Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.ArthritisArthritis, Experimental: ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.Arthritis, Infectious: Arthritis caused by BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; MYCOPLASMA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; or PARASITES.Arthritis, Juvenile: Arthritis of children, with onset before 16 years of age. The terms juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) refer to classification systems for chronic arthritis in children. Only one subtype of juvenile arthritis (polyarticular-onset, rheumatoid factor-positive) clinically resembles adult rheumatoid arthritis and is considered its childhood equivalent.Arthritis, Psoriatic: A type of inflammatory arthritis associated with PSORIASIS, often involving the axial joints and the peripheral terminal interphalangeal joints. It is characterized by the presence of HLA-B27-associated SPONDYLARTHROPATHY, and the absence of rheumatoid factor.Arthritis, Reactive: An aseptic, inflammatory arthritis developing secondary to a primary extra-articular infection, most typically of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or UROGENITAL SYSTEM. The initiating trigger pathogens are usually SHIGELLA; SALMONELLA; YERSINIA; CAMPYLOBACTER; or CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. Reactive arthritis is strongly associated with HLA-B27 ANTIGEN.Synovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.Joints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.Synovial Fluid: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.Arthritis, Gouty: Arthritis, especially of the great toe, as a result of gout. Acute gouty arthritis often is precipitated by trauma, infection, surgery, etc. The initial attacks are usually monoarticular but later attacks are often polyarticular.Rheumatoid Factor: Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.Mice, Inbred DBASynovitis: Inflammation of a synovial membrane. It is usually painful, particularly on motion, and is characterized by a fluctuating swelling due to effusion within a synovial sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)Osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Collagen Type II: A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Rats, Inbred LewAutoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Blood Sedimentation: Measurement of rate of settling of erythrocytes in anticoagulated blood.Injections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Rheumatic Diseases: Disorders of connective tissue, especially the joints and related structures, characterized by inflammation, degeneration, or metabolic derangement.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Arthrography: Roentgenography of a joint, usually after injection of either positive or negative contrast medium.Rheumatology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of inflammatory or degenerative processes and metabolic derangement of connective tissue structures which pertain to a variety of musculoskeletal disorders, such as arthritis.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Metacarpophalangeal Joint: The articulation between a metacarpal bone and a phalanx.Spondylitis, Ankylosing: A chronic inflammatory condition affecting the axial joints, such as the SACROILIAC JOINT and other intervertebral or costovertebral joints. It occurs predominantly in young males and is characterized by pain and stiffness of joints (ANKYLOSIS) with inflammation at tendon insertions.Sulfasalazine: A drug that is used in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. Its activity is generally considered to lie in its metabolic breakdown product, 5-aminosalicylic acid (see MESALAMINE) released in the colon. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p907)Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Gold Sodium Thiomalate: A variable mixture of the mono- and disodium salts of gold thiomalic acid used mainly for its anti-inflammatory action in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It is most effective in active progressive rheumatoid arthritis and of little or no value in the presence of extensive deformities or in the treatment of other forms of arthritis.Wrist Joint: The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).Rheumatoid Nodule: Subcutaneous nodules seen in 20-30% of rheumatoid arthritis patients. They may arise anywhere on the body, but are most frequently found over the bony prominences. The nodules are characterized histologically by dense areas of fibrinoid necrosis with basophilic streaks and granules, surrounded by a palisade of cells, mainly fibroblasts and histiocytes.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).HLA-DRB1 Chains: A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that includes over one hundred allele variants. The HLA-DRB1 subtype is associated with several of the HLA-DR SEROLOGICAL SUBTYPES.Finger Joint: The articulation between the head of one phalanx and the base of the one distal to it, in each finger.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Tarsal Joints: The articulations between the various TARSAL BONES. This does not include the ANKLE JOINT which consists of the articulations between the TIBIA; FIBULA; and TALUS.Lyme Disease: An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.HLA-DR4 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Joint DiseasesHLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.CitrullineCytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Spondylarthropathies: Heterogeneous group of arthritic diseases sharing clinical and radiologic features. They are associated with the HLA-B27 ANTIGEN and some with a triggering infection. Most involve the axial joints in the SPINE, particularly the SACROILIAC JOINT, but can also involve asymmetric peripheral joints. Subsets include ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS; REACTIVE ARTHRITIS; PSORIATIC ARTHRITIS; and others.Foot Joints: The articulations extending from the ANKLE distally to the TOES. These include the ANKLE JOINT; TARSAL JOINTS; METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT; and TOE JOINT.Psoriasis: A common genetically determined, chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by rounded erythematous, dry, scaling patches. The lesions have a predilection for nails, scalp, genitalia, extensor surfaces, and the lumbosacral region. Accelerated epidermopoiesis is considered to be the fundamental pathologic feature in psoriasis.Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Freund's Adjuvant: An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.Tarsus, Animal: The region in the hindlimb of a quadruped, corresponding to the human ANKLE.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Tenosynovitis: Inflammation of the synovial lining of a tendon sheath. Causes include trauma, tendon stress, bacterial disease (gonorrhea, tuberculosis), rheumatic disease, and gout. Common sites are the hand, wrist, shoulder capsule, hip capsule, hamstring muscles, and Achilles tendon. The tendon sheaths become inflamed and painful, and accumulate fluid. Joint mobility is usually reduced.HLA-B27 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Organogold Compounds: Organic compounds that contain GOLD as an integral part of the molecule. Some are used as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS. The term chrysotherapy derives from an ancient Greek term for gold.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Hand Joints: The articulations extending from the WRIST distally to the FINGERS. These include the WRIST JOINT; CARPAL JOINTS; METACARPOPHALANGEAL JOINT; and FINGER JOINT.Glucose-6-Phosphate Isomerase: An aldose-ketose isomerase that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate. In prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms it plays an essential role in glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways. In mammalian systems the enzyme is found in the cytoplasm and as a secreted protein. This secreted form of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase has been referred to as autocrine motility factor or neuroleukin, and acts as a cytokine which binds to the AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR RECEPTOR. Deficiency of the enzyme in humans is an autosomal recessive trait, which results in CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein: A ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It supports research into the causes, treatment, and prevention of arthritis and musculoskeletal and skin diseases; the training of basic and clinical scientists to carry out this research; and the dissemination of information on research progress. It was established in 1986.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mice, Inbred C57BLCase-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Isoxazoles: Azoles with an OXYGEN and a NITROGEN next to each other at the 1,2 positions, in contrast to OXAZOLES that have nitrogens at the 1,3 positions.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Prednisolone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.Penicillamine: 3-Mercapto-D-valine. The most characteristic degradation product of the penicillin antibiotics. It is used as an antirheumatic and as a chelating agent in Wilson's disease.Borrelia burgdorferi: A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Yersinia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus YERSINIA.Arthralgia: Pain in the joint.Spondylarthritis: Inflammation of the joints of the SPINE, the intervertebral articulations.Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Toe Joint: The articulation between the head of one phalanx and the base of the one distal to it, in each toe.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Hand Deformities, Acquired: Deformities of the hand, or a part of the hand, acquired after birth as the result of injury or disease.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Matrix Metalloproteinase 3: An extracellular endopeptidase of vertebrate tissues similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 1. It digests PROTEOGLYCAN; FIBRONECTIN; COLLAGEN types III, IV, V, and IX, and activates procollagenase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Felty Syndrome: A rare complication of rheumatoid arthritis with autoimmune NEUTROPENIA; and SPLENOMEGALY.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Sternoclavicular Joint: A double gliding joint formed by the CLAVICLE, superior and lateral parts of the manubrium sterni at the clavicular notch, and the cartilage of the first rib.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Metatarsophalangeal Joint: The articulation between a metatarsal bone (METATARSAL BONES) and a phalanx.Auranofin: An oral chrysotherapeutic agent for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Its exact mechanism of action is unknown, but it is believed to act via immunological mechanisms and alteration of lysosomal enzyme activity. Its efficacy is slightly less than that of injected gold salts, but it is better tolerated, and side effects which occur are potentially less serious.Sjogren's Syndrome: Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 22: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal PROLINE-rich domain. The phosphatase subtype is predominantly expressed in LYMPHOCYTES and plays a key role in the inhibition of downstream T-LYMPHOCYTE activation. Polymorphisms in the gene that encodes this phosphatase subtype are associated with a variety of AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Gout: Hereditary metabolic disorder characterized by recurrent acute arthritis, hyperuricemia and deposition of sodium urate in and around the joints, sometimes with formation of uric acid calculi.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Spondylitis: Inflammation of the SPINE. This includes both arthritic and non-arthritic conditions.Osteitis: Inflammation of the bone.Mice, Inbred BALB CArthritis-Encephalitis Virus, Caprine: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), closely related to VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS and causing acute encephalomyelitis; chronic arthritis; PNEUMONIA; MASTITIS; and GLOMERULONEPHRITIS in goats. It is transmitted mainly in the colostrum and milk.Biological Therapy: Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)RANK Ligand: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Early Diagnosis: Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Th17 Cells: Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Aurothioglucose: A thioglucose derivative used as an antirheumatic and experimentally to produce obesity in animals.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Borrelia burgdorferi Group: Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. These spirochetes are generally transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks.Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Arthrodesis: The surgical fixation of a joint by a procedure designed to accomplish fusion of the joint surfaces by promoting the proliferation of bone cells. (Dorland, 28th ed)Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Arthroplasty, Replacement: Partial or total replacement of a joint.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Immunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.Immunoconjugates: Combinations of diagnostic or therapeutic substances linked with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; or ANTIGENS. Often the diagnostic or therapeutic substance is a radionuclide. These conjugates are useful tools for specific targeting of DRUGS and RADIOISOTOPES in the CHEMOTHERAPY and RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY of certain cancers.Joint Prosthesis: Prostheses used to partially or totally replace a human or animal joint. (from UMDNS, 1999)Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Stifle: In horses, cattle, and other quadrupeds, the joint between the femur and the tibia, corresponding to the human knee.Arthroplasty: Surgical reconstruction of a joint to relieve pain or restore motion.Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Tuberculosis, Osteoarticular: Tuberculosis of the bones or joints.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Foot Deformities, Acquired: Distortion or disfigurement of the foot, or a part of the foot, acquired through disease or injury after birth.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Elbow Joint: A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Atlanto-Axial Joint: The joint involving the CERVICAL ATLAS and axis bones.Matrilin Proteins: PROTEOGLYCANS-associated proteins that are major components of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including CARTILAGE; and INTERVERTEBRAL DISC structures. They bind COLLAGEN fibers and contain protein domains that enable oligomer formation and interaction with other extracellular matrix proteins such as CARTILAGE OLIGOMERIC MATRIX PROTEIN.Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Arthroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.Chondrocalcinosis: Presence of calcium salts, especially calcium pyrophosphate, in the cartilaginous structures of one or more joints. When accompanied by attacks of goutlike symptoms, it is called pseudogout. (Dorland, 27th ed)Matrix Metalloproteinases: A family of zinc-dependent metalloendopeptidases that is involved in the degradation of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components.Connective Tissue Diseases: A heterogeneous group of disorders, some hereditary, others acquired, characterized by abnormal structure or function of one or more of the elements of connective tissue, i.e., collagen, elastin, or the mucopolysaccharides.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Sacroiliac Joint: The immovable joint formed by the lateral surfaces of the SACRUM and ILIUM.Hand Bones: The CARPAL BONES; METACARPAL BONES; and FINGER PHALANGES. In each hand there are eight carpal bones, five metacarpal bones, and 14 phalanges.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Aggrecans: Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Bursa, Synovial: A fluid-filled sac lined with SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE that provides a cushion between bones, tendons and/or muscles around a joint.

Safety of long-term therapy with ciprofloxacin: data analysis of controlled clinical trials and review. (1/345)

We reviewed the literature and the manufacturer's U.S. clinical data pool for safety data on long-term administration of ciprofloxacin (Bayer, West Haven, CT). Only controlled clinical trials including patients treated for >30 days were selected. We identified 636 patients by literature search and 413 patients in the Bayer U.S. database who fulfilled our search criteria; the average treatment duration for these patients was 130 and 80 days, respectively. Main indications for long-term therapy were osteomyelitis, skin and soft-tissue infection, prophylaxis for urinary tract infection, mycobacterial infections, and inflammatory bowel disease. Adverse events, premature discontinuation of therapy, and deaths occurred at a similar frequency in both treatment arms. Most adverse events occurred early during therapy with little increase in frequency over time. As with short-term therapy, gastrointestinal events were more frequent than central nervous system or skin reactions, but pseudomembranous colitis was not observed. No previously unknown adverse events were noted. We conclude that ciprofloxacin is tolerated as well as other antibiotics when extended courses of therapy are required.  (+info)

Plasma cell development in synovial germinal centers in patients with rheumatoid and reactive arthritis. (2/345)

Plasma cells are found surrounding the inflammatory infiltrates of macrophages, T, and B cells in the synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid and reactive arthritis. This characteristic arrangement suggests that in the synovial tissue CD20+ B cells differentiate into plasma cells. To examine clonal relationships, we have used micromanipulation to separately isolate CD20+ B cells and plasma cells from single infiltrates. DNA was extracted, and from both populations the VH/VL gene repertoires was determined. The data show that in the inflamed synovial tissue activated B cells are clonally expanded. During proliferation in the network of follicular dendritic cells, V gene variants are generated by the hypermutation mechanism. Surprisingly, we do not find identical rearrangements between CD20+ B cells and plasma cells. Nevertheless, the finding of clonally related plasma cells within single infiltrates suggests that these cells underwent terminal differentiation in the synovial tissue. These results indicate that B cell differentiation in the synovial tissue is a dynamic process. Whereas CD20+ B cells may turnover rapidly, plasma cells may well be long lived and thus accumulate in the synovial tissue. The analysis of individual B cells recovered from synovial tissue opens a new way to determine the specificity of those cells that take part in the local immune reaction. This will provide new insights into the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid or reactive arthritis.  (+info)

In situ hybridisation and direct fluorescence antibodies for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in synovial tissue from patients with reactive arthritis. (3/345)

BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis is associated with Reiter's syndrome and reactive arthritis but the form in which the organism survives in synovial cells is unclear. AIM: To compare in situ hybridisation with direct fluorescence in the detection of inapparent chlamydial infection in synovial tissue. METHODS: Synovial tissue from four patients with reactive arthritis patients was examined using biotin labelled probes for chlamydial DNA and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labelled monoclonal antibodies against the major outer membrane protein. RESULTS: In two of the four patients, evidence of chlamydial infections was detected by in situ hybridisation in parallel sections but not with FITC labelled monoclonal antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Detection of chlamydial DNA by in situ DNA hybridisation may be a better way to identify chlamydial infection in synovial tissue than phenotype targeting with FITC conjugated antibodies, which is used as a standard procedure for screening clinical specimens for chlamydia.  (+info)

Common intra-articular T cell expansions in patients with reactive arthritis: identical beta-chain junctional sequences and cytotoxicity toward HLA-B27. (4/345)

Spondyloarthropathies constitute a group of autoimmune diseases of special interest because of their tight association with the MHC class I molecule HLA-B27 and the bacterial triggering of some clinical forms called reactive arthritis (ReA). One current hypothesis is the presentation by HLA-B27 of a so-called arthritogenic peptide to T cells. To better focus on the relevant T cell populations within the joint, we performed an extensive beta-chain T cell repertoire analysis of synovial fluid compared with PBL in seven patients, four of whom were characterized as having ReA triggered by Yersinia enterocolitica, Chlamydia trachomatis, or Shigella sonnei. Analysis of the size diversity of the beta-chain complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) allowed us to evaluate the degree of T cell clonality in the samples. Oligoclonal T cell expansions were frequently observed in the joint. In one patient, CDR3 amino acid sequences of major expansions using two different BV genes were identical. One dominant T cell expansion and several CDR3 amino acid sequences were identical in two different patients. Furthermore, one sequence was identical with a sequence reported independently in a Salmonella-induced ReA patient. Together, these data indicate a surprisingly high degree of conservation in the T cell responses in recent-onset ReA triggered by different micro-organisms. A CD8+ synovial line expressing shared clonotypes was established and reacted toward several B*2705 lymphoblastoid cell lines, therefore supporting a molecular mimicry phenomenon at the T cell level in the disease mechanism.  (+info)

Whipple's arthritis: direct detection of Tropheryma whippelii in synovial fluid and tissue. (5/345)

We describe 2 patients presenting with polyarthritis in whom the synovial fluid (1 patient) or synovial tissue (1 patient) was positive for Tropheryma whippelii, the Whipple's disease-associated bacillus, when examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. Histopathologic findings were consistent with articular Whipple's disease in the synovial fluid of 1 patient and the synovial tissue of the other. In both patients, bowel mucosal specimens were negative for Whipple's disease features by histologic and PCR methods. One patient was positive for T whippelii in the peripheral blood. Control synovial fluid specimens from 40 patients with other arthritides, including Lyme arthritis, were negative. Sequencing of a 284-basepair region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene confirmed that the sequence is closely related to the known T whippelii sequence. Both patients responded to treatment with antibiotics.  (+info)

Pathogenesis of reactive arthritis. (6/345)

Reactive arthritis is a member of the spondyloarthropathy. Bacteria which cause reactive arthritis infect the mucosal surfaces. Either the whole bacteria or their fragments are subsequently carried to the joints inside which are induced a TH1 lymphocyte response in which oligoclonal T lymphocytes as well peptide-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes participate. Human lymphocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 is a predisposing gene. Besides being determinants for the CD8+ T lymphocyte response it can also modify the response of other cells to the invasive bacteria. This would lead to alteration of the fate of the bacteria as well as release of arthritis-causing cytokines.  (+info)

Rheumatic disease and the Australian aborigine. (7/345)

OBJECTIVE: To document the frequency and disease phenotype of various rheumatic diseases in the Australian Aborigine. METHODS: A comprehensive review was performed of the archaeological, ethnohistorical, and contemporary literature relating to rheumatic diseases in these indigenous people. RESULTS: No evidence was found to suggest that rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), or gout occurred in Aborigines before or during the early stages of white settlement of Australia. Part of the explanation for the absence of these disorders in this indigenous group may relate to the scarcity of predisposing genetic elements, for example, shared rheumatoid epitope for RA, B27 antigen for AS. In contrast, osteoarthritis appeared to be common particularly involving the temporomandibular joint, right elbow and knees and, most probably, was related to excessive joint loading in their hunter gatherer lifestyle. Since white settlement, high frequency rates for rheumatic fever, systemic lupus erythematosus, and pyogenic arthritis have been observed and there are now scanty reports of the emergence of RA and gout in these original Australians. CONCLUSION: The occurrence and phenotype of various rheumatic disorders in Australian Aborigines is distinctive but with recent changes in diet, lifestyle, and continuing genetic admixture may be undergoing change. An examination of rheumatic diseases in Australian Aborigines and its changing phenotype may lead to a greater understanding of the aetiopathogenesis of these disorders.  (+info)

Diagnostic evaluation of classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis and reactive arthritis in an early synovitis outpatient clinic. (8/345)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and reactive arthritis (ReA) in an early synovitis outpatient clinic. METHODS: In a prospective two year survey consecutive patients with early synovitis of less than one year duration were documented using a standardised registry and were classified after an expert diagnosis. Of a total of 320 patients 39 (19%) were diagnosed as having RA, 24 (11%) patients had ReA, 117 (54%) patients did not have an unequivocal diagnosis, and were considered as undifferentiated arthritis. RESULTS: The retrospective application of the revised 1987 ACR criteria for the classification of RA in this data set revealed a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 90%. The positive predictive value was 0.67, the negative predictive value 0.98. Similarly, the criteria for ReA of the French Society of Rheumatology (FSR) showed a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 90% with a positive predictive value of 0.55 and a negative predictive value of 0.97. Both criteria sets had a satisfying likelihood ratio of 9 and 10, respectively. CONCLUSION: Both the 1987 ACR criteria for RA and the criteria of the FSR for ReA have a reasonable diagnostic validity in patients with early synovitis, including a large portion of undifferentiated arthritis.  (+info)

*Reactive arthritis

"Reactive Arthritis". Retrieved January 24, 2017. Mayo Staff (March 5, 2011). "Reactive Arthritis (Reiter's Syndrome)". Mayo ... "Reactive Arthritis". Retrieved May 16, 2011. Kvien, T.; Glennas, A.; Melby, K.; Granfors, K; et al. (1994). "Reactive arthritis ... of men with urogenital reactive arthritis syndrome and about 75% of men with enteric reactive arthritis syndrome. ... Reactive arthritis, also known as Reiter's syndrome, is a form of inflammatory arthritis that develops in response to an ...

*Campylobacter jejuni

"What is Reactive Arthritis?". Reactive Arthritis. Acheson, David; Allos, Ban Mishu (2001-04-15). "Campylobacter jejuni ... septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, and neonatal sepsis. Bacteremia is detected in 1 week), pregnancy, infection with HIV, and ...

*Yersinia

... is implicated as one of the causes of reactive arthritis worldwide. Also, the genus is associated with ... "Yersinia-triggered reactive arthritis. use of polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemical staining in the detection of ... bacterial components from synovial specimens". Arthritis & Rheumatism. 35 (6): 682-687. doi:10.1002/art.1780350613. "EMedicine ...

*Enteropathic arthropathy

Reactive arthritis (Reactive to enteric infection) Spondyloarthropathies associated with inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's ... "Reactive arthritis and enteropathic arthropathy - Oxford Medicine". The Oxford Textbook of Medicine. Retrieved 10 August 2015. ... Enteropathic arthropathy or enteropathic arthritis refers to acute or subacute arthritis in association with, or as a reaction ... Celiac disease Whipple's disease Collagenous colitis Note that reactive arthritis can also occur secondary to urethral ...

*Conjunctivitis

Reactive arthritis is highly associated with HLA-B27. Conjunctivitis is associated with the autoimmune disease relapsing ... Conjunctivitis is part of the triad of reactive arthritis, which is thought to be caused by autoimmune cross-reactivity ... However, the pupils should be normally reactive, and the visual acuity normal. Viral conjunctivitis is often associated with an ...

*Balanitis circinata

Reactive arthritis is characterized by nongonococcal urethritis, conjunctivitis, and arthritis. Reactive arthritis belongs to ... asymptomatic chlamydial infections might be a common cause of reactive arthritis and the two variants of reactive arthritis ... pathophysiology and treatment of reactive arthritis and Chlamydia-induced reactive arthritis, specifically. Prospective ... There are two main types of reactive arthritis: post-venereal and post-enteric. Chlamydia trachomatis is felt to be the most ...

*HLA-B

Colmegna I, Cuchacovich R, Espinoza LR (April 2004). "HLA-B27-associated reactive arthritis: pathogenetic and clinical ... Like ankylosing spondylitis, many factors probably contribute to the development of reactive arthritis and other ... reactive arthritis, is typically triggered by bacterial infections of the gastrointestinal or genital tract. Following an ... Researchers speculate that HLA-B27 may abnormally display to the immune system peptides that trigger arthritis. Other research ...

*Dactylitis

In reactive arthritis, sausage fingers occur due to synovitis. In sickle-cell disease it is manifested for the first time ... Dactylitis can occur in seronegative arthropathies, such as psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis, and in sickle-cell ...

*Semper rehydration solution

"Intestinal permeability in patients with yersinia triggered reactive arthritis". Annals of the rheumatic diseases. 50 (2): 91- ...

*Retrocuspid papilla

It is sometimes associated with reactive arthritis (Reiter's syndrome). Rajendran A; Sundaram S (10 February 2014). Shafer's ...

*Psoriasis

Ritchlin, Christopher; Fitzgerald, Oliver (2007). Psoriatic and Reactive Arthritis: A Companion to Rheumatology (1st ed.). ... Psoriatic arthritis is a form of chronic inflammatory arthritis that has a highly variable clinical presentation and frequently ... Psoriatic Arthritis Joint Activity Index (PsAJAI), Disease Activity in Psoriatic Arthritis (DAPSA), and Composite Psoriatic ... Patient Global for Psoriatic Arthritis, Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), Psoriatic Arthritis Quality of Life (PsAQOL), ...

*Condylar resorption

Reactive arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriatic arthritis are other possible causes. Treatment of condylar resorption ...

*Ian Murray (footballer)

It was eventually diagnosed that Murray was suffering from reactive arthritis. His return to the team against Motherwell was ... but he was troubled with injuries during his time at Ibrox club and was eventually diagnosed with a form of arthritis. He was ...

*Limp

Transient synovitis is a reactive arthritis of the hip of unknown cause. People are usually able to walk and may have a low ... People with septic arthritis usually look clinically toxic or sick. Even in the absence of any of these factors, however, ... Septic arthritis can be difficult to separate from less serious conditions such as transient synovitis. Factors that can help ... Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis presents gradually with early morning stiffness, fatigue, and weight loss. Legg-Calvé-Perthes ...

*Dewan Singh Bhakuni

Kumar P, Bhakuni DS, Rastogi S (2014). "Diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis in patients with reactive arthritis and ... "Identification of novel autoantigen in the synovial fluid of rheumatoid arthritis patients using an immunoproteomics approach ... "Identification of autoantibodies against transthyretin for the screening and diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis". PLoS ONE. ...

*Shigella

... is implicated as one of the pathogenic causes of reactive arthritis worldwide. Diarrheal diseases Enterotoxigenic E. ... Hill Gaston, J (2003). "Arthritis associated with enteric infection". Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology. 17 (2): ...

*Shigella sonnei

Reactive arthritis, which is the inflammation of joints No vaccines are available for Shigella. The best prevention against ... and reactive arthritis. Persons with diarrhea usually recover completely, although it may be several months before their bowel ...

*Salmonellosis

A small number of people afflicted with salmonellosis experience reactive arthritis, which can last months or years and can ... Dworkin MS, Shoemaker PC, Goldoft MJ, Kobayashi JM (2001). "Reactive arthritis and Reiter's syndrome following an outbreak of ... "Long term prognosis of reactive salmonella arthritis". Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 56 (9): 516-520. doi:10.1136/ard.56.9. ... lead to chronic arthritis. In sickle-cell anemia, osteomyelitis due to Salmonella infection is much more common than in the ...

*Enthesitis

It is associated with HLA B27 arthropathies like ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, and reactive arthritis. Symptoms ...

*Plantar fasciitis

... seronegative spondyloparthopathies such as reactive arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, or rheumatoid arthritis (more likely if ... and reactive arthritis. Most cases of plantar fasciitis resolve with time and conservative methods of treatment. Usually for ... or autoimmune disease such as C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, anti-nuclear antibodies, rheumatoid factor, ...

*Balanitis

Circinate balantitis (also known as balanitis circinata) is a serpiginous annular dermatitis associated with reactive arthritis ...

*Scarlet fever

... when the arthritis is an isolated symptom then it is referred to as poststreptococcal reactive arthritis. This arthritis can ... Poststreptococcal reactive arthritis: The presentation of arthritis after a recent episode of group A streptococcal pharyngitis ... These criteria include arthritis, carditis, neurological issues and skin findings. There also needs to be evidence of a prior ... Long-term complications as a result of scarlet fever include kidney disease, rheumatic heart disease, and arthritis. It was a ...

*Hans Reiter (physician)

In 1977, a group of doctors began a campaign to replace the term "Reiter's syndrome" with "reactive arthritis". In addition to ... The combination of two of the elements, urethritis and arthritis, had been recognized in the 16th century, and the triad had ... Panush, R.S.; Paraschiv, D.; Dorff, R.E. (February 2003). "The tainted legacy of Hans Reiter". Seminars in Arthritis and ... Good, Armin E. (1970). "Obituary - Hans Reiter, 1881-1969". Arthritis and Rheumatism. 13 (3): 296-297. doi:10.1002/art. ...

*Keratoderma blennorrhagicum

... is commonly seen as an additional feature of reactive arthritis in almost 15% of male patients. The ...

*Yersinia enterocolitica

... and reactive arthritis. This is most likely because of some immune-mediated mechanism. Y. enterocolitica seems to be associated ... ISBN 0-8385-8529-9. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Hill Gaston JS, Lillicrap MS (2003). "Arthritis associated with ... Y. enterocolitica infections are sometimes followed by chronic inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, erythema nodosum, ...

*Follicular dendritic cells

These findings suggest that FDC possibly protect organism against autoimmunity by the removal of potentially self-reactive ... including synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), salivary glands of patients with Sjögren's syndrome, and ...
Reiters Syndrome - MedHelps Reiters Syndrome Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for Reiters Syndrome. Find Reiters Syndrome information, treatments for Reiters Syndrome and Reiters Syndrome symptoms.
Reactive arthritis, also known as Reiters syndrome, is a type of arthritis that occurs as a reaction to an infection somewhere in the body. Most infections that cause the disease originate in the genitourinary tract (the bladder, urethra, penis, or vagina) and are spread through sexual intercourse, a form of the disease called genitourinary Reiters syndrome, or urogenital Reiters syndrome. Other infections that can cause reactive arthritis include gastrointestinal infections due to eating contaminated food or handling contaminated substances, a form of the disease called gastrointestinal Reiters syndrome, or enteric Reiters syndrome.. ...
Treatment of Reactive arthritis (ReA) is an inflammatory condition that develops in response to an infection in another part of your body. Coming into contact with bacteria and developing an infection can trigger reactive arthritis, Though inflammation of your joints (arthritis) is a defining feature of reactive arthritis, this condition can also be associated with inflammation in parts of your body including your eyes, skin and the tube that carries urine from your bladder (urethra), For most people, signs and symptoms of reactive arthritis come and go, eventually disappearing within 12 months. Treatments for reactive arthritis involve therapies to manage your symptoms and to eliminate any underlying infection, Reactive arthritis is among a group of disorders known as seronegative spondyloarthropathies that can cause inflammation in the joints of the spine, legs and arms and in other parts of the body, Reactive Arthritis, Reactive Arthritis Symptoms, Reactive Arthritis Treatment, Reactive Arthritis
MODEL RELEASED. Reiters syndrome. Swollen knee (right) of a male patient with Reiters syndrome. This condition is also known as reactive arthritis, because it causes joint inflammation as a reaction to a bacterial infection. The bacteria most commonly associated with Reiters syndrome is Chlamydia trachomatis, which causes the sexually transmitted disease chlamydia. Other body parts, including the skin, muscles and eyes, can also be affected. Reiters syndrome is a rare disease, that only affects people with a susceptible tissue type. Inflamed joints are treated with anti-inflammatory drugs. - Stock Image M110/0616
The arthritis often is coupled with other characteristic symptoms; this has been called Reiters syndrome, Reiters disease or Reiters arthritis. The term "reactive arthritis" is increasingly used as a substitute for this designation because of Hans Conrad Julius Reiters war crimes with the Nazi Party. The manifestations of reactive arthritis include the following triad of symptoms: an inflammatory arthritis of large joints, inflammation of the eyes in the form of conjunctivitis or uveitis, and urethritis in men or cervicitis in women. Arthritis occurring alone following sexual exposure or enteric infection is also known as reactive arthritis. Patients can also present with mucocutaneous lesions, as well as psoriasis-like skin lesions such as circinate balanitis, and keratoderma blennorrhagicum. Enthesitis can involve the Achilles tendon resulting in heel pain.[3] Not all affected persons have all the manifestations.. The clinical pattern of reactive arthritis commonly consists of an ...
Reactive arthritis is an inflammatory condition that develops in response to an infection suffered in any other part of the body. Bacterial invasion and susceptibility to infection therefore, are the main causes of "reactive arthritis". It is most commonly observed at the toes, knee and ankle joints. When it does not affect the joints it is called the "Reiters Syndrome". In this case it can affect the eyes, skin and/or muscles.. Reactive arthritis affects anyone between 20 to 50 years old. Experts claim that it is more common among young men. Women suffer milder symptoms of reactive arthritis than men. In addition, both men and women are considered to be vulnerable to reactive arthritis arising from food borne infections or bacteria.. ...
This online CEU course contains general information about Reiters Syndrome. It describes what Reiters syndrome is and how it develops. It also explains how Reiters syndrome is diagnosed and treated. It is one of a group of disorders that cause inflammation throughout the body, particularly in parts of the spine and at other joints. The infection is most commonly passed from one person to another by sexual intercourse.. Features online enrollment, online exam and instant grading as well as automatic certificate generation upon completion of course.. ...
Yersinia specific immune complexes were demonstrated in the synovial fluid of three patients out of 12 with yersinia triggered reactive arthritis. They were not detectable in the synovial fluid of any of the 16 control patients, including nine with reactive arthritis triggered by factors other than yersiniae. Platelet reactive IgG was detectable in the synovial fluid of eight out of the 12 patients with yersinia triggered reactive arthritis and in three of the 16 control patients, all three having rheumatoid arthritis. An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and a platelet 125I labelled staphylococcal protein A test were used to measure yersinia specific immune complexes and platelet reactive IgG respectively. The results obtained show for the first time the occurrence of bacterial antigens, derived from the causative strain, in the synovial fluid in yersinia triggered reactive arthritis. ...
Reiters disease is a syndrome of unknown etiology, characterized by arthritis, urethritis and conjunctivitis. The clinical components of this syndrome are still in dispute. For example, many investigators will not accept the diagnosis unless the classic triad is present.1, 2 Paronen,3 in his series of 344 cases, found the triad present in 69.8%; Hollander4 noted it in only 11 of 25 cases. The etiology as well as the effective therapy of this disease is still in doubt. Many authors1, 2, 5, 6, 7 have described in detail the ubiquitous character of Reiters disease but have given little attention to the ...
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A nine-month study by Dr. Carter and colleagues, published in 2004 in the Journal of Rheumatology, was the first to compare combination antibiotic therapy (doxycycline and rifampin) with monotherapy (doxycycline only). It showed a dramatic response to the combination in patients with Chlamydia-induced arthritis.. Based on these promising early results, the USF-led research team devised a new prolonged course of combination antibiotic treatment, which attacked two different pathways allowing Chlamydia infection to persist in the joints. In the latest double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial, 42 patients were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups -- rifampin plus doxycycline, rifampin plus azithromycin, or placebo. All the patients tested positive for Chlamydia trachomatis or Chlamydia pneumoniae. They received combination antibiotics or placebo for six months and were followed for three months post-treatment. Patients treated with the combination antibiotics improved ...
Non-viable structures of Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 were shown at the site of inflammation within mononuclear cells in the synovial membrane of eight out of 10 patients with yersinia triggered reactive arthritis. An avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method, with a rabbit antiserum specific for Y enterocolitica O:3, was used to visualise yersinia structures. All 13 control samples were negative except for one with non-specific mast cell staining. The findings emphasise the significance of foreign material in the initiation of synovitis in reactive arthritis. ...
Septic or severe scarlet fever associated with bacteremia or toxemia may manifest high fever and may be complicated by arthritis jaundice and hydrops of the gallbladder. During a flare-up of rheumatoid arthritis association canada health nutrition for joint arthritis multiple joints are usually affected at once and there is joint pain Osteoarthritis can also sometimes cause finger joint pain but it more commonly affects larger joints that are subject to wear and tear of the cartilage over time like the hip and knee joints. Reactive Arthritis Tmj Bent Fingers Prevent it may be a good idea to list your other main symptoms at this point.. Liquid formula for maximum absorption. Your Total Knee Replacement. The 2012 Arthritis Walk 5k will be full of fun Sacramento. Next: Fingernail and toenail pitting Reactive Arthritis Tmj Bent Fingers Prevent View All.. Whether you want to know Paleo Diet tips or recipes we will provide you the most relevant information reviews recipes and more! So starting today ...
Reactive arthritis is a subset of postinfectious arthritis in which infection, usually of the gastrointestinal or genitourinary tracts, leads to inflammatory arthritis. Following infection, organisms or their components find their way to joints, where they provoke inflammatory immune responses. Whether the responses cross-react with self antigens is unclear; arthritis may be maintained by persistent infection. The disease commonly has specific extra-articular features not seen in other forms of postinfectious arthritis, and is genetically and pathologically a form of spondyloarthritis (see ...
May 9, 2016 - гр. София, ул. Стефан Караджа 24, офис 7. See more ideas about Reactive arthritis, Types of arthritis and Arthritis treatment.
John D. Carter, MD is the Director of Clinical Research for the Division of Rheumatology. Dr. Carters research team includes two study coordinators: Gail Lewis, RN, CCRC and Michelle Orzechowski, MA. He also has the valued assistance of several sub-investigators including Dr. Joanne Valeriano-Marcet, MD and Dr. Yih Chang Chen Lin, MD. Dr. Carters clinical research is supported by both investigator-initiated grants and industry-sponsored trials.. Dr. Carters primary research interest centers on Chlamydia-induced Reactive Arthritis. Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading sexually-transmitted bacterial infection in the United States. C trachomatis can cause a serious form of arthritis (Reactive Arthritis [ReA]) in some individuals who acquire genital infections with the organisms. Chlamydial infections can also exist in a persistent state. This chlamydial persistence has been linked to not only ReA, but also other potential disease states. It might also play a role in some of the adverse effects ...
Reactive arthritis (ReA), formerly known as Reiter syndrome, is an autoimmune condition that develops in response to an infection. ReA has been associated with gastrointestinal (GI) infections with Shigella, Salmonella, Campylobacter, and other organisms, as well as with genitourinary (GU) infections (especially with Chlamydia trachomatis).
Arthritis refers to swollen joints. Reactive arthritis is the condition in which inflammation of genital parts or gastro intestinal systems take place. It often
Reactive arthritis is characterized by a triad of arthritis, nongonococcal urethritis, and conjunctivitis, and by lesions of the skin and mucosal surfaces.
Study Flashcards On Reiter Syndrome (Reactive Arthritis) at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Reactive arthritis information including symptoms, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, treatment, causes, patient stories, videos, forums, prevention, and prognosis.
Reactive arthritis usually begins several weeks after the underlying infection has resolved.{ref21} Few concurrent systemic symptoms occur.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of early empiric prescription of amoxicillin and amoxicillin + clavulanic acid in children with reactive arthritis
Diagnosis Code 099.3 information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, ICD-10 conversion and references to the diseases index.
Free, official coding info for 2020 ICD-10-CM M02.3 - includes detailed rules, notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index and annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
Urethritis- After pain relief by conventional means, affected joints are treated by free exercise to maintain mobility and improve muscle power, Walking aids can be used in the presence of severe pain for weight bearing ...
Welcome to the updated version of Pathology for Urologists! This program was designed to help Urology residents and fellows familiarize themselves with the pathologic features of common urologic entities. This will serve not only as a resource tool for your review but also as a quick reference guide to urologic pathology.
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Research has shown that people with a specific gene known as HLA-B27 have a significantly increased chance of developing reactive arthritis, as well as related conditions such as ankylosing spondylitis (a type of arthritis that affects the spine). In the UK, its estimated that around 1 in every 10 people have the HLA-B27 gene. Around 3 out of every 4 cases of reactive arthritis develop in people with the gene. People with the HLA-B27 gene also tend to have more severe and longer-lasting symptoms, with a greater risk of their symptoms recurring.. Exactly how the gene contributes to the development of reactive arthritis is unclear.. ...
The symptoms of reactive arthritis usually develop within four weeks of an infection.. In most cases, reactive arthritis follows a sexually transmitted infection (STI) such as chlamydia, or a bowel infection such as food poisoning. The three parts of the body most commonly affected by reactive arthritis are the:. ...
Objective. To compare findings as observed on enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee joints, in oligoarticular-undifferentiated arthritis (UA) in those with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondyloarthropathy (SpA).. Methods. A total of 55 patients with knee arthritis were consecutively recruited for the study, including 25 with undifferentiated oligoarthritis of the knee joint(s), 15 fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology criteria for RA and 15 with SpA. Laboratory investigations included erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, complete blood count, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, serum creatinine, and urine analysis. In all patients in the UA and in the RA group, rheumatoid factor and anti-CCP2 antibody (ELISA) were tested. All patients underwent enhanced MRI of the more symptomatic knee. All groups were compared in terms of demographics, laboratory investigations, and MRI findings.. Results. Synovial thickness differed ...
Septic Arthritis, It can be difficult to tell the difference between a flare-up of non-infective arthritis and infective (septic) arthritis. As a rule, if you already have ... ...
Inflammatory syndrome of unknown etiology, occurring predominantly in males. It usually begins several weeks after either a gastrointestinal or venereal infection with the onset of conjunctivitis, urethritis and arthritis, esp. of the ankles and sacroilliac joints.
Reiter syndrome was originally defined as a triad of arthritis, conjunctivitis, and urethritis. Hans Reiter first reported this triad of symptoms in 1916, and Bauer and Engelman formally described it as a syndrome in 1942.
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The answer to yesterdays mystery is … Reactive Arthritis (formerly known as Reiters Sydrome**)! Great job Theresa, kmu, Patti Ann, D2, Kimberly Helton, JP, JB, Angelita, On my way to be a pa, and … ...
The most common sources of food poisoning are infections caused by bacteria as Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, E.Coli, Listeria, Botulism and Norovirus.. Campylobacter is one of the most common origins of food poisoning. This bacteria develops in raw or uncooked meat, untreated water or unpasteurized milk. The contact with infected children, wild animals or pets also transmits the bacteria from an individual to another.. The bacteria have an incubation period of two to five days.. Symptoms include diarrhea (at times with blood), nausea and vomiting, anxiety, fever and abdominal pain.. In rare occasions, it might cause brain and nerve problems or reactive arthritis.. Diagnose is done using stool sample and treatment is rarely necessary (extraordinarily, doctors prescribe antibiotics such as Ciro).. It is recommended to drink plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration and recovery should take two to five days.. Salmonella is an infection that has a bacterial source which wild or domestic animals ...
2. the diet-success thread has cases where diet only worked after someone took antibiotics. This implies problems with germs colonizing outside their gut, which trigger the unhealthy AS immune response just as much as the wrong type of germs inside the gut. For instance, it is known that bladder infections can cause reactive arthritis, and klebsiella can cause such infections, sometimes asymptomatic meaning no noticeable bladder infection symptoms... and it can live in other parts of the body as well. Who knows, other germs that cause cryptic infections might also contribute to some cases of AS. Even if gut klebsiella is a very common trigger, doesnt mean there arent others ...
McCarntey has an wonky ASO titer. Meaning she has elevated strep in her body. That is an issue that my mom and I both have and we get really nasty things associated with strep. When I was young I actually went into the early stages of kidney failure due to a strep infection. We both have had struggles with erythema nedosa and my mom has been told she will never completely rid her body of strep. Dr. Dillon is pretty concerned about this and thinks McCartney may have some post-streptococcal reactive arthritis. So, more blood work and something else for me to worry about ...
It may sound crazy to pay people an income whether or not they are working or looking for work. But the idea of providing an unconditional basic income to every individual, rich or poor, active or inactive, has been advocated by such major thinkers as Thomas Paine, John Stuart Mill, and John Kenneth Galbraith. For a long time, it was hardly noticed and never taken seriously. Today, with the traditional welfare state creaking under pressure, it has become one of the most widely debated social policy proposals in the world. Philippe Van Parijs and Yannick Vanderborght present the most comprehensive defense of this radical idea so far, advocating it as our most realistic hope for addressing economic insecurity and social exclusion in the twenty-first century.. The authors seamlessly combine philosophy, politics, and economics as they compare the idea of a basic income with rival ideas past and present for guarding against poverty and unemployment. They trace its history, tackle the economic and ...
Valuable information regarding various treatment options for arthritis in children and the role of alternative therapies in the same.
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Leptospirosis is a zoonosis and occurs in endemic as well as epidemic forms in many parts of India. Manifestations may range from asymptomatic infection to fulminant fatal disease with myositis, conjunctivitis, hepatic, renal, cardiac and neurological involvement and hemorrhagic manifestations. A 30 years old lady in her first trimester of gestation presented with fever, multiple painful erythematous swellings over the front of both legs and swelling associated with pain of left ankle joint for 1 week . On evaluation she had erythema nodosum over the anterior aspect of both lower extremities and reactive arthritis of left ankle joint. Leptospira serology for Immunoglobulin M was positive. She was started on intravenous ceftriaxone 1 gm twice daily. After 7 days of treatment, erythema nodosum and reactive arthritis subsided. Erythema nodsum and reactive arthritis which are rare manifestations of leptospirosis have occurred together in a patient during the first trimester of pregnancy makes this ...
I have been diagnosed as having Reiters syndrome. Are there any homoeopathic or herbal treatments you would suggest taking? Is there any treatment?...
As per available reports about 122 journals, 89 Conferences, 21 workshops are presently dedicated exclusively to Reactive Arthritis and about 1,150,00
Urethritis is inflammation of the urethra. The most common symptom is painful or difficult urination. It is usually caused by infection with bacteria. The bacterial infection is often sexually transmitted, but not in every instance. Urethritis can be idiopathic. The disease is classified as either gonococcal urethritis, caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, or non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), most commonly caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. NGU, sometimes called nonspecific urethritis (NSU), has both infectious and noninfectious causes. Urethritis is part of triad of Reiters Syndrome. Other causes include: Adenoviridae Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) Herpes simplex Cytomegalovirus Mycoplasma genitalium Reactive arthritis Trichomonas vaginalis Ureaplasma urealyticum Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Group B streptococcus In female patients, urethritis can be caused by pelvic inflammatory disease. In males, the penis and testicles may show signs of pain and swelling. The urethra is ...
The important thing to remember is that not everyone gets all of these symptoms. You may only develop some of these and this varies from one person to the next. Joints and muscles. These are the symptoms we associate with arthritis. An inflammation develops in the joints, usually those in the lower half of the body such as the hips and knees. But other joints can be affected which include the lower back, wrists, elbows, fingers, toes and the base of the heel (Achilles tendon). These joints become swollen and inflamed which occurs after a period of stiffness. Eyes. This inflammation takes the form of conjunctivitis which causes the eyes to become red and swollen. Uveitis and/or iritis can also occur. The eyes become itchy and swollen and tend to water. Eye pain is another symptom.. Urinary system. By this we mean the urethra: the tube which passes urine from the bladder and out of the body. Both men and women have a urethra although this is shorter in women. The urethra is one of three areas of ...
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Antibiotic treatment for rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, lupus, polymyositis, Reiters Syndrome,psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritisand other rheumatic diseases.
Antibiotic treatment forrheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, lupus, polymyositis, Reiters Syndrome,psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritisand other rheumatic diseases.
The filtering effect comes from a thick atmosphere: the Dead Sea is about 1,200 feet below sea level and the ozone layer above it is minimally depleted. Several pathophysiological mechanisms may explain the association of psoriasis with smoking, including oxidative stress, interaction with signaling pathways active in psoriasis, and vascular influences. Conditions with similar symptoms include eczema psoriasis and Reiters syndrome Step 3 Take the left hand out the psoriasis biologics comparison site soak the right of hand. SIRIDERMA alkaline creams, baths and washes are important building blocks of alkaline skin care.
Depending on its clinical features, SpA is classically subdivided into the following subsets: ankylosing spondylitis (AS), which is the prototypical form characterized by predominant axial skeletal involvement and advanced radiographic sacroiliitis, psoriatic arthritis (PsA), arthritis associated with inflammatory bowel disease (AIBD), reactive arthritis (ReA), and undifferentiated SpA (uSpA ...
Objective To study physical function and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in US veterans with spondyloarthritis (SpA). Methods In a postal survey of 70,334 eligible veterans, demographics, performance of activities of daily living (ADL), and HRQOL, by Veterans Short Form-36, were queried; 58% responded (n = 40,508). Databases provided International Classification of Diseases, 9th ed. codes for ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic (PsA) and reactive arthritis (ReA), comorbidities, and demographics. Multivariable linear/logistic regressions compared ADL limitations and HRQOL in SpA versus non-SpA, and predictors in SpA. Results Six hundred sixty-four veteran respondents had diagnoses of SpA: AS, n = 100; PsA, n = 551; ReA, n = 13. Veterans with AS, PsA, and ReA had significantly more limitations in dressing (44%, 23%, 24% vs 22%; p = 0.0002), transferring (57%, 42%, 64% vs 39%; p = 0.0006), walking (74%, 57%, 67% vs 54%; p = 0.0005), and overall mean ADL limitations (2.5, 1.7, 2.1 vs 1.6; ...
symptoms of Reiter s Syndrome usually occur between one and three weeks after the infection but I got it the first day out. It was almost like a food allergy, so quick was it to appear. The three most common symptoms of Reiter s syndrome are arthritis, eye irritation, and urinary tract symptoms. The arthritis associated with Reiter s syndrome typically affects the knees, (true for me,) ankles, and feet, causing pain and swelling. Wrists, fingers and other joints can be affected, (true in my case, also) though with less frequency. Patients with Reiter s syndrome commonly develop inflammation where the tendon attaches to the bone, a condition called enthesopathy. Some patients with Reiter s syndrome also develop heel spurs, bony growths in the heel that cause chronic or long-lasting foot pain. Arthritis from Reiter s syndrome can also affect the joints of the back and cause spondylitis, inflammation of the vertebrae in the spinal column. The duration of reactive arthritis symptoms can vary ...
Test results may vary depending on your age, gender, health history, the method used for the test, and other things. Your test results may not mean you have a problem. Ask your healthcare provider what your test results mean for you.. A negative result mean you dont have HLA-B27 in your blood. A positive result means HLA-B27 was found in your blood. You may have a higher-than-average risk of certain autoimmune diseases, such as ankylosing spondylitis and reactive arthritis. If you are white, you are more likely to test positive for the HLA-B27 antigens.. If you need an organ or tissue transplant and your HLA antigens are not compatible with those of your donor, your body could reject the transplant.. In a paternity case, if the child or father has an unusual HLA genotype, paternity could be clear. If its a common HLA genotype, the child could have many potential fathers.. ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Reiters Syndrome, Reiters Disease, Reactive Arthritis, Circinate Balanitis.
Parasitic infections are something most people recognize as a harmful element to their bodys general health. Truth is, some of these organisms actually live naturally inside our bodies and happen to be very beneficial to our health.. However, not all of them are good. In fact, parasites like of Candida Albicans and Tapeworms, just to name a few, have been linked to chronic disorders that range from autoimmune diseases such as Reactive Arthritis and Irritable Bowel Syndrome to neurodegeneration and mental confusion.. If the country youre living is an industrialized one, you might be of the school of thought that parasite infections are a horror story thats only experienced by those in developing nations. The other opinion may be that the closest you can come to experiencing such scenarios is probably through travelers diarrhea, right? Unfortunately, thats far from the truth.. Lets take a look at common ways you can acquire a parasite and why a human parasite cleansing may be in order. ...
The green is set up atop a hill 15 ft above the fairway there are bunkers left and right at the green. Sometimes, reactive arthritis is set off by an infection in the bladder, or in the urethra, which carries urine out of the body. Stainless steel framework supports the displays adding a weighty feel to these fake where to meet seniors in america without registration tag heuer mercedes watches designed specifically for the owners of mercedes-benz automobiles. I got great service, with a great price and a great date seniors product. Despite its run of only three years, the bmw is proved to fulfill is niche. A bibliography, on the other hand, can contain sources you read and which readers might find valuable to know about even though you didnt specifically cite them within the body of your writing. Neuroendocrine cells in the hypothalamus project axons to the median eminence, at the base of the brain. For the gold rushes in alaska, see alaska gold rush disambiguation. Once all four statues are ...
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HLDA WorkshopHLDA III-WS Code M-250Quantity100 testsVolume0.4ImmunogenRheumatoid synovial fluid cells and fibronectin purified human monocytesBackg...
HLDA WorkshopHLDA III-WS Code M-250Concentration Unitmg/mLConcentration1Quantity0.1 mgVolume0.1ImmunogenRheumatoid synovial fluid cells and fibrone...
I was just diagnosed with Clostridium Difficile-induced Reiters Syndrome with neurological involvement, and weirdly enough I have a vitamin D deficiency. Its not from my diet, I get enough sun everyday, and its not from any GI causes, as Ive had an upper endoscopy and colonoscopy done earlier this month. Im also a 20 year old male, so it has nothing to do with age/gender.However, I love the theory that Marshal has brought up. Great comment, Ive repeated it below. "Many docotrs I have spoken with has suggested that in innflammation processes the body transforms 025D to 1,25D, but they have not been able to explain why it happens. 1 one of the, said I should supplement, another ( a oncologist) said that when he saw this in lymphoma patients he didnt recommend anything because he treated them with chemo...and then you have Trevor Marshall, ph.d, that means that vitamin D is a immunesuppressive hormone and has written articles about this. You can read more about that on: www.bacteriality.com ...
The Council failed to reach political agreement on the proposed stricter monitoring and control of food-borne diseases (zoonoses) caused by pathogens like salmonella, listeria or e-coli. Commissioner Byrne reiterated that the number of reported food-borne infections in humans across the European Union remains far too high.. Salmonella, alone, infects over 160,000 individuals annually in the Union. It is likely the true rate of infection is much higher, as many cases go unreported. The Scientific Committee on Veterinary Measures relating to Public Health has stated that in 5% of salmonella cases serious consequences can occur, including reactive arthritis. Serious complications arise in a minority of cases, leading to the deaths of some 200 of our fellow citizens each year. Moreover, we have estimated the annual cost of food-borne salmonella at up to € 2.8 billion per year. The need for more effective and stringent measures against food-borne zoonoses at Community level was highlighted by the ...
Third #Lawsuit #Filed #Against #Chipotle for Salmonella-Tainted #Tomatoes Salmonella poisoning can lead to more chronic ailments such as reactive arthritis and Reiter's syndrome, a debilitating syndrome caused by gastrointestinal or genitourinary infections. For some individuals, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may also occur … Read more on Food Poison Journal On Fear: .... Read More » ...
Panic Disorder, Agoraphobia, CFS, Fibromyalgia, Chronic Sinusitis, TMJ disorder, Endometriosis, PCOS, Chronic E.N.T and Upper respiratory tract infections, Reactive Arthritis, GERD, IBS, Glandular fever, Migraines, Anemia, Chemical/Noise/Light sensitivity, Trichotilomania, PTSD, Seasonal Mood Disorder, OCD, Benign Vertigo, Impaired immune system. Tachycardia, tinnitus, low clotting factor= bruising. Tendonitis, Bursitis. ...
Panic Disorder, Agoraphobia, CFS, Fibromyalgia, Chronic Sinusitis, TMJ, Endometriosis,PCOS, Reactive Arthritis, Anemia, Chemical/Noise/Light sensitivity, Trichotilomania, OCD, Seasonal Mood Disorder. ...
No one has done large-scale studies of the drug, and the doctors and midwives who administer it do so with such vastly different protocols that mixing and matching results from various studies would not render reliable data. Wed vedic dearly be decayed with the role of infection in Reiters and his observations of trench soldiers during the first place? Now, if only March 17th would hurry up and walked objectively. Remember that a woman leader being perhaps more caring, putting more into the idiocy, CYTOTEC was also afraid to tell their stories once the present, inept administration is carried out to loathe the risk factors xxxii with hematologist Cytotec for cervical ripening prior to my last birth that came to be what CYTOTEC wished for. But I have no first hand experience with any other suspicious side effects. Messages circumstantial to this highly publicized announcement, Searle, a rather significant player in that exhaustion concretely, I would certainly point out that the new insurance ...
The H (or D, or T) Sieverts constant for liquid Sn-Li alloys is calculated from thermodynamic data issuing of the Sn-Li binary phase diagram analysis. The range of temperatures investigated is 600-873 K (Sn0.8Li0.2 m.p. ~ 599 K) to maintain single-phase binary melts. The thermodynamic functions of Li-H, Sn-H, Sn-Li are evaluated to derive those of Sn-Li-H. Thus, monotectic solubility data for Sn and Li is analyzed. The calculation is done for high-dilution conditions. A quasi-chemical regular solution model is used for temperature/composition extrapolations when no data is available. The tritium Sieverts constant in Sn0.8Li0.2 at 600 K is: 9.65 10-8 Pa-12, five times the Reiters measured value for Pb-17Li and ~ 6 times the value in Pb-17Li eutectic obtained by using the same theoretical approach.. ...
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Notifiable STIs: gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, neonatal herpes, mucopurulent cervicitis, NGU. CHLAMYDIA. Female Sx: cervicitis, urethritis, dysuria, bartholinitis, endometritis (causes abnormal vaginal bleeding), salpingitis, perhepatitis (Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome). Male Sx: urethritis (causes white/clear urethral d/c with dysuria), epididymitis (unilateral scrotal pain with fever), proctitis (rectal pain/bleeding, mucous d/c, diarrhea), Reiters syndrome. Dx: cell culture (gold stnd), molecular dx tests. Female complications: PID, chronic pelvic pain, infertility, ectopic, Reiters. Male complications: epididymo-orchitis, Reiters, infertility (rare). Perinatal complications: low birth wt, postpartum endometritis, UTI, preterm labour, inclusion conjunctivitis, nasopharyngeal infection, pneumonia. Rx: Azithromycin 2g po x 1 dose or Doxycycline 100 mg po bid x 7 days. If pregnant, use Amoxicillin or Azithromycin/ Erythromycin. GONORRHEA. Female Sx: cervicitis, PID, bartholinitis, ...
In addition, they reported on the second death, in a woman in her 90s, who had campylobacter infection. It is reported the death is from an unrelated medical condition. The woman who was from Havelock North was admitted to Hawkes Bay Hospital during the campylobacter outbreak. The Coroner is not taking jurisdiction over the case as there is no direct causal link to campylobacter.. The number of cases of campylobacter is now 604 including both confirmed and probable. The latest household telephone survey conducted on 22 August indicates that more than 4,700 people, approximately one third of the 14,000 residents of Havelock North, have been affected by the outbreak.. The boil water notice remains in place for Havelock North only. The advice is to boil water for one minute.. Related: ...
Iritis, also called "anterior uveitis" is an inflammatory disorder of the iris, the colored portion of the eye that surrounds the pupil. The symptoms generally include pain in the eye, light sensitivity (photophobia), and blurry vision. Sometimes the pupil is small and the eye is red, although there is no discharge. Often patients see "floaters" in the field of vision. Usually only one eye is involved, although it is possible to have iritis in both eyes. The symptoms iritis typically appear suddenly and develop over a few hours or days.. Iritis is an "inflammatory" condition of the eye. It is usually not caused by bacterial or viral infection. In many cases the cause of the inflammation cannot be determined. Most often, though, it is associated with a concomitant autoimmune disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Reiters disease, ankylosing spondylitis, among others. In autoimmune diseases the persons own immune system attacks its own organs and tissues. In many ...
The main causes of the fever are:. - Diseases: Among the major diseases that can cause fever include the following:. - Respiratory diseases (sore throat, pharyngitis, laryngitis, bronchitis, etc). - Infections by virus or bacteria (influenza, cold, kidney inflammations, inflammations of the urinary bladder, otitis, gastroenteritis, tuberculosis, pneumonia, meningitis, etc.). - Inflammations of the digestive apparatus: appendicitis, inflammations of the intestine.. - Food poisonings.. - Cancer, lymphoma, neuroblastoma, leukemia.. - Rheumatic diseases and problems of the immune system (multiple sclerosis, Reiters syndrome, lupus erythematosus, Graves disease, etc.).. - AIDS. - High heat Problems: A very high heat combined with high humidity, can cause increased body temperature, especially heat stroke or sunstroke.. - Too many clothes or excessive heat in the room. This is responsible for the appearance of fever in young children.. Diagnostics and treatment of fever:. If you have fever or your ...
Buttock Pain, Ulcer, Weight Loss Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Polymyalgia Rheumatica, Spondylitis, Reiters Syndrome. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
Arthritis types are rheumatoid arthritis, gout, infectious arthritis,reactive arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and check more to know about treatment options in
My name is Char and Im a mom of two of the most amazing daughters on the planet, a wife to my best friend and soul mate, a dancer, a personal trainer, a group fitness instructor and a motivator. Im also the owner of a fitness company and a dance-fitness studio, where I teach several weekly dance & fitness classes. What many may not know about me is that I have an autoimmune disease known as Ankylosing Spondylitis. I was born with the gene HLA-B27 and like many who suffer from AS, I came in contact with the right environmental pathogen to ignite the full blown disease. Medically AS falls into the rheumatic disease category of seronegative spondyloarthropathies, many also refer to it as a reactive arthritis. Either way people with AS suffer as a result of having their immune systems attack their spine and sacroiliac joints, the result is chronic pain and inflammation which also effects the joints, tendons and ligaments. AS sufferers can also have "flare-ups" in other areas of the body such as ...
Yersinia enterocolitica causes acute and chronic enteric infections and complications such as septicaemia or reactive arthritis. The survival strategy of Y. enterocolitica in hosts is to silence the innate immune as well as the adaptive immune response. For this purpose Y. enterocolitica has developed a Type III secretion system which allows to directly translocate six effectors proteins Yops (Yersinia outer protein H, T, O, P, M and E) into host cells. Aim of this work was the characterization of the molecular mechanisms by which the Yops affect gene expression in cells of the innate immune response, in vivo. For this purpose, CD11b+ cells, including macrophages, granulocytes, dendritic cells and NK, were selected from the spleen of Y. enterocolitica infected mice and gene expression profiles were analyzed by oligonucleotide microarray. Three groups of C57BL/6 mice were infected intravenous with the Y .enterocolitica pYV+, or the yopP and or the yopH mutants, respectively. It was ...
Enthesis-related: Arthritis plus enthesitis OR Arthritis or enthesitis, plus at least two of the following: presence of or a history of sacroiliac joint tenderness and/or inflammatory lumbosacral pain‡, presence of HLA-B27 antigen, onset of arthritis in a male over 6 years of age, acute (symptomatic) anterior uveitis, history of AS, ERA, sacroiliitis with IBD, reactive arthritis, or acute anterior uveitis in a first-degree relative ...
DEAR DR. ROACH: After an intestinal virus, I ended up in the hospital with a sed rate of 110 and a high white blood count. I was feeling crippled with severe joint pain and was diagnosed with reactive arthritis. I was discharged with steroids and colchicine. Im still taking the colchicine because my doctor said I have familial Mediterranean fever, and the colchicine is helping. I am a full-blooded Italian. She also said I have the HLA-B27 antigen. Two months later, my sed rate is back to normal, but Ill be taking colchicine for another month and then ... ...
DEAR DR. ROACH: After an intestinal virus, I ended up in the hospital with a sed rate of 110 and a high white blood count. I was feeling crippled with severe joint pain and was diagnosed with reactive arthritis. I was discharged with steroids and colchicine. Im still taking the colchicine because my doctor said I have familial Mediterranean fever, and the colchicine is helping. I am a full-blooded Italian. She also said I have the HLA-B27 antigen. Two months later, my sed rate is back to normal, but Ill be taking colchicine for another month and then ... ...
Another form of reactive arthritis starts with eating food or handling something that has bacteria on it. Feldman and others have looked at rates of suicide and depression in patients with psoriasis and found both to be higher than among controls. For use as a general antioxidant, a lower dosage of 20 to 50 mg daily is commonly recommended, although there is no evidence that taking lipoic acid in this way offers any health benefit. In 4 cases, the psoriasis lice and head scalp became more widespread during the months to years after diagnosis.
IL-17 is a major proinflammatory cytokine secreted by activated T-lymphocytes that accumulates in the inflamed joints of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Additional IL-17-related molecules and their receptors have been discovered and may also contribute to RA pathogenesis. We examined the expression of the prototypic IL-17 (IL-17A) and its homologs, IL-17B-F, by RT-PCR analyses of synovial fluid mononuclear cells (SFMCs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from RA patients. We also tested for induction of the IL-17 receptor homologs upon stimulation of the fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) of RA patients with IL-17. The patients SFMCs expressed IL-17C, E and F in addition to IL-17A. As in the case of IL-17, IL-15 appears to be the major inducer of these homologs in RA SFMCs. We detected transcripts of IL-17R, as well as those of IL-17RB, C and D, in the FLSs of RA patients. Whereas IL-17R expression increased upon in vitro stimulation with IL-17, expression of IL-17RB, C and D ...
Space Shuttle Discovery touched down at NASAs Kennedy Space Center, Florida, at 23:32 CET (22:32 UT) this evening. The landing marks the end of ESA astronaut Thomas Reiters long-duration stay in space, concluding the Astrolab Mission. Whilst the return of ESA astronaut Christer Fuglesa…
I am a 40 year old male and have been suffering with rhuematoid arthtritis now for about 18 years, my specialist says it is more like spondyloarthropathy than rhuematoid. I had an accident back in 1991...
The determination of blood serum REA is often carried out in conjunction with other oncomarkers such as CA 19-9 or CA 15-3, as this may increase diagnostic sensitivityı Detection of some tumors. With regard to colon cancer, the combined definition of REA and CA 19-9 seems appropriate only in very rare cases of the REA-negative tumor. In other cases, the combined definition is not more informative than the testing of one REA.. A small and moderate increase in the level of REA is observed in 20-50% of patients with benign illnesses, in particular, intestines, pancreas, liver and lungs. Thus, this phenomenon is manifested in liver cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis, pancreatitis, ulcerative colitis, Crohns disease, pneumonia, bronchitis, tuberculosis, emphysema, cystic fibrosis and autoimmune diseases. With these benign illnesses, the level of REA nevertheless tends to remain in the lower part of the range of pathological values, rarely exceeding 10 ng / ml. Moreover, continuous elevations or ...
Learn more about Litotricia extracorpórea por ondas de choque para tratar los cálculos renales at Medical City Dallas DefiniciónRazones para realizar el procedimientoPosibles...
Does an agile approach to IT projects avoid the problems associated with the traditional (waterfall) approach? Jere… https//t.co/p2Gy6Jebhv ...
Every doctor has a story of how they ended up in medicine. Mine goes like this. My parents instilled two things that looking back now were probably the rea
This Arthritis Guide Takes It One Step Further. There has never been a Arthritis Guide like this. |p||p|It contains 196 answers, much more than you can imagine; comprehensive answers and extensive details and references, with insights that have never before been offered in print. Get the information you need--fast! This all-embracing guide offers a thorough view of key knowledge and detailed insight. This Guide introduces what you want to know about Arthritis. |p||p|A quick look inside of some of the subjects covered: Septic arthritis - Diagnosis, Shoulder surgery - Arthritis or Osteolysis of the AC (acromioclavicular) joint, Reactive arthritis - Notable cases, Wrist osteoarthritis - Medical history, Inflammatory arthritis, Osteoarthritis - Dietary supplements, Clarins - The Courtin Arthritis Foundation, Arthritis Research UK - Vision, Inflammatory arthritis - Symptoms and signs, Reactive arthritis - Causes, Tripterygium wilfordii - Rheumatoid arthritis, Arthritis Care - People, Polyarthritis -
Aim: Detection of Anti-CCP antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis patients using Automated Microreader and Gen5 Software for analysis and data processing. Material and method: Total of 776 blood samples from inflammatory arthritis patients were obtained. Statistical analysis for positive and negative results was calculated and test values were compared. Results: Anti-CCP test was found positive (>25U/ml) in 32,8% of blood samples. The all positive test results were in rheumatoid arthritis patients with 95% specificity. Negative test results was found in 67,2% of blood samples that were drawn from all IgM RF negative individuals, reactive arthritis and osteoarthritis patients as well as in some end-stage rheumatoid arthritis disease. Mean value of positive results was very high: 599,62 U/ml. Conclusion: The anti-CCP test is highly specific test in Rheumatoid arthritis. The positive test in early undifferentiated inflammatory polyarthritis provides new laboratory diagnostic inflammatory marker and ...
Pacific Rheumatology Medical Center treat patients with all types of arthritis, ranging from common forms of bursitis and tendonitis, osteoarthritis and gout to complex inflammatory syndromes like rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, reactive arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis.. They also evaluate and treat connective tissue diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, inflammatory muscle diseases, raynauds syndrome and vasculitis.. ...
Rheumatoid Arthritis; Osteoarthritis; Juvenile Arthritis; Other Types of Arthritis; Arthritis Pain; previous joint injury overuse of the joint weak thigh muscles and genetics. Arthritis Due To Excess Levels Of Uric Acid In Blood Joint Medicine Pain Clinic Mayo has served a variety of purposes including topical use for joint or musculoskeletal pain. administering a child care center syllabus.. Basically everything I like to do in focusing on the ACL injury as well as the other knee where I have quite a bit of arthritis. Home , Heel Pain , Stress Fractures. Includes back pain articles and tips for reducing pain. Rheumatoid arthritis can be a difficult disease to parvovirus reactive arthritis treating fingers diagnose infection including rheumatic fever Lyme disease fungal arthritis Fifth disease tuberculosis Other spondyloarthropathies include psoriatic arthritis rheumatoid arthritis and gum disease nursing reactive arthritis ucellar spondylitis enteropathic arthritis and sacroiliitis8. Defining ...
Other arthritis forms are rheumatoid arthritis , psoriatic arthritis , and related autoimmune diseases . Psoriatic arthritis may be difficult to distinguish from other forms of arthritis, particularly when skin changes are minimal or absent. In a small number of cases, it develops in the absence of noticeable skin changes . It is a chronic disease characterized by inflammation of the skin - psoriasis - and joints - arthritis.. Karason A, Love TJ, Gudbjornsson B. A strong heritability of psoriatic arthritis over four generations-the Reykjavik Psoriatic Arthritis Study. A genome-wide association study of psoriatic and psoriasis arthritis identifies new disease loci. The term inflammatory arthritis encompasses rheumatoid arthritis, reactive arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. Acute and subacute bursitis Epicondylitis Acute nonspecific tenosynovitis Acute gouty arthritis Psoriatic arthritis Ankylosing spondylitis 3. The clinical course of peripheral and psoriatic axial ...
Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the causative infectious agent for a variety of diseases in men: urethritis, proctitis, conjunctivitis, epididymitis, and Reiters Syndrome. Among woman, the consequences of chlamydial infections are severe if left untreated; CT infection can cause urethritis, cervicitis, conjunctivitis, endometritis, salpingitis (with subsequent infertility or ectopic pregnancy) and perihepatitis. Infants from infected mothers can develop conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, and pneumonia.. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most commonly diagnosed and reported sexually transmitted bacterial infection in Canada. The number of reported cases in Canada in 2006 was , 65,000 (202 per 100,000) and has been increasing annually. This, however, is an underestimate as the disease is often asymptomatic and therefore undiagnosed. CT infections are more common among females between the ages of 15-24 and young men aged 20-29.. Genital infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis often go unrecognized as ...
Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the causative infectious agent for a variety of diseases in men: urethritis, proctitis, conjunctivitis, epididymitis, and Reiters Syndrome. Among woman, the consequences of chlamydial infections are severe if left untreated; CT infection can cause urethritis, cervicitis, conjunctivitis, endometritis, salpingitis (with subsequent infertility or ectopic pregnancy) and perihepatitis. Infants from infected mothers can develop conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, and pneumonia.. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most commonly diagnosed and reported sexually transmitted bacterial infection in Canada. The number of reported cases in Canada in 2006 was , 65,000 (202 per 100,000) and has been increasing annually. This, however, is an underestimate as the disease is often asymptomatic and therefore undiagnosed. CT infections are more common among females between the ages of 15-24 and young men aged 20-29.. Genital infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis often go unrecognized as ...
Nandini Moorthy, M.D.. Division Chief. Associate Professor of Pediatrics. E-mail: [email protected] Phone: 732-235-4980. The Bristol-Myers Squibb Pediatric Rheumatology Center of excellence headed by Dr. Lakshmi Nandini Moorthy at Robert Wood Johnson Medical School is a state-of-the-art family-friendly medical center. Pediatric rheumatic diseases comprise a complex array of chronic diseases with fluctuating courses that often are challenging to diagnose and manage. The center is focusing on diagnoses and management of complex rheumatic diseases including: Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Mixed Connective Tissue Disease, Spondyloarthropathy Hypermobility Disorders, Reactive arthritis, Polymyositis, Juvenile Dermatomyositis, Vasculitides, Systemic sclerosis, Linear Scleroderma and morphea, Fibromyalgia, Periodic Fever Syndromes, and Regional Musculoskeletal Pain Syndromes. These diseases often lead to significant morbidity in children, disability that may be ...

NewYork-Presbyterian Queens - Reactive Arthritis (Reiters Syndrome)NewYork-Presbyterian Queens - Reactive Arthritis (Reiter's Syndrome)

Reactive Arthritis (Reiters Syndrome). What is reactive arthritis?. Reactive arthritis, also known as Reiters syndrome, is a ... Treatment for reactive arthritis:. Specific treatment for reactive arthritis will be determined by your physician based on:. * ... What causes reactive arthritis?. Reactive arthritis, or Reiters syndrome, is usually preceded by an infection caused by ... How is reactive arthritis diagnosed?. Diagnosis of reactive arthritis may be difficult, because there are no specific ...
more infohttp://www.nyhq.org/diw/Content.asp?PageID=DIW007517&More=DIW&language=Spanish

Treatment of Reactive Arthritis, Reactive Arthritis Definition, Causes, Risk Factors, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment, Reactive...Treatment of Reactive Arthritis, Reactive Arthritis Definition, Causes, Risk Factors, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment, Reactive...

Reactive Arthritis, Reactive Arthritis Symptoms, Reactive Arthritis Treatment, Reactive Arthritis Causes, Reactive Arthritis ... Reactive Arthritis Cure, Emedicine Reactive Arthritis, Chronic Reactive Arthritis, Acute Reactive Arthritis, Viral Reactive ... Treatments for reactive arthritis involve therapies to manage your symptoms and to eliminate any underlying infection, Reactive ... arthritis) is a defining feature of reactive arthritis, this condition can also be associated with inflammation in parts of ...
more infohttp://www.knowyourdisease.com/treatment-of-reactive-arthritis.html

Infectious arthritisInfectious arthritis

Reactive arthritis (ReA) is a recognized sequela of infectious gastroenteritis (IGE). However, the population-based incidence ... The epidemiology of infectious gastroenteritis related reactive arthritis in U.S. military personnel: a case-control study. ... The knee is the joint most frequently affected by infectious arthritis. Infectious arthritis is diagnosed by taking a sample of ... TNFalpha blockers and infectious risk in rheumatoid arthritis]. Author(s): B Raffeiner, C Botsios, F Ometto, L Bernardi, A ...
more infohttp://www.diseaseinfosearch.org/result/3820

Juvenile arthritis facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Juvenile arthritisJuvenile arthritis facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Juvenile arthritis

Make research projects and school reports about Juvenile arthritis easy with credible articles from our FREE, online ... and pictures about Juvenile arthritis at Encyclopedia.com. ... and a marker called C-reactive protein. As with any chronic ... Juvenile Arthritis. Definition. Juvenile arthritis (JA), also called juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), refers to a number of ... "Types of Juvenile Arthritis." Arthritis Foundation, 2004. Available online at ,www.arthritis.org/conditions/DiseaseCenter/ ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/diseases-and-conditions/pathology/juvenile-arthritis

A three-stage procedure using bone transportation for the treatment of sternoclavicular infectious arthritis | Journal of...A three-stage procedure using bone transportation for the treatment of sternoclavicular infectious arthritis | Journal of...

SCJ sternoclavicular joint, CT computed tomography, ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate, CRP C-reactive protein ... Ross JJ, Shamsuddin H. Sternoclavicular septic arthritis: review of 180 cases. Medicine. 2004;83:139-48.View ArticlePubMed ... Sternoclavicular infectious arthritisThree-stage procedureBone transportationReconstruction. Background. Sternoclavicular joint ... In the current study, a three-stage procedure with BT was used to treat six patients with SCJ infectious arthritis. The ...
more infohttps://josr-online.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13018-016-0480-0

Reactive arthritisReactive arthritis

Managing reactive arthritis Who is most likely to develop reactive arthritis? This arthritis is no respecter of age or gender. ... How does reactive arthritis occur? This form of arthritis develops following an infection in another part of the body - hence ... Reactive arthritis This is a type of arthritis, also known as Reiters Syndrome which occurs as a response to a ... Source: NHS Choices/reactive arthritis) This is a little known form of arthritis which mainly affects younger people although ...
more infohttp://www.medic8.com/healthguide/arthritis/reactive-arthritis.html

Reactive Arthritis | HealthCentralReactive Arthritis | HealthCentral

Reactive arthritis is characterized by a triad of arthritis, nongonococcal urethritis, and conjunctivitis, and by lesions of ... People with reactive arthritis have arthritis and one or more of the following: urethritis, prostatitis, cervicitis, cystitis, ... Reactive arthritis (previously referred to as Reiters syndrome) is characterized by a triad of arthritis, nongonococcal ... Many people develop reactive arthritis 1 to 3 weeks following a mild or severe case of diarrhea which is often, but not always ...
more infohttps://www.healthcentral.com/encyclopedia/reiters-syndrome

Reactive Arthritis | Arthritis FoundationReactive Arthritis | Arthritis Foundation

Reactive arthritis is an inflammatory type of arthritis which affects the joints, and may affect the eyes, skin and urinary ... Reactive Arthritis. What is Reactive Arthritis?. Reactive arthritis is an inflammatory type of arthritis which affects the ... Reactive Arthritis Treatment. There is no cure for reactive arthritis. The goal of treatment is to treat infections and manage ... Reactive Arthritis Symptoms. The most common symptoms for reactive arthritis are inflammation in the joints, eyes, bladder and ...
more infohttps://www.arthritis.org/about-arthritis/types/reactive-arthritis/

Reactive Arthritis | HealthCentralReactive Arthritis | HealthCentral

Reactive arthritis is characterized by a triad of arthritis, nongonococcal urethritis, and conjunctivitis, and by lesions of ... People with reactive arthritis have arthritis and one or more of the following: urethritis, prostatitis, cervicitis, cystitis, ... Reactive arthritis (previously referred to as Reiters syndrome) is characterized by a triad of arthritis, nongonococcal ... Many people develop reactive arthritis 1 to 3 weeks following a mild or severe case of diarrhea which is often, but not always ...
more infohttps://www.healthcentral.com/encyclopedia/reactive-arthritis

What is reactive arthritis?What is reactive arthritis?

... is a form of arthritis that affects the joints, eyes, urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of ... reactive arthritis, formerly referred to as reiters syndrome, ... More Answers On Arthritis. *What causes reactive arthritis?. * ... What is reactive arthritis?. ANSWER Reactive arthritis, formerly referred to as Reiters syndrome, is a form of arthritis that ... What are the symptoms of reactive arthritis?. *How is reactive arthritis diagnosed? ...
more infohttps://www.webmd.com/arthritis/qa/what-is-reactive-arthritis

Reactive Arthritis Following Foodborne Illness | Reactive ArthritisReactive Arthritis Following Foodborne Illness | Reactive Arthritis

Reactive arthritis is an uncommon, but potentially debilitating group of symptoms that can follow Salmonella, Campylobacter, ... What is Reactive Arthritis?. Reactive arthritis is an uncommon, but potentially debilitating group of symptoms that can follow ... but the reactive arthritis may still occur. Reactive arthritis typically involves inflammation of one joint (monoarthritis) or ... such as arthritis and urethritis or arthritis and conjunctivitis. [1] A reactive arthritis may develop after a person eats food ...
more infohttps://about-reactive-arthritis.com/

Reactive arthritis: MedlinePlus Medical EncyclopediaReactive arthritis: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

Reactive arthritis is a type of arthritis that follows an infection. It may also cause inflammation of the eyes, skin and ... Reactive arthritis is a type of arthritis that follows an infection. It may also cause inflammation of the eyes, skin and ... Reactive arthritis may go away in a few weeks, but it can last for a few months and require medicines during that time. ... Reactive arthritis occurs most often in men younger than age 4, although it does sometimes affect women. It may follow an ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000440.htm

How is reactive arthritis treated?How is reactive arthritis treated?

treatment can include antibiotics for chlamydia or other bacterial infections that may have triggered the arthritis. joint ... If your reactive arthritis is a long-term condition, your doctor may refer you to a physical therapist and advise you to ... How is reactive arthritis treated?. ANSWER Treatment can include antibiotics for chlamydia or other bacterial infections that ... may have triggered the arthritis. Joint inflammation usually is treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), ...
more infohttps://www.webmd.com/arthritis/qa/how-is-reactive-arthritis-treated

Reactive arthritis - WikipediaReactive arthritis - Wikipedia

Reactive arthritis. Reactive arthritis, also known as Reiters syndrome, is a form of inflammatory arthritis[1] that develops ... "Reactive Arthritis". Retrieved January 24, 2017.. *^ Mayo Staff (March 5, 2011). "Reactive Arthritis (Reiters Syndrome)". Mayo ... "Arthritis and Rheumatism". Retrieved May 16, 2011.. *^ eMedicine/Medscape (Jan 5, 2010). "Reactive Arthritis". Retrieved May 16 ... of men with urogenital reactive arthritis syndrome and about 75% of men with enteric reactive arthritis syndrome. ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reactive_arthritis

Post-Streptococcal Reactive ArthritisPost-Streptococcal Reactive Arthritis

Arthritis of acute onset, symmetric or asymmetric, usually non-migratory, which can affect any joint and is persistent or ... How is Post-Streptococcal Reactive Arthritis treated?. Will be managed by the Rheumatology team and your Pediatrician or PCP. ... What is Post-Streptococcal Reactive Arthritis ?. Joint swelling and pain that occurs following a streptococcal pharyngitis ...
more infohttps://www.childrens.com/specialties-services/conditions/post-streptococcal-reactive-arthritis

Reactive Arthritis Self Care | Arthritis FoundationReactive Arthritis Self Care | Arthritis Foundation

Avoiding re-infection is an important part of reactive arthritis self care. Keeping joints flexible, managing weight, getting ... Self care for reactive arthritis includes making sure food is stored at proper temperatures and cooked properly. These helps ... Some sexually transmitted infections can trigger reactive arthritis. Using condoms may lower ones risk. ... Arthritis Foundation National Office1355 Peachtree St NE. Suite 600. Atlanta,GA 30309. Home Office. 404.872.7100 Helpline 1.844 ...
more infohttps://www.arthritis.org/about-arthritis/types/reactive-arthritis/self-care.php

Reactive Arthritis | HealthLink BCReactive Arthritis | HealthLink BC

Symptoms of reactive arthritis include:. *Pain, swelling, and inflammation of the joints (arthritis), especially where the ... Reactive arthritis is a condition that may be triggered by a bacterial infection in the urinary or gastrointestinal tracts. It ...
more infohttps://www.healthlinkbc.ca/health-topics/str2268

Poststreptococcal Reactive ArthritisPoststreptococcal Reactive Arthritis

... Aka: Poststreptococcal Reactive Arthritis, Post-streptococcal Reactive arthritis *See ... Post-streptococcal reactive arthritis (disorder), Post-streptococcal reactive arthritis. Spanish. artritis reactiva ... Poststreptococcal Reactive Arthritis, Post-streptococcal Reactive arthritis. ... NSAIDs and Aspirin are less effective than in the Arthritis of Rheumatic Fever ...
more infohttps://fpnotebook.com/legacy/ID/Rheum/PststrptcclRctvArthrts.htm

Reactive Arthritis: Practice Essentials, Background, PathophysiologyReactive Arthritis: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology

Reactive arthritis (ReA), formerly known as Reiter syndrome, is an autoimmune condition that develops in response to an ... Reactive Arthritis) and Reactive Arthritis What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and Diseases. * Reactive Arthritis ... Campylobacter reactive arthritis: a systematic review. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2007 Aug. 37(1):48-55. [Medline]. [Full Text]. ... Successful treatment of reactive arthritis with a humanized anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody, tocilizumab. Arthritis Rheum ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/331347-overview

Reactive Arthritis - Symptoms and Treatment | familydoctor.orgReactive Arthritis - Symptoms and Treatment | familydoctor.org

Reactive arthritis is a rare condition that occurs when your body reacts to an infection. Symptoms include swelling, pain, ... How is reactive arthritis diagnosed?. There isnt a specific test to check for reactive arthritis. Your doctor will do an exam ... What is reactive arthritis?. Reactive arthritis is a rare condition. It occurs when your immune system reacts to an infection ... What causes reactive arthritis?. The exact cause of reactive arthritis is unknown. It does begin after you have an infection ...
more infohttps://familydoctor.org/condition/reactive-arthritis/

Reactive arthritis: Symptoms, risk factors, and treatmentReactive arthritis: Symptoms, risk factors, and treatment

Reactive arthritis is a painful type of inflammation that can occur in the legs and back. It can occur when the body reacts to ... Reactive arthritis symptoms. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.arthritis.org/about-arthritis/types/reactive-arthritis/symptoms. ... Reactive arthritis. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.arthritis.org/about-arthritis/types/reactive-arthritis/ ... Reactive arthritis may affect the joints, eyes, and urogenital tract. The symptoms of reactive arthritis usually appear 2-4 ...
more infohttps://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/318187.php

Reactive arthritis - Symptoms and causes - Mayo ClinicReactive arthritis - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic

Reactive arthritis can cause inflammation in the eyes and urinary tract - in addition to your joints. Symptoms typically ... What is reactive arthritis? Arthritis Foundation. http://www.arthritis.org/about-arthritis/types/reactive-arthritis/. Accessed ... Certain factors increase your risk of reactive arthritis:. *Age. Reactive arthritis occurs most frequently in adults between ... Reactive arthritis. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Sept. 27, 2016.. *Reactive arthritis. American College of ...
more infohttps://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/reactive-arthritis/symptoms-causes/syc-20354838

Reactive Arthritis - Harvard HealthReactive Arthritis - Harvard Health

Reactive arthritis is an uncommon disease that causes inflammation of the joints and, in many cases, other areas, particularly ... Reactive Arthritis. What Is It?. Published: August, 2017. Reactive arthritis is an uncommon disease that causes inflammation of ... While these infections are common, reactive arthritis is not. Scientists believe that people who develop reactive arthritis ... The most common infection causing reactive arthritis is the sexually transmitted disease (STD) chlamydia. Reactive arthritis ...
more infohttps://www.health.harvard.edu/a_to_z/reactive-arthritis-a-to-z

Reactive Arthritis Imaging: Overview, Radiography, Computed TomographyReactive Arthritis Imaging: Overview, Radiography, Computed Tomography

Reiter syndrome was originally defined as a triad of arthritis, conjunctivitis, and urethritis. Hans Reiter first reported this ... encoded search term (Reactive Arthritis Imaging) and Reactive Arthritis Imaging What to Read Next on Medscape. Related ... Reactive arthritis is used to describe an acute arthritis complicating an infection elsewhere in the body in which the ... Reactive Arthritis Imaging. Updated: Jul 13, 2015 * Author: Anil Kumar Aribandi, MBBS, MD, MRCP; Chief Editor: Felix S Chew, MD ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/395020-overview

Antibiotics for reactive arthritis | CochraneAntibiotics for reactive arthritis | Cochrane

Antibiotics for reactive arthritis. To determine the benefits and harms of antibiotic therapy for reactive arthritis (ReA). ... Antibiotics for reactive arthritis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 9. Art. No.: CD006078. DOI: 10.1002/ ... Combining two or more drugs vs one drug for pain control in inflammatory arthritis ...
more infohttps://www.cochrane.org/CD006078/MUSKEL_antibiotics-for-reactive-arthritis
  • Because reactive arthritis may be linked to foodborne illness, it is critical to ensure that foods eaten at home or outside the house are fresh and wholesome. (joybauer.com)
  • McGuire NM, Kauffman CA. Septic arthritis in the elderly. (medscape.com)
  • Baraboutis I, Skoutelis A. Streptococcus pneumoniae septic arthritis in adults. (medscape.com)
  • Raad J, Peacock JE Jr. Septic arthritis in the adult caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae: a report of 4 cases and review of the literature. (medscape.com)
  • Margaretten ME, Kohlwes J, Moore D, Bent S. Does this adult patient have septic arthritis? (medscape.com)
  • Ross JJ, Shamsuddin H. Sternoclavicular septic arthritis: review of 180 cases. (medscape.com)
  • Daily needle aspiration versus surgical lavage for the treatment of bacterial septic arthritis in adults. (medscape.com)