A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.
Arthritis caused by BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; MYCOPLASMA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; or PARASITES.
Arthritis of children, with onset before 16 years of age. The terms juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) refer to classification systems for chronic arthritis in children. Only one subtype of juvenile arthritis (polyarticular-onset, rheumatoid factor-positive) clinically resembles adult rheumatoid arthritis and is considered its childhood equivalent.
A type of inflammatory arthritis associated with PSORIASIS, often involving the axial joints and the peripheral terminal interphalangeal joints. It is characterized by the presence of HLA-B27-associated SPONDYLARTHROPATHY, and the absence of rheumatoid factor.
An aseptic, inflammatory arthritis developing secondary to a primary extra-articular infection, most typically of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or UROGENITAL SYSTEM. The initiating trigger pathogens are usually SHIGELLA; SALMONELLA; YERSINIA; CAMPYLOBACTER; or CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. Reactive arthritis is strongly associated with HLA-B27 ANTIGEN.
The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.
Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.
Arthritis, especially of the great toe, as a result of gout. Acute gouty arthritis often is precipitated by trauma, infection, surgery, etc. The initial attacks are usually monoarticular but later attacks are often polyarticular.
Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.
Inflammation of a synovial membrane. It is usually painful, particularly on motion, and is characterized by a fluctuating swelling due to effusion within a synovial sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.
A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Measurement of rate of settling of erythrocytes in anticoagulated blood.
Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Disorders of connective tissue, especially the joints and related structures, characterized by inflammation, degeneration, or metabolic derangement.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Roentgenography of a joint, usually after injection of either positive or negative contrast medium.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of inflammatory or degenerative processes and metabolic derangement of connective tissue structures which pertain to a variety of musculoskeletal disorders, such as arthritis.
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
The articulation between a metacarpal bone and a phalanx.
A chronic inflammatory condition affecting the axial joints, such as the SACROILIAC JOINT and other intervertebral or costovertebral joints. It occurs predominantly in young males and is characterized by pain and stiffness of joints (ANKYLOSIS) with inflammation at tendon insertions.
A drug that is used in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. Its activity is generally considered to lie in its metabolic breakdown product, 5-aminosalicylic acid (see MESALAMINE) released in the colon. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p907)
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A variable mixture of the mono- and disodium salts of gold thiomalic acid used mainly for its anti-inflammatory action in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It is most effective in active progressive rheumatoid arthritis and of little or no value in the presence of extensive deformities or in the treatment of other forms of arthritis.
The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).
Subcutaneous nodules seen in 20-30% of rheumatoid arthritis patients. They may arise anywhere on the body, but are most frequently found over the bony prominences. The nodules are characterized histologically by dense areas of fibrinoid necrosis with basophilic streaks and granules, surrounded by a palisade of cells, mainly fibroblasts and histiocytes.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that includes over one hundred allele variants. The HLA-DRB1 subtype is associated with several of the HLA-DR SEROLOGICAL SUBTYPES.
The articulation between the head of one phalanx and the base of the one distal to it, in each finger.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The articulations between the various TARSAL BONES. This does not include the ANKLE JOINT which consists of the articulations between the TIBIA; FIBULA; and TALUS.
An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.
Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Heterogeneous group of arthritic diseases sharing clinical and radiologic features. They are associated with the HLA-B27 ANTIGEN and some with a triggering infection. Most involve the axial joints in the SPINE, particularly the SACROILIAC JOINT, but can also involve asymmetric peripheral joints. Subsets include ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS; REACTIVE ARTHRITIS; PSORIATIC ARTHRITIS; and others.
The articulations extending from the ANKLE distally to the TOES. These include the ANKLE JOINT; TARSAL JOINTS; METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT; and TOE JOINT.
A common genetically determined, chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by rounded erythematous, dry, scaling patches. The lesions have a predilection for nails, scalp, genitalia, extensor surfaces, and the lumbosacral region. Accelerated epidermopoiesis is considered to be the fundamental pathologic feature in psoriasis.
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.
The region in the hindlimb of a quadruped, corresponding to the human ANKLE.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Inflammation of the synovial lining of a tendon sheath. Causes include trauma, tendon stress, bacterial disease (gonorrhea, tuberculosis), rheumatic disease, and gout. Common sites are the hand, wrist, shoulder capsule, hip capsule, hamstring muscles, and Achilles tendon. The tendon sheaths become inflamed and painful, and accumulate fluid. Joint mobility is usually reduced.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Organic compounds that contain GOLD as an integral part of the molecule. Some are used as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS. The term chrysotherapy derives from an ancient Greek term for gold.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
The articulations extending from the WRIST distally to the FINGERS. These include the WRIST JOINT; CARPAL JOINTS; METACARPOPHALANGEAL JOINT; and FINGER JOINT.
An aldose-ketose isomerase that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate. In prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms it plays an essential role in glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways. In mammalian systems the enzyme is found in the cytoplasm and as a secreted protein. This secreted form of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase has been referred to as autocrine motility factor or neuroleukin, and acts as a cytokine which binds to the AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR RECEPTOR. Deficiency of the enzyme in humans is an autosomal recessive trait, which results in CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA.
Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
A ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It supports research into the causes, treatment, and prevention of arthritis and musculoskeletal and skin diseases; the training of basic and clinical scientists to carry out this research; and the dissemination of information on research progress. It was established in 1986.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Azoles with an OXYGEN and a NITROGEN next to each other at the 1,2 positions, in contrast to OXAZOLES that have nitrogens at the 1,3 positions.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.
3-Mercapto-D-valine. The most characteristic degradation product of the penicillin antibiotics. It is used as an antirheumatic and as a chelating agent in Wilson's disease.
A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
Infections with bacteria of the genus YERSINIA.
Pain in the joint.
Inflammation of the joints of the SPINE, the intervertebral articulations.
Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
The articulation between the head of one phalanx and the base of the one distal to it, in each toe.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
Deformities of the hand, or a part of the hand, acquired after birth as the result of injury or disease.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.
An extracellular endopeptidase of vertebrate tissues similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 1. It digests PROTEOGLYCAN; FIBRONECTIN; COLLAGEN types III, IV, V, and IX, and activates procollagenase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A rare complication of rheumatoid arthritis with autoimmune NEUTROPENIA; and SPLENOMEGALY.
The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A double gliding joint formed by the CLAVICLE, superior and lateral parts of the manubrium sterni at the clavicular notch, and the cartilage of the first rib.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
The articulation between a metatarsal bone (METATARSAL BONES) and a phalanx.
An oral chrysotherapeutic agent for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Its exact mechanism of action is unknown, but it is believed to act via immunological mechanisms and alteration of lysosomal enzyme activity. Its efficacy is slightly less than that of injected gold salts, but it is better tolerated, and side effects which occur are potentially less serious.
Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal PROLINE-rich domain. The phosphatase subtype is predominantly expressed in LYMPHOCYTES and plays a key role in the inhibition of downstream T-LYMPHOCYTE activation. Polymorphisms in the gene that encodes this phosphatase subtype are associated with a variety of AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Hereditary metabolic disorder characterized by recurrent acute arthritis, hyperuricemia and deposition of sodium urate in and around the joints, sometimes with formation of uric acid calculi.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Inflammation of the SPINE. This includes both arthritic and non-arthritic conditions.
Inflammation of the bone.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), closely related to VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS and causing acute encephalomyelitis; chronic arthritis; PNEUMONIA; MASTITIS; and GLOMERULONEPHRITIS in goats. It is transmitted mainly in the colostrum and milk.
Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.
The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.
A thioglucose derivative used as an antirheumatic and experimentally to produce obesity in animals.
Diseases of BONES.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. These spirochetes are generally transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The surgical fixation of a joint by a procedure designed to accomplish fusion of the joint surfaces by promoting the proliferation of bone cells. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
Partial or total replacement of a joint.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.
Combinations of diagnostic or therapeutic substances linked with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; or ANTIGENS. Often the diagnostic or therapeutic substance is a radionuclide. These conjugates are useful tools for specific targeting of DRUGS and RADIOISOTOPES in the CHEMOTHERAPY and RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY of certain cancers.
Prostheses used to partially or totally replace a human or animal joint. (from UMDNS, 1999)
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
In horses, cattle, and other quadrupeds, the joint between the femur and the tibia, corresponding to the human knee.
Surgical reconstruction of a joint to relieve pain or restore motion.
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)
Tuberculosis of the bones or joints.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Distortion or disfigurement of the foot, or a part of the foot, acquired through disease or injury after birth.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The joint involving the CERVICAL ATLAS and axis bones.
PROTEOGLYCANS-associated proteins that are major components of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including CARTILAGE; and INTERVERTEBRAL DISC structures. They bind COLLAGEN fibers and contain protein domains that enable oligomer formation and interaction with other extracellular matrix proteins such as CARTILAGE OLIGOMERIC MATRIX PROTEIN.
The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.
Presence of calcium salts, especially calcium pyrophosphate, in the cartilaginous structures of one or more joints. When accompanied by attacks of goutlike symptoms, it is called pseudogout. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A family of zinc-dependent metalloendopeptidases that is involved in the degradation of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components.
A heterogeneous group of disorders, some hereditary, others acquired, characterized by abnormal structure or function of one or more of the elements of connective tissue, i.e., collagen, elastin, or the mucopolysaccharides.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
The immovable joint formed by the lateral surfaces of the SACRUM and ILIUM.
The CARPAL BONES; METACARPAL BONES; and FINGER PHALANGES. In each hand there are eight carpal bones, five metacarpal bones, and 14 phalanges.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A fluid-filled sac lined with SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE that provides a cushion between bones, tendons and/or muscles around a joint.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.

Safety of long-term therapy with ciprofloxacin: data analysis of controlled clinical trials and review. (1/345)

We reviewed the literature and the manufacturer's U.S. clinical data pool for safety data on long-term administration of ciprofloxacin (Bayer, West Haven, CT). Only controlled clinical trials including patients treated for >30 days were selected. We identified 636 patients by literature search and 413 patients in the Bayer U.S. database who fulfilled our search criteria; the average treatment duration for these patients was 130 and 80 days, respectively. Main indications for long-term therapy were osteomyelitis, skin and soft-tissue infection, prophylaxis for urinary tract infection, mycobacterial infections, and inflammatory bowel disease. Adverse events, premature discontinuation of therapy, and deaths occurred at a similar frequency in both treatment arms. Most adverse events occurred early during therapy with little increase in frequency over time. As with short-term therapy, gastrointestinal events were more frequent than central nervous system or skin reactions, but pseudomembranous colitis was not observed. No previously unknown adverse events were noted. We conclude that ciprofloxacin is tolerated as well as other antibiotics when extended courses of therapy are required.  (+info)

Plasma cell development in synovial germinal centers in patients with rheumatoid and reactive arthritis. (2/345)

Plasma cells are found surrounding the inflammatory infiltrates of macrophages, T, and B cells in the synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid and reactive arthritis. This characteristic arrangement suggests that in the synovial tissue CD20+ B cells differentiate into plasma cells. To examine clonal relationships, we have used micromanipulation to separately isolate CD20+ B cells and plasma cells from single infiltrates. DNA was extracted, and from both populations the VH/VL gene repertoires was determined. The data show that in the inflamed synovial tissue activated B cells are clonally expanded. During proliferation in the network of follicular dendritic cells, V gene variants are generated by the hypermutation mechanism. Surprisingly, we do not find identical rearrangements between CD20+ B cells and plasma cells. Nevertheless, the finding of clonally related plasma cells within single infiltrates suggests that these cells underwent terminal differentiation in the synovial tissue. These results indicate that B cell differentiation in the synovial tissue is a dynamic process. Whereas CD20+ B cells may turnover rapidly, plasma cells may well be long lived and thus accumulate in the synovial tissue. The analysis of individual B cells recovered from synovial tissue opens a new way to determine the specificity of those cells that take part in the local immune reaction. This will provide new insights into the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid or reactive arthritis.  (+info)

In situ hybridisation and direct fluorescence antibodies for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in synovial tissue from patients with reactive arthritis. (3/345)

BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis is associated with Reiter's syndrome and reactive arthritis but the form in which the organism survives in synovial cells is unclear. AIM: To compare in situ hybridisation with direct fluorescence in the detection of inapparent chlamydial infection in synovial tissue. METHODS: Synovial tissue from four patients with reactive arthritis patients was examined using biotin labelled probes for chlamydial DNA and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labelled monoclonal antibodies against the major outer membrane protein. RESULTS: In two of the four patients, evidence of chlamydial infections was detected by in situ hybridisation in parallel sections but not with FITC labelled monoclonal antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Detection of chlamydial DNA by in situ DNA hybridisation may be a better way to identify chlamydial infection in synovial tissue than phenotype targeting with FITC conjugated antibodies, which is used as a standard procedure for screening clinical specimens for chlamydia.  (+info)

Common intra-articular T cell expansions in patients with reactive arthritis: identical beta-chain junctional sequences and cytotoxicity toward HLA-B27. (4/345)

Spondyloarthropathies constitute a group of autoimmune diseases of special interest because of their tight association with the MHC class I molecule HLA-B27 and the bacterial triggering of some clinical forms called reactive arthritis (ReA). One current hypothesis is the presentation by HLA-B27 of a so-called arthritogenic peptide to T cells. To better focus on the relevant T cell populations within the joint, we performed an extensive beta-chain T cell repertoire analysis of synovial fluid compared with PBL in seven patients, four of whom were characterized as having ReA triggered by Yersinia enterocolitica, Chlamydia trachomatis, or Shigella sonnei. Analysis of the size diversity of the beta-chain complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) allowed us to evaluate the degree of T cell clonality in the samples. Oligoclonal T cell expansions were frequently observed in the joint. In one patient, CDR3 amino acid sequences of major expansions using two different BV genes were identical. One dominant T cell expansion and several CDR3 amino acid sequences were identical in two different patients. Furthermore, one sequence was identical with a sequence reported independently in a Salmonella-induced ReA patient. Together, these data indicate a surprisingly high degree of conservation in the T cell responses in recent-onset ReA triggered by different micro-organisms. A CD8+ synovial line expressing shared clonotypes was established and reacted toward several B*2705 lymphoblastoid cell lines, therefore supporting a molecular mimicry phenomenon at the T cell level in the disease mechanism.  (+info)

Whipple's arthritis: direct detection of Tropheryma whippelii in synovial fluid and tissue. (5/345)

We describe 2 patients presenting with polyarthritis in whom the synovial fluid (1 patient) or synovial tissue (1 patient) was positive for Tropheryma whippelii, the Whipple's disease-associated bacillus, when examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. Histopathologic findings were consistent with articular Whipple's disease in the synovial fluid of 1 patient and the synovial tissue of the other. In both patients, bowel mucosal specimens were negative for Whipple's disease features by histologic and PCR methods. One patient was positive for T whippelii in the peripheral blood. Control synovial fluid specimens from 40 patients with other arthritides, including Lyme arthritis, were negative. Sequencing of a 284-basepair region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene confirmed that the sequence is closely related to the known T whippelii sequence. Both patients responded to treatment with antibiotics.  (+info)

Pathogenesis of reactive arthritis. (6/345)

Reactive arthritis is a member of the spondyloarthropathy. Bacteria which cause reactive arthritis infect the mucosal surfaces. Either the whole bacteria or their fragments are subsequently carried to the joints inside which are induced a TH1 lymphocyte response in which oligoclonal T lymphocytes as well peptide-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes participate. Human lymphocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 is a predisposing gene. Besides being determinants for the CD8+ T lymphocyte response it can also modify the response of other cells to the invasive bacteria. This would lead to alteration of the fate of the bacteria as well as release of arthritis-causing cytokines.  (+info)

Rheumatic disease and the Australian aborigine. (7/345)

OBJECTIVE: To document the frequency and disease phenotype of various rheumatic diseases in the Australian Aborigine. METHODS: A comprehensive review was performed of the archaeological, ethnohistorical, and contemporary literature relating to rheumatic diseases in these indigenous people. RESULTS: No evidence was found to suggest that rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), or gout occurred in Aborigines before or during the early stages of white settlement of Australia. Part of the explanation for the absence of these disorders in this indigenous group may relate to the scarcity of predisposing genetic elements, for example, shared rheumatoid epitope for RA, B27 antigen for AS. In contrast, osteoarthritis appeared to be common particularly involving the temporomandibular joint, right elbow and knees and, most probably, was related to excessive joint loading in their hunter gatherer lifestyle. Since white settlement, high frequency rates for rheumatic fever, systemic lupus erythematosus, and pyogenic arthritis have been observed and there are now scanty reports of the emergence of RA and gout in these original Australians. CONCLUSION: The occurrence and phenotype of various rheumatic disorders in Australian Aborigines is distinctive but with recent changes in diet, lifestyle, and continuing genetic admixture may be undergoing change. An examination of rheumatic diseases in Australian Aborigines and its changing phenotype may lead to a greater understanding of the aetiopathogenesis of these disorders.  (+info)

Diagnostic evaluation of classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis and reactive arthritis in an early synovitis outpatient clinic. (8/345)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and reactive arthritis (ReA) in an early synovitis outpatient clinic. METHODS: In a prospective two year survey consecutive patients with early synovitis of less than one year duration were documented using a standardised registry and were classified after an expert diagnosis. Of a total of 320 patients 39 (19%) were diagnosed as having RA, 24 (11%) patients had ReA, 117 (54%) patients did not have an unequivocal diagnosis, and were considered as undifferentiated arthritis. RESULTS: The retrospective application of the revised 1987 ACR criteria for the classification of RA in this data set revealed a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 90%. The positive predictive value was 0.67, the negative predictive value 0.98. Similarly, the criteria for ReA of the French Society of Rheumatology (FSR) showed a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 90% with a positive predictive value of 0.55 and a negative predictive value of 0.97. Both criteria sets had a satisfying likelihood ratio of 9 and 10, respectively. CONCLUSION: Both the 1987 ACR criteria for RA and the criteria of the FSR for ReA have a reasonable diagnostic validity in patients with early synovitis, including a large portion of undifferentiated arthritis.  (+info)

There are several symptoms of RA, including:

1. Joint pain and stiffness, especially in the hands and feet
2. Swollen and warm joints
3. Redness and tenderness in the affected areas
4. Fatigue, fever, and loss of appetite
5. Loss of range of motion in the affected joints
6. Firm bumps of tissue under the skin (rheumatoid nodules)

RA can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, blood tests, and imaging studies such as X-rays or ultrasound. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and biologic agents. Lifestyle modifications such as exercise and physical therapy can also be helpful in managing symptoms and improving quality of life.

There is no cure for RA, but early diagnosis and aggressive treatment can help to slow the progression of the disease and reduce symptoms. With proper management, many people with RA are able to lead active and fulfilling lives.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative condition that occurs when the cartilage that cushions the joints breaks down over time, causing the bones to rub together. It is the most common form of arthritis and typically affects older adults.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune condition that occurs when the body's immune system attacks the lining of the joints, leading to inflammation and pain. It can affect anyone, regardless of age, and is typically seen in women.

Other types of arthritis include psoriatic arthritis, gouty arthritis, and lupus-related arthritis. Treatment for arthritis depends on the type and severity of the condition, but can include medications such as pain relievers, anti-inflammatory drugs, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Physical therapy and lifestyle changes, such as exercise and weight loss, can also be helpful. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged joints.

Arthritis is a leading cause of disability worldwide, affecting over 50 million adults in the United States alone. It can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life, making everyday activities such as walking, dressing, and grooming difficult and painful. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.

These animal models allow researchers to study the underlying causes of arthritis, test new treatments and therapies, and evaluate their effectiveness in a controlled environment before moving to human clinical trials. Experimental arthritis models are used to investigate various aspects of the disease, including its pathophysiology, immunogenicity, and potential therapeutic targets.

Some common experimental arthritis models include:

1. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA): This model is induced in mice by immunizing them with type II collagen, which leads to an autoimmune response and inflammation in the joints.
2. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) models: These models are developed by transferring cells from RA patients into immunodeficient mice, which then develop arthritis-like symptoms.
3. Osteoarthritis (OA) models: These models are induced in animals by subjecting them to joint injury or overuse, which leads to degenerative changes in the joints and bone.
4. Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) models: These models are developed by inducing psoriasis in mice, which then develop arthritis-like symptoms.

Experimental arthritis models have contributed significantly to our understanding of the disease and have helped to identify potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of arthritis. However, it is important to note that these models are not perfect representations of human arthritis and should be used as tools to complement, rather than replace, human clinical trials.

A type of arthritis that is caused by an infection in the joint, typically bacterial or viral. The most common form of infectious arthritis is Lyme disease, which is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted through the bite of an infected blacklegged tick. Other types of infectious arthritis include septic arthritis (caused by bacterial infection) and reactive arthritis (caused by a bacterial or viral infection in another part of the body).

Symptoms: Pain, swelling, redness, warmth, and limited range of motion in the affected joint. Fever may also be present.

Diagnosis: A diagnosis is made based on symptoms, physical examination, blood tests (such as a complete blood count or a polymerase chain reaction test to detect the presence of bacteria or viruses), and imaging studies (such as X-rays or ultrasound).

Treatment: Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eradicate the infection, as well as medication to manage symptoms such as pain and inflammation. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged tissue or joints.

There are several types of JA, including:

1. Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA): A severe form of JA that affects the entire body, causing fever, rash, and swollen lymph nodes in addition to joint inflammation.
2. Polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (PJIA): A common form of JA that affects multiple joints, especially in the hands and feet.
3. Oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (OJIA): A mild form of JA that affects only a few joints.
4. Juvenile psoriatic arthritis (JPsA): A type of JA that is associated with psoriasis, a skin condition characterized by red, scaly patches.
5. Enthesitis-related juvenile idiopathic arthritis (ER-JIA): A rare form of JA that affects the areas where tendons and ligaments attach to bones.
6. Undifferentiated arthritis: A type of JA that does not fit into any of the other categories.

The symptoms of JA can vary depending on the specific type and severity of the condition, but may include:

* Joint pain and stiffness
* Swelling and redness in the affected joints
* Fatigue and fever
* Loss of mobility and range of motion
* Difficulty walking or standing

The exact cause of JA is not known, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. There is no cure for JA, but treatment options are available to help manage symptoms and prevent long-term joint damage. These may include medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), as well as physical therapy and lifestyle modifications.

There are five types of PsA:

1. Asymptomatic psoriatic arthritis - This type of psoriatic arthritis does not cause any symptoms and is typically diagnosed during routine blood tests or imaging studies.

2. Symptomatic psoriatic arthritis - This type of psoriatic arthritis causes painful joints, stiffness, and swelling in the hands and feet.

3. Distal interphalangeal predominant psoriatic arthritis - This type of psoriatic arthritis affects the joints at the tips of the fingers and toes.

4. Polyarticular psoriatic arthritis - This type of psoriatic arthritis causes inflammation in multiple joints throughout the body, including the hands, feet, knees, elbows, and spine.

5. Sulfur-shoulder psoriatic arthritis - This type of psoriatic arthritis primarily affects the shoulders and upper back.

Symptoms of PsA may include:

1. Joint pain and stiffness

2. Swollen and warm joints

3. Redness and warmth in the affected area

4. Fatigue

5. Low-grade fever

6. Loss of range of motion

7. Skin rashes or lesions

PsA is diagnosed based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood tests to check for inflammatory markers (e.g., ESR and CRP) and X-rays or imaging studies to assess joint damage. There is no cure for PsA, but various treatments can help manage symptoms, slow the progression of the disease, and improve quality of life. These may include medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) or biologic agents that target specific proteins involved in inflammation. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged joints or correct deformities.

It's important for people with PsA to work closely with their healthcare provider to develop a personalized treatment plan that addresses their individual needs and monitors their disease activity over time. With appropriate treatment and self-care, many people with PsA are able to manage their symptoms, maintain joint function, and lead active and fulfilling lives.

In conclusion, psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects both the skin and joints, causing pain, stiffness, and swelling in various parts of the body. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help manage symptoms, slow the progression of the disease, and improve quality of life.

Causes:

Reactive arthritis is caused by an immune system response to an infection or inflammation in another part of the body. Common causes include bacterial infections such as chlamydia, salmonella, and Campylobacter, as well as viral infections such as HIV and hepatitis B.

Symptoms:

Symptoms of reactive arthritis typically develop within 2-4 weeks after the initial infection or inflammation. They can include:

Pain and stiffness in the affected joints, particularly in the knees, ankles, and feet
Swelling, redness, and warmth in the affected joints
Loss of range of motion and flexibility in the affected joints
Fatigue and general feeling of illness

Diagnosis:

To diagnose reactive arthritis, a healthcare provider will typically begin with a physical examination and medical history. They may also order additional tests to rule out other conditions and confirm the presence of an underlying infection or inflammation. These tests can include:

Blood tests to check for the presence of antibodies or other signs of infection
Joint fluid tests to check for the presence of bacteria or other signs of inflammation
Imaging studies such as X-rays or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to rule out other conditions and assess joint damage

Treatment:

The goal of treatment for reactive arthritis is to reduce inflammation, relieve pain, and improve range of motion and flexibility in the affected joints. Treatment can include:

Antibiotics to treat any underlying bacterial infections
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to relieve pain and reduce inflammation
Corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and swelling in the affected joints
Physical therapy to improve range of motion and flexibility in the affected joints
Joint aspiration to drain fluid from the affected joint and relieve pressure
In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged joints.

Gouty arthritis can cause sudden and severe pain, swelling, redness, and warmth in the affected joint, which can last for several days before subsiding. Attacks can be triggered by factors such as alcohol consumption, certain foods (like meat or seafood), stress, and certain medications.

Gouty arthritis is caused by a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, including a diet high in purine-rich foods, obesity, alcoholism, and certain medical conditions such as hypertension or kidney disease. It can be difficult to diagnose gouty arthritis because the symptoms are similar to other forms of arthritis, but blood tests can help confirm the presence of uric acid crystals in the joint fluid.

Treatment for gouty arthritis typically involves medications to reduce inflammation and relieve pain, as well as lifestyle changes such as limiting alcohol intake and following a low-purine diet. In some cases, corticosteroids or other medications may be prescribed to help reduce inflammation and prevent future attacks.

Previous Post Definition of 'Arthritis' in the medical field.

There are several possible causes of synovitis, including:

1. Infection: Bacterial, viral, or fungal infections can cause synovitis.
2. Autoimmune disorders: Conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and gout can cause chronic synovitis.
3. Overuse injuries: Repetitive strain injuries, such as those caused by repetitive jumping or throwing, can lead to synovitis in the affected joint.
4. Trauma: A sudden injury, such as a fall or a blow to the joint, can cause acute synovitis.

Symptoms of synovitis may include:

1. Pain: Pain is the most common symptom of synovitis, and it can range from mild to severe.
2. Swelling: The affected joint or limb may become swollen and warm to the touch.
3. Limited range of motion: Synovitis can cause stiffness and limited mobility in the affected joint.
4. Redness: The affected area may become red and inflamed.
5. Fever: In some cases, synovitis may be accompanied by a fever.

Treatment for synovitis depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Conservative treatments such as rest, physical therapy, and anti-inflammatory medications are often effective in managing mild to moderate cases of synovitis. In more severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary.

In conclusion, synovitis is a common condition that can cause pain and limited mobility in the affected joint or limb. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as early diagnosis and treatment can help to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes.

The exact cause of osteoarthritis is not known, but it is thought to be due to a combination of factors such as genetics, wear and tear on joints over time, and injuries or trauma to the joint. Osteoarthritis can affect any joint in the body, but it most commonly affects the hands, knees, hips, and spine.

The symptoms of osteoarthritis can vary depending on the severity of the condition and which joint is affected. Common symptoms include:

* Pain or tenderness in the joint
* Stiffness, especially after periods of rest or inactivity
* Limited mobility or loss of flexibility
* Grating or crackling sensations when the joint is moved
* Swelling or redness in the affected joint
* Muscle weakness or wasting

There is no cure for osteoarthritis, but there are several treatment options available to manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These include:

* Pain relief medications such as acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
* Physical therapy to improve mobility and strength
* Lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, regular exercise, and avoiding activities that exacerbate the condition
* Bracing or orthotics to support the affected joint
* Corticosteroid injections or hyaluronic acid injections to reduce inflammation and improve joint function
* Joint replacement surgery in severe cases where other treatments have failed.

Early diagnosis and treatment of osteoarthritis can help manage symptoms, slow the progression of the disease, and improve quality of life for individuals with this condition.

1. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): An autoimmune disease that causes inflammation in the joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and swelling.
2. Osteoarthritis (OA): A degenerative condition that occurs when the cartilage in the joints wears down over time, causing pain and stiffness.
3. Psoriatic arthritis (PsA): An inflammatory disease that affects both the skin and joints, often occurring in people with psoriasis.
4. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS): A condition that causes inflammation in the spine and peripheral joints, leading to stiffness and pain.
5. Lupus: An autoimmune disease that can affect multiple systems in the body, including the joints, skin, and kidneys.
6. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA): A condition that affects children under the age of 16, causing inflammation in the joints and potentially leading to long-term complications.
7. Sjogren's syndrome: An autoimmune disorder that affects the glands that produce tears and saliva, causing dryness in the eyes and mouth.
8. Fibromyalgia: A condition characterized by widespread pain, fatigue, and sleep disturbances.
9. Gout: A type of inflammatory arthritis caused by excessive levels of uric acid in the blood, leading to sudden and severe attacks of joint pain.
10. Osteoporosis: A condition characterized by brittle bones and an increased risk of fractures, often occurring in older adults.

Rheumatic diseases can be challenging to diagnose and treat, as they often involve complex symptoms and a range of possible causes. However, with the help of rheumatology specialists and advanced diagnostic tools, it is possible to manage these conditions effectively and improve quality of life for patients.

Spondylitis, ankylosing can affect any part of the spine, but it most commonly affects the lower back (lumbar spine) and the neck (cervical spine). The condition can also affect other joints, such as the hips, shoulders, and feet.

The exact cause of spondylitis, ankylosing is not known, but it is believed to be an autoimmune disorder, meaning that the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in the joints. Genetics may also play a role in the development of the condition.

Symptoms of spondylitis, ankylosing can include:

* Back pain and stiffness
* Pain and swelling in the joints
* Limited mobility and flexibility
* Redness and warmth in the affected area
* Fatigue

If you suspect that you or someone you know may have spondylitis, ankylosing, it is important to seek medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment. A healthcare professional can perform a physical examination and order imaging tests, such as X-rays or MRIs, to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other conditions.

Treatment for spondylitis, ankylosing typically involves a combination of medications and physical therapy. Medications may include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Physical therapy can help improve mobility and flexibility, as well as strengthen the muscles supporting the affected joints.

In severe cases of spondylitis, ankylosing, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged joints. In some cases, the condition may progress to the point where the joints become fused and immobile, a condition known as ankylosis.

While there is no cure for spondylitis, ankylosing, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. With proper care and support, individuals with spondylitis, ankylosing can lead active and fulfilling lives.

Examples of autoimmune diseases include:

1. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): A condition where the immune system attacks the joints, leading to inflammation, pain, and joint damage.
2. Lupus: A condition where the immune system attacks various body parts, including the skin, joints, and organs.
3. Hashimoto's thyroiditis: A condition where the immune system attacks the thyroid gland, leading to hypothyroidism.
4. Multiple sclerosis (MS): A condition where the immune system attacks the protective covering of nerve fibers in the central nervous system, leading to communication problems between the brain and the rest of the body.
5. Type 1 diabetes: A condition where the immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, leading to high blood sugar levels.
6. Guillain-Barré syndrome: A condition where the immune system attacks the nerves, leading to muscle weakness and paralysis.
7. Psoriasis: A condition where the immune system attacks the skin, leading to red, scaly patches.
8. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: Conditions where the immune system attacks the digestive tract, leading to inflammation and damage to the gut.
9. Sjögren's syndrome: A condition where the immune system attacks the glands that produce tears and saliva, leading to dry eyes and mouth.
10. Vasculitis: A condition where the immune system attacks the blood vessels, leading to inflammation and damage to the blood vessels.

