Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.ArthritisArthritis, Experimental: ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.Arthritis, Infectious: Arthritis caused by BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; MYCOPLASMA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; or PARASITES.Arthritis, Juvenile: Arthritis of children, with onset before 16 years of age. The terms juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) refer to classification systems for chronic arthritis in children. Only one subtype of juvenile arthritis (polyarticular-onset, rheumatoid factor-positive) clinically resembles adult rheumatoid arthritis and is considered its childhood equivalent.Arthritis, Psoriatic: A type of inflammatory arthritis associated with PSORIASIS, often involving the axial joints and the peripheral terminal interphalangeal joints. It is characterized by the presence of HLA-B27-associated SPONDYLARTHROPATHY, and the absence of rheumatoid factor.Arthritis, Reactive: An aseptic, inflammatory arthritis developing secondary to a primary extra-articular infection, most typically of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or UROGENITAL SYSTEM. The initiating trigger pathogens are usually SHIGELLA; SALMONELLA; YERSINIA; CAMPYLOBACTER; or CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. Reactive arthritis is strongly associated with HLA-B27 ANTIGEN.Synovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.Joints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.Synovial Fluid: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.Arthritis, Gouty: Arthritis, especially of the great toe, as a result of gout. Acute gouty arthritis often is precipitated by trauma, infection, surgery, etc. The initial attacks are usually monoarticular but later attacks are often polyarticular.Rheumatoid Factor: Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.Mice, Inbred DBASynovitis: Inflammation of a synovial membrane. It is usually painful, particularly on motion, and is characterized by a fluctuating swelling due to effusion within a synovial sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)Osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Collagen Type II: A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Rats, Inbred LewAutoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Blood Sedimentation: Measurement of rate of settling of erythrocytes in anticoagulated blood.Injections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Rheumatic Diseases: Disorders of connective tissue, especially the joints and related structures, characterized by inflammation, degeneration, or metabolic derangement.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Arthrography: Roentgenography of a joint, usually after injection of either positive or negative contrast medium.Rheumatology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of inflammatory or degenerative processes and metabolic derangement of connective tissue structures which pertain to a variety of musculoskeletal disorders, such as arthritis.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Metacarpophalangeal Joint: The articulation between a metacarpal bone and a phalanx.Spondylitis, Ankylosing: A chronic inflammatory condition affecting the axial joints, such as the SACROILIAC JOINT and other intervertebral or costovertebral joints. It occurs predominantly in young males and is characterized by pain and stiffness of joints (ANKYLOSIS) with inflammation at tendon insertions.Sulfasalazine: A drug that is used in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. Its activity is generally considered to lie in its metabolic breakdown product, 5-aminosalicylic acid (see MESALAMINE) released in the colon. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p907)Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Gold Sodium Thiomalate: A variable mixture of the mono- and disodium salts of gold thiomalic acid used mainly for its anti-inflammatory action in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It is most effective in active progressive rheumatoid arthritis and of little or no value in the presence of extensive deformities or in the treatment of other forms of arthritis.Wrist Joint: The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).Rheumatoid Nodule: Subcutaneous nodules seen in 20-30% of rheumatoid arthritis patients. They may arise anywhere on the body, but are most frequently found over the bony prominences. The nodules are characterized histologically by dense areas of fibrinoid necrosis with basophilic streaks and granules, surrounded by a palisade of cells, mainly fibroblasts and histiocytes.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).HLA-DRB1 Chains: A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that includes over one hundred allele variants. The HLA-DRB1 subtype is associated with several of the HLA-DR SEROLOGICAL SUBTYPES.Finger Joint: The articulation between the head of one phalanx and the base of the one distal to it, in each finger.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Tarsal Joints: The articulations between the various TARSAL BONES. This does not include the ANKLE JOINT which consists of the articulations between the TIBIA; FIBULA; and TALUS.Lyme Disease: An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.HLA-DR4 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Joint DiseasesHLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.CitrullineCytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Spondylarthropathies: Heterogeneous group of arthritic diseases sharing clinical and radiologic features. They are associated with the HLA-B27 ANTIGEN and some with a triggering infection. Most involve the axial joints in the SPINE, particularly the SACROILIAC JOINT, but can also involve asymmetric peripheral joints. Subsets include ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS; REACTIVE ARTHRITIS; PSORIATIC ARTHRITIS; and others.Foot Joints: The articulations extending from the ANKLE distally to the TOES. These include the ANKLE JOINT; TARSAL JOINTS; METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT; and TOE JOINT.Psoriasis: A common genetically determined, chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by rounded erythematous, dry, scaling patches. The lesions have a predilection for nails, scalp, genitalia, extensor surfaces, and the lumbosacral region. Accelerated epidermopoiesis is considered to be the fundamental pathologic feature in psoriasis.Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Freund's Adjuvant: An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.Tarsus, Animal: The region in the hindlimb of a quadruped, corresponding to the human ANKLE.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Tenosynovitis: Inflammation of the synovial lining of a tendon sheath. Causes include trauma, tendon stress, bacterial disease (gonorrhea, tuberculosis), rheumatic disease, and gout. Common sites are the hand, wrist, shoulder capsule, hip capsule, hamstring muscles, and Achilles tendon. The tendon sheaths become inflamed and painful, and accumulate fluid. Joint mobility is usually reduced.HLA-B27 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Organogold Compounds: Organic compounds that contain GOLD as an integral part of the molecule. Some are used as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS. The term chrysotherapy derives from an ancient Greek term for gold.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Hand Joints: The articulations extending from the WRIST distally to the FINGERS. These include the WRIST JOINT; CARPAL JOINTS; METACARPOPHALANGEAL JOINT; and FINGER JOINT.Glucose-6-Phosphate Isomerase: An aldose-ketose isomerase that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate. In prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms it plays an essential role in glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways. In mammalian systems the enzyme is found in the cytoplasm and as a secreted protein. This secreted form of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase has been referred to as autocrine motility factor or neuroleukin, and acts as a cytokine which binds to the AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR RECEPTOR. Deficiency of the enzyme in humans is an autosomal recessive trait, which results in CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein: A ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It supports research into the causes, treatment, and prevention of arthritis and musculoskeletal and skin diseases; the training of basic and clinical scientists to carry out this research; and the dissemination of information on research progress. It was established in 1986.