Roentgenography of a joint, usually after injection of either positive or negative contrast medium.
Fibrocartilage that makes up the triangular fibrocartilage complex which is found in the WRIST JOINT.
Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.
Non-neoplastic tumor-like lesions at joints, developed from the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE of a joint through the JOINT CAPSULE into the periarticular tissues. They are filled with SYNOVIAL FLUID with a smooth and translucent appearance. A synovial cyst can develop from any joint, but most commonly at the back of the knee, where it is known as POPLITEAL CYST.
A low-osmolar, ionic contrast medium used in various radiographic procedures.
Displacement of the HUMERUS from the SCAPULA.
Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.
The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.
General or unspecified injuries involving the hip.
Congenital dislocation of the hip generally includes subluxation of the femoral head, acetabular dysplasia, and complete dislocation of the femoral head from the true acetabulum. This condition occurs in approximately 1 in 1000 live births and is more common in females than in males.
Radiography using air, oxygen, or some other gas as a contrast medium.
The part of the pelvis that comprises the pelvic socket where the head of FEMUR joins to form HIP JOINT (acetabulofemoral joint).
The musculotendinous sheath formed by the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, and teres minor muscles. These help stabilize the head of the HUMERUS in the glenoid fossa and allow for rotation of the SHOULDER JOINT about its longitudinal axis.
An effective non-ionic, water-soluble contrast agent which is used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiographic procedures. Its low systemic toxicity is the combined result of low chemotoxicity and low osmolality.
Injuries to the wrist or the wrist joint.
The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.
A radiopaque medium used for urography, angiography, venography, and myelography. It is highly viscous and binds to plasma proteins.
The articulation between a metatarsal bone (METATARSAL BONES) and a phalanx.
The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Displacement of the femur bone from its normal position at the HIP JOINT.
Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.
Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The external junctural region between the lower part of the abdomen and the thigh.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in skeletal scintigraphy. Because of its absorption by a variety of tumors, it is useful for the detection of neoplasms.
Minimally invasive procedures guided with the aid of magnetic resonance imaging to visualize tissue structures.
Injuries to the fibrous cords of connective tissue which attach muscles to bones or other structures.
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
Forcible or traumatic tear or break of an organ or other soft part of the body.
Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.
The interarticular fibrocartilages of the superior surface of the tibia.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.
The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The joining of objects by means of a cement (e.g., in fracture fixation, such as in hip arthroplasty for joining of the acetabular component to the femoral component). In dentistry, it is used for the process of attaching parts of a tooth or restorative material to a natural tooth or for the attaching of orthodontic bands to teeth by means of an adhesive.
Combination or superimposition of two images for demonstrating differences between them (e.g., radiograph with contrast vs. one without, radionuclide images using different radionuclides, radiograph vs. radionuclide image) and in the preparation of audiovisual materials (e.g., offsetting identical images, coloring of vessels in angiograms).
Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
A dead body, usually a human body.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.
Replacement for a hip joint.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.

Accuracy of EBRA-FCA in the measurement of migration of femoral components of total hip replacement. Einzel-Bild-Rontgen-Analyse-femoral component analysis. (1/458)

Several methods of measuring the migration of the femoral component after total hip replacement have been described, but they use different reference lines, and have differing accuracies, some unproven. Statistical comparison of different studies is rarely possible. We report a study of the EBRA-FCA method (femoral component analysis using Einzel-Bild-Rontgen-Analyse) to determine its accuracy using three independent assessments, including a direct comparison with the results of roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA). The accuracy of EBRA-FCA was better than +/- 1.5 mm (95% percentile) with a Cronbach's coefficient alpha for interobserver reliability of 0.84; a very good result. The method had a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 78% compared with RSA for the detection of migration of over 1 mm. This is accurate enough to assess the stability of a prosthesis within a relatively limited period. The best reference line for downward migration is between the greater trochanter and the shoulder of the stem, as confirmed by two experimental analyses and a computer-assisted design.  (+info)

The prediction of failure of the stem in THR by measurement of early migration using EBRA-FCA. Einzel-Bild-Roentgen-Analyse-femoral component analysis. (2/458)

We report the ten-year results for three designs of stem in 240 total hip replacements, for which subsidence had been measured on plain radiographs at regular intervals. Accurate migration patterns could be determined by the method of Einzel-Bild-Roentgen-Analyse-femoral component analysis (EBRA-FCA) for 158 hips (66%). Of these, 108 stems (68%) remained stable throughout, and five (3%) started to migrate after a median of 54 months. Initial migration of at least 1 mm was seen in 45 stems (29%) during the first two years, but these then became stable. We revised 17 stems for aseptic loosening, and 12 for other reasons. Revision for aseptic loosening could be predicted by EBRA-FCA with a sensitivity of 69%, a specificity of 80%, and an accuracy of 79% by the use of a threshold of subsidence of 1.5 mm during the first two years. Similar observations over a five-year period allowed the long-term outcome to be predicted with an accuracy of 91%. We discuss the importance of four different patterns of subsidence and confirm that the early measurement of migration by a reasonably accurate method can help to predict long-term outcome. Such methods should be used to evaluate new and modified designs of prosthesis.  (+info)

Excessive paternal transmission in psoriatic arthritis. (3/458)

OBJECTIVE: The differential expression of a disease according to the sex of the disease-transmitting parent has been demonstrated in several autoimmune disorders. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether there are differences in the transmission and expression of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) that are dependent on the sex of the affected parent. METHODS: All probands (patients with PsA) were identified from among the patients attending the University of Toronto Psoriatic Arthritis Clinic. A self-reported family history of psoriasis or PsA was noted for each proband. Differences in parental and offspring transmission with respect to the proband were evaluated. In addition, the expression of PsA according to the sex of the affected parent was assessed at the time of the proband's presentation to the clinic. RESULTS: Ninety-five probands had affected parents: 62 (65%) had an affected father, and 33 (35%) had an affected mother. Thus, the proportion of paternal transmission (0.65) was significantly greater than was expected (0.5) (P = 0.001). Twelve of 74 offspring from male probands (16.2%) were affected with psoriasis or PsA, as compared with 9 of 108 offspring from female probands (8.3%) (P = 0.10). Probands whose fathers were affected had a higher frequency of skin lesions prior to arthritis (P = 0.047), an erythrocyte sedimentation rate > 15 mm/hour (P = 0.044), and a lower incidence of rheumatoid factor (P = 0.044). No differences were noted with respect to age at the onset of psoriasis or PsA, the severity of the PsA, or the frequency of HLA antigens. CONCLUSION: There appears to be excessive paternal transmission in PsA. Further clinical confirmation and elucidation of its genetic basis is warranted.  (+info)

Arthritis of the finger joints: a comprehensive approach comparing conventional radiography, scintigraphy, ultrasound, and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. (4/458)

OBJECTIVE: A prospective study was performed comparing conventional radiography, 3-phase bone scintigraphy, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with precontrast and dynamic postcontrast examinations in 60 patients with various forms of arthritis including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), spondyl-arthropathy, and arthritis associated with connective tissue disease. METHODS: A total of 840 finger joints were examined clinically and by all 4 imaging methods. Experienced investigators blinded to the clinical findings and diagnoses analyzed all methods independently of each other. The patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 included 32 patients (448 finger joints) without radiologic signs of destructive arthritis (Larsen grades 0-1) of the evaluated hand and wrist and group 2 included 28 patients (392 finger joints) with radiographs revealing erosions (Larsen grade 2) of the evaluated hand and/or wrist. RESULTS: Clinical evaluation, scintigraphy, MRI, and ultrasound were each more sensitive than conventional radiography in detecting inflammatory soft tissue lesions as well as destructive joint processes in arthritis patients in group 1. All differences were statistically significant. We found ultrasound to be even more sensitive than MRI in the detection of synovitis. MRI detected erosions in 92 finger joints (20%; 26 patients) in group 1 that had not been detected by conventional radiography. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that MRI and ultrasound are valuable diagnostic methods in patients with arthritis who have normal findings on radiologic evaluation.  (+info)

Clinical, radiographic and HLA associations as markers for different patterns of psoriatic arthritis. (5/458)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine whether the five clinical forms of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) identified by Moll and Wright (Semin Arthritis Rheum 1973;3:55-78) could be clearly distinguished, especially as the disease evolved over time, to analyse whether radiographic features or HLA associations could define subsets with greater precision and to identify predictors of disease outcome. METHODS: Seventy-three patients (37 males and 36 females) were followed for a median time of 8 yr (range 1-16 yr). A standard clinical protocol was used to assess patients at each visit and two clinical scores. based on the joint areas involved, were defined to evaluate the mode of onset and the evolution of arthritis. X-ray films of the hands, feet and sacroiliac joints were taken and the patients were divided into two categories according to the presence or absence of erosions and an X-ray erosion score was also used. Three classification methods were used to define the different clinical subsets. HLA-A, B and DR antigens were tested by standard microlymphocytotoxicity assays. A multiple linear regression model was used in the statistical analysis. RESULTS: The five classical clinical subsets defined by Moll and Wright did not remain since distinct peripheral arthritis patterns tended to evolve over time. Only two discrete groups were identified, axial disease (AD) (sacroilitis with or without peripheral arthritis) in 29% of cases and peripheral disease (PD) without sacroilitis in 71%. AD was positively associated with the duration of arthritis (P < 0.04), presence of mutilation (P < 0.02) and the joint area score over disease evolution (JASE) (P < 0.02). There were erosions in 71% of the patients. Erosions correlated with the presence of mutilation (P < 0.007) and with the JASE (P < 0.0005). HLA-B27 was found in 43% of patients with AD, but only in 11% of PD patients (P < 0.01). No other clear HLA correlations were found. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the relatively small number of patients, this longitudinal study suggests that only two clinical subsets can be clearly defined in PsA, AD and PD; these are primarily determined on clinical grounds although HLA-B27 is strongly associated with AD. The evolution of PD pattern with time means that narrower peripheral arthritis subsets are of little clinical use.  (+info)

Heritabilities of radiologic osteoarthritis in peripheral joints and of disc degeneration of the spine. (6/458)

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the genetic influence on the occurrence of radiologic osteoarthritis (ROA) in the knees, hips, and hands and disc degeneration of the spine in the general population. METHODS: A random sample of 1,583 individuals was drawn to estimate the prevalence of ROA and disc degeneration in the general population. Of 118 probands with multiple affected joint sites who were derived from this sample, we were able to recruit 257 siblings. The variance of ROA and disc degeneration within sibling pairs was compared with the variance between sibling pairs. Heritability estimates for ROA in the knees, hips, and hands and for disc degeneration of the spine were calculated. OA was defined according to radiologic criteria, using the Kellgren/Lawrence grading system. RESULTS: We observed that hand ROA and disc degeneration of the spine were statistically significantly more frequent in siblings than in the random sample, whereas the prevalence of knee and of hip ROA was similar and lower, respectively. Heritability estimates for hand ROA and disc degeneration were statistically significant, P = 0.56 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.34-0.76) and P = 0.75 (95% CI 0.30-1.00), respectively. For knee and hip ROA, no evidence of a genetic effect in the general population was found. Finally, the heritability estimate for a score that summed the number of joints affected in the knees, hips, hands, and spine was 0.78 (95% CI 0.52-0.98). All heritability estimates were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and bone mineral density. CONCLUSION: The present study shows that in the general population, there is a strong genetic effect for hand ROA and disc degeneration of the spine. The findings on the total number of joints affected at multiple sites suggest genetic susceptibility to generalized OA.  (+info)

Subperiosteal ganglion cyst of the tibia. A communication with the knee demonstrated by delayed arthrography. (7/458)

We report a patient with a subperiosteal ganglion cyst of the tibia which was imaged by radiography, arthrography, CT and MRI. The images were correlated with the arthroscopic surgical and histological findings. Spiculated formation of periosteal new bone on plain radiographs led to the initial suspicion of a malignant tumour. Demonstration of the cystic nature of the tumour using cross-sectional imaging was important for the precise diagnosis. Communication between the ganglion cyst and the knee was shown by a delayed arthrographic technique, and the presence of this communication was confirmed at arthroscopy and surgically.  (+info)

Placement of intra-articular injections verified by mini air-arthrography. (8/458)

OBJECTIVE: To develop and assess a simple, inexpensive method for ascertaining the placement of intra-articular injections for knee osteoarthritis METHODS: During a one year period patients with "dry" osteoarthritis of the knee who received intra-articular therapy were tested by air-arthrography. Along with triamcinolone and lignocaine (lidocaine), 5 ml of air was injected into the joint. On subsequent lateral and anterior-posterior radiographs a correct placement was verified by a sharply defined shadow of air in the suprapatellar pouch, while extra-articular air was diffusely spread in the surrounding tissue. RESULTS: In 51 of 56 cases the injection was correctly placed. In the remaining five cases the injection was immediately repeated and positioned within the joint. No adverse events were seen that could be ascribed to the use of air during the study, although bleeding in the quadriceps was seen one week after an extra-articular injection. CONCLUSION: With mini-air arthrography, it is possible to test the placement of intra-articular injections in knee joints. The method is proposed as a learning tool as well as providing a means of quality assurance in studies involving intra-articular injections.  (+info)

Synovial cysts are usually benign, meaning they are not cancerous, but they can cause significant discomfort and disrupt daily activities. Treatment options for synovial cysts include draining the fluid from the cyst, physiotherapy to improve range of motion and strength, or surgery to remove the cyst if it is large and causing persistent symptoms.

The formation of a synovial cyst is often caused by trauma to the joint or tendon, such as a fall or repetitive strain injury. It can also be caused by conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis, which can lead to inflammation and fluid buildup in the joints. In some cases, synovial cysts may be inherited or may occur spontaneously without any known cause.

Synovial cysts are usually diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as X-rays or ultrasound, and arthroscopy, which involves inserting a small camera into the joint to view the inside of the joint and detect any abnormalities.

It's important to seek medical attention if you experience persistent pain or swelling in a joint, as these symptoms could be indicative of a synovial cyst or another underlying condition that requires treatment. With proper diagnosis and treatment, it is possible to effectively manage the symptoms of a synovial cyst and improve joint function and mobility.

There are two main types of shoulder dislocations:

1. Shoulder dislocation: This occurs when the ball at the top of the humerus is forced out of its socket in the scapula.
2. Multidirectional instability (MDI): This occurs when the connections between the humerus, scapula, and collarbone (clavicle) are loose or unstable, causing the shoulder to dislocate in multiple directions.

Symptoms of a shoulder dislocation may include:

* Severe pain in your shoulder
* Swelling and bruising around your shoulder
* Difficulty moving your arm or putting weight on it
* A visible deformity in your shoulder

If you suspect that you have a shoulder dislocation, it's important to seek medical attention right away. Your doctor may perform an X-ray or other imaging tests to confirm the diagnosis and determine the severity of the dislocation. Treatment options for a shoulder dislocation may include:

* Reduction: This is a procedure where your doctor manipulates the bones back into their proper position.
* Immobilization: Your arm may be immobilized in a sling or brace to allow the joint to heal.
* Physical therapy: After the initial injury has healed, physical therapy can help improve range of motion and strength in your shoulder.

In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair any damage to the surrounding tissues or to realign the bones. It's important to follow your doctor's recommendations for treatment and rehabilitation to ensure proper healing and prevent future complications.

There are several common types of hip injuries that can occur, including:

1. Hip fractures: A break in the femur (thigh bone) or pelvis that can be caused by a fall or direct blow to the hip.
2. Muscle strains and tears: Injuries to the muscles and tendons surrounding the hip joint, often caused by overuse or sudden movement.
3. Ligament sprains: Injuries to the ligaments that connect bones together in the hip joint, often caused by twisting or bending movements.
4. Dislocations: When the ball of the femur becomes dislodged from the socket in the pelvis, causing pain and limited mobility.
5. Labral tears: Injuries to the cartilage that lines the edge of the hip joint, often caused by repetitive motion or trauma.
6. Osteonecrosis: Death of bone tissue due to a lack of blood supply, often caused by a condition called avascular necrosis.
7. Hip impingement: When the ball of the femur and the socket of the pelvis do not fit together properly, causing friction and pain.
8. Hip bursitis: Inflammation of the fluid-filled sacs (bursae) that cushion the joints and reduce friction, often caused by repetitive motion or trauma.

Symptoms of hip injuries can include pain, stiffness, limited mobility, swelling, and difficulty walking or standing. Treatment for hip injuries can range from conservative measures such as physical therapy, bracing, and medication to surgical interventions such as hip replacement or repair.

Types of Wrist Injuries:

1. Sprains and Strains: These are common wrist injuries that occur when the ligaments or muscles are stretched or torn due to sudden movements or overuse.
2. Fractures: A fracture is a break in one or more of the bones in the wrist, which can be caused by a fall onto an outstretched hand or by a direct blow to the wrist.
3. Tendinitis: This is inflammation of the tendons, which connect muscles to bones. Wrist tendinitis can occur due to repetitive movements such as typing or gripping.
4. Carpal tunnel syndrome: This is a condition where the median nerve, which runs down the arm and into the hand through a narrow passageway in the wrist, becomes compressed or pinched. It can cause pain, numbness, and tingling in the hand and wrist.
5. Wrist fracture-dislocations: This is a type of injury where a bone in the wrist is broken and displaced from its normal position.
6. Ganglion cysts: These are non-cancerous lumps that can develop on the top of the wrist, usually due to repetitive movement or inflammation.
7. De Quervain's tenosynovitis: This is a condition that affects the tendons on the thumb side of the wrist, causing pain and stiffness in the wrist and thumb.

Symptoms of Wrist Injuries:

1. Pain
2. Swelling
3. Bruising
4. Limited mobility or stiffness
5. Difficulty gripping or grasping objects
6. Numbness or tingling in the hand or fingers
7. Weakness in the wrist or hand

Treatment of Wrist Injuries:

The treatment for wrist injuries depends on the severity of the injury and can range from conservative methods such as rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) to surgical intervention. Some common treatments include:

1. Immobilization: A cast or splint may be used to immobilize the wrist and allow it to heal.
2. Physical therapy: Gentle exercises and stretches can help improve mobility and strength in the wrist.
3. Medications: Pain relievers, anti-inflammatory drugs, or steroid injections may be prescribed to manage pain and inflammation.
4. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged tissue or realign bones.
5. Rest: Avoid activities that aggravate the injury and give your wrist time to heal.
6. Ice: Apply ice to the affected area to reduce pain and inflammation.
7. Compression: Use a compression bandage to help reduce swelling.
8. Elevation: Keep your hand elevated above the level of your heart to reduce swelling.

It's important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following symptoms:

* Severe pain that doesn't improve with medication
* Swelling or bruising that gets worse over time
* Difficulty moving your wrist or fingers
* Deformity or abnormal alignment of the wrist
* Numbness or tingling in your hand or fingers
* Weakness or difficulty gripping objects

If you suspect that you have a wrist injury, it's important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare professional can evaluate your symptoms and provide an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan.

1. Dislocation of the femoral head: This occurs when the ball-shaped head of the femur (thigh bone) is forced out of the socket of the pelvis.
2. Dislocation of the acetabulum: This occurs when the cup-shaped socket of the pelvis is forced out of its normal position.

Hip dislocation can cause severe pain, swelling, and difficulty moving the affected leg. Treatment options for hip dislocation vary depending on the severity of the condition and may include:

1. Reduction: This involves manually putting the bones back into their proper position.
2. Surgery: This may be necessary to repair or replace damaged tissues or bones.
3. Physical therapy: This can help improve mobility and strength in the affected limb.
4. Medications: These may be prescribed to manage pain, inflammation, and other symptoms.

Early diagnosis and treatment of hip dislocation are essential to prevent long-term complications and improve outcomes for patients.

1. Osteoarthritis: A degenerative condition that causes the breakdown of cartilage in the joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and loss of mobility.
2. Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disease that causes inflammation in the joints, leading to pain, swelling, and deformity.
3. Gout: A condition caused by the buildup of uric acid in the joints, leading to sudden and severe attacks of pain, inflammation, and swelling.
4. Bursitis: Inflammation of the bursae, small fluid-filled sacs that cushion the joints and reduce friction between tendons and bones.
5. Tendinitis: Inflammation of the tendons, which connect muscles to bones.
6. Synovitis: Inflammation of the synovial membrane, a thin lining that covers the joints and lubricates them with fluid.
7. Periarthritis: Inflammation of the tissues around the joints, such as the synovial membrane, tendons, and ligaments.
8. Spondyloarthritis: A group of conditions that affect the spine and sacroiliac joints, leading to inflammation and pain in these areas.
9. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: A condition that affects children and causes inflammation and pain in the joints.
10. Systemic lupus erythematosus: An autoimmune disease that can affect many parts of the body, including the joints.

These are just a few examples of the many types of joint diseases that exist. Each type has its own unique symptoms and causes, and they can be caused by a variety of factors such as genetics, injury, infection, or age-related wear and tear. Treatment options for joint diseases can range from medication and physical therapy to surgery, depending on the severity of the condition and its underlying cause.

There are several types of tendon injuries, including:

1. Tendinitis: Inflammation of a tendon, often caused by repetitive strain or overuse.
2. Tendon rupture: A complete tear of a tendon, which can be caused by trauma or degenerative conditions such as rotator cuff tears in the shoulder.
3. Tendon strain: A stretch or tear of a tendon, often caused by acute injury or overuse.
4. Tendon avulsion: A condition where a tendon is pulled away from its attachment point on a bone.

Symptoms of tendon injuries can include pain, swelling, redness, and limited mobility in the affected area. Treatment options depend on the severity of the injury and may include rest, physical therapy, medication, or surgery. Preventive measures such as proper warm-up and cool-down exercises, stretching, and using appropriate equipment can help reduce the risk of tendon injuries.


1. A ruptured Achilles tendon occurs when the tendon that connects the calf muscle to the heel bone is stretched too far and tears.
2. A ruptured appendix occurs when the appendix suddenly bursts, leading to infection and inflammation.
3. A ruptured aneurysm occurs when a weakened blood vessel bulges and bursts, leading to bleeding in the brain.
4. A ruptured eardrum occurs when there is sudden pressure on the eardrum, such as from an explosion or a blow to the head, which causes it to tear.
5. A ruptured ovarian cyst occurs when a fluid-filled sac on the ovary bursts, leading to pain and bleeding.

Symptoms of rupture can include sudden and severe pain, swelling, bruising, and bleeding. Treatment for rupture depends on the location and severity of the injury and may include surgery, medication, or other interventions.

1. Meniscal tears: The meniscus is a cartilage structure in the knee joint that can tear due to twisting or bending movements.
2. Ligament sprains: The ligaments that connect the bones of the knee joint can become stretched or torn, leading to instability and pain.
3. Torn cartilage: The articular cartilage that covers the ends of the bones in the knee joint can tear due to wear and tear or trauma.
4. Fractures: The bones of the knee joint can fracture as a result of a direct blow or fall.
5. Dislocations: The bones of the knee joint can become dislocated, causing pain and instability.
6. Patellar tendinitis: Inflammation of the tendon that connects the patella (kneecap) to the shinbone.
7. Iliotibial band syndrome: Inflammation of the iliotibial band, a ligament that runs down the outside of the thigh and crosses the knee joint.
8. Osteochondritis dissecans: A condition in which a piece of cartilage and bone becomes detached from the end of a bone in the knee joint.
9. Baker's cyst: A fluid-filled cyst that forms behind the knee, usually as a result of a tear in the meniscus or a knee injury.

Symptoms of knee injuries can include pain, swelling, stiffness, and limited mobility. Treatment for knee injuries depends on the severity of the injury and may range from conservative measures such as physical therapy and medication to surgical intervention.

In medicine, cadavers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Anatomy education: Medical students and residents learn about the human body by studying and dissecting cadavers. This helps them develop a deeper understanding of human anatomy and improves their surgical skills.
2. Research: Cadavers are used in scientific research to study the effects of diseases, injuries, and treatments on the human body. This helps scientists develop new medical techniques and therapies.
3. Forensic analysis: Cadavers can be used to aid in the investigation of crimes and accidents. By examining the body and its injuries, forensic experts can determine cause of death, identify suspects, and reconstruct events.
4. Organ donation: After death, cadavers can be used to harvest organs and tissues for transplantation into living patients. This can improve the quality of life for those with organ failure or other medical conditions.
5. Medical training simulations: Cadavers can be used to simulate real-life medical scenarios, allowing healthcare professionals to practice their skills in a controlled environment.

In summary, the term "cadaver" refers to the body of a deceased person and is used in the medical field for various purposes, including anatomy education, research, forensic analysis, organ donation, and medical training simulations.

It is important to identify and address prosthesis failure early to prevent further complications and restore the functionality of the device. This may involve repairing or replacing the device, modifying the design, or changing the materials used in its construction. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to correct issues related to the implantation of the prosthetic device.

Prosthesis failure can occur in various types of prosthetic devices, including joint replacements, dental implants, and orthotic devices. The causes of prosthesis failure can range from manufacturing defects to user error or improper maintenance. It is essential to have a comprehensive understanding of the factors contributing to prosthesis failure to develop effective solutions and improve patient outcomes.

In conclusion, prosthesis failure is a common issue that can significantly impact the quality of life of individuals who rely on prosthetic devices. Early identification and addressing of prosthesis failure are crucial to prevent further complications and restore functionality. A comprehensive understanding of the causes of prosthesis failure is necessary to develop effective solutions and improve patient outcomes.

There are several different types of pain, including:

1. Acute pain: This type of pain is sudden and severe, and it usually lasts for a short period of time. It can be caused by injuries, surgery, or other forms of tissue damage.
2. Chronic pain: This type of pain persists over a long period of time, often lasting more than 3 months. It can be caused by conditions such as arthritis, fibromyalgia, or nerve damage.
3. Neuropathic pain: This type of pain results from damage to the nervous system, and it can be characterized by burning, shooting, or stabbing sensations.
4. Visceral pain: This type of pain originates in the internal organs, and it can be difficult to localize.
5. Psychogenic pain: This type of pain is caused by psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, or depression.

The medical field uses a range of methods to assess and manage pain, including:

1. Pain rating scales: These are numerical scales that patients use to rate the intensity of their pain.
2. Pain diaries: These are records that patients keep to track their pain over time.
3. Clinical interviews: Healthcare providers use these to gather information about the patient's pain experience and other relevant symptoms.
4. Physical examination: This can help healthcare providers identify any underlying causes of pain, such as injuries or inflammation.
5. Imaging studies: These can be used to visualize the body and identify any structural abnormalities that may be contributing to the patient's pain.
6. Medications: There are a wide range of medications available to treat pain, including analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and muscle relaxants.
7. Alternative therapies: These can include acupuncture, massage, and physical therapy.
8. Interventional procedures: These are minimally invasive procedures that can be used to treat pain, such as nerve blocks and spinal cord stimulation.

It is important for healthcare providers to approach pain management with a multi-modal approach, using a combination of these methods to address the physical, emotional, and social aspects of pain. By doing so, they can help improve the patient's quality of life and reduce their suffering.

Hydrodilatation or distension arthrography is controversial. However, some studies show that arthrographic distension may play ...
Coronal CT-arthrography (d) showing ligamentum teres tear. MR arthrography has proven superior in accuracy when compared to ... Due to the submillimeter resolution of MDCT arthrography, many authors consider this technique complementary to MR arthrography ... MR arthrography has demonstrated sensitivity over 90% and specificity close to 100% in detecting labral tears. Loose bodies are ... MR arthrography can also demonstrate ligamentum teres rupture or capsular laxity, which are debated causes of microinstability ...
"Air arthrography in lesions of the semilunar cartilages". British Journal of Surgery. 30 (119): 241-245. doi:10.1002/bjs. ...
The lesion is best identified on MR arthrography. Additional views in ABER (ABduction and External Rotation) of the shoulder ...
The conventional invasive arthrography is nowadays being replaced by the non-invasive MRI and ultrasound, and is used as an ... Palmer, W E; Brown, J H; Rosenthal, D I (1993). "Rotator cuff: Evaluation with fat-suppressed MR arthrography". Radiology. 188 ...
Diagnostic modalities, dependent on circumstances, include X-ray, MRI, MR arthrography, double-contrast arthrography, and ... Although MR arthrography is currently considered the gold standard, ultrasound may be most cost-effective. Usually, a tear will ... Double-contrast arthrography involves injecting contrast dye into the shoulder joint to detect leakage out of the injured ... Again, magnetic resonance arthrography can improve the differentiation. An overall sensitivity of 91% (9% false negative rate) ...
Arthrography: a dye is injected into the wrist joint. If there is a TFCC lesion the dye will leak from one joint compartment to ...
Shoulder arthrography can be used to study tears of the rotator cuff, glenoid labrum and biceps. The type of contrast injected ... MR arthrography is most often used in evaluation of the hip and acetabular labrum, of the shoulder rotator cuff and glenoid ... Double-contrast arthrography can be used for more anatomically complex cases, though its use is relatively infrequent. The ... R. Crim, Julia (2009), Specialty Imaging: Arthrography: Principles and Practice in Radiology, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, ...
Findings at Magnetic Resonance Arthrography". Arthroscopy: The Journal of Arthroscopic & Related Surgery. 29 (10): 1615-1622. ...
MR arthrography with arthroscopic correlation". American Journal of Roentgenology. 172 (1): 171-5. doi:10.2214/ajr.172.1. ...
In comparison to a checking MR Arthrography Strobel K. et al. has arrived at the conclusion that through THI it is possible to ...
It is used in clinical diagnostics including arthrography, angiocardiography and urography. "Drug Information Portal - U.S. ...
Ultrasonography, arthrography and MRI can be used to detect rotator cuff muscle pathology. MRI is the best imaging test prior ...
This technique has replaced previous arthrography, which involved injecting contrast medium into the joint space. In ...
MR Arthrography, and MR Bursography-Initial Results in 48 Cadaveric Joints". Radiology. 227 (1): 175-182. doi:10.1148/radiol. ...
... or hydraulic arthrographic capsular distension or distension arthrography is a medical treatment for adhesive ...
Like CT arthrography, MR with gadolinium may be used to detect intra-articular bodies that have not yet calcified.[citation ...
Twelve varieties of SLAP lesion have been described, with initial diagnosis by MRI or arthrography and confirmation by direct ...
Arthrography and venography using imaging dyes allow for the detection of popliteal cysts and the exclusion of thrombotic ... arthrography, venography magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerised axial tomography (CAT scan).[citation needed] ...
Arthrography of shoulder joint (with or without computed tomography) is performed by injecting contrast below and lateral to ...
... arthrography (imaging of the joints), endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP; imaging of bile and pancreatic duct ...
Commonly used techniques include; Arthrography, blood tests and bone scans, Computed Tomography (CT scans) and intrathecal ...
1 January 2009), Weissman, Barbara N. (ed.), "Chapter 5 - Arthrography and Injection Procedures", Imaging of Arthritis and ...
... arthrography (joints), hysterosalpingography (uterus and Fallopian tubes), and imaging of the cranium and the whole body. It is ...
X-rays, arthrography, ultrasonography, CT imaging and MRI imaging are also helpful in diagnosing this condition[citation needed ...
Uses include angiography (imaging of blood vessels, including those of the brain and heart), arthrography (imaging of joints), ... or for arthrography if the joint is infected. Adverse effects include reactions at the injection site, such as a hot or painful ...
... arthrography MeSH E01.370.350.700.150 - cineradiography MeSH E01.370.350.700.150.190 - cineangiography MeSH E01.370.350.700.175 ...
Agents for arthrography are generally air- and water-soluble dyes, the most common containing iodine. Air and iodine may be ... A normal arthrography exam will show proper placement of the dye or contrast medium throughout the joint structures, joint ... Before the arthrography the radiologist asked me which ligament he was to test! Excrutiating pain for days afterwards. Could ... Frequently, arthrography is ordered to determine the cause of unexplained joint pain. This fluoroscopic procedure can show the ...
... is a type of imaging test used to look at a joint, such as the shoulder, knee, or hip. It may be done if standard ...
Magnetic Resonance Arthrography (MRA) is similar to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) but provides better quality images due to ... Magnetic Resonance Arthrography (MRA) is similar to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) but provides better quality images due to ...
CT arthrography (CTA) is used when there is a contraindication to magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA), such as for a patient ... Conventional arthrography was the traditional technique for detecting RCTs. However, arthrography itself does not demonstrate ... Indirect MR arthrography of the shoulder in detection of rotator cuff ruptures. Eur Radiol. 2001. 11(2):258-62. [QxMD MEDLINE ... Magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) is frequently used in the postoperative setting as a problem-solving tool. [7] ...
Direct Arthrography (American College of Radiology; Radiological Society of North America) Also in Spanish ...
This test is an x-ray of a knee, shoulder, hip, wrist, ankle, or other joint.
As long as at least an anteroposterior view and one image of the patellofemoral joint is obtained (either skyline or lateral), few cases with radiographic disease will be missed. For clinical or epidemiological studies the lateral view may be easier to acquire with high quality than the skyline view …
Arthrography[edit , edit source]. Arthrography involves distension of the MCP joint by injecting contrast material and then ... Another indirect finding on arthrography suggestive of UCL tear is a demonstration of the heads of the adductor pollicis muscle ... visualizing the joint by X-ray or MRI (MR-arthrography). UCL injuries are diagnosed by direct visualization of any focal defect ...
Leakage of contrast on diagnostic arthrography. ii. Degenerative sacroiliitis:. *Radiographic evidence of SI joint degeneration ...
Degenerative Changes in the Ligamentum Teres of the Hip: Cadaveric Study With Magnetic Resonance Arthrography, Anatomical ... Adhesive Capsulitis of the Shoulder: Diagnosis Using Magnetic Resonance Arthrography, with Arthroscopic Findings as the ... Evaluation with MR Imaging and MR Arthrography. Theumann, Nicolas H.; Pfirrmann, Christian W. A.; Chung, Christine B.; More ...
Check out vital information on Regenerative Medicine for Orthopedics Injection in Florida, Plantation, USA. Package price are available at approximately $3,500.
Glenohumeral position during CT arthrography with arthroscopic correlation: optimization of diagnostic yield. Skeletal Radiol. ...
Arthrography, Ultrasound, Digital Mammography, DEXA, Fluoroscopy and X-Ray. ...
MR Arthrography a Short Time After Injection Versus CT Arthrography After a Moderate Delay.. Fox MG; Graham JA; Skelton BW; ... 8. MR arthrography of postoperative knee: for which patients is it useful?. Magee T; Shapiro M; Rodriguez J; Williams D. ... Knee MR-arthrography in assessment of meniscal and chondral lesions.. Mathieu L; Bouchard A; Marchaland JP; Potet J; Fraboulet ... 7. Accuracy of 3-Tesla MR and MR arthrography in diagnosis of meniscal retear in the post-operative knee.. Magee T. Skeletal ...
Magnetic resonance arthrography of labral disorders in hips with dysplasia and impingement. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2004;418:74- ...
Magnetic resonance arthrography and the prevalence of acetabular labral tears in patients 50 years of age and older. Skeletal ... Magnetic resonance arthrography of the hip: prevalence of diagnoses not suspected by the referring physician and correlation ... Prevalence of labral tears and cartilage loss in patients with mechanical symptoms of the hip: evaluation using MR arthrography ... The diagnostic accuracy of acetabular labral tears using magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance arthrography: a meta ...
Arthrography Preferred Term Term UI T003514. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1986). ... Arthrography Preferred Concept UI. M0001753. Scope Note. Roentgenography of a joint, usually after injection of either positive ... Arthrography. Tree Number(s). E01.370.350.700.070. Unique ID. D001175. RDF Unique Identifier. ...
Arthrography. *Bone density measurement. *Breast imaging. *CT scan (including low-dose lung cancer CT screening) ...
... arthrography and hysterosalpingography. This course also includes the ... arthrography and hysterosalpingography. This course also includes the advanced modalities of bone densitometry, computed ...
Magnetic Resonance Arthrography RADIOLOGIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Chundru, U., Riley, G. M., Steinbach, L. S. 2009; 47 (3): ... MR arthrography exploits the natural advantages gained from a joint effusion and can be performed on any joint. ... Capsular thinning on magnetic resonance arthrography is associated with intra-operative hip joint laxity in women. Journal of ... Magnetic resonance arthrography is widely used throughout the world for joint imaging. It extends the capabilities of ...
... with painful snapping hips that did not have pain relief following anesthetic magnetic resonance arthrography received an ...
... arthrography, electromyography, and tissue biopsy and histopathologic examination. For subtle lesions, advanced diagnostic ...
2003) Articular Cartilage Lesions of the Glenohumeral Joint: Diagnostic Effectiveness of MR Arthrography and Prevalence in ...
keywords = "Arm Injuries, Arthrography, Fibrocartilage, Glenoid Cavity, Humans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, ROC Curve, ... Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) have gained increasing favour in the assessment of ... N2 - Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) have gained increasing favour in the assessment ... AB - Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) have gained increasing favour in the assessment ...
Arthrography Preferred Term Term UI T003514. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1986). ... Arthrography Preferred Concept UI. M0001753. Scope Note. Roentgenography of a joint, usually after injection of either positive ... Arthrography. Tree Number(s). E01.370.350.700.070. Unique ID. D001175. RDF Unique Identifier. ...
Arthrography MeSH Arthroplasty MeSH Arthroscopy MeSH DeCS ID:. 7764 Unique ID:. D007596 ...
Historical review of temporomandibular joint arthrography. In: Moffet BC, Westesson PL editors. Diagnosis of internal ...
Degenerative changes in the ligamentum teres of the hip: cadaveric study with magnetic resonance arthrography, anatomical ...
  • As a continuation of the fluoroscopic studies covered in DMI 132, students will learn endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, myelography, arthrography and hysterosalpingography. (
  • Visualization of various body cavities, eg, arthrography and hysterosalpingography. (
  • Magnetic resonance arthrography of labral disorders in hips with dysplasia and impingement. (
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) have gained increasing favour in the assessment of patients with suspected glenoid labral injuries. (
  • Objective: To present the Computed Tomography (CT)-Arthrography appearance of the most common types of anterior labral lesion and to assess the diagnostic value of this technique in the detection and classification of the antero-inferior labral tears in glenohumeral joint instability. (
  • Magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) is frequently used in the postoperative setting as a problem-solving tool. (
  • 1. Retears of postoperative knee meniscus: findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) by using low and high field magnets. (
  • 3. Evaluation of postoperative menisci with MR arthrography and routine conventional MRI. (
  • 8. MR arthrography of postoperative knee: for which patients is it useful? (
  • intravenous urography, use for ERCP, arthrography and examination of other body cavities. (
  • 4. Diagnosis of recurrent meniscal tears: prospective evaluation of conventional MR imaging, indirect MR arthrography, and direct MR arthrography. (
  • 7. Accuracy of 3-Tesla MR and MR arthrography in diagnosis of meniscal retear in the post-operative knee. (
  • 17. Prospective Evaluation of Agreement and Accuracy in the Diagnosis of Meniscal Tears: MR Arthrography a Short Time After Injection Versus CT Arthrography After a Moderate Delay. (
  • Magnetic Resonance Arthrography (MRA) is similar to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) but provides better quality images due to the use of a contrast solution called gadolinium which is provided to swell the joint, outline its structure and accurately display any soft tissues, tears and defects. (
  • 18. Evaluation of meniscal repair with serial magnetic resonance imaging: a comparative study between conventional MRI and indirect MR arthrography. (
  • 13. Knee MR-arthrography in assessment of meniscal and chondral lesions. (
  • A normal arthrography exam will show proper placement of the dye or contrast medium throughout the joint structures, joint space, cartilage, and ligaments. (
  • Frequently, arthrography is ordered to determine the cause of unexplained joint pain. (
  • An arthrography procedure may locate cysts in the joint area, evaluate problems with the joint's arrangement and function, indicate the need for joint replacement, or show problems with existing joint replacement (prostheses). (
  • Noises in the joint such as cracking or clicking are normal for a few days following arthrography. (
  • Infection or joint damage are possible, although not frequent, complications of arthrography. (
  • Historical review of temporomandibular joint arthrography. (
  • Arthrography is a method of imaging the inside of a joint. (
  • The sensitivity and specificity of CT arthrography for the depiction of rotator cuff lesions were 92% and 93%-97% for the supraspinatus, 100% and 77%-79% for the infraspinatus, 75%-88% and 85%-90% for the subscapularis, and 55%-65% and 100% for the biceps tendon, respectively. (
  • The goal of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of 16-detector helical CT arthrography with 1.5-T MR arthrography in the imaging evaluation of rotator cuff lesions in 56 patients. (
  • [ 1 ] This investigation from Belgium showed that both CT arthrography and MR arthrography demonstrate similar diagnostic performance in the imaging evaluation of rotator cuff lesions. (
  • 13. Knee MR-arthrography in assessment of meniscal and chondral lesions. (
  • CT arthrography is associated with ionizing radiation and may miss partial bursal-sided tendon tears and bone marrow disease. (
  • 3. Evaluation of postoperative menisci with MR arthrography and routine conventional MRI. (
  • 18. Evaluation of meniscal repair with serial magnetic resonance imaging: a comparative study between conventional MRI and indirect MR arthrography. (
  • 1. Retears of postoperative knee meniscus: findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) by using low and high field magnets. (