The symptoms of autoimmune diseases vary depending on the specific disease and the organs or tissues affected. Common symptoms include fatigue, fever, joint pain, skin rashes, and swollen lymph nodes. Treatment for autoimmune diseases typically involves medication to suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation, as well as lifestyle changes such as dietary changes and stress management techniques.

Rheumatoid nodules are caused by inflammation in the body, which can lead to the formation of abnormal tissue growths. They are more common in people with severe RA and can be a sign of active disease.

Rheumatoid nodules can be diagnosed through a physical examination and imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI. Treatment options for rheumatoid nodules include medications to reduce inflammation, corticosteroids, and surgery to remove the nodule.

It is important to seek medical attention if you notice a new nodule or if an existing nodule changes in size, shape, or color, as this can be a sign of active disease.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

Lyme disease is typically diagnosed based on a combination of physical symptoms, medical history, and laboratory tests. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, which can help to clear the infection and alleviate symptoms.

Prevention of Lyme disease involves protecting against tick bites by using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing when outdoors, and conducting regular tick checks. Early detection and treatment of Lyme disease can help to prevent long-term complications, such as joint inflammation and neurological problems.

In this definition, we have used technical terms such as 'bacterial infection', 'blacklegged tick', 'Borrelia burgdorferi', and 'antibiotics' to provide a more detailed understanding of the medical concept.

1. Osteoarthritis: A degenerative condition that causes the breakdown of cartilage in the joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and loss of mobility.
2. Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disease that causes inflammation in the joints, leading to pain, swelling, and deformity.
3. Gout: A condition caused by the buildup of uric acid in the joints, leading to sudden and severe attacks of pain, inflammation, and swelling.
4. Bursitis: Inflammation of the bursae, small fluid-filled sacs that cushion the joints and reduce friction between tendons and bones.
5. Tendinitis: Inflammation of the tendons, which connect muscles to bones.
6. Synovitis: Inflammation of the synovial membrane, a thin lining that covers the joints and lubricates them with fluid.
7. Periarthritis: Inflammation of the tissues around the joints, such as the synovial membrane, tendons, and ligaments.
8. Spondyloarthritis: A group of conditions that affect the spine and sacroiliac joints, leading to inflammation and pain in these areas.
9. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: A condition that affects children and causes inflammation and pain in the joints.
10. Systemic lupus erythematosus: An autoimmune disease that can affect many parts of the body, including the joints.

These are just a few examples of the many types of joint diseases that exist. Each type has its own unique symptoms and causes, and they can be caused by a variety of factors such as genetics, injury, infection, or age-related wear and tear. Treatment options for joint diseases can range from medication and physical therapy to surgery, depending on the severity of the condition and its underlying cause.

The exact cause of spondylarthropathies is not known, but they are believed to be an autoimmune response, where the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissues in the joints and spine. Genetics also play a role in the development of these conditions, as they tend to run in families.

There is no cure for spondylarthropathies, but various treatments can help manage symptoms and slow down the progression of the disease. These may include medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), physical therapy, and lifestyle modifications such as regular exercise and a healthy diet. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged joints or spine.

Early diagnosis and treatment of spondylarthropathies are important to manage symptoms and prevent long-term complications such as permanent joint damage, loss of flexibility, and reduced lung function. If you experience persistent back pain or stiffness, it is essential to consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and diagnosis.

Psoriasis can affect any part of the body, including the scalp, elbows, knees, and lower back. The symptoms of psoriasis can vary in severity, and the condition can have a significant impact on quality of life. In addition to physical discomfort, psoriasis can also cause emotional distress and stigma.

There is no cure for psoriasis, but there are several treatment options available, including topical creams and ointments, light therapy, and systemic medications such as biologic drugs. With proper treatment, many people with psoriasis are able to manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Psoriasis is relatively common, affecting approximately 2-3% of the global population, with a higher prevalence in Caucasians than in other races. It can occur at any age, but typically starts in the late teenage years or early adulthood. Psoriasis is often associated with other health conditions, such as diabetes, heart disease, and depression.

Overall, psoriasis is a complex and multifactorial condition that requires a comprehensive approach to management, including both physical and emotional support. With appropriate treatment and self-care, people with psoriasis can lead full and active lives.

There are several key features of inflammation:

1. Increased blood flow: Blood vessels in the affected area dilate, allowing more blood to flow into the tissue and bringing with it immune cells, nutrients, and other signaling molecules.
2. Leukocyte migration: White blood cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes, migrate towards the site of inflammation in response to chemical signals.
3. Release of mediators: Inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and chemokines, are released by immune cells and other cells in the affected tissue. These molecules help to coordinate the immune response and attract more immune cells to the site of inflammation.
4. Activation of immune cells: Immune cells, such as macrophages and T cells, become activated and start to phagocytose (engulf) pathogens or damaged tissue.
5. Increased heat production: Inflammation can cause an increase in metabolic activity in the affected tissue, leading to increased heat production.
6. Redness and swelling: Increased blood flow and leakiness of blood vessels can cause redness and swelling in the affected area.
7. Pain: Inflammation can cause pain through the activation of nociceptors (pain-sensing neurons) and the release of pro-inflammatory mediators.

Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response to injury or infection, which helps to resolve the issue quickly. Chronic inflammation is a long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and cancer.

There are several types of inflammation, including:

1. Acute inflammation: A short-term response to injury or infection.
2. Chronic inflammation: A long-term response that can cause ongoing damage and diseases.
3. Autoimmune inflammation: An inappropriate immune response against the body's own tissues.
4. Allergic inflammation: An immune response to a harmless substance, such as pollen or dust mites.
5. Parasitic inflammation: An immune response to parasites, such as worms or fungi.
6. Bacterial inflammation: An immune response to bacteria.
7. Viral inflammation: An immune response to viruses.
8. Fungal inflammation: An immune response to fungi.

There are several ways to reduce inflammation, including:

1. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
2. Lifestyle changes, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management, and getting enough sleep.
3. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, herbal supplements, and mind-body practices.
4. Addressing underlying conditions, such as hormonal imbalances, gut health issues, and chronic infections.
5. Using anti-inflammatory compounds found in certain foods, such as omega-3 fatty acids, turmeric, and ginger.

It's important to note that chronic inflammation can lead to a range of health problems, including:

1. Arthritis
2. Diabetes
3. Heart disease
4. Cancer
5. Alzheimer's disease
6. Parkinson's disease
7. Autoimmune disorders, such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.

Therefore, it's important to manage inflammation effectively to prevent these complications and improve overall health and well-being.

There are several types of edema, including:

1. Pitting edema: This type of edema occurs when the fluid accumulates in the tissues and leaves a pit or depression when it is pressed. It is commonly seen in the skin of the lower legs and feet.
2. Non-pitting edema: This type of edema does not leave a pit or depression when pressed. It is often seen in the face, hands, and arms.
3. Cytedema: This type of edema is caused by an accumulation of fluid in the tissues of the limbs, particularly in the hands and feet.
4. Edema nervorum: This type of edema affects the nerves and can cause pain, numbness, and tingling in the affected area.
5. Lymphedema: This is a condition where the lymphatic system is unable to properly drain fluid from the body, leading to swelling in the arms or legs.

Edema can be diagnosed through physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as imaging studies and blood tests. Treatment options for edema depend on the underlying cause, but may include medications, lifestyle changes, and compression garments. In some cases, surgery or other interventions may be necessary to remove excess fluid or tissue.

The symptoms of tenosynovitis can vary depending on the location of the affected tendon, but common symptoms include:

* Pain and tenderness in the affected area
* Swelling and redness in the affected area
* Stiffness and limited range of motion in the affected joint
* Difficulty moving the affected limb or joint
* Clicking or snapping sensation in the affected joint

Tenosynovitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Overuse or repetitive strain on the tendon
* Injury or trauma to the affected area
* Age-related wear and tear on the tendons
* Certain medical conditions, such as gout or rheumatoid arthritis

Treatment for tenosynovitis usually involves rest, physical therapy, and anti-inflammatory medications. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the damaged tendon. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as untreated tenosynovitis can lead to chronic pain and limited mobility.

There are several different types of pain, including:

1. Acute pain: This type of pain is sudden and severe, and it usually lasts for a short period of time. It can be caused by injuries, surgery, or other forms of tissue damage.
2. Chronic pain: This type of pain persists over a long period of time, often lasting more than 3 months. It can be caused by conditions such as arthritis, fibromyalgia, or nerve damage.
3. Neuropathic pain: This type of pain results from damage to the nervous system, and it can be characterized by burning, shooting, or stabbing sensations.
4. Visceral pain: This type of pain originates in the internal organs, and it can be difficult to localize.
5. Psychogenic pain: This type of pain is caused by psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, or depression.

The medical field uses a range of methods to assess and manage pain, including:

1. Pain rating scales: These are numerical scales that patients use to rate the intensity of their pain.
2. Pain diaries: These are records that patients keep to track their pain over time.
3. Clinical interviews: Healthcare providers use these to gather information about the patient's pain experience and other relevant symptoms.
4. Physical examination: This can help healthcare providers identify any underlying causes of pain, such as injuries or inflammation.
5. Imaging studies: These can be used to visualize the body and identify any structural abnormalities that may be contributing to the patient's pain.
6. Medications: There are a wide range of medications available to treat pain, including analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and muscle relaxants.
7. Alternative therapies: These can include acupuncture, massage, and physical therapy.
8. Interventional procedures: These are minimally invasive procedures that can be used to treat pain, such as nerve blocks and spinal cord stimulation.

It is important for healthcare providers to approach pain management with a multi-modal approach, using a combination of these methods to address the physical, emotional, and social aspects of pain. By doing so, they can help improve the patient's quality of life and reduce their suffering.

The term "systemic" refers to the fact that the disease affects multiple organ systems, including the skin, joints, kidneys, lungs, and nervous system. LES is a complex condition, and its symptoms can vary widely depending on which organs are affected. Common symptoms include fatigue, fever, joint pain, rashes, and swelling in the extremities.

There are several subtypes of LES, including:

1. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): This is the most common form of the disease, and it can affect anyone, regardless of age or gender.
2. Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE): This subtype typically affects the skin, causing a red, scaly rash that does not go away.
3. Drug-induced lupus erythematosus: This form of the disease is caused by certain medications, and it usually resolves once the medication is stopped.
4. Neonatal lupus erythematosus: This rare condition affects newborn babies of mothers with SLE, and it can cause liver and heart problems.

There is no cure for LES, but treatment options are available to manage the symptoms and prevent flares. Treatment may include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, immunosuppressive medications, and antimalarial drugs. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the disease.

It is important for people with LES to work closely with their healthcare providers to manage their condition and prevent complications. With proper treatment and self-care, many people with LES can lead active and fulfilling lives.

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.

What is a Chronic Disease?

A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:

1. Diabetes
2. Heart disease
3. Arthritis
4. Asthma
5. Cancer
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
8. Hypertension
9. Osteoporosis
10. Stroke

Impact of Chronic Diseases

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.

Addressing Chronic Diseases

Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:

1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.

Conclusion

Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.

Explanation: Genetic predisposition to disease is influenced by multiple factors, including the presence of inherited genetic mutations or variations, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices. The likelihood of developing a particular disease can be increased by inherited genetic mutations that affect the functioning of specific genes or biological pathways. For example, inherited mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes increase the risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer.

The expression of genetic predisposition to disease can vary widely, and not all individuals with a genetic predisposition will develop the disease. Additionally, many factors can influence the likelihood of developing a particular disease, such as environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and other health conditions.

Inheritance patterns: Genetic predisposition to disease can be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or multifactorial pattern, depending on the specific disease and the genetic mutations involved. Autosomal dominant inheritance means that a single copy of the mutated gene is enough to cause the disease, while autosomal recessive inheritance requires two copies of the mutated gene. Multifactorial inheritance involves multiple genes and environmental factors contributing to the development of the disease.

Examples of diseases with a known genetic predisposition:

1. Huntington's disease: An autosomal dominant disorder caused by an expansion of a CAG repeat in the Huntingtin gene, leading to progressive neurodegeneration and cognitive decline.
2. Cystic fibrosis: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, leading to respiratory and digestive problems.
3. BRCA1/2-related breast and ovarian cancer: An inherited increased risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer due to mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.
4. Sickle cell anemia: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a point mutation in the HBB gene, leading to defective hemoglobin production and red blood cell sickling.
5. Type 1 diabetes: An autoimmune disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including multiple genes in the HLA complex.

Understanding the genetic basis of disease can help with early detection, prevention, and treatment. For example, genetic testing can identify individuals who are at risk for certain diseases, allowing for earlier intervention and preventive measures. Additionally, understanding the genetic basis of a disease can inform the development of targeted therapies and personalized medicine."


Yersinia Infections are typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests such as blood cultures, and imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans. Treatment usually involves antibiotics, which can help clear the infection and manage symptoms.

Prevention of Yersinia Infections is difficult, but good hygiene practices, proper food handling and storage, and avoiding contact with contaminated fecal matter can help reduce the risk of transmission. Vaccines are not available for Yersinia infections.

Some common symptoms of Yersiniosis include fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and rash. In severe cases, Yersinia infections can cause inflammation of the joints, spleen, and liver, as well as bacteremia (the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream) and meningitis (inflammation of the lining around the brain and spinal cord).

Yersinia Infections can be transmitted through contaminated food or water, contact with infected animals or people, and from mother to child during pregnancy or childbirth. People at higher risk for Yersiniosis include young children, older adults, pregnant women, and those with weakened immune systems.

Complications of Yersinia Infections can include reactive arthritis (arthritis that develops as a result of an infection), chronic kidney disease, and osteomyelitis (inflammation of the bone). In rare cases, Yersinia infections can lead to life-threatening complications such as septicemia (blood poisoning) or meningitis.

The word "arthralgia" comes from the Greek words "arthron," meaning joint, and "algos," meaning pain. It is often used interchangeably with the term "joint pain," but arthralgia specifically refers to a type of pain that is not caused by inflammation or injury.

Arthralgia can manifest in different ways, including:

1. Aching or dull pain in one or more joints
2. Sharp or stabbing pain in one or more joints
3. Pain that worsens with movement or weight-bearing activity
4. Pain that improves with rest
5. Pain that is localized to one joint or multiple joints
6. Pain that is accompanied by stiffness or limited range of motion
7. Pain that is worse in the morning or after periods of rest
8. Pain that is triggered by certain activities or movements

The diagnosis of arthralgia typically involves a comprehensive medical history and physical examination, as well as diagnostic tests such as X-rays, blood tests, or imaging studies. Treatment for arthralgia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle modifications, or other interventions.

The symptoms of spondylarthritis can vary, but may include:

* Back pain that improves with exercise
* Stiffness in the neck or lower back
* Painful joints in the hips or shoulders
* Reduced range of motion in the affected joints
* Fatigue
* Loss of appetite
* Fever
* Swollen lymph nodes

The exact cause of spondylarthritis is unknown, but it is thought to be an autoimmune disorder. This means that the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in the body, leading to inflammation and joint damage.

There is no cure for spondylarthritis, but medications and lifestyle changes can help manage the symptoms. Treatment options may include:

* Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to reduce pain and inflammation
* Corticosteroids to reduce inflammation
* Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) to slow the progression of the disease
* Biologic agents to target specific proteins involved in the immune response
* Physical therapy to improve range of motion and strength
* Rest and exercise to manage fatigue

Early diagnosis and treatment can help manage the symptoms of spondylarthritis and prevent long-term complications such as joint damage or spinal fusion.

Source: Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012.