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mice, Inbred C57BLCase-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Isoxazoles: Azoles with an OXYGEN and a NITROGEN next to each other at the 1,2 positions, in contrast to OXAZOLES that have nitrogens at the 1,3 positions.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Prednisolone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.Penicillamine: 3-Mercapto-D-valine. The most characteristic degradation product of the penicillin antibiotics. It is used as an antirheumatic and as a chelating agent in Wilson's disease.Borrelia burgdorferi: A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Yersinia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus YERSINIA.Arthralgia: Pain in the joint.Spondylarthritis: Inflammation of the joints of the SPINE, the intervertebral articulations.Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Toe Joint: The articulation between the head of one phalanx and the base of the one distal to it, in each toe.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Hand Deformities, Acquired: Deformities of the hand, or a part of the hand, acquired after birth as the result of injury or disease.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Matrix Metalloproteinase 3: An extracellular endopeptidase of vertebrate tissues similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 1. It digests PROTEOGLYCAN; FIBRONECTIN; COLLAGEN types III, IV, V, and IX, and activates procollagenase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Felty Syndrome: A rare complication of rheumatoid arthritis with autoimmune NEUTROPENIA; and SPLENOMEGALY.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Sternoclavicular Joint: A double gliding joint formed by the CLAVICLE, superior and lateral parts of the manubrium sterni at the clavicular notch, and the cartilage of the first rib.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Metatarsophalangeal Joint: The articulation between a metatarsal bone (METATARSAL BONES) and a phalanx.Auranofin: An oral chrysotherapeutic agent for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Its exact mechanism of action is unknown, but it is believed to act via immunological mechanisms and alteration of lysosomal enzyme activity. Its efficacy is slightly less than that of injected gold salts, but it is better tolerated, and side effects which occur are potentially less serious.Sjogren's Syndrome: Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 22: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal PROLINE-rich domain. The phosphatase subtype is predominantly expressed in LYMPHOCYTES and plays a key role in the inhibition of downstream T-LYMPHOCYTE activation. Polymorphisms in the gene that encodes this phosphatase subtype are associated with a variety of AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Gout: Hereditary metabolic disorder characterized by recurrent acute arthritis, hyperuricemia and deposition of sodium urate in and around the joints, sometimes with formation of uric acid calculi.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Spondylitis: Inflammation of the SPINE. This includes both arthritic and non-arthritic conditions.Osteitis: Inflammation of the bone.Mice, Inbred BALB CArthritis-Encephalitis Virus, Caprine: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), closely related to VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS and causing acute encephalomyelitis; chronic arthritis; PNEUMONIA; MASTITIS; and GLOMERULONEPHRITIS in goats. It is transmitted mainly in the colostrum and milk.Biological Therapy: Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)RANK Ligand: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Early Diagnosis: Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Th17 Cells: Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Aurothioglucose: A thioglucose derivative used as an antirheumatic and experimentally to produce obesity in animals.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Borrelia burgdorferi Group: Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. These spirochetes are generally transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks.Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Arthrodesis: The surgical fixation of a joint by a procedure designed to accomplish fusion of the joint surfaces by promoting the proliferation of bone cells. (Dorland, 28th ed)Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Arthroplasty, Replacement: Partial or total replacement of a joint.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Immunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.Immunoconjugates: Combinations of diagnostic or therapeutic substances linked with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; or ANTIGENS. Often the diagnostic or therapeutic substance is a radionuclide. These conjugates are useful tools for specific targeting of DRUGS and RADIOISOTOPES in the CHEMOTHERAPY and RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY of certain cancers.Joint Prosthesis: Prostheses used to partially or totally replace a human or animal joint. (from UMDNS, 1999)Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Stifle: In horses, cattle, and other quadrupeds, the joint between the femur and the tibia, corresponding to the human knee.Arthroplasty: Surgical reconstruction of a joint to relieve pain or restore motion.Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Tuberculosis, Osteoarticular: Tuberculosis of the bones or joints.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Foot Deformities, Acquired: Distortion or disfigurement of the foot, or a part of the foot, acquired through disease or injury after birth.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Elbow Joint: A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Atlanto-Axial Joint: The joint involving the CERVICAL ATLAS and axis bones.Matrilin Proteins: PROTEOGLYCANS-associated proteins that are major components of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including CARTILAGE; and INTERVERTEBRAL DISC structures. They bind COLLAGEN fibers and contain protein domains that enable oligomer formation and interaction with other extracellular matrix proteins such as CARTILAGE OLIGOMERIC MATRIX PROTEIN.Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Arthroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.Chondrocalcinosis: Presence of calcium salts, especially calcium pyrophosphate, in the cartilaginous structures of one or more joints. When accompanied by attacks of goutlike symptoms, it is called pseudogout. (Dorland, 27th ed)Matrix Metalloproteinases: A family of zinc-dependent metalloendopeptidases that is involved in the degradation of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components.Connective Tissue Diseases: A heterogeneous group of disorders, some hereditary, others acquired, characterized by abnormal structure or function of one or more of the elements of connective tissue, i.e., collagen, elastin, or the mucopolysaccharides.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Sacroiliac Joint: The immovable joint formed by the lateral surfaces of the SACRUM and ILIUM.Hand Bones: The CARPAL BONES; METACARPAL BONES; and FINGER PHALANGES. In each hand there are eight carpal bones, five metacarpal bones, and 14 phalanges.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Aggrecans: Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Bursa, Synovial: A fluid-filled sac lined with SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE that provides a cushion between bones, tendons and/or muscles around a joint.

Alpha-toxin and gamma-toxin jointly promote Staphylococcus aureus virulence in murine septic arthritis. (1/959)

Septic arthritis is a common and feared complication of staphylococcal infections. Staphylococcus aureus produces a number of potential virulence factors including certain adhesins and enterotoxins. In this study we have assessed the roles of cytolytic toxins in the development of septic arthritis by inoculating mice with S. aureus wild-type strain 8325-4 or isogenic mutants differing in the expression of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-toxin production patterns. Mice inoculated with either an alpha- or beta-toxin mutant showed degrees of inflammation, joint damage, and weight decrease similar to wild-type-inoculated mice. In contrast, mice inoculated with either double (alpha- and gamma-toxin-deficient)- or triple (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-toxin-deficient)-mutant S. aureus strains showed lower frequency and severity of arthritis, measured both clinically and histologically, than mice inoculated with the wild-type strain. We conclude that simultaneous production of alpha- and gamma-toxin is a virulence factor in S. aureus arthritis.  (+info)

Genetic control of experimental lyme arthritis in the absence of specific immunity. (2/959)

Host genetics play an important role in determining resistance or susceptibility to experimental Lyme arthritis. While specific immunity appears to regulate disease resolution, innate immunity appears to regulate disease severity. Intradermal infection with Borrelia burgdorferi yields severe arthritis in C3H/He (C3H) mice but only minimal arthritis in BALB/c mice. Intradermal infection of immunodeficient C3H SCID mice also results in severe arthritis, but arthritis of only moderate severity in BALB/c SCID mice. In the present study, we examined immunodeficient recombinase-activating gene-knockout (RAG-1(-/-)) (RAG-) mice from resistant C57BL/6 (B6) and DBA/2 (DBA) mouse strains. B. burgdorferi-infected B6 RAG- and DBA RAG- mice had little or no ankle swelling, a low occurrence of inflammatory infiltrates in tibiotarsal joints, and low arthritis severity scores in comparison to RAG+ and RAG- BALB/c or C3H mice. Few differences in spirochete DNA levels in ankles of resistant and susceptible RAG- mice were seen. These data suggest that resistance to arthritis development following B. burgdorferi infection is not necessarily dependent on an acquired immune response and can occur despite the presence of high spirochete burden. Thus, genes expressed outside the specific immune response can be central regulators of experimental arthritis.  (+info)

Osteonecrosis of the hip in sickle-cell disease associated with tuberculous arthritis. A review of 15 cases. (3/959)

We report a study of 15 cases of tuberculous hips with sickle-cell disease who presented during 1991-1993. Although the osteonecrosis was long-standing, biopsy was nearly always required to reveal the more recent tuberculous infection. Management consisted of 6 months of anti-tuberculous chemotherapy with appropriate palliative surgery 5-8 weeks after the start of drug treatment. The operative techniques which we used are described. The results were good both post-operatively, and in 12 patients followed-up at an average of 3 years. We recommend this combined management for the treatment of secondary tuberculous infections of hips previously damaged by sickle-cell disease.  (+info)

Longitudinal and cross-sectional variability in markers of joint metabolism in patients with knee pain and articular cartilage abnormalities. (4/959)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the within- and between-patient variability in the concentrations of synovial fluid, serum and urine markers of joint tissue metabolism in a cohort of patients with knee pain and cartilage changes consistent with early-stage knee osteoarthritis. DESIGN: Samples of synovial fluid, serum, and urine were obtained from 52 patients on eight different occasions during 1 year, as part of a clinical trial in patients with cartilage abnormalities and knee pain. In joint fluid, aggrecan fragments were quantified by dye precipitation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and matrix metalloproteinases-1 and -3, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 by sandwich ELISAs. In serum, keratan sulfate was quantified by ELISA. Type I collagen N-telopeptide cross-links in urine were determined by ELISA. RESULTS: The degree of cross-sectional variability in marker concentrations did not vary between the different sampling occasions, and did not differ between the periods of weeks 0 (baseline), 1-4 (treatment) and 13-26 (follow-up). Both between-patient and within-patient coefficients of variation varied for markers in different body fluid compartments, with the lowest variability for serum keratan sulfate, followed by urine type I collagen N-telopeptide crosslinks, and the highest for synovial fluid markers. For synovial fluid, aggrecan fragments showed the least variability, and matrix metalloproteinases the highest. One patient with septic arthritis showed a fivefold peak increase in joint fluid aggrecan fragment concentrations, while the concentration of matrix metalloproteinase-3 increased 100-fold. CONCLUSIONS: Molecular markers of joint tissue metabolism have been suggested as, for example, outcome measures for clinical trials of disease-modifying drugs in osteoarthritis. This report is the first to present data on between- and within-patient variability for such molecular markers in three different body fluid compartments in stable cohort of patients. The availability of such data enables calculations to determine the number of patients needed in prospective studies using these markers as outcome measures.  (+info)

IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha in synovial fluid of patients with non-gonococcal septic arthritis. (5/959)

Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are the main proinflammatory cytokines responsible for the inflammatory process and cartilage destruction of inflammatory arthropathies. The present study sequentially measured the concentrations of these cytokines and their proportions of detectable levels in the synovial fluid (SF) of 23 patients with non-gonococcal (GC) septic arthritis before and after treatment. Persistently high concentrations and proportions of IL-6 and TNF-alpha were found up to day 7 of treatment, while SF IL-1beta concentration declined significantly after day 7 (p = 0.036). SF IL-1beta and TNF-alpha correlated with each other significantly and with SF WBC counts (p < 0.01). Positive correlations between SF IL-1beta concentration and joint effusion (p < 0.01) and between SF TNF-alpha concentration and joint tenderness (p < 0.001) were observed. SF IL-1beta and TNF-alpha were significantly higher in patients with local complications of septic arthritis. In conclusion, high levels of IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha were detected in SF of patients with non-GC septic arthritis. Only IL-1beta decreased significantly after day 7 of treatment, but IL-6 and TNF-alpha concentrations were persistently high. SF IL-1beta and TNF-alpha may be useful in predicting the outcome and complications of patients with this disease.  (+info)

Slipped capital femoral epiphysis after septic arthritis of the hip in an adolescent: report of a case. (6/959)

Septic arthritis of the hip must be managed promptly to avoid the serious complications associated with the condition. In the case reported here, the diagnosis was delayed and was complicated by a slipped capital femoral epiphysis. The patient, an adolescent boy previously in good health, presented with a 2-week history of hip pain and systemic illness. Septic arthritis was diagnosed and was managed by incision and drainage and antibiotic therapy. Two weeks later he presented with a subcutaneous abscess and a slipped capital femoral epiphysis, which was pinned in situ. There was a 2.5-cm leg-length discrepancy. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head subsequently developed leaving the boy with a permanent disability.  (+info)

Gamma interferon and interleukin-10 gene expression in synovial tissues from patients with early stages of Chlamydia-associated arthritis and undifferentiated oligoarthritis and from healthy volunteers. (7/959)

Genetically determined differences in interleukin-10 (IL-10) and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) responses in mice correlate with clearance of Chlamydia pneumonitis infection. We measured the synovial expression of IL-10 and IFN-gamma and additional cytokine genes in patients who had recent-onset Chlamydia-associated arthritis (Chl-AA). IL-10 and IFN-gamma mRNA were relatively abundant in recent-onset Chl-AA.  (+info)

Development of lyme arthritis in mice deficient in inducible nitric oxide synthase. (8/959)

Nitric oxide (NO) is a powerful antimicrobial agent and an important regulatory molecule of the innate immune response. To determine if NO has a role in experimental Lyme disease, arthritis-resistant DBA/2J and arthritis-susceptible C3H/HeJ mice were bred to be genetically deficient for inducible NO synthase (iNOS). Following footpad injection of Borrelia burgdorferi, arthritis was similar between iNOS-deficient and control animals regardless of their genetic background. Histologic examination and arthritis severity scores of ankles revealed no differences in arthritis development between iNOS-deficient and control animals. Despite being deficient in a key antimicrobial agent, iNOS-deficient mice had tissue levels of B. burgdorferi similar to those in control mice. Thus, NO does not have a critical role in susceptibility to Lyme arthritis through tissue damage via an overexuberant inflammatory response, nor is it required in resistance through the clearance of spirochetes from tissues.  (+info)

... is a painful swelling in the joints caused by a bacterial, viral, or fungal infection. Infectious arthritis usually results from infectious organisms in the bloodstream travelling to and infecting a joint. Organisms can also enter the body through open wounds to reach a joint. Fungal infections develop more slowly and are typically less severe than bacterial infections.. Risk factors for infectious arthritis include having underlying health conditions that weaken the immune system, such as cancer, diabetes, and HIV/AIDS, or having joint damage. The elderly and very young are also at increased risk. Symptoms of infectious arthritis include severe pain in the affected joint or joints, fever, chills, impaired mobility, joint swelling, fatigue, and redness or warmth of the joint. Most often, only one joint is affected. The knee is the joint most frequently affected by infectious arthritis. Infectious arthritis is diagnosed by taking a sample of the joint fluid. This fluid will ...
Looking for online definition of acute bacterial arthritis in the Medical Dictionary? acute bacterial arthritis explanation free. What is acute bacterial arthritis? Meaning of acute bacterial arthritis medical term. What does acute bacterial arthritis mean?
In the current study, a three-stage procedure with BT was used to treat six patients with SCJ infectious arthritis. The infection was controlled and the wound healed after the SCJ debridement. Following the BT, the clavicle length was restored using distraction osteogenesis. The six patients then underwent tendon autograft reconstruction of the SCJ without internal fixation. The mean follow-up was 16 months. It was found that only three patients were positive for oxacillin-sensitive S. aureus preoperatively. This indicates that the SCJ infection might be caused by other organisms. More experiments would be needed to elucidate the etiology. The DASH scores decreased and the Constant scores improved remarkably after the surgery. All the patients were satisfied with the therapeutic effect. No complications occurred postoperatively. These results suggest that the three-stage procedure with BT is effective and safe for treating patients with SCJ infectious arthritis.. An increasing number of studies ...
Infectious Arthritis - Get information and read articles on Infectious Arthritis signs, symptoms, causes, treatment, prevention and diagnosis at onlymyhealth.com, your complete health guide.
Infectious arthritis is a condition in which the fluid and tissues of a joint become infected. The signs of infectious arthritis...
Infectious or septic arthritis is a bacterial infection of the joint. Learn why people get infectious arthritis, tests needed and how it is treated.
Infection occurs through the blood and lymph circulation. In the pathological process involved, usually large joints of the lower extremities. As a consequence there is septic arthritis knee, hip or ankle joint. The disease at a high temperature, the baby acute pain in the joints, which increases with movement. It is for this reason the child refuses to move, then to speak of «false paralysis». At high temperature there may be nausea and vomiting, drowsiness, or, conversely, hyperactivity of the child.. At first suspected septic arthritis should immediately consult the doctor and undergo appropriate testing. May need biopsy or synovial fluid analysis, ultrasonography and other clinical tests.. Important differential diagnosis, as infectious arthritis of different etiology has similar symptoms. It is especially difficult to diagnose an infant that is not walking, and therefore to evaluate the functional state of the joints is quite difficult. The correct diagnosis - a task that only an ...
Viral infections are responsible for approximately 1% of all cases of infectious arthritis. These infections include parvovirus B19, HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, hepatitis E, human T-lymphotrophic virus type-1, and arboviruses. Infectious arthritis can last for hours or days and is marked by pain, heat, rash, redness, and swelling. Some people, particularly the elderly, will experience fever and chills. Most infectious arthritis cases involve only one joint and more than half of these affect the knee. It can also affect the wrists, ankles, shoulders, hips, and spine.. According to Everyday Health, infectious arthritis occurs when germs invade the joint due to:. ...
Animal models, which mimic human disease, are invaluable tools for understanding the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis and development of treatment strategies. In particular, animal models play important roles in the area of infectious arthritis. Alphaviruses, including Ross River virus (RRV), onyong-nyong virus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV), mayaro virus, Semliki Forest virus and sindbis virus, are globally distributed and cause transient illness characterized by fever, rash, myalgia, arthralgia and arthritis in humans. Severe forms of the disease result in chronic incapacitating arthralgia and arthritis. The mechanisms of how these viruses cause musculoskeletal disease are ill defined. In recent years, the use of a mouse model for RRV-induced disease has assisted in unraveling the pathobiology of infection and in discovering novel drugs to ameliorate disease. RRV as an infection model has the potential to provide key insights into such disease processes, particularly as many viruses, other than ...
If your physician suspects that you may have an infectious arthritic joint they will require a sample of the fluid which is removed with a sterile needle as soon as possible.. This fluid will be examined for white blood cells as well as cultured for bacteria and other organisms. In this way the doctor can recommend a treatment protocol which is specifically aimed at the organisms which are causing your infection.. Doctors will usually order blood tests as well to determine whether or not the individual also has it in their bloodstream. Sputum culture, spinal fluid culture and urine culture may also be collected looking for bacteria in order to determine the source of the infection.. The physician may or may not want x-rays of the involved joint because they are not diagnostic of an acute infection. However they can also pick up other conditions that are under consideration, such as fractures.. Any abnormalities in the early stages of infectious arthritis are limited to the soft tissue will not ...
Nongonococcal infectious arthritis is an acute or subacute illness with potentially significant morbidity and mortality. It can be caused by bacteria, mycobacteria, or fungi.
Infectious arthritis usually requires immediate treatment with antibiotics, which can often improve symptoms within 48 hours. However, certain infections caused by fungi need treatment with antifungal medications, while viral infections usually have to run their course without treatment. To prevent accumulation of pus from the infection, which can damage the joint, the pus may be drained with a needle, tube, or surgery. Other treatment may include:. ...
Infectious arthritis usually requires immediate treatment with antibiotics, which can often improve symptoms within 48 hours. However, certain infections caused by fungi need treatment with antifungal medications, while viral infections usually have to run their course without treatment. To prevent accumulation of pus from the infection, which can damage the joint, the pus may be drained with a needle, tube, or surgery. Other treatment may include:. ...
Viral infections are responsible for approximately 1% of all cases of infectious arthritis, which can be caused by mosquito bites, infections, and injuries.
There is no single test that can confirm a diagnosis of infectious arthritis. As explained in this eMedTV resource, however, imaging tests, synovial fluid testing, and other tests can be helpful for doctors when considering this condition.
Madoff LC. Madoff L.C. Madoff, Lawrence C.Chapter 334. Infectious Arthritis. In: Longo DL, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Jameson J, Loscalzo J. Longo D.L., Fauci A.S., Kasper D.L., Hauser S.L., Jameson J, Loscalzo J Eds. Dan L. Longo, et al.eds. Harrisons Principles of Internal Medicine, 18e New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2012. http://accesspharmacy.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=331§ionid=40727137. Accessed February 19, 2018 ...
Results The study population had an average age of 49 SD 6.9 years and 29/39 were male. Average time from onset of symptoms was 4 SD 0.7 days. Final clinical diagnoses (well documented and confirmed by bacteriology results and/or by the finding of intracellular crystals) were: 9 infectious arthritis, 28 gouty arthritis and 2 who had both of them simultaneously. Age, sex, time from onset of symptoms and CRP, ESR and white cell recount in peripheral blood did not differ significantly between the three groups. The SF white cell recount was similar among three groups. PCT average determination for the three groups was: 2.01 SD 0.4, 0.63 SD 0.2 and 2.51 SD 0.9 (infectious arthritis, gouty arthritis and both simultaneous, respectively ). The difference between PCT measure in the first two groups was statistically significant (p ,0.01). It was determined by an ROC curve that a determination of PCT higher or equal than 1.475 established the diagnosis of infectious arthritis with a sensitivity of 100% ...
Septic arthritis can cause joint damage. If your childs growth plate was affected, this may cause an arm or leg to not grow to the full adult length. The growth plate is the part of the bone where new bone is created. This area of the bone helps determine its final adult length. Make sure to follow up with your childs healthcare provider to prevent long-term problems. ...
Are you looking for bacterial or septic arthritis treatment for your children? Visit kasturi hospitals in Hyderabad who has the best pediatric orthopedists.
Does weather affect arthritis? Why does arthritis facts canada weight benefits training moisture or humidity affect arthritis? What is psoriasis arthritis? designed best for a plant predominant diet Rheumatology University Of Arizona Arthritis Center. Arthritis Diet In Ayurveda Wine Vinegar fAQ about total joint replacement. eHow UK Health Yoga Exercises Arthritis Diet In Ayurveda Wine Vinegar for Arthritis Swollen Lymph Nodes and doesnt get at the cause of the changes in the lymph nodes. Restricted Foods: all Dr. Pure & Therapeutic Essential Oils : This oil is Therapeutic Grade. WHAT IS INFECTIOUS ARTHRITIS? Infectious arthritis is a form of joint inflammation caused by a germ.. Fresh vegetable juice (carrots plus additional a free prescription diet may be instituted if anemia psoriatic arthritis treatment and other areas Mayo Clinic notes that many cats actually like it. The basic X-ray is used to in cases where pain is too grave to exercise on both mixed knee and hip Osteoarthritis and on ...
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This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Septic Joint, Septic Arthritis, Infectious Arthritis, Pyogenic Arthritis, Suppurative Arthritis, Prosthetic Joint Infection, Infected Joint Replacement, Bacterial Arthritis.
Infection complicates 1-4% of total joint replacements. The majority of infections are acquired intraoperatively or immediately postoperatively as a result of wound breakdown or infection; less commonly, these joint infections develop later after joint replacement and are the result of hematogenous spread or direct inoculation. The presentation may be acute, with fever, pain, and local signs of inflammation, especially in infections due to S. aureus, pyogenic streptococci, and enteric bacilli. Alternatively, infection may persist for months or years without causing constitutional symptoms when less virulent organisms, such as coagulase-negative staphylococci or diphtheroids, are involved. Such indolent infections usually are acquired during joint implantation and are discovered during evaluation of chronic unexplained pain or after a radiograph shows loosening of the prosthesis; the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and ...
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Objective. To assess the outcome and adverse prognostic factors of bacterial arthritis BA. Methods. In a prospective community survey of BA, data were collected at the time of diagnosis and at a mean of 2 years later. A poor patient outcome was defined as death due to BA or severe overall functional deterioration. A poor joint outcome was...
Acute septic arthritis of childhood is a potentially devastating disease that causes permanent disability and can result in death. Traditional treatment consists of a prolonged course of intravenous antibiotics combined with aggressive surgery. However, this approach is challenged by trials showing satisfactory outcomes with shorter treatment and less invasive surgery. Diagnostic arthrocentesis alone and an antibiotic for a fortnight, including initial intravenous administration for 2-4 days, suffice in most non-neonatal cases. A good penetrating agent, such as clindamycin or a first-generation cephalosporin, exceptionally high doses, and administration four times a day are probably key factors. If the symptoms and signs subside within a few days, and the serum C-reactive protein level drops below 20 mg/l, the antibiotic can usually be safely discontinued. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a concern, but fortunately, most strains have retained susceptibility to clindamycin. The ...
In the past few years, the idea that gonococcal arthritis has become a rarity and that only young women and homosexual males are affected has been quite generally accepted. At the University of Illinois Research and Educational Hospitals and the Veterans Administration Westside Hospital, in the past eight years 28 patients with proven or presumptive gonococcal arthritis have been studied. These patients had acute arthritis, of recent onset, which was frequently considered to be acute rheumatic fever. The chronic and destructive type of arthritis previously identified with a gonococcal infection was not seen.. All 18 of the University of Illinois ...
Not everyone will get arthritis, but those who do will experience joint pain, swelling, stiffness, loss of motion and an impact on their activities of daily living. Orthopedic surgeon, Dr. Bradley Fink, says arthritis is a disease of the joints, cartilage and tissues surrounding the joints. There are different types arthritis, including metabolic/inflammatory arthritis such as rheumatoid and gout, non-inflammatory arthritis such as degenerative arthritis, post infectious arthritis and post traumatic arthritis.. Dr. Fink says many patients respond well to anti-inflammatory medications, corticosteroid and hylauronic acid injections, bracing, and physical therapy. Patients can also try using a cane, crutch or walker to relieve pressure from the affected joint. If all else fails, surgery may be an option. He adds that there are many procedures available which can help. The procedure of choice depends on the type and location of the arthritis, physical demands of the patient and severity of the ...
viral prodrome is the underlying cause for the viral arthritis. In US most of the patients present with viral Arthritis. Generally symmetrical small joints are involved in viral arthritis. Rarely different patterns of joint and soft-tissue with different viral infections may occurs ...
Arthritis types are rheumatoid arthritis, gout, infectious arthritis,reactive arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and check more to know about treatment options in
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1. Histological examination of sections of the eyes and joints of large numbers of rabbits injected with hemolytic streptococci has clearly demonstrated that when arthritis or cyclitis occurs, the synovial villi and ciliary processes are the most frequent and usually the primary sites of inflammation.. 2. By special methods for demonstration of bacteria, it has been shown that bacteria which found lodgement in either an eye or a joint were demonstrable first in the vessels of ciliary processes or synovial villi.. 3. A localized synovitis or iridocyclitis is brought about by the localization of bacteria in the synovial villus and ciliary process.. 4. These experiments, which give a clearer insight into the pathogenesis of infectious arthritis and iritis, explain why both may occur in association with certain infectious diseases.. ...
Q: What are some of the most common conditions that you see in your office today?. Dr. Cohen: In my clinical practice, I see people who have a wide variety of autoimmune diseases, including lupus, multiple sclerosis (MS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), infectious arthritis, and osteoarthritis, as well as people suffering from conditions caused by various environmental chemical exposures, which is a specific area of interest of mine. During my 15 years of practice, I have witnessed what appears to be an overall increase in autoimmune diseases, not just because of better diagnostic capabilities by physicians, but also because there is a general ongoing increase in autoimmune diseases.1 There are currently about 80 specific autoimmune diseases, which include rheumatic diseases as well as autoimmune diseases of the gastrointestinal (GI) system, and endocrine autoimmune diseases such as with clinical and subclinical thyroid disease. As many as 9% of the U.S. population suffers from one of these ...
TMJ disorder is common and can be very disabling to the patient. It can be caused by osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, infectious arthritis and others.
Joint pain in fingers and toes - Infectious Arthritis Guide: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment Options. Joint Advance is a natural formula designed to shield your joints from the trials and results of working hard and playing hard.
Shigellosis is a type of diarrhea caused by a bacterial infection with Shigella. Symptoms generally start one to two days after exposure and include diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, and pain with passing stool. Blood may be present in the stool. Symptoms typically last five to seven days. Complications can include post infectious arthritis, sepsis, seizures, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Shigellosis is caused by four specific types of Shigella. These are typically spread by exposure to infected feces. This can occur via contaminated food, water, or hands. Contamination may be spread by flies or when changing diapers. Diagnosis is by stool culture. Prevention is by properly washing the hands. There is no vaccine. Shigellosis usually resolves without specific treatment. Sufficient fluids by mouth and rest is recommended. Bismuth subsalicylate may help with the symptoms; however, medications that slow the bowels such as loperamide are not recommended. In severe cases antibiotics may be used but ...
Physician assistants and nurse practitioners use Clinical Advisor for updated medical guidance to diagnose and treat common medical conditions in daily practice.
Acute-onset arthritis is a common clinical problem facing both the general clinician and the rheumatologist. A viral aetiology is though to be responsible for approximately 1% of all cases of acute arthritis with a wide range of causal agents recognised. The epidemiology of acute viral arthritis continues to evolve, with some aetiologies, such as rubella, becoming less common due to vaccination, while some vector-borne viruses have become more widespread. A travel history therefore forms an important part of the assessment of patients presenting with an acute arthritis. Worldwide, parvovirus B19, hepatitis B and C, HIV and the alphaviruses are among the most important causes of virally mediated arthritis. Targeted serological testing may be of value in establishing a diagnosis, and clinicians must also be aware that low-titre autoantibodies, such as rheumatoid factor and antinuclear antibody, can occur in the context of acute viral arthritis. A careful consideration of epidemiological, clinical ...
Infections of the joint are most commonly bacterial but may be caused by an array of organisms (i.e., fungal or viral). The term septic arthritis encompasses bacterial arthritis, pyogenic arthritis, suppurative arthritis, purulent arthritis, and pyarthrosis. It occurs most commonly in childhood; children younger than 3 years are affected most frequently. Boys are affected more often than girls (male-to-female ratio of 1.2-2:1). Infections of the knee, hip, and ankle account for at least 80% of cases, with the hip and knee most commonly affected. Early diagnosis and treatment of a septic hip is essential in preserving function. Delay in treatment increases the risk of complications, including osteonecrosis of the capital femoral epiphysis, osteomyelitis, chondrolysis, systemic sepsis, and secondary osteoarthritis.1 ...
Abstract Introduction Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of bacterial arthritis, which is associated with progressive bone loss in affected joints. We recently showed that S. aureus infection also induces a significant systemic bone loss in mice. This study was performed to assess the effect of estradiol treatment on the clinical course and outcome of S. aureus arthritis and on infection-induced bone loss in experimental S. aureus infection. Methods Mice were ovariectomized, treated with estradiol or placebo, and S. aureus infection was established by intravenous inoculation of bacteria. Results Estradiol treatment was found to decrease significantly the frequency and clinical severity of S. aureus arthritis, a finding that was accompanied with significantly higher serum levels of interleukin-10 in estradiol-treated mice. Estradiol was also highly protective against S. aureus-induced systemic trabecular, and cortical bone loss. Lack of endogenous estrogens and S. aureus infection had ...
Pyogenic arthritis is a septic condition of a joint. As in acute osteomyelitis, acute pyarthrosis may result from a hematogenous spread of bacteria with direct
A 43‐year‐old female was admitted to our hosipital experiencing fever, cough, dyspnea, generalized lymphadenopathy and weight loss. She had been examined previously in another hospital and subsequently treated for community acquired pneumonia for 5 weeks. Her past medical history included repeated episodes of pneumonia treated with antibiotics, with the last episode being one and a half years prior to admission and bacterial arthritis of right knee secondary to Mycobacterium abscessus treated by surgically one year prior to admission.On admission, laboratory data revealed severe anemia, thrombocytopenia and elevated level of soluble interleukin‐2 receptor. Computed tomography showed right lober pneumonia, generalized lymphadenopathy involving the mediastinum and the intraperitoneal space, along with hepatosplenomegaly. Infection resulting from an underlying hematologic disease was strongly suspected. The patient underwent bone marrow biopsy, but the result was unrevealing. Mycobacterium ...
Septic arthritis of the hip in children is a painful joint condition caused by a bacterial infection. Septic arthritis of the hip can occur at any age from newborn to older child.
septic arthritis: Acute inflammation of one or more joints caused by infection.In septic arthritis the joints are swollen, hot, sore, and pus-filled; the condition may occur following infection...
Background is the most common agent of septic joint disease that is clearly a severe, intensifying and damaging osteo-arthritis rapidly. triggered with the ATCC 19095 SEC+ stress was 89-25-8 IC50 seen as a accentuated synovial hyperplasia, irritation, pannus development, cartilage devastation and bone tissue erosion. Equivalent joint alterations had been within N315 ST5 TSST-1+ contaminated mice, these were strikingly more 89-25-8 IC50 discrete however. Just minimal synovial inflammation and proliferation were triggered with the S-70 TSST-1+ strain. The best 89-25-8 IC50 degrees of TNF-, IL-6 and IL-17 creation in response to arousal had been found in civilizations from mice contaminated with the much less arthritogenic strains (S-70 TSST-1+ and ATCC 51650 TSST-1+). The best creation of IL-17 was discovered in mice contaminated with arthritogenic strains (ATCC 19095 SEC+ and N315 ST5 TSST-1+). Conclusions these outcomes showed that strains Jointly, isolated from natural samples, could actually ...
A 70-year-old woman with a history of medial femoro-tibial compartment of knee osteoarthritis was admitted for acute arthritis six days after a second intra-articular injection of Hyaluronic acid. The joint fluid was inflammatory, with no crystals, and laboratory tests showed marked inflammation leading to antibiotic treatment for suspected septic arthritis. The persistent symptoms and negative results of joint fluid and blood cultures led to discontinuation of the antibiotic therapy after 10 days. Anti-inflammatory with rehabilitation therapy of the knee relieved the symptoms, and the patient was discharged home 3 weeks after her admission. Aseptic arthritis induced by repeated Hyaluronic acid injection is the most likely diagnosis. Physicians should be conscious of this extremely severe complication.
Background Septic arthritis is a rather rare but important disease characterized by inflammation of a synovial membrane with purulent effusion into the joint capsule, usually due to bacterial infection. It typically affects monoarticular joints.
Diagnosis Code M00.269 information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, diagnostic related groups, ICD-9 conversion and references to the diseases index.
Diagnosis Code M00.072 information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, diagnostic related groups, ICD-9 conversion and references to the diseases index.
Free, official coding info for 2020 ICD-10-CM M00.079 - includes detailed rules, notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index and annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
CONCLUSION: Gram-negative and resistant strains are becoming more important as an aetiological agent in adult septic arthritis. The current use of cloxacillin as empiric antibiotic therapy only covers 32% of all isolates in our setting. Based on these findings, use of co-amoxyclav as empiric antibiotic will increase the cover to 46%. The emergence of resistant strains remains a challenge, as evidenced by this study. Patients not responding to initial empiric therapy should be considered for early use of extended spectrum antimicrobials.. ...
Information on septic arthritis an infectious disease of the joints. Learn the causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment from St. Louis Childrens Hospital.
Septic arthritis (SA) in the United States has an annual incidence of 10 per 100,000.{ref1} It is more prevalent in patients who are elderly (80 years or older), have prosthetic jo... more
Septic arthritis is an important concern for rheumatologists in the evaluation of joint disease. The incidence of these infections is estimated at 4-10 cases per 100,000 patient-years, and the mortality rate ranges between 4% and 50%1,2. Management of septic arthritis remains a challenge because inappropriate treatment can lead to irreversible joint destruction. Over the past decade, the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacilli (GNB), has increased in the United States. More recently, S. aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin has been reported3,4. There are only limited data that describe the incidence and outcomes of patients with septic arthritis caused by S. aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin or MDR GNB. The objective of our study was to investigate the trends of causative pathogens, antibiotic susceptibility, and characteristics of patients with ...
A 50 year old postmenopausal woman presents with a red, swollen left knee which is painful to touch. There was no history of fever, rash, diarrhea, uveitis, prior knee swelling, antecedent trauma, knee surgery, or risky sexual behavior. She was diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis 2 years ago, and is on long-term low dose corticosteroid therapy ...
Verdrengh, M et al "Role of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 in pathogenesis of staphylococcal arthritis and in host defense against staphylococcal bacteremia.." Infection and Immunity 64.7 (1996): 2804-2807. Web. 29 Mar. 2020. ...
From the evidence, sensitivity and specificity can neither rule out or rule in SA (Margaretten, Li 2004). The value at which these statistical tests have been based is not always noted and comparable among different subsets of patients studied. Although it seems that the likelihood ratio becomes more valuable diagnostically as the WBC increases, and in particular the polymorphonuclear cells, a cutoff value is what would be most use. The best evidence that involves receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis suggests that a value between 1500 and 2000 cells/mm3, namely polymorphonuclear cells, seems to be associated with maximum sensitivity (83%) and specificity (60 67%). This still may not be applicable to all patient groups, ie, immunocompromised (McCutchan). According to the area under the curve (AUC) ROC, WBC of the joint aspirate (jWBC) was considered fair, good and the best diagnostic test, ahead of WBC and ESR (Li, 2007). The combined sensitivity of jWBC, ESR and WBC is 100% despite ...
From your brief history describing the symptoms, you may have a joint pain condition known as septic arthritis. Septic arthritis is inflammation of
Infectious Disease Advisor is used by specialists and other medical professionals to help understand and treat infectious diseases. Latest news, research and treatment articles.
The disease-gene associations are derived from automatic text mining of the biomedical literature, manually curated database annotations, cancer mutation data, and genome-wide association studies. The confidence of each association is signified by stars, where ★★★★★ is the highest confidence and ★☆☆☆☆ is the lowest.. Developed by Sune Frankild, Albert Pallejà, Kalliopi Tsafou, and Lars Juhl Jensen from the Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research.. ...
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ABSTRACT: A 55-year-old man presented with a painless destruction of multiple joints and neurologic deficits. He was admitted with a painless pyogenic arthritis of the right ankle. Four years earlier, he had experienced instability of the right knee
Fluid accumulated in the knee of a patient causes pain in the joints. Joint aspiration is a procedure that is conducted to remove this fluid from the knee of the patient. It is usually conducted in patients suffering from arthritis.
... is a procedure to remove fluid from the space around a joint using a needle and syringe. It may be done to relieve swelling and/or to obtain fluid for analysis to diagnose a joint disorder and/or problem.
Care guide for Joint Aspiration. Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means of care and support.
A joint infection, or septic arthritis, is the inflammation of an affected joint as the body responds to an infection. Joint infections typically affect large joints in the body such as the knee or hip, however, in some instances the infection may affect several joints. If youre experiencing pain after a hip or knee surgery, you may have an infection.. ...
0138] An "autoimmune disease" herein is a disease or disorder arising from and directed against an individuals own tissues or a co-segregate or manifestation thereof or resulting condition therefrom. Examples of autoimmune diseases or disorders include, but are not limited to arthritis (rheumatoid arthritis such as acute arthritis, chronic rheumatoid arthritis, gouty arthritis, acute gouty arthritis, chronic inflammatory arthritis, degenerative arthritis, infectious arthritis, Lyme arthritis, proliferative arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, vertebral arthritis, and juvenile-onset rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, arthritis chronica progrediente, arthritis deformans, polyarthritis chronica primaria, reactive arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis), inflammatory hyperproliferative skin diseases, psoriasis such as plaque psoriasis, gutatte psoriasis, pustular psoriasis, and psoriasis of the nails, dermatitis including contact dermatitis, chronic contact dermatitis, allergic dermatitis, allergic ...
Prior to March, 1932, only symptomatic measures were available for the treatment of gonococcal arthritis. At that time, it was observed during a course of fever therapy for syphilis that the gonococcal arthritis also present had improved.1 Further studies confirmed this original observation and fever became the accepted form of therapy. Several years later the sulfonamides were introduced and most recently penicillin became available. Since these three methods of treatment have received extensive trial at the Gallinger Municipal Hospital, it appeared worthwhile to review these cases. They have been analyzed in the present paper, with particular reference to the efficacy ...
Streptococcus dysgalactiae is a gram positive, beta-haemolytic, coccal bacterium belonging to the family Streptococcaceae. It is capable of infecting both humans and animals, but is most frequently encountered as a commensal of the alimentary tract, genital tract, or less commonly, as a part of the skin flora. The clinical manifestations in human disease range from superficial skin-infections and tonsillitis, to severe necrotising fasciitis and bacteraemia. The incidence of invasive disease has been reported to be rising. Several different animal species are susceptible to infection by S.dysgalactiae, but bovine mastitis and infectious arthritis in lambs (joint ill) have been most frequently reported. Streptococcus dysgalactiae is currently divided into the subspecies Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE) and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies dysgalactiae (SDSD); the former mostly associated with human disease, and the latter almost exclusively encountered in veterinary ...
1. Kaandorp CJ, Krijnen P, Moens HJ, Habbema JD, van Schaardenburg D. The outcome of bacterial arthritis: a prospective community-based study. Arthritis Rheum. 1997;40:884-92 2. Kaandorp CJ, van Schaardenburg D, Krijnen P, Habbema JD, van de Laar MA. Risk factors for septic arthritis in patients with joint disease. A prospective study. Arthritis Rheum. 1995;38:1819-25 3. Shirtliff ME, Mader JT. Acute septic arthritis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2002;15:527-44 4. Herrmann M, Vaudaux PE, Pittet D, Auckenthaler R, Lew PD, Schumacher-Perdreau F, Peters G, Waldvogel FA. Fibronectin, fibrinogen, and laminin act as mediators of adherence of clinical staphylococcal isolates to foreign material. J Infect Dis. 1988;158:693-701 5. McGavin MH, Krajewska-Pietrasik D, Rydén C, Höök M. Identification of a Staphylococcus aureus extracellular matrix-binding protein with broad specificity. Infect Immun. 1993;61:2479-85 6. Lopes JD, dos Reis M, Brentani RR. Presence of laminin receptors in Staphylococcus aureus. ...
Rheumatoid Arthritis; Osteoarthritis; Juvenile Arthritis; Other Types of Arthritis; Arthritis Pain; previous joint injury overuse of the joint weak thigh muscles and genetics. Arthritis Due To Excess Levels Of Uric Acid In Blood Joint Medicine Pain Clinic Mayo has served a variety of purposes including topical use for joint or musculoskeletal pain. administering a child care center syllabus.. Basically everything I like to do in focusing on the ACL injury as well as the other knee where I have quite a bit of arthritis. Home , Heel Pain , Stress Fractures. Includes back pain articles and tips for reducing pain. Rheumatoid arthritis can be a difficult disease to parvovirus reactive arthritis treating fingers diagnose infection including rheumatic fever Lyme disease fungal arthritis Fifth disease tuberculosis Other spondyloarthropathies include psoriatic arthritis rheumatoid arthritis and gum disease nursing reactive arthritis ucellar spondylitis enteropathic arthritis and sacroiliitis8. Defining ...
Acute hematogenous bone and joint infections, septic arthritis, and osteomyelitis with or without adjacent septic arthritis, are rare among children in a standard Western setting, but still potentially devastating diseases, as even deaths have been reported recently. Foir this reason, and in part due to historical reasons, the treatment has comprised of months-long courses of antibiotics, started intravenously for at least a week, and aggressive surgery. Recent prospective and randomized trials have shown that a 2-4-day parenteral course, completed orally to a total duration of 10-14 days for septic arthritis and of 3 weeks for osteomyelitis, heals the great majority of cases, provided large-enough doses of a well-absorbing antibiotic, and a four-times-daily (qid) regimen is used. Staphylococcus aureus - the most common causative agent in osteoarticular infections - is the primary target for treatment. For methicillin-susceptible strains, first-generation cephalosporins, clindamycin, and ...
We introduced criteria for the clinical diagnosis of dialysis-related amyloidosis (DRA) from the Amyloidosis Research Group study supported by a Grant-in-Aid from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. DRA exhibits various kinds of bone articular lesions, such as carpal tunnel syndrome, trigger finger, destructive spondyloarthropathy, spinal canal stenosis, and joint pains. These bone articular lesions, excluding destructive spondyloarthropathy, are observed in non-dialysis patients or dialysis patients without DRA. We carefully compared these lesions between DRA and non-DRA patients and summarized the differences between them. The incidence age, male to female ratio, and coincidence rate were distinct between these groups of patients. Biopsies from bone articular lesions are invasive and burdensome for dialysis patients; therefore, a precise clinical diagnosis is required for DRA. We discussed the validity and availability of our proposed criteria.
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A Devasting Course of an Iliopsoas Muscle Abscess Subsequently Leading to Septic Shock, Septic Hip Arthritis, and Extended Gluteal Soft Tissue Necroses in an Elderly Immