glenoid loosening, including protrusion (the prosthetic part of the replacement has loosened and is now sticking out), rotator cuff insufficiency, including instability, and early/late infection as primary concerns. (caringmedical.com)
  • BACKGROUND: As the English-language literature on prosthetic elbow arthroplasty contains only two comparative studies of implants in contemporary use, to our knowledge, comparisons of prosthetic performance is difficult. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Knowledge of principles of prosthetic design and materials in total hip replacement and to evaluate and plan prosthetic and non-prosthetic arthroplasties. (utmb.edu)
  • Our specialty-trained elbow surgeons, Dr. Benjamin Hendy , Dr. Erika Kuehn , Dr. Julia Lee , Dr. Alexander Majors , and Dr. Steven Thaxter , are medical specialists whose practices focus on patients with orthopedic issues, including the elbow and upper extremity. (spoc-ortho.com)
  • Shoulder arthroplasties are divided into three categories: reverse shoulder arthroplasty, total shoulder arthroplasty, and partial shoulder joint replacement (including humeral hemiarthroplasty and humeral head resurfacing arthroplasty). (caringmedical.com)
  • Shoulder hemiarthroplasty is a shoulder replacement in which the broken humeral head is replaced with an artificial joint and the fractured bone is reconstructed around the artificial joint. (medscape.com)
  • Patients with adequate glenoid bone stock and an intact rotator cuff usually benefit from total shoulder arthroplasty when compared to hemiarthroplasty. (medscape.com)
  • In a large study comparing hemiarthroplasty to total shoulder arthroplasty, Pfahler et al[14] found that for 102 shoulders treated with hemiarthroplasty and 418 with total shoulder arthroplasty, both functional and subjective outcomes were better with total shoulder arthroplasty than hemiarthroplasty. (medscape.com)
  • In a prospective randomized trial involving 51 shoulders, Gartsman et al[15] determined that total shoulder arthroplasty resulted in significantly greater pain relief and internal rotation than hemiarthroplasty, but was associated with increased cost, operative time, and blood loss. (medscape.com)
  • Similarly, in a meta-analysis of 112 shoulders treated for osteoarthritis, Bryant et al[16] found that total shoulder arthroplasty offered better functional outcomes and decreased pain when compared to hemiarthroplasty at 2-year follow up. (medscape.com)
  • The number of joint replacements that are performed annually has been increasing steadily, with 234,000 total hip replacements (THRs) and 478,000 total knee replacements (TKRs) performed in the United States in 2004. (medscape.com)
  • But RHA joint replacements are not without risks. (healthline.com)
  • Arthritis and Arthroplasty: The Shoulder, ed. (llu.edu)
  • The patient underwent total hip arthroplasty resection. (cdc.gov)
  • An incision is made over the back of the elbow. (syedashfaqhasanmd.com)
  • This condition develops when a nerve on the back of the elbow becomes compressed. (spoc-ortho.com)
  • The first step in an elbow fusion is an incision down the back of the elbow. (eorthopod.com)
  • Loosening of the ulna component is a major cause of revision in Total Elbow Arthroplasty (TEA). (ssri.net.au)
  • In cases of advanced elbow osteoarthritis, patients may experience numbness in their ring and small fingers due to increased pressure on the ulnar nerve by the swelling on the inner (medial) side of the elbow. (izadihand.com)
  • If you are experiencing shoulder or elbow pain, learn more about your treatment options at utmbhealth.com/orthopedics/hand-elbow-shoulder . (utmb.edu)
  • At Sierra Pacific Orthopedics, the region's most preferred orthopedic practice, our specialty-trained elbow doctors are recognized experts in assessing, diagnosing, and treating patients with elbow injuries and conditions. (spoc-ortho.com)
  • At Sierra Pacific Orthopedics, we are dedicated to providing all of our orthopedic doctors, including our fellowship-trained and board-certified elbow providers, with every tool and resource they may need. (spoc-ortho.com)
  • Shoulder arthroplasty is a rapidly evolving area of orthopedics focused on treating specific, painful ailments of the glenohumeral articulation. (medscape.com)
  • This is a retrospective chart and radiological review plus prospective follow up of all patients who underwent Nexel total elbow arthroplasty by a single surgeon between 2013 and 2019. (ssri.net.au)
  • Patients with osteoarthritis usually complain of "grating" or "locking" sensation in the elbow as well as joint instability, which makes it difficult to do normal daily activities. (izadihand.com)
  • The Nexel total elbow arthroplasty was developed with a new bearing design that allows greater contact area with better load sharing and lower edge loading compared to the Coonrad/Morrey arthroplasty (King, et al. (ssri.net.au)
  • Ulnar component surface finish influenced the outcome of primary Coonrad-Morrey total elbow arthroplasty. (ssri.net.au)
  • Physiological Loading of the Coonrad/Morrey, Nexel, and Discovery Elbow Systems: Evaluation by Finite Element Analysis. (ssri.net.au)
  • Aseptic loosening rate of the humeral stem in the Coonrad-Morrey total elbow arthroplasty. (ssri.net.au)
  • Surviving patients in whom the elbow had not been revised were followed for a mean of sixty-one months after treatment with the Souter-Strathclyde implant, sixty-seven months after treatment with the Kudo implant, and sixty-eight months after treatment with the Coonrad-Morrey implant. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Osteoarthritis and injuries can also cause arthritis in the elbow joint. (cedars-sinai.org)
  • A detailed history including medical conditions, activities that aggravate elbow use, and any prior injuries is important. (izadihand.com)
  • Likewise, elbow injuries can alter normal alignment and eventually produce arthritis. (eorthopod.com)
  • Radiograph of an uncemented, hydroxyapatite-coated total knee replacement. (medscape.com)
  • What is Revision Elbow Replacement? (lasvegasshoulderelbow.com)
  • Typically, cemented semi-constrained prostheses are used for revision elbow replacement. (lasvegasshoulderelbow.com)
  • Several factors can contribute to revision elbow replacement. (lasvegasshoulderelbow.com)
  • Persistent pain in your elbow long after the initial replacement is the obvious indication for revision elbow replacement. (lasvegasshoulderelbow.com)
  • Reimplantation (including cement-within-cement technique) can be a viable and reliable option for the revision elbow replacement. (lasvegasshoulderelbow.com)
  • A carefully planned and well-organized rehabilitation program is the key to the success of a revision elbow replacement. (lasvegasshoulderelbow.com)
  • They do note: "Revision of anatomical to reverse arthroplasty shows better clinical outcomes and lower complication rates than anatomical revision. (caringmedical.com)
  • The most common treatments for loose-fitting joints are revision, replacement, and removal. (healthline.com)
  • Revision hip replacement. (asterhospitals.in)
  • Revision shoulder and elbow replacement. (asterhospitals.in)
  • Cyanoacrylate microbial sealant may reduce the prevalence of positive cultures in revision shoulder arthroplasty. (llu.edu)
  • Chapter 9] In: Revision and Complex Shoulder Arthroplasty, Cofield RH & Sperling JW - eds. (llu.edu)
  • We used data from a large national arthroplasty registry to compare the outcome of HA and TER undertaken for fracture/dislocation and to assess the impact of demographics and implant choice on revision rates. (bvsalud.org)
  • This study aimed to assess the influence of hospital setting on shoulder replacement revision rate at a national level. (bvsalud.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Differences exist between private and public hospitals for revision rate following primary shoulder replacement. (bvsalud.org)
  • Arthroplasty may be used when medical treatments no longer effectively relieve joint pain and disability. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • If you're experiencing severe shoulder or elbow pain, there are several nonsurgical treatments available as well as surgical techniques with a successful track record. (utmb.edu)
  • RHA is usually recommended if the radial head has been fractured where it meets the elbow joint and other types of treatments - such as physical therapy or corticosteroid injections - haven't worked. (healthline.com)
  • Additionally, as part of our Elbow Center , our elbow experts work together to offer you comprehensive care and the latest treatments to help you restore your function. (spoc-ortho.com)
  • But eventually the elbow can become so painful that nonsurgical treatments don't work anymore. (eorthopod.com)
  • Elbow conditions should be evaluated by an Orthopedic surgeon for proper diagnosis and treatment. (syedashfaqhasanmd.com)
  • With the right help from a skilled orthopedic surgeon, patients undergoing total shoulder arthroplasty can experience full recovery, find relief from pain, and restore their range of motion so they can participate in the activities they love. (kcorthopedics.com)
  • A cut (incision) is made on the back of your elbow so that the surgeon can view your elbow joint. (medlineplus.gov)
  • An elbow specialist is a surgeon with specialized training who treats patients with a wide range of elbow conditions. (spoc-ortho.com)
  • When this joint is a source of pain, the surgeon may remove the round end of the radius near the elbow. (eorthopod.com)
  • The first shoulder arthroplasty, performed in 1893, is credited to French surgeon Jules Emile Péan. (medscape.com)
  • The muscles are retracted and tendons and ligaments are moved away to expose the elbow joint. (syedashfaqhasanmd.com)
  • The elbow, like other joints, has ligaments on either side. (wikipedia.org)
  • RHA may not be enough to repair an elbow joint if there is damage to the surrounding ligaments or other bones . (healthline.com)
  • Talk to one of our orthopedic surgeons to see if your condition warrants a possible total shoulder replacement. (kcorthopedics.com)
  • When these conditions happen, a traditional total shoulder replacement is not an effective form of treatment. (kcorthopedics.com)
  • Private and public settings were compared for stemmed total shoulder replacement (sTSR) for osteoarthritis (OA), reverse total shoulder replacement (rTSR) for OA/cuff arthropathy (CA), and rTSR for fracture. (bvsalud.org)
  • They will also look at the range of motion you have as well as identifying what positions cause pain to your elbow. (cedars-sinai.org)
  • During a physical examination, your doctor will look for tenderness and swelling, limited range of motion as well as identify positions which cause pain to your elbow joint. (izadihand.com)
  • The radius bone in your arm connects your elbow to your wrist. (healthline.com)
  • The alternative is called a reverse shoulder replacement. (kcorthopedics.com)
  • A reverse shoulder replacement uses different muscles to help the arm move than what are used normally. (kcorthopedics.com)
  • Evaluation of the learning curve for reverse shoulder arthroplasty. (llu.edu)
  • Usually, RA affects both elbows, as well other joints such as the hand, wrist and shoulder. (cedars-sinai.org)
  • RHA treats elbow joints that have become unstable or worn down by arthritis , overuse, or injury and can't be treated using other methods, such as corticosteroids. (healthline.com)
  • In contrast to other joints, such as the hip or knee, elbow function cannot be easily replaced or bypassed by external aids. (medscape.com)
  • The elbow joint combines two rotatory axes using three joints: flexion/extension by the humeroulnar and humeroradial joints, and pronation/supination by the radioulnar and humeroradial joints. (medscape.com)
  • You may need an expandable stem radial head arthroplasty if your elbow joint is unstable, if arthritis has made moving your elbow painful or difficult, or if your radial head can't be repaired or reconstructed. (healthline.com)
  • The radial head is the part of the radius where it joins with your elbow. (healthline.com)
  • A radial head arthroplasty (RHA) is done to repair any damage or injury to the radial head so that you can move the joint more freely. (healthline.com)
  • What are the benefits of expandable stem radial head arthroplasty? (healthline.com)
  • Cut an incision in the skin above the elbow joint near the radial head. (healthline.com)
  • What Can Cause a Loose-Fitting Joint After Radial Head Arthroplasty? (healthline.com)
  • How common is loosening following radial head arthroplasty? (healthline.com)
  • How is a loose-fitting joint following radial head arthroplasty treated? (healthline.com)
  • Who should avoid a radial head arthroplasty? (healthline.com)