There are several factors that can contribute to bone resorption, including:

1. Hormonal changes: Hormones such as parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin can regulate bone resorption. Imbalances in these hormones can lead to excessive bone resorption.
2. Aging: As we age, our bones undergo remodeling more frequently, leading to increased bone resorption.
3. Nutrient deficiencies: Deficiencies in calcium, vitamin D, and other nutrients can impair bone health and lead to excessive bone resorption.
4. Inflammation: Chronic inflammation can increase bone resorption, leading to bone loss and weakening.
5. Genetics: Some genetic disorders can affect bone metabolism and lead to abnormal bone resorption.
6. Medications: Certain medications, such as glucocorticoids and anticonvulsants, can increase bone resorption.
7. Diseases: Conditions such as osteoporosis, Paget's disease of bone, and bone cancer can lead to abnormal bone resorption.

Bone resorption can be diagnosed through a range of tests, including:

1. Bone mineral density (BMD) testing: This test measures the density of bone in specific areas of the body. Low BMD can indicate bone loss and excessive bone resorption.
2. X-rays and imaging studies: These tests can help identify abnormal bone growth or other signs of bone resorption.
3. Blood tests: Blood tests can measure levels of certain hormones and nutrients that are involved in bone metabolism.
4. Bone biopsy: A bone biopsy can provide a direct view of the bone tissue and help diagnose conditions such as Paget's disease or bone cancer.

Treatment for bone resorption depends on the underlying cause and may include:

1. Medications: Bisphosphonates, hormone therapy, and other medications can help slow or stop bone resorption.
2. Diet and exercise: A healthy diet rich in calcium and vitamin D, along with regular exercise, can help maintain strong bones.
3. Physical therapy: In some cases, physical therapy may be recommended to improve bone strength and mobility.
4. Surgery: In severe cases of bone resorption, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged bone tissue.

The symptoms of Felty syndrome can vary in severity and may include:

* Rheumatoid arthritis with joint deformity and loss of function
* Chronic lung disease, such as interstitial fibrosis or emphysema
* Enlarged lymph nodes, particularly in the neck and axillae
* Fever
* Night sweats
* Weight loss
* Fatigue

Felty syndrome is caused by an abnormal immune response that leads to inflammation in the joints, lungs, and lymph nodes. It can be associated with other autoimmune disorders, such as Sjögren's syndrome or systemic lupus erythematosus.

The diagnosis of Felty syndrome is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include blood tests to assess for inflammatory markers, such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP), as well as tests to assess joint damage and lung function. Imaging studies, such as X-rays or computed tomography (CT) scans, may be used to evaluate joint damage and lung disease.

There is no cure for Felty syndrome, but treatment can help manage the symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Treatment options may include:

* Medications to reduce inflammation, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs)
* Corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system
* Immunosuppressive medications, such as methotrexate or azathioprine, to suppress the immune system and prevent joint damage
* Biologic agents, such as infliximab or etanercept, to target specific proteins involved in the immune response and reduce inflammation
* Physical therapy to maintain joint mobility and strength
* Surgery to repair or replace damaged joints, such as hip or knee replacement

It is important for individuals with Felty syndrome to work closely with their healthcare provider to develop a personalized treatment plan that addresses their specific needs and helps manage their symptoms. With appropriate treatment, many individuals with Felty syndrome are able to lead active and productive lives.

Sjögren's syndrome can affect people of all ages, but it most commonly occurs in women between the ages of 40 and 60. The exact cause of the disorder is not known, but it is believed to be an autoimmune response, meaning that the immune system mistakenly attacks the glands as if they were foreign substances.

Symptoms of Sjögren's syndrome can vary in severity and may include:

* Dry mouth (xerostomia)
* Dry eyes (dry eye syndrome)
* Fatigue
* Joint pain
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Rash
* Sores on the skin
* Numbness or tingling in the hands and feet
* Sexual dysfunction

There is no cure for Sjögren's syndrome, but various treatments can help manage the symptoms. These may include:

* Medications to stimulate saliva production
* Eye drops to moisturize the eyes
* Mouthwashes to stimulate saliva production
* Pain relief medication for joint pain
* Anti-inflammatory medication to reduce swelling
* Immunosuppressive medication to suppress the immune system
* Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to treat hormonal imbalances.

Sjögren's syndrome can also increase the risk of developing other autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus. It is important for people with Sjögren's syndrome to work closely with their healthcare provider to manage their symptoms and monitor their condition over time.

Gout can be caused by several factors including genetics, diet, obesity, alcohol consumption, and certain medical conditions like high blood pressure and kidney disease. Symptoms of gout typically include sudden and severe pain, swelling, redness, and warmth in the affected joint, often accompanied by fever.

Gout is diagnosed based on physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood tests to check uric acid levels. Treatment for gout usually involves medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and colchicine to reduce inflammation and pain. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage the condition.

Lifestyle modifications such as maintaining a healthy diet, losing weight if overweight or obese, limiting alcohol consumption, and staying hydrated can also help manage gout. In some cases, medications to lower uric acid levels such as allopurinol may be prescribed to prevent future attacks of gout.

Gout is a chronic condition that requires ongoing management to prevent complications such as joint damage and kidney stones. With proper treatment and lifestyle modifications, most people with gout can lead active and productive lives.

There are several types of spondylitis, including:

1. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS): This is the most common form of spondylitis and primarily affects the lower back. It can cause stiffness, pain, and reduced mobility in the spine.
2. Psoriatic arthritis (PsA): This type of spondylitis affects both the joints and the spine, causing inflammation and pain. It often occurs in people with psoriasis, a skin condition that causes red, scaly patches.
3. Enteropathic spondylitis: This is a rare form of spondylitis that occurs in people with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis.
4. Undifferentiated spondylitis: This type of spondylitis does not fit into any other category and may be caused by a variety of factors.

The symptoms of spondylitis can vary depending on the specific type and severity of the condition, but may include:

1. Back pain that is worse with activity and improves with rest
2. Stiffness in the back, particularly in the morning or after periods of inactivity
3. Redness and warmth in the affected area
4. Swelling in the affected joints
5. Limited range of motion in the spine
6. Fatigue
7. Loss of appetite
8. Low-grade fever

Spondylitis can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as X-rays or MRIs. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication and lifestyle modifications, such as exercise, physical therapy, and stress management techniques. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged joints or tissue.

It's important to note that spondylitis is a chronic condition, meaning it cannot be cured but can be managed with ongoing treatment and lifestyle modifications. With proper management, many people with spondylitis are able to lead active and fulfilling lives.

There are different types of osteitis, including:

1. Osteitis fibrosa: A benign condition characterized by the formation of fibrous tissue in the bone, which can cause pain and stiffness.
2. Osteitis multiformis: A chronic condition that causes multiple areas of bone inflammation, often seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis.
3. Osteitis pseudogout: A condition characterized by the deposition of crystals in the bone, which can cause episodes of sudden and severe joint pain.
4. Osteitis suppurativa: A chronic condition characterized by recurring abscesses or pockets of pus in the bone, often seen in patients with a history of skin infections.

Symptoms of osteitis can include pain, swelling, redness and warmth over the affected area. Treatment options may vary depending on the underlying cause, but may include antibiotics for infection, anti-inflammatory medications, or surgical intervention to drain abscesses or remove infected tissue.

Some common types of bone diseases include:

1. Osteoporosis: A condition characterized by brittle, porous bones that are prone to fracture.
2. Osteoarthritis: A degenerative joint disease that causes pain and stiffness in the joints.
3. Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation and pain in the joints.
4. Bone cancer: A malignant tumor that develops in the bones.
5. Paget's disease of bone: A condition characterized by abnormal bone growth and deformity.
6. Osteogenesis imperfecta: A genetic disorder that affects the formation of bone and can cause brittle bones and other skeletal deformities.
7. Fibrous dysplasia: A rare condition characterized by abnormal growth and development of bone tissue.
8. Multiple myeloma: A type of cancer that affects the plasma cells in the bone marrow.
9. Bone cysts: Fluid-filled cavities that can form in the bones and cause pain, weakness, and deformity.
10. Bone spurs: Abnormal growths of bone that can form along the edges of joints and cause pain and stiffness.

Bone diseases can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and bone biopsies. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and can include medication, surgery, or a combination of both.

There are several types of disease susceptibility, including:

1. Genetic predisposition: This refers to the inherent tendency of an individual to develop a particular disease due to their genetic makeup. For example, some families may have a higher risk of developing certain diseases such as cancer or heart disease due to inherited genetic mutations.
2. Environmental susceptibility: This refers to the increased risk of developing a disease due to exposure to environmental factors such as pollutants, toxins, or infectious agents. For example, someone who lives in an area with high levels of air pollution may be more susceptible to developing respiratory problems.
3. Lifestyle susceptibility: This refers to the increased risk of developing a disease due to unhealthy lifestyle choices such as smoking, lack of exercise, or poor diet. For example, someone who smokes and is overweight may be more susceptible to developing heart disease or lung cancer.
4. Immune system susceptibility: This refers to the increased risk of developing a disease due to an impaired immune system. For example, people with autoimmune disorders such as HIV/AIDS or rheumatoid arthritis may be more susceptible to opportunistic infections.

Understanding disease susceptibility can help healthcare providers identify individuals who are at risk of developing certain diseases and provide preventive measures or early intervention to reduce the risk of disease progression. Additionally, genetic testing can help identify individuals with a high risk of developing certain diseases, allowing for earlier diagnosis and treatment.

In summary, disease susceptibility refers to the predisposition of an individual to develop a particular disease or condition due to various factors such as genetics, environment, lifestyle choices, and immune system function. Understanding disease susceptibility can help healthcare providers identify individuals at risk and provide appropriate preventive measures or early intervention to reduce the risk of disease progression.

The risk of developing osteoarthritis of the knee increases with age, obesity, and previous knee injuries or surgery. Symptoms of knee OA can include:

* Pain and stiffness in the knee, especially after activity or extended periods of standing or sitting
* Swelling and redness in the knee
* Difficulty moving the knee through its full range of motion
* Crunching or grinding sensations when the knee is bent or straightened
* Instability or a feeling that the knee may give way

Treatment for knee OA typically includes a combination of medication, physical therapy, and lifestyle modifications. Medications such as pain relievers, anti-inflammatory drugs, and corticosteroids can help manage symptoms, while physical therapy can improve joint mobility and strength. Lifestyle modifications, such as weight loss, regular exercise, and avoiding activities that exacerbate the condition, can also help slow the progression of the disease. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace the damaged joint.

Osteoarticular tuberculosis is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans, and laboratory tests to detect the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Treatment typically involves a course of antibiotics for a period of at least six months, and surgical intervention may be necessary in some cases.

Preventive measures for osteoarticular tuberculosis include vaccination against tuberculosis, screening for the disease in high-risk populations such as those with weakened immune systems, and avoiding close contact with individuals who have active tuberculosis infections.

Some of the key features of osteoarticular tuberculosis include:

* Pain and swelling in the affected joint
* Limited mobility in the joint
* Fever, fatigue, and weight loss
* Night sweats and loss of appetite
* Presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in the joint fluid or tissue.

Osteoarticular tuberculosis can be challenging to diagnose and treat, as it may mimic other conditions such as osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. However, early detection and appropriate treatment can help prevent long-term joint damage and improve outcomes for patients with this condition.

Overall, osteoarticular tuberculosis is a serious form of tuberculosis that affects the bones and joints, causing pain, swelling, and limited mobility. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes for patients with this condition.

Examples of acquired foot deformities include:

1. Arthritis-related deformities: Arthritis can cause degenerative changes in the joints of the foot, leading to deformity and pain.
2. Bunion deformities: Bunions are bony growths that form on the side of the big toe joint, causing pain and discomfort.
3. Hammertoe deformities: Hammertoes are abnormal curvatures of the toe joints, which can cause pain and stiffness.
4. Clubfoot: Clubfoot is a congenital deformity in which the foot is twisted inward and downward, causing difficulty walking or standing.
5. Charcot foot: Charcot foot is a degenerative condition that affects the bones of the foot and ankle, leading to deformity and pain.
6. Plantar fasciitis: Plantar fasciitis is inflammation of the plantar fascia, a band of tissue that runs along the bottom of the foot, causing heel pain and stiffness.
7. Achilles tendinitis: Achilles tendinitis is inflammation of the Achilles tendon, which connects the calf muscle to the heel bone, causing pain and stiffness in the ankle and foot.
8. Sesamoiditis: Sesamoiditis is inflammation of the sesamoid bones, small bones located under the first metatarsal bone, causing pain and swelling under the big toe.
9. Gout: Gout is a type of arthritis that causes sudden and severe pain in the foot, particularly in the big toe.
10. Pneumaticulitis: Pneumaticulitis is inflammation of the small air sacs (pneumatocysts) in the bones of the foot, causing pain and swelling.

These are just a few of the many conditions that can cause foot pain. If you are experiencing persistent or severe foot pain, it is important to see a doctor for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Chondrocalcinosis is a type of calcifying disorder, which is a group of conditions characterized by the deposition of minerals such as calcium and phosphate in soft tissues. This condition can affect various joints in the body, including the hips, knees, shoulders, and elbows.

In this article, we will explore the definition, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of chondrocalcinosis. We will also discuss the surgical procedures used to treat this condition and the potential complications that can arise.

Definition of Chondrocalcinosis:

Chondrocalcinosis is a medical term that refers to the deposition of calcium pyrophosphate crystals within cartilage. This condition is also known as chondromalacia or calcifying joint disease. It is a type of calcifying disorder, which affects the cartilage in various joints throughout the body.

Causes of Chondrocalcinosis:

The exact cause of chondrocalcinosis is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to aging, genetics, and certain medical conditions. Some risk factors for developing chondrocalcinosis include:

Age: The risk of developing chondrocalcinosis increases with age, with most cases occurring in people over the age of 50.

Family history: People with a family history of chondrocalcinosis are more likely to develop the condition.

Rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis: These conditions can increase the risk of developing chondrocalcinosis.

Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as hypothyroidism and hyperparathyroidism, can increase the risk of developing chondrocalcinosis.

Symptoms of Chondrocalcinosis:

The symptoms of chondrocalcinosis can vary depending on the severity of the condition and the joints affected. Common symptoms include:

Pain: Pain is one of the most common symptoms of chondrocalcinosis, particularly in the affected joint.

Stiffness: Joint stiffness and limited range of motion can also occur as a result of chondrocalcinosis.

Swelling: Swelling in the affected joint is another common symptom of chondrocalcinosis.

Redness: The affected joint may become red and warm to the touch due to inflammation.

Crepitus: Crepitus, or a grinding sensation, may be felt in the affected joint as a result of the calcium pyrophosphate crystals rubbing against each other.

Treatment of Chondrocalcinosis:

There is no cure for chondrocalcinosis, but there are several treatment options available to manage the symptoms and slow down the progression of the condition. These may include:

Pain relief medication: Over-the-counter pain relievers such as acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can help alleviate pain and reduce inflammation.

Physical therapy: Gentle exercises and stretches can help maintain joint mobility and strength.

Joint injections: Injecting corticosteroids or hyaluronic acid into the affected joint can help reduce inflammation and relieve pain.

Surgery: In severe cases of chondrocalcinosis, surgery may be necessary to remove the calcium pyrophosphate crystals or repair damaged tissue.

Prevention of Chondrocalcinosis:

There is no guaranteed way to prevent chondrocalcinosis, but there are several measures that can help reduce the risk of developing the condition. These may include:

Maintaining a healthy weight: Excessive weight can put additional strain on the joints and increase the risk of developing chondrocalcinosis.

Staying active: Regular exercise can help maintain joint mobility and strength, reducing the risk of developing chondrocalcinosis.

Wearing protective gear: Wearing protective gear such as knee pads or elbow pads when engaging in activities that involve repetitive stress on the joints can help reduce the risk of developing chondrocalcinosis.

Avoiding excessive stress on the joints: Avoiding activities that involve repetitive stress on the joints, such as heavy lifting or bending, can help reduce the risk of developing chondrocalcinosis.

Early diagnosis and treatment of chondrocalcinosis can help manage symptoms and slow down the progression of the condition. If you suspect you may have chondrocalcinosis, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and treatment.

Some common types of connective tissue diseases include:

1. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): A chronic autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation and joint damage.
2. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): An autoimmune disorder that can affect multiple systems in the body, including the skin, joints, and kidneys.
3. Sjogren's syndrome: An autoimmune disorder that causes dry eyes and mouth, as well as joint pain and swelling.
4. Fibromyalgia: A chronic condition characterized by widespread muscle pain and fatigue.
5. Myositis: Inflammatory diseases that affect the muscles, such as dermatomyositis and polymyositis.
6. Giant cell arteritis: A condition that causes inflammation of the blood vessels, particularly in the head and neck.
7. Takayasu arteritis: A condition that causes inflammation of the blood vessels in the aorta and its branches.
8. Polyarteritis nodosa: A condition that causes inflammation of the blood vessels, particularly in the hands and feet.
9. IgG4-related disease: A condition characterized by inflammation and damage to various organs, including the pancreas, salivary glands, and liver.

Connective tissue diseases can cause a wide range of symptoms, including joint pain and stiffness, fatigue, skin rashes, fever, and weight loss. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and its severity, but may include medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). In some cases, surgery or physical therapy may also be necessary.

Examples of acute diseases include:

1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.

Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

There are several types of vasculitis, each with its own set of symptoms and characteristics. Some common forms of vasculitis include:

1. Giant cell arteritis: This is the most common form of vasculitis, and it affects the large arteries in the head, neck, and arms. Symptoms include fever, fatigue, muscle aches, and loss of appetite.
2. Takayasu arteritis: This type of vasculitis affects the aorta and its major branches, leading to inflammation in the blood vessels that supply the heart, brain, and other vital organs. Symptoms include fever, fatigue, chest pain, and shortness of breath.
3. Polymyalgia rheumatica: This is an inflammatory condition that affects the muscles and joints, as well as the blood vessels. It often occurs in people over the age of 50 and is frequently associated with giant cell arteritis. Symptoms include pain and stiffness in the shoulders, hips, and other joints, as well as fatigue and fever.
4. Kawasaki disease: This is a rare condition that affects children under the age of 5, causing inflammation in the blood vessels that supply the heart and other organs. Symptoms include high fever, rash, swollen lymph nodes, and irritability.

The exact cause of vasculitis is not fully understood, but it is thought to be an autoimmune disorder, meaning that the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own blood vessels. Genetic factors may also play a role in some cases.

Diagnosis of vasculitis typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as blood tests, imaging studies (e.g., MRI or CT scans), and biopsies. Treatment options vary depending on the specific type of vasculitis and its severity, but may include medications to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system, as well as lifestyle modifications such as exercise and stress management techniques. In severe cases, surgery or organ transplantation may be necessary.

In addition to these specific types of vasculitis, there are other conditions that can cause similar symptoms and may be included in the differential diagnosis, such as:

1. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): This is a chronic autoimmune disorder that affects the joints and can cause inflammation in blood vessels.
2. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): This is another autoimmune disorder that can affect multiple systems, including the skin, joints, and blood vessels.
3. Polyarteritis nodosa: This is a condition that causes inflammation of the blood vessels, often in association with hepatitis B or C infection.
4. Takayasu arteritis: This is a rare condition that affects the aorta and its branches, causing inflammation and narrowing of the blood vessels.
5. Giant cell arteritis: This is a condition that causes inflammation of the large and medium-sized blood vessels, often in association with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR).
6. Kawasaki disease: This is a rare condition that affects children, causing inflammation of the blood vessels and potential heart complications.
7. Henoch-Schönlein purpura: This is a rare condition that causes inflammation of the blood vessels in the skin, joints, and gastrointestinal tract.
8. IgG4-related disease: This is a condition that can affect various organs, including the pancreas, bile ducts, and blood vessels, causing inflammation and potentially leading to fibrosis or tumor formation.

It is important to note that these conditions may have similar symptoms and signs as vasculitis, but they are distinct entities with different causes and treatment approaches. A thorough diagnostic evaluation, including laboratory tests and imaging studies, is essential to determine the specific diagnosis and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Iritis, also known as anterior uveitis, is a type of inflammatory eye disease that affects the iris, which is the coloured part of the eye. It is a condition where the iris becomes inflamed, leading to pain, redness, and blurred vision.

Causes:

The exact cause of iritis is not known, but it is believed to be an autoimmune response, where the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in the eye. It can also be triggered by an infection or injury.

Symptoms:

The symptoms of iritis can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but common signs include:

* Eye pain, which can be severe
* Redness and inflammation of the eye
* Blurred vision or sensitivity to light
* Seeing floaters or flashes of light
* Sensitivity to touch or pressure on the eye

Diagnosis:

Iritis is diagnosed based on a comprehensive eye exam, which includes a visual acuity test, dilated eye exam, and tonometry. The doctor may also perform additional tests such as a fluorescein dye test or imaging studies to rule out other conditions.

Treatment:

The treatment of iritis typically involves a combination of medications and therapies, including:

* Corticosteroids to reduce inflammation
* Anti-inflammatory eye drops or ointments
* Pain relief medication
* Warm compresses to the affected eye
* Eye exercises to improve vision
* In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the inflamed tissue

Prognosis:

The prognosis for iritis is generally good if treated promptly and effectively. However, if left untreated, it can lead to complications such as cataracts, glaucoma, or permanent vision loss. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Prevention:

There is no known prevention for iritis, but early detection and treatment can help reduce the risk of complications. Regular eye exams and awareness of the signs and symptoms can help identify the condition in its early stages.

Complications:

Iritis can lead to several complications if left untreated or if the inflammation is not properly managed. These may include:

* Cataracts: The inflammation can cause clouding of the lens, leading to vision loss.
* Glaucoma: The increased pressure in the eye can lead to damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.
* Permanent vision loss: If the inflammation is not properly managed, it can lead to permanent vision loss.
* Increased risk of infection: Iritis can increase the risk of infection, particularly if the eye is not properly cleaned and cared for.

Conclusion:

Iritis is a painful and potentially sight-threatening condition that can cause inflammation in the iris of the eye. Early detection and prompt treatment are crucial to prevent complications and preserve vision. A comprehensive understanding of the signs, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, prevention, and complications of iritis is essential for effective management of this condition. If you suspect you or someone you know may have iritis, it is important to seek medical attention promptly to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

Anterior uveitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including infection, autoimmune disorders, and trauma. It is often diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI, and laboratory tests to rule out other conditions. Treatment options for anterior uveitis depend on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, and surgery to remove any affected tissue.

In summary, anterior uveitis is a type of inflammation that occurs in the front part of the eye, which can cause symptoms such as redness, pain, blurred vision, and sensitivity to light. It can be caused by a variety of factors and diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests, and laboratory tests. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, and surgery.

1. Athlete's Foot (Tinea Pedis): A fungal infection that causes itching, burning, and cracking on the soles of the feet and between the toes.
2. Bunions: Bony growths on the side or base of the big toe, causing pain, redness, and swelling.
3. Corns and Calluses: Thickened areas of skin on the feet, often caused by poorly fitting shoes or repeated friction.
4. Plantar Fasciitis: Inflammation of the plantar fascia, a band of tissue that runs along the bottom of the foot, causing heel pain and stiffness.
5. Gout: A type of arthritis that causes sudden, severe pain in the feet and ankles, often accompanied by swelling and redness.
6. Hammertoes: Deformed toe joints, caused by poorly fitting shoes or muscle imbalance, leading to pain, corns, and calluses.
7. Ingrown toenails: Nails that grow into the skin, causing pain, redness, and swelling.
8. Osteoarthritis: Wear and tear on the joints of the feet, leading to pain, stiffness, and limited mobility.
9. Peripheral Neuropathy: Damage to the nerves in the feet, causing numbness, tingling, and pain.
10. Ulcers: Open sores on the skin of the feet, often caused by diabetes, poor circulation, or injury.

Foot diseases can be diagnosed through physical examination, imaging tests such as X-rays or CT scans, and laboratory tests to determine the cause of the condition. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease, but may include medications, footwear modifications, orthotics, physical therapy, and in some cases, surgery.

There are several different types of uveitis, including:

1. Anterior uveitis: This type affects the front part of the eye and is the most common form of uveitis. It is often caused by an infection or injury.
2. Posterior uveitis: This type affects the back part of the eye and can be caused by a systemic disease such as sarcoidosis or juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
3. Intermediate uveitis: This type affects the middle layer of the eye and is often caused by an autoimmune disorder.
4. Panuveitis: This type affects the entire uvea and can be caused by a systemic disease such as vasculitis or Behçet's disease.

Symptoms of uveitis may include:

* Eye pain
* Redness and swelling in the eye
* Blurred vision
* Sensitivity to light
* Floaters (specks or cobwebs in your vision)
* Flashes of light

If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to see an eye doctor as soon as possible. Uveitis can be diagnosed with a comprehensive eye exam, which may include imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI. Treatment for uveitis depends on the cause and severity of the condition, but may include medication to reduce inflammation, antibiotics for infections, or surgery to remove any diseased tissue.

Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent complications such as cataracts, glaucoma, and blindness. If you have uveitis, it is important to follow your doctor's recommendations for treatment and monitoring to protect your vision.

There are several types of Mycoplasma bacteria that can cause infection in humans, including:

1. Mycoplasma pneumoniae, which is the most common cause of atypical pneumonia and can also cause sinus infections, bronchitis, and other respiratory infections.
2. Mycoplasma genitalium, which can cause pelvic inflammatory disease, epididymitis, and urethritis.
3. Mycoplasma hominis, which is a common inhabitant of the human respiratory tract and can cause infections such as pneumonia and bronchitis.
4. Mycoplasma fermentans, which is associated with respiratory infections and has been linked to conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Mycoplasma infections are typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood cultures and PCR (polymerase chain reaction) tests. Treatment for Mycoplasma infections usually involves antibiotics, but the type and duration of treatment may vary depending on the severity and location of the infection.

Prevention measures for Mycoplasma infections include good hygiene practices such as frequent handwashing, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing. Vaccines are also available for some types of Mycoplasma bacteria, such as the M. pneumoniae vaccine, which is recommended for certain high-risk groups.

Overall, Mycoplasma infections can be serious and potentially life-threatening, especially in certain populations such as young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems. If you suspect that you or someone you know may have a Mycoplasma infection, it is important to seek medical attention right away.

The exact cause of PMR is not known, but it is believed to be related to an abnormal immune response. The condition often occurs in conjunction with another inflammatory disorder called giant cell arteritis (GCA), which affects the blood vessels.

Symptoms of PMR include:

* Pain and stiffness in the shoulders, hips, and other joints
* Fatigue
* Fever
* Loss of appetite
* Sleep disturbances
* Weight loss

The diagnosis of PMR is based on a combination of symptoms, physical examination findings, and laboratory test results. Laboratory tests may include blood tests to check for inflammatory markers, such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP).

Treatment for PMR typically involves a combination of medications, including:

* Corticosteroids to reduce inflammation
* Pain relievers, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or narcotics
* Anti-inflammatory medications, such as disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) or biologic response modifiers

In addition to medication, physical therapy and exercise may be helpful in managing the symptoms of PMR. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair joint damage.

The prognosis for PMR is generally good, with most people experiencing significant improvement within a few months of starting treatment. However, the condition can be challenging to diagnose and treat, and it is important to work closely with a healthcare provider to find the most effective treatment plan.

The term "osteomyelitis" comes from the Greek words "osteon," meaning bone, and "myelitis," meaning inflammation of the spinal cord. The condition is caused by an infection that spreads to the bone from another part of the body, such as a skin wound or a urinary tract infection.

There are several different types of osteomyelitis, including:

1. Acute osteomyelitis: This type of infection occurs suddenly and can be caused by bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pneumoniae.
2. Chronic osteomyelitis: This type of infection develops slowly over time and is often caused by bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
3. Pyogenic osteomyelitis: This type of infection is caused by bacteria that enter the body through a skin wound or other opening.
4. Tubercular osteomyelitis: This type of infection is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is often associated with tuberculosis.

Symptoms of osteomyelitis can include fever, chills, fatigue, swelling, redness, and pain in the affected area. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to fight the infection, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damaged bone.

Preventing osteomyelitis involves taking steps to avoid infections altogether, such as practicing good hygiene, getting vaccinated against certain diseases, and seeking medical attention promptly if an infection is suspected.

Examples of delayed hypersensitivity reactions include contact dermatitis (a skin reaction to an allergic substance), tuberculin reactivity (a reaction to the bacteria that cause tuberculosis), and sarcoidosis (a condition characterized by inflammation in various organs, including the lungs and lymph nodes).

Delayed hypersensitivity reactions are important in the diagnosis and management of allergic disorders and other immune-related conditions. They can be detected through a variety of tests, including skin prick testing, patch testing, and blood tests. Treatment for delayed hypersensitivity reactions depends on the underlying cause and may involve medications such as antihistamines, corticosteroids, or immunosuppressants.

"Reactive Arthritis". Retrieved 24 January 2017. Mayo Staff (5 March 2011). "Reactive Arthritis (Reiter's Syndrome)". Mayo ... "Reactive Arthritis". Retrieved 16 May 2011. Kvien, T.; Glennas, A.; Melby, K.; Granfors, K; et al. (1994). "Reactive arthritis ... of men with urogenital reactive arthritis syndrome and about 75% of men with enteric reactive arthritis syndrome. ... Reactive arthritis, also known as Reiter's syndrome, is a form of inflammatory arthritis that develops in response to an ...
can cause reactive arthritis as well as directly infect the synovium. Some case studies have suggested a causative role in ... Hannu T (June 2011). "Reactive arthritis". Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology. 25 (3): 347-57. doi:10.1016/j.berh. ... November 1997). "Molecular diagnosis of Ureaplasma urealyticum in an immunocompetent patient with destructive reactive ... polyarthritis". Arthritis and Rheumatism. 40 (11): 2084-9. doi:10.1002/art.1780401122. PMID 9365099. Viscardi RM (January 2014 ...
In this case, the arthritis is considered to be secondary to the main disease; these include: Psoriasis Reactive arthritis ... The word arthritides is the plural form of arthritis, and denotes the collective group of arthritis-like conditions. ... Wollenhaupt J, Zeidler H (1998). "Undifferentiated arthritis and reactive arthritis". Current Opinion in Rheumatology. 10 (4): ... Antiarthritics Arthritis Care (charity in the UK) Arthritis Foundation (US not-for-profit) Knee arthritis Osteoimmunology ...
"Reactive arthritis". nhs.uk. 2017-10-23. Retrieved 2022-03-22. Claeys, Wendie L.; Cardoen, Sabine; Daube, Georges; De Block, ... Similar to Salmonellosis, Campylobacteriosis can also overstimulate the immune system and prompt reactive arthritis, leading to ... Septicemia can lead to serious complications in various organs, in particular arthritis in joints. A recent case of a large- ...
It is associated with HLA B27 arthropathies, such as ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, and reactive arthritis. ... Schmitt, SK (June 2017). "Reactive Arthritis". Infectious Disease Clinics of North America (Review). 31 (2): 265-77. doi: ... "Tendinitis". National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. 12 April 2017. Retrieved 18 November 2018. ... thought to often precede psoriatic arthritis). A common autoimmune enthesitis is at the heel, where the Achilles tendon ...
It is associated with HLA B27 arthropathies such as ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, and reactive arthritis. ... Schmitt, SK (June 2017). "Reactive Arthritis". Infectious Disease Clinics of North America (Review). 31 (2): 265-277. doi: ... Less common causes include infection, arthritis, gout, thyroid disease, and diabetes. Despite the injury of the tendon, there ... Less common causes include infection, arthritis, gout, thyroid disease, diabetes and the use of quinolone antibiotic medicines ...
A small number of people afflicted with salmonellosis experience reactive arthritis, which can last months or years and can ... Schmitt, SK (November 2017). "Reactive Arthritis". Infectious Disease Clinics of North America (Review). 31 (2): 265-77. doi: ... lead to chronic arthritis. In sickle-cell anemia, osteomyelitis due to Salmonella infection is much more common than in the ...
It is associated with HLA B27 arthropathies such as ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, and reactive arthritis. " ... Schmitt, SK (June 2017). "Reactive Arthritis". Infectious Disease Clinics of North America (Review). 31 (2): 265-77. doi: ...
"What is Reactive Arthritis?". Reactive Arthritis. 2019-02-06. Acheson, David; Allos, Ban Mishu (2001-04-15). "Campylobacter ... Another chronic condition that may be associated with Campylobacter infection is reactive arthritis. Reactive arthritis is a ... Most often, the symptoms of reactive arthritis will occur up to several weeks after infection. In 1886 a pediatrician, Theodor ... Possible complications of campylobacteriosis include Guillain-Barré syndrome and reactive arthritis.[citation needed] Studies ...
"C-reactive protein and implications in rheumatoid arthritis and associated comorbidities". Semin Arthritis Rheum. 51 (1): 219- ... MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: C-reactive protein Inflammation, Heart Disease and Stroke: The Role of C-Reactive Protein (American ... Helal I, Zerelli L, Krid M, Kheder A (2012). "Comparison of C-reactive protein and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels ... acute phase erythrocyte sedimentation rate C-reactive protein C-reactive protein GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000132693 - ...
... is implicated as one of the causes of reactive arthritis worldwide. Also, the genus is associated with ... "Yersinia-triggered reactive arthritis. use of polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemical staining in the detection of ... bacterial components from synovial specimens". Arthritis & Rheumatism. 35 (6): 682-687. doi:10.1002/art.1780350613. PMID ...
... arthritis due to infectious causes (including Lyme disease-related arthritis), gouty arthritis, or reactive arthritis. The knee ... and post-traumatic arthritis), various autoimmune forms of arthritis (including; rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile arthritis, and ... Reactive arthritis often presents with lower limb oligoarthritis, including that of the knee. Arthritis of a single joint of ... Hamdulay SS, Glynne SJ, Keat A (July 2006). "When is arthritis reactive?". Postgraduate Medical Journal. 82 (969): 446-53. doi: ...
Herpes simplex virus Cytomegalovirus Reactive arthritis: urethritis is part of the triad of reactive arthritis, which includes ... "What is Reactive Arthritis?". niams.nih.gov. National Institutes of Health. 7 April 2017. Retrieved 5 April 2021. Sharma P, ... In individuals assigned male at birth, complications can lead to epididymitis, reactive arthritis, conjunctivitis, skin lesions ... arthritis, urethritis, and conjunctivitis. Ureaplasma urealyticum Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Group B ...
In 1977, a group of doctors began a campaign to replace the term "Reiter's syndrome" with "reactive arthritis". In addition to ... Keynan, Y; Rimar, D (April 2008). "Reactive arthritis--the appropriate name". The Israel Medical Association Journal (Review). ... The combination of two of the elements, urethritis and arthritis, had been recognized in the 16th century, and the triad had ... Panush, R.S.; Paraschiv, D.; Dorff, R.E. (February 2003). "The tainted legacy of Hans Reiter". Seminars in Arthritis and ...
Reactive arthritis (Reactive to enteric infection) Spondyloarthropathies associated with inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's ... Reactive arthritis and enteropathic arthropathy - Oxford Medicine. The Oxford Textbook of Medicine. Vol. 1. Oxford University ... Enteropathic arthropathy or enteropathic arthritis refers to acute or subacute arthritis in association with, or as a reaction ... Celiac disease Whipple's disease Collagenous colitis Note that reactive arthritis can also occur secondary to urethral ...
It is sometimes associated with reactive arthritis. The RCP are first reported in 1947 and 1965. In a Swedish population it was ... Immunohistochemical staining with FXIIIa antibody disclosed a population of reactive spindle- or stellate-shaped cells in 11 of ...
He has revealed he has reactive arthritis. He participated in season 4 of Celebrity Bainisteoir managing St Patrick's GAA Club ...
Computer vision syndrome Dry eye syndrome Reactive arthritis: Conjunctivitis is part of the triad of reactive arthritis, which ... Reactive arthritis is highly associated with HLA-B27. Conjunctivitis is associated with the autoimmune disease relapsing ... However, the pupils should be normally reactive, and the visual acuity normal. Conjunctivitis is identified by inflammation of ...
Reactive arthritis is characterized by nongonococcal urethritis, conjunctivitis, and arthritis. Reactive arthritis belongs to ... asymptomatic chlamydial infections might be a common cause of reactive arthritis and the two variants of reactive arthritis ... pathophysiology and treatment of reactive arthritis and chlamydia-induced reactive arthritis, specifically. Prospective ... There are two main types of reactive arthritis: post-venereal and post-enteric. Chlamydia trachomatis is thought to be the most ...
... some modern commentators suspect that he suffered from reactive arthritis, rather than gout. Reactive arthritis is a joint ... "It seems likely that [Columbus] acquired reactive arthritis from food poisoning on one of his ocean voyages because of poor ... p. 4. ISBN 978-1-4471-6648-1. Ritchlin, Christopher T.; FitzGerald, Oliver (2007). Psoriatic and Reactive Arthritis: A ... published their paper in The American Journal of the Medical Sciences proposing that Columbus had a form of reactive arthritis ...
The disease is now known as reactive arthritis.) Rett syndrome - Andreas Rett Reye syndrome - Douglas Reye Rickettsiosis - ...
Colmegna I, Cuchacovich R, Espinoza LR (April 2004). "HLA-B27-associated reactive arthritis: pathogenetic and clinical ... Like ankylosing spondylitis, many factors probably contribute to the development of reactive arthritis and other ... reactive arthritis, is typically triggered by bacterial infections of the gastrointestinal or genital tract. Following an ... Researchers speculate that HLA-B27 may abnormally display to the immune system peptides that trigger arthritis. Other research ...
In reactive arthritis, sausage fingers occur due to synovitis. Dactylitis may also be seen with sarcoidosis. In sickle-cell ... Dactylitis can occur in seronegative arthropathies, such as psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis, and in sickle-cell ...
"Intestinal permeability in patients with yersinia triggered reactive arthritis". Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 50 (2): 91- ...
These diseases include syphilitic aortitis, Behçet's disease, and reactive arthritis. Tricuspid regurgitation is usually ... Cunningham, Madeleine W. (2019). "Molecular Mimicry, Autoimmunity and Infection: The Cross-reactive Antigens of Group A ...
Reactive arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriatic arthritis are other possible causes. A diagnosis of condylar resorption ...
It was eventually diagnosed that he was suffering from reactive arthritis. His return to the team against Motherwell was ... but he was troubled with injuries during his time at Ibrox club and was eventually diagnosed with a form of arthritis. He was ...
In addition, cross-reactive anti-beef-collagen antibodies (IgG) may explain some rheumatoid arthritis (RA) incidences.[spelling ... cross reactive food antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis". Gut. 55 (9): 1240-7. doi:10.1136/gut.2005.076901. PMC 1860040. PMID ... 2006). "General or personal diet: the individualized model for diet challenges in patients with rheumatoid arthritis". ... Rarer symptoms include[citation needed] anaphylactic shock, anxiety, arthritis, bloated stomach, chest pains, depression or ...
He published widely on reactive arthritis, asthma, mediastinal emphysema, and iatrogenesis. Professor John MacFarlane Cliff ...
Reactive arthritis and hemolytic uremic syndrome are possible sequelae that have been reported in the aftermath of shigellosis ... Complications can include reactive arthritis, sepsis, seizures, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Shigellosis is caused by four ...
These findings suggest that FDC possibly protect organism against autoimmunity by the removal of potentially self-reactive ... including synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), salivary glands of patients with Sjögren's syndrome, and ...
Where the goal of Dianetics is to rid the individual of his reactive mind engrams, the stated goal of Scientology is to ... He has cured ulcers, arthritis, asthma. In October 1949, Winter, Hubbard, and Campbell met at Hubbard's home in Bay Head, New ... Where the goal of Dianetics is to rid the individual of his reactive mind engrams, the stated goal of Scientology is to ...
... disease activity score and C-reactive protein in a cross-sectional observational study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis ... His scientific work focuses on Rheumatoid arthritis. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Wuerzburg, Germany, and his ... "Cost-effectiveness of sequential therapy with tumor necrosis factor antagonists in early rheumatoid arthritis". The Journal of ... "Long-term efficacy and safety of adalimumab plus methotrexate in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: ARMADA 4-year ...
Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2011;108:14584 Leavenworth JW, Tang X, Kim HJ, Wang X, Cantor H. Amelioration of arthritis through ... Analogues which compete for antigen binding to an arsonate-reactive T cell clone inhibit the functional response to arsonate. ... Binding of antigen in the absence of histocompatibility proteins by arsonate-reactive T cell clones. Cell 36:879-888. Rao A, ... Mobilization of natural killer cells inhibits development of collagen-induced arthritis. ...
Carbon 9 thereby becomes chemically reactive as an electrophilic center. PGJ2 undergoes a spontaneous isomerization reaction in ... arthritis; spinal cord, brain, and lung injury; injury due to ischemia in the heart, brain, kidney, and gut; and stress-induced ...
This reactive form of DFMO then reacts with either a cysteine or lysine residue in the active site to irreversibly inactivate ... Examples include methotrexate (used in chemotherapy and in treating rheumatic arthritis) and the protease inhibitors used to ... Suicide inhibition is an unusual type of irreversible inhibition where the enzyme converts the inhibitor into a reactive form ... Irreversible inhibitors often contain reactive functional groups such as nitrogen mustards, aldehydes, haloalkanes, alkenes, ...
It can give a man arthritis, bursitis, asthma, allergies, sinusitis, coronary trouble, high blood pressure and so on, down the ... The reactive mind is a concept in the Scientology religion formulated by L. Ron Hubbard, referring to that portion of the human ... From the end of the 1950s until the early 1970s, author William S. Burroughs used Hubbard's reactive mind theory as the basis ... "Dianetics: "Two Minds, Not One"". How the Reactive Mind affects an individual and what Dianetics can do about it. Church of ...
March 12 - Silverchair withdraw from the Gone South festival in Australia after Daniel Johns contracts reactive arthritis. ...
Although the mechanism is unknown, the bacteria is able to reduce the amount of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) and ... and arthritis. Clinical signs of Histophilosis may include central nervous system signs such as depression, behavioral changes ... Microagglutination assays have been developed for identification in cattle however many animals have positive cross-reactive ... there are many cross reactive antibodies, there are conflicting effects due to herd vaccination and there is asymptomatic ...
Elevated C-reactive protein A patient is said to have polyarteritis nodosa if he or she has three of the 10 signs known as the ... Arthritis & Rheumatism. 58 (5): 1528-1538. doi:10.1002/art.23470. PMID 18438816. Boehm, Ingrid; Bauer, R (1 February 2000). " ...
But, when the arthritis is an isolated symptom, it is referred to as poststreptococcal reactive arthritis. This arthritis can ... Poststreptococcal reactive arthritis: The presentation of arthritis after a recent episode of group A streptococcal pharyngitis ... These criteria include arthritis, carditis, neurological issues, and skin findings. Diagnosis also depends on evidence of a ... Long-term complications as a result of scarlet fever include kidney disease, rheumatic heart disease, and arthritis. In the ...
Jacob S (2003). MSM the Definitive Guide: Nutritional Breakthrough for Arthritis, Allergies and More. Freedom Press. ISBN 978-1 ... no significant changes between baseline and 16 weeks on either the placebo or the MSM groups with the exception of C-reactive ... "MSM for arthritis pain: Is it safe?". Expert Answers. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 14 July 2015. Usha PR, Naidu MU (2004). " ...
Circinate balanitis, also known as balanitis circinata, is a serpiginous annular dermatitis associated with reactive arthritis ...
This compound is a reactive aldehyde and is one of the many reactive electrophile species that cause toxic stress in cells and ... Arthritis Research & Therapy. 9 (4): R76. doi:10.1186/ar2274. PMC 2206377. PMID 17686167. Collodel, G.; Moretti, E.; Micheli, L ... Malondialdehyde is reactive and potentially mutagenic. It has been found in heated edible oils such as sunflower and palm oils ... Farmer EE, Davoine C (2007). "Reactive electrophile species". Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 10 (4): 380-6. doi:10.1016/j.pbi.2007.04. ...
Reactive hypoglycemia has been used as a trashcan diagnosis for people who complain about normal physiological reactions to ... Seronegative rheumatoid arthritis[citation needed] Irritable bowel syndrome[citation needed] Chronic pain syndromes[citation ...
2017). "Pesticide Exposure and Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis among Licensed Male Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural ... more reactive or fine-grained) product.[citation needed] Precipitated silica or amorphous silica is produced by the ... it increases the risk of systemic autoimmune diseases such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis compared to expected rates in the ... such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. Inhalation of amorphous silicon dioxide, in high doses, leads to non-permanent short- ...
The photochemically reactive sites in psoralens are the alkene-like carbon-carbon double bonds in the furan ring (the five- ... and rheumatoid arthritis). While cell-surface modification and ion channel blocking are two newly discovered mechanisms of ...
Enthesitis Ankylosing spondylitis Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis psoriatic arthritis reactive arthritis Behçet's disease ... Rheumatoid arthritis is not uncommon in Asian countries as a significant association of uveitis. Sympathetic ophthalmia Behçet ... Radiology X-ray may be used to show coexisting arthritis and chest X-ray may be helpful in sarcoidosis. Uveitis is typically ... Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism. 40 (4): 314-23. doi:10.1016/j.semarthrit.2010.05.008. PMID 20656330. "Fluorescein eye ...
It can also be activated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). It is known that monocytes and macrophages in affected individuals ... Arthritis and Rheumatism. 48 (9): 2645-2651. doi:10.1002/art.11218. ISSN 0004-3591. PMID 13130485. Rigante D, Ansuini V, ... C-reactive protein (CRP) also increases. CRP is released by liver which causes inflammation. Hyperimmunoglobulinemia D with ...
... and reactive lymphadenopathy; autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis; and cancers, ... Self-directed antibodies are commonly seen in autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematous and rheumatoid arthritis ... Laboratory tests: Elevated C-Reactive Protein or erythrocyte sedimentation rate Low hemoglobin levels (anemia) Abnormal (low or ... C-reactive protein, Hemoglobin, Albumin, and eGFR. Complete response - All lab values within normal ranges Partial response - > ...
NGU is also associated with reactive arthritis, in which the triad of arthritis, conjunctivitis, and urethritis is seen. The ...
... arthritis without reactive oxygen species and complement". The American Journal of Pathology. 183 (4): 1144-1155. doi:10.1016/j ... "Tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced adipose-related protein expression in experimental arthritis and in rheumatoid arthritis". ... Human GPI is capable of inducing arthritis in mice with varied genetic backgrounds via intradermal injection. Fructose-1- ... Arthritis Research & Therapy. 11 (4): R118. doi:10.1186/ar2779. PMC 2745801. PMID 19660107. Walker JI, Faik P, Morgan MJ ( ...
... arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Seronegative spondyloarthropathy such as ankylosing spondylitis or reactive arthritis Traumatic ... Joints with preexisting arthritis, such as rheumatoid arthritis, are especially prone to bacterial arthritis spread through the ... Acute septic arthritis, infectious arthritis, suppurative arthritis, osteomyelitis, or joint infection is the invasion of a ... gonococcal arthritis, and others. Non-gonococcal arthritis - These bacteria account for over 80% of septic arthritis cases and ...
Assistive technology can also be applied, although it is mostly reactive in case of a fall. Exercise as a single intervention ... lower limb or spinal column fractures or arthritis, post-surgery, joint replacement, lower limb amputation, soft tissue ... Age-related changes in muscles, tendons, and neural structures may contribute to slower reactive responses. Interventions ...
1981) Antigen-reactive T cell clones. I. Transcomplementing hybrid I-A-region gene products function effectively in antigen ... Fathman initiated a multidisciplinary approach to study and treat autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, multiple ...
... such as the upper throat during the common cold or joints affected by rheumatoid arthritis; increased production of mucus, ... causing the release of reactive oxygen species. Pathogens also stimulate the macrophage to produce chemokines, which summon ...
Paraskevas S, Huizinga JD, Loos BG (April 2008). "A systematic review and meta-analyses on C-reactive protein in relation to ... Persons with dexterity problems, such as with arthritis, may find oral hygiene to be difficult and may require more frequent ... Periodontitis has been linked to increased inflammation in the body, such as indicated by raised levels of C-reactive protein ... In uncontrolled diabetes, the formation of reactive oxygen species can damage cells such as those in the connective tissue of ...
... and at high concentrations cause cells to generate toxic reactive oxygen species; one or more of these effects may be at least ... arthritis, asthma, cystic fibrosis, atherosclerosis, and adipose tissue inflammation; in the insulin resistance that occurs in ...
... and reactive arthritis. A heart attack is a blood vessel in the heart being constricted either by a blood clot or ... Other complications include visual field defects, headaches, Diabetes, Sleep apnoea, Hypertension, Arthralgia and Arthritis and ...
Arthritis and Rheumatism. 62 (3): 791-801. doi:10.1002/art.27305. PMC 2838960. PMID 20187128. Caramés B, Taniguchi N, Seino D, ... amino acid sensing and additional signals such as growth factors and reactive oxygen species regulate the activity of the ... Arthritis and Rheumatism. 64 (4): 1182-92. doi:10.1002/art.33444. PMC 3288456. PMID 22034068. Caramés B, Olmer M, Kiosses WB, ... Arthritis & Rheumatology. 67 (6): 1568-76. doi:10.1002/art.39073. PMC 4446178. PMID 25708836. Furuya, N., Liang, X.H., and ...
Reiter syndrome was originally defined as a triad of arthritis, conjunctivitis, and urethritis. Hans Reiter first reported this ... encoded search term (Reactive Arthritis Imaging) and Reactive Arthritis Imaging What to Read Next on Medscape ... Reactive arthritis (formerly Reiter syndrome) is used to describe an acute arthritis complicating an infection elsewhere in the ... 5] Reactive arthritis has been reported following COVID-19 infection. [6, 7, 8, 9] It has also been identified as a ...
Reactive arthritis is a type of arthritis that follows an infection. It may also cause inflammation of the eyes, skin and ... Reactive arthritis is a type of arthritis that follows an infection. It may also cause inflammation of the eyes, skin and ... Reactive arthritis may go away in a few weeks, but it can last for a few months and require medicines during that time. ... Reactive arthritis most often occurs in men between the ages of 20 and 40, although it does sometimes affect women. It may ...
Reactive arthritis x ray,X Ray]] , [[Reactive arthritis CT,CT]] , [[Reactive arthritis MRI,MRI]] , [[Reactive arthritis ... Reactive arthritis risk factors,Risk Factors]]== ==[[Reactive arthritis screening,Screening]]== ==[[Reactive arthritis natural ... Reactive arthritis medical therapy,Medical Therapy]] , [[Reactive arthritis surgery,Surgery]] , [[Reactive arthritis primary ... Reactive arthritis (patient information),here]] {{Reactive arthritis}} {{CMG}};{{AE}} {{SK}} Reactive arthropathy; Reiters ...
Background: Reactive arthritis (ReA) is an inflammatory arthritis triggered by certain gastrointestinal and genitourinary ... HLA-B27 expression and reactive arthritis susceptibility in two patient cohorts infected with Salmonella Typhimurium Aust N Z J ... Caucasians were, however, more likely to develop reactive arthritis than Asians. Conclusions: In this study, susceptibility to ... Results: Nineteen cases of reactive arthritis, 11 female, were diagnosed in the 424 respondents with S. Typhimurium ...
Self-reactive T cells induce and perpetuate chronic relapsing arthritis. *Mark. Tuncel, Jonatan LU ; Holmberg, Jens LU ; Haag, ... Arthritis Research and Therapy}}, title = {{Self-reactive T cells induce and perpetuate chronic relapsing arthritis}}, url = {{ ... Adoptive T cell transfer, Chronic arthritis, MHC class II, PIA, Pristane, RA, T cell depletion. in Arthritis Research and ... Background: CD4+ T cells play a central role during the early stages of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but to which extent they are ...
... baseline levels and early changes of C-reactive protein for subsequent clinical outcomes of patients with rheumatoid arthritis ... baseline levels and early changes of C-reactive protein for subsequent clinical outcomes of patients with rheumatoid arthritis ...
This work is being financed by the FCT project with the reference PTDC/EGE-OGE/7995/2020 ...
... also known as infectious arthritis, may represent a direct invasion of joint space by various microorganisms, most commonly ... Reactive/postexposure process. Reactive, or postexposure, arthritis is observed more commonly in patients with human lymphocyte ... See also Pediatric Septic Arthritis, Pediatric Septic Arthritis Surgery, and Septic Arthritis Surgery. ... are the second most common cause of reactive arthritis. The arthritis of Lyme disease usually results from immunologic ...
... a form of reactive arthritis in which your own immune system attacks your joints. ... Symptoms of Reiters Syndrome and Reactive Arthritis. Most forms of reactive arthritis are characterized by pain, swelling, and ... Reactive arthritis is more commonly seen in white males between the ages of 20 and 40 than in any other demographic group, and ... Reiters Syndrome and Reactive Arthritis - What to Know. Authored by Dr. Donald Pelto ...
4. How serious is reactive arthritis?. Reactive arthritis can be cured with proper treatment, but the condition can turn ... What is reactive arthritis?. Reactive arthritis is also known as Reiter Syndrome. It occurs when synovitis arises in joints due ... How is reactive arthritis diagnosed?. Reactive arthritis is usually diagnosed based on the history of the previous infection ... Reactive arthritis is a rare type of arthritis that causes painful and swollen joints. It starts within a few weeks of an ...
C-reactive protein. ... C-reactive protein.. *Number of Subjects Achieving PedACR 30/50 ... MedlinePlus Genetics related topics: Rheumatoid arthritis Juvenile idiopathic arthritis MedlinePlus related topics: Arthritis ... Arthritis. Arthritis, Rheumatoid. Arthritis, Juvenile. Joint Diseases. Musculoskeletal Diseases. Rheumatic Diseases. Connective ... Safety of Adalimumab in Pediatric Patients with Polyarticular Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis, Enthesitis-Related Arthritis, ...
C-reactive protein (CRP);. *Patients global assessment of disease activity assessed on a scale from 0 to 100 transformed from ... Efficacy and Safety Study of ABP 501 Compared to Adalimumab in Subjects With Moderate to Severe Rheumatoid Arthritis. The ... C-reactive protein (CRP) level. *Patients global assessment of disease activity assessed on a score from 0 to 100 transformed ... The left-hand extreme of the scale was described as no RA activity at all (symptom-free and no arthritis symptoms; score = 0 ...
Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic, polygenic, and multifactorial syndrome characterized by erosive polyarthritis, damage to ... "Association of body fat with C-reactive protein in rheumatoid arthritis," Arthritis & Rheumatism, vol. 58, no. 9, pp. 2632-2641 ... "The specificity of anti-carbamylated protein antibodies for rheumatoid arthritis in a setting of early arthritis," Arthritis ... A. Dahdah, K. Habir, K. S. Nandakumar et al., "Germinal center B cells are essential for collagen-induced arthritis," Arthritis ...
reactive arthritis. *untreated diabetes. How do I protect myself?. You can reduce your risk of spreading bacteria related to BV ...
Reactive arthritis (ReA) is a well-known disease entity caused by urogenital or gastrointestinal bacterial infection or ... Immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced inflammatory arthritis (ICI-IA) is a relatively new disease entity caused by ICI agents ... Comparison of immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced arthritis and reactive arthritis to inform therapeutic strategy ... Comparison of immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced arthritis and reactive arthritis to inform therapeutic strategy ...
Reactive arthritis. 0.150. Shigellosis. 0.220. 0.096. Irritable bowel syndrome. 0.042. Typhoid and paratyphoid fever. 0.600. ...
The C-reactive protein (CRP) was significantly increased between gout (10.1 ± 7.9 mg/dL) and pseudogout (18.9 ± 9.8 mg/dL), ... Conclusions: Measurement of ESR and CRP are helpful in crystal-induced arthritis. The CRP has more discriminating utility than ... Peripheral wbc is most useful for differentiating crystal-induced arthritis from CIA. ... pseudogout and crystal-induced arthritis in the presence of non-articular infections (CAI). Patients and Methods: Eleven ...
Doctors can use a C-reactive protein (CRP) test to check the levels of this protein. Many conditions can elevate CRP levels, ... Arthritis causes pain in the joints and the tissues surrounding the joints. The article looks at the types, causes, and ... 2018). Serum C-reactive protein in the prediction of cardiovascular diseases: Overview of the latest clinical studies and ... The liver makes C-reactive protein (CRP) in response to inflammation in the body. The CRP test measures the amount of this ...
Autoimmune diseases such as arthritis or multiple sclerosis can cause vision problems, including uveitis, a serious disorder. ... They include rheumatoid arthritis (RA); psoriatic arthritis, which can accompany the skin condition psoriasis; and reactive ... The types of arthritis that can cause vision problems are usually associated with an autoimmune disease, in which an overactive ... The good news is that theres no connection between uveitis and osteoarthritis, the most common form of arthritis, according to ...
Arthritis, Reactive. C02 - Virus Diseases. Leukemia, T-Cell, HTLV-II-Associated Leukemia, T-Cell. ...
Reactive Arthritis see Infectious Arthritis * Reiters Syndrome see Infectious Arthritis * Respiratory Syncytial Virus ...
Poststreptococcal reactive arthritis is a sterile arthritis associated with antecedent streptococcal infection in patients not ... Poststreptococcal reactive arthritis has been reported to have lower-extremity predominance and, therefore, should be included ... A review of the literature, distinguishing poststreptococcal reactive arthritis from acute rheumatic fever, and treatment ... in the differential diagnosis of patients with lower-extremity arthritis. ...
Keratoderma blennorrhagicum (reactive arthritis). *Lupus. *Lichen simplex chronicus. *Pityriasis rosea. *Squamous cell skin ... Ogdie, A. and Weiss, P. The Epidemiology of Psoriatic Arthritis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2015 Nov;41(4):545-68. doi:10.1016/j. ... Chief among these is psoriatic arthritis, which affects up to 41% of people with psoriasis, according to a 2015 review from the ...
Reactive arthritis that affects the hands, knees, ankles, and feet has been described. ...
... Date: September 13, 2018 06:52 PM Author: VitaNet, LLC Staff (support@ ... Often reactive arthritis occurs as a post-infection episode, although it can linger, causing cyclical bouts of pain that ... 7 Natural Remedies for Reactive Arthritis Symptoms VitaNet, LLC Staff 9/13/18 ... "If you experience pain and swelling in your joints after an infection, you may have reactive arthritis." ...
Categories: Arthritis, Reactive Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
  • Sexually acquired reactive arthritis. (nih.gov)
  • Diagnostic and therapeutic problems in SARA syndrome (sexually acquired reactive arthritis) particularly considering the role of Chlamydia trachomatis]. (nih.gov)
  • Reiter 's syndrome, sexually acquired reactive arthritis. (arthritis-rheumatism.com)
  • Chen M , Delpech V, O'Sullivan B, Donovan B. Shigella sonnei: another cause of sexually acquired reactive arthritis. (cdc.gov)
  • Caucasians were, however, more likely to develop reactive arthritis than Asians. (nih.gov)
  • With epidemic dysentery owing to arthritogenic strains, 5% of infected individuals and 20% of infected HLA-B27-positive individuals develop reactive arthritis. (arthritis-rheumatism.com)
  • Men and women are equally likely to develop reactive arthritis after contracting food poisoning, but men are more likely to develop it in response to sexually transmitted infections. (footvitals.com)
  • Diagnosis of chlamydia-induced reactive arthritis. (nih.gov)
  • Chlamydia-associated reactive arthritis. (nih.gov)
  • The most common pathogens known to induce reactive arthritis are enteric (Shigella, Salmonella, Yersinia, and Campylobacter) or urogenital/postvenereal (Chlamydia, Ureaplasma, HIV) pathogens. (arthritis-rheumatism.com)
  • Infections with Chlamydia and other bacteria that cause dysentery have been found to activate reactive arthritis, a type of spondyloarthropathy. (atlspinesurgery.com)
  • 20. [Clinical aspects of reactive arthritis caused by Chlamydia]. (nih.gov)
  • Because of its association with HLA-B27 and its clinical overlap with ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis, reactive arthritis is classified as a seronegative (for rheumatoid factor) spondyloarthropathy. (medscape.com)
  • 4. Differences in the expression of spondyloarthropathy: a comparison between ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis. (nih.gov)
  • 5. [HLA B 27 uveitis in ankylosing spondylitis and reactive arthritis]. (nih.gov)
  • The condition is triggered by a bacterial infection in the digestive or urinary tract or the genitals, but arthritis symptoms typically do not set in until after you have recovered from the infection. (nih.gov)
  • People who have a gene called HLA-B27 have a higher risk of getting reactive arthritis and of experiencing more severe and more long-lasting symptoms. (nih.gov)
  • Some people with reactive arthritis have mild symptoms, while others have severe symptoms that limit daily activities. (nih.gov)
  • The duration between onset of COVID-19 symptoms and arthritis ranged from 5 to 52 days with a mean of 25.9 days. (bvsalud.org)
  • A few of the symptoms of spondyloarthropathies are like that of rheumatoid arthritis. (atlspinesurgery.com)
  • The initial infection that brings on a case of reactive arthritis may present itself in the form of diarrhea or other gastric distress-especially if the infection was acquired through food poisoning-but in some cases there are no symptoms until the reactive arthritis begins to affect the ankles or other joints. (footvitals.com)
  • Reactive arthritis is more commonly seen in white males between the ages of 20 and 40 than in any other demographic group, and women tend to experience milder symptoms than men. (footvitals.com)
  • TNF inhibitors are also sometimes used to treat the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. (footvitals.com)
  • The symptoms of reactive arthritis usually resolve within 12 months. (asterhospitals.in)
  • The fact that symptoms of reactive arthritis appear several weeks apart can make diagnosis difficult. (asterhospitals.in)
  • Hence, a rheumatologist may diagnose reactive arthritis if the patient begins to show symptoms shortly after inflammation. (asterhospitals.in)
  • There are many different types of arthritis and related chronic conditions of the joints - some sources estimate over 200 - with differing causes and symptoms. (ada.com)
  • Symptoms of degenerative arthritis tend to get worse with movement or weight bearing i.e. when the person stands up, but improve after rest. (ada.com)
  • Rheumatoid arthritis symptoms occur in flare-ups, when symptoms of pain and swelling are worse, and periods of improved or no symptoms. (ada.com)
  • The general radiographic changes are similar to those of psoriatic arthritis, but the characteristic sites of abnormality are the small joints of the foot, the calcaneus, the ankle, the knee, and the sacroiliac joint. (medscape.com)
  • The most common spondyloarthropathies include ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and arthritis secondary to inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. (atlspinesurgery.com)
  • C-reactive protein. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • What does it mean if you have a high C-reactive protein level? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The liver makes C-reactive protein (CRP) in response to inflammation in the body. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In this report, we describe a high-throughput single-cell assay, microengraving, for the screening, characterization and isolation of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. (nih.gov)
  • and various serological analyses, including rheumatoid factor and C-reactive protein. (cdc.gov)
  • The C-reactive protein (CRP) was significantly increased between gout (10.1 ± 7.9 mg/dL) and pseudogout (18.9 ± 9.8 mg/dL), gout and CIA (36.5 ± 12.4 mg/dL) as well as between pseudogout and CIA. (scirp.org)
  • C-reactive Protein Testing Market size was valued at US$ 1.64 Bn. (maximizemarketresearch.com)
  • C-reactive Protein Test is a blood tear that measures the level of C- reactive protein. (maximizemarketresearch.com)
  • C-reactive Protein Test can estimate the risk of a person suffering from heart attack and stroke. (maximizemarketresearch.com)
  • With increasing cases of Cardiovascular disorder across the globe and research and development to update the C-reactive Protein Testing methods, these are the major factors to grow the C-reactive Protein Testing market. (maximizemarketresearch.com)
  • In addition, the growing elderly population coupled with rising cases of diabetes mellitus are also driving the C-reactive Protein Testing market. (maximizemarketresearch.com)
  • Aidan offers easy-to-use Quickread go CRP tests and a portable QuikRead go instrument for quantitative measurement of C-reactive protein. (maximizemarketresearch.com)
  • Based on the Assay Type , The C-reactive Protein Testing Market is segmented into Immunoturbidimetric Assay, ELISA, Chemiluminescence Immunoassay, Others. (maximizemarketresearch.com)
  • Based on the Application , The C - reactive protein Testing Market is segmented into Cardiovascular Diseases, Cancer, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, and Endometriosis. (maximizemarketresearch.com)
  • Based on the End User, The C-reactive Protein Testing Market is segmented into Hospitals, Clinics, and Diagnostics Labs. (maximizemarketresearch.com)
  • Inflammation of the joints, eyes, and urinary tract are hallmarks of reactive arthritis, but not everyone gets all three, or they might not occur at the same time. (nih.gov)
  • Foot pain in people with reactive arthritis is usually due to inflammation of entheses. (nih.gov)
  • Reactive arthritis is characterized by inflammation of the joints, eyes, and urinary tract, but not everyone with the condition will experience all three, or they might not occur at the same time. (nih.gov)
  • Thymectomy in combination with irradiation enhanced the severity of arthritis, suggesting that sustained lymphopenia promotes T cell-driven chronic inflammation in this model. (lu.se)
  • The term Reiter's syndrome refers to a specific type of reactive arthritis , a condition in which the joints-most often the knees, ankles, and foot joints-experience swelling and inflammation resulting from an infection elsewhere in the body (usually the genitals or intestines). (footvitals.com)
  • Most forms of reactive arthritis are characterized by pain , swelling, and inflammation in the toes and in the joints of the foot, ankle, and knees. (footvitals.com)
  • The HLA-B27 genetic marker, along with an increased white blood count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), is often found in the blood of reactive arthritis patients -- both are indicators of inflammation. (asterhospitals.in)
  • Arthritis is a painful inflammation of one or more joints. (ada.com)
  • All arthritis is characterized by inflammation, which is part of the body's healing process. (ada.com)
  • However, in the case of inflammatory arthritis, inflammation generally occurs for no obvious reason. (ada.com)
  • Gout, also known as gouty arthritis, is an inflammatory arthritis causing attacks of pain and inflammation in the joints. (ada.com)
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the most common autoimmune diseases, which affects approximately 1% of the world population, and is characterized by autoantibody production, synovial inflammation, cartilage destruction, and bone erosion [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This test identifies different types of infection and diseases that cause inflammation such as Cancer, Cardiovascular disease, Arthritis, etc. (maximizemarketresearch.com)
  • Reactive arthritis, as the name suggests, occurs in reaction to something-in this case, an infection. (nih.gov)
  • Both men and women can get reactive arthritis, but men are more likely to develop it as a result of a sexually transmitted infection. (nih.gov)
  • This symptom is more common when reactive arthritis happens after an infection of the genitals or urinary tract. (nih.gov)
  • Reactive arthritis (formerly Reiter syndrome) is used to describe an acute arthritis complicating an infection elsewhere in the body in which the infecting organism cannot be cultured from the joint fluid or synovium. (medscape.com)
  • [ 5 ] Reactive arthritis has been reported following COVID-19 infection . (medscape.com)
  • The incidence of reactive arthritis is about 2-4% after a urogenital infection (mainly with C trachomatis ) and is 0-15% after gastrointestinal infections ( Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Yersinia ). (medscape.com)
  • Reactive arthritis is a type of arthritis that follows an infection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Reactive arthritis can also follow a gastrointestinal infection (such as food poisoning). (medlineplus.gov)
  • In up to one half of people thought to have reactive arthritis, there may be no infection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Epidemiology of clostridium difficile infection-associated reactive arthritis in children: an underdiagnosed, potentially morbid condition. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Clinical features of the arthritis were similar to those described after other large single source outbreaks of Salmonella infection. (nih.gov)
  • Reactive arthritis is an acute inflammatory arthritis occurring 1 to 4 weeks after an infection. (arthritis-rheumatism.com)
  • Reactive arthritis represents a sterile inflammatory process that may be triggered by an extra-articular infection. (medscape.com)
  • If your doctor suspects Reiter's syndrome or some other form of reactive arthritis, he or she will probably want to take a blood sample to test for the presence of infection or evidence of infection in the recent past. (footvitals.com)
  • Your doctor may also take a sample of your joint fluid to look for uric acid crystals (which might indicate that the problem is gout ), bacterial infection in the joint (i.e., septic arthritis ), or an elevated white blood cell count (which may also indicate infection). (footvitals.com)
  • Reactive arthritis is usually diagnosed based on the history of the previous infection and the clinical exam. (asterhospitals.in)
  • About 2% 1-4 of people who are infected with certain types of Shigella , most commonly Shigella flexneri , will experience reactive arthritis after infection, which can cause joint pain, eye irritation, and painful urination. (cdc.gov)
  • Hannu T, Mattila L, Siitonen A, Leirisalo-Repo M. Reactive arthritis attributable to Shigella infection: a clinical and epidemiological nationwide study . (cdc.gov)
  • Reactive arthritis associated with Shigella dysenteriae type 1 infection .J Diarrhoeal Dis Res. (cdc.gov)
  • Reactive arthritis (ReA) is a well-known disease entity caused by urogenital or gastrointestinal bacterial infection or pneumonia. (ox.ac.uk)
  • To control emerging infections, however, vaccines will need to be delivered to older individuals who, unlike infants, probably have had prior infection or vaccination with related viruses and thus have cross-reactive antibodies against the vaccines. (nature.com)
  • Our findings clinically demonstrate antibody-enhanced infection and suggest that vaccine efficacy could be improved by exploiting cross-reactive antibodies. (nature.com)
  • More than 50% of patients with reactive arthritis have antibodies to C. trachomatis. (arthritis-rheumatism.com)
  • The methodology offers a simple, rapid and low-cost platform for isolation of auto-reactive antibodies from low numbers of input cells and can be easily adapted for isolation and characterization of auto-reactive antibodies in other autoimmune diseases. (nih.gov)
  • Whether and how these cross-reactive antibodies impact live attenuated vaccination efficacy is unclear. (nature.com)
  • Enhancing titres of cross-reactive antibodies prolonged YF vaccine viraemia, provoked greater pro-inflammatory responses, and induced adhesion molecules intrinsic to the activating Fc-receptor signalling pathway, namely immune semaphorins, facilitating immune cell interactions and trafficking. (nature.com)
  • 8-9 Reactive arthritis can also occur in people who get sick from Shigella sonnei , 6-7 , 9-10 but is less common in other types of Shigella called S. boydii and S. dystenteriae . (cdc.gov)
  • Lauhio A, Lahdevirta J, Janes R, Kontiainen S, Repo H. Reactive arthritis associated with Shigella sonnei Arthritis. (cdc.gov)
  • About 80 percent of people who suffer from Reiter's syndrome are carriers of the HLA-B27 gene, which is also common among people who suffer from other types of reactive arthritis. (footvitals.com)
  • Correlation with clinical and radiographic findings is usually necessary to differentiate reactive arthritis from other seronegative arthropathies. (medscape.com)
  • Radiographs are a reliable means of diagnosing reactive arthritis, particularly if the typical clinical features are present. (medscape.com)
  • To define clinical differences in the acute phase response and serum acute phase reactants between gout, pseudogout and crystal-induced arthritis in the presence of non-articular infections (CAI). (scirp.org)
  • 13. Clinical features and followup study of HLA-B27 positive patients presenting with peripheral arthritis. (nih.gov)
  • Although reactive arthritis has been described in patients with AIDS, studies have not shown an increased risk of Reiter 's syndrome in HIV-positive populations matched for other risk factors. (arthritis-rheumatism.com)
  • Reactive arthritis is also known as Reiter Syndrome. (asterhospitals.in)
  • Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic, polygenic, and multifactorial syndrome characterized by erosive polyarthritis, damage to joint architecture, and presence of autoantibodies against several self-structures in the serum and synovial fluid. (hindawi.com)
  • Reactive arthritis is thought to be an autoimmune condition. (footvitals.com)
  • Living with an autoimmune disease like arthritis can make for an interesting and at times, tricky combination. (arthritis.org.nz)
  • Arthritogenic bacteria have been associated with reactive arthritis, possibly with molecular mimicry between bacterial antigens and HLA-B27. (arthritis-rheumatism.com)
  • The major diseases to be identified are rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and gout. (cdc.gov)
  • Y. Zhu, B. J. Pandya and H. K. Choi, "Prevalence of Gout and Hyperuricemia in the US General Population: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2008," Arthritis & Rheumatism, Vol. 63, No. 10, 2011, pp. 3136-3141. (scirp.org)
  • The term Septic Arthritis (SA) represents an invasion of a joint space by a variety of microorganisms, most commonly bacteria. (medscape.com)
  • Septic arthritis is increasingly common among persons older than 65 years, among immunosuppressed individuals, and among those with various comorbidities such as diabetes. (medscape.com)
  • Fifty-six percent of patients with septic arthritis are male. (medscape.com)
  • The pathogen of Lyme disease , Borrelia burgdorferi, commonly produces a septic arthritis picture. (medscape.com)
  • Brucella may cause septic arthritis in areas where cattle are not vaccinated. (medscape.com)
  • M. E. Margaretten, J. Kohlwes, D. Moore and S. Bent, "Does This Adult Patient Have Septic Arthritis? (scirp.org)
  • The American Rheumatism Association definitions of a case are based on highly structured diagnostic criteria which, for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, require radiologic evidence. (cdc.gov)
  • Reactive arthritis is a form of spondyloarthritis, a group of arthritis conditions that typically involve the sacroiliac joints in the lower back, and entheses (places where tendons or ligaments attach to bones). (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this announcement is to inform potential applicants to the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) of an area of special interest in HIV/AIDS-associated comorbidities that are within the NIAMS mission. (nih.gov)
  • Arthritis and other rheumatic diseases (e.g. (nih.gov)
  • Conclusion: These findings show that, once activated, self-reactive T cells can sustain inflammatory responses for extended periods of time and suggest that such responses are promoted in the presence of IL-17. (lu.se)
  • The ability of T cells to induce chronic arthritis correlated with their expression of Th17-associated transcripts, and while depletion of T cells in rats with chronic PIA led to transient, albeit significant, reduction in disease, neutralization of IL-17 resulted in almost complete and sustained remission. (lu.se)
  • Bone proliferation is characteristic of all seronegative spondyloarthropathies and is the most helpful radiographic feature in distinguishing these conditions from rheumatoid arthritis . (medscape.com)
  • 1. Seronegative arthritis as a cause of heel pain. (nih.gov)
  • 5. [Seronegative arthritis]. (nih.gov)
  • 16. [Human leukocyte B27 antigen in patients with seronegative arthritis]. (nih.gov)
  • Methods: We used the rat pristane-induced arthritis model, which accurately portrays the chronic relapsing-remitting disease course of RA, to examine the contribution of T cells to chronic arthritis. (lu.se)
  • Results: Rats subjected to whole-body irradiation and injected with CD4 + T cells from lymph nodes of pristane-injected donors developed chronic arthritis that lasted for more than 4 months, whereas T cells. (lu.se)
  • T cells from lymph nodes of pristane-injected donors developed chronic arthritis that lasted for more than 4 months, whereas T cells from the spleen only induced acute disease. (lu.se)
  • 50% develop chronic arthritis. (arthritis-rheumatism.com)
  • 1 , 5-7 It usually lasts for 3 to 5 months, but occasionally it can last for years and lead to chronic arthritis. (cdc.gov)
  • Anyone can get reactive arthritis, and it occurs worldwide. (nih.gov)
  • Reactive arthritis most often occurs in men between the ages of 20 and 40, although it does sometimes affect women. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Reactive arthritis may occur in children ages 6 to 14 after Clostridium difficile gastrointestinal infections. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Reactive arthritis (ReA) is an inflammatory arthritis triggered by certain gastrointestinal and genitourinary infections. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally, the phenotype of the auto-reactive B cells may have direct relevance for therapeutic intervention. (nih.gov)
  • Individuals with arthritis of recent onset were interviewed, examined and diagnostic criteria for ReA applied. (nih.gov)
  • Periarticular osteoporosis is seen with an acute episode of arthritis. (medscape.com)
  • Although sexually transmitted infections can occur just before the onset of reactive arthritis, many cases of reactive arthritis are associated with other types of infections that are not transmitted sexually. (nih.gov)
  • As with other forms of arthritis, physical therapy can help to improve joint function and alleviate stiffness. (footvitals.com)
  • Introduction: Immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced inflammatory arthritis (ICI-IA) is a relatively new disease entity caused by ICI agents during cancer therapy. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Unless the patient has had recurrent episodes of reactive arthritis, the X-rays of the joints do not indicate any abnormalities. (asterhospitals.in)
  • Reactive arthritis can also cause damage and abnormalities to the joints in the pelvis (sacroiliac joints) and back. (asterhospitals.in)
  • Arthritis can be localized to one joint or it can affect many joints, and can affect different structures inside a joint, such as the joint lining known as the synovium, bones, cartilage, or supporting tissues. (ada.com)
  • People affected by inflammatory arthritis generally feel stiffness in the joints following rest, such as just after getting out of bed in the morning. (ada.com)
  • Types of degenerative arthritis tend to affect joints asymmetrically, meaning they don't appear in the same joints on both sides of the body. (ada.com)
  • MRI has extremely high sensitivity for reactive arthritis but low specificity. (medscape.com)
  • HLA-B27 was expressed by only two of the 19 ReA patients and therefore did not predict susceptibility to this form of arthritis. (nih.gov)
  • Whereas postdysenteric reactive arthritis may arise in HLA-B27-negative patients, postvenereal onset is often HLA-B27 related. (arthritis-rheumatism.com)
  • Patients with reactive arthritis who are HLA-B27 negative may have epidemic dysentery. (arthritis-rheumatism.com)
  • Most patients with AIDS with reactive arthritis are HLA-B27 positive and present with incomplete reactive arthritis with either (a) an additive, asymmetric polyarthritis or (b) an intermittent oligoarthritis. (arthritis-rheumatism.com)
  • A retrospective, observational study of patients with post-COVID-19 arthritis over one year was conducted at a tertiary care centre in India . (bvsalud.org)
  • 7. Immunoglobulin allotype Gm(1,2;21) in ankylosing spondylitis with peripheral arthritis. (nih.gov)
  • A family history that includes any type of reactive arthritis is also cause for concern. (footvitals.com)
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the second most common type of arthritis and the most common type of inflammatory arthritis. (ada.com)
  • By far the most common types of arthritis are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. (ada.com)
  • The most common form of degenerative arthritis is osteoarthritis. (ada.com)
  • Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis, with more than 30 million adults in the U.S affected by the condition. (ada.com)
  • Arthritis and related musculoskeletal disorders are frequently chronic, disabling and painful. (cdc.gov)
  • Radiography is most important imaging technique for the detection of reactive arthritis. (medscape.com)
  • There are some conditions, generally rare, that cause arthritis in children and teenagers. (ada.com)
  • With enteric infections, the diarrheal illness resolves before the onset of arthritis (usually 1-4 weeks later). (arthritis-rheumatism.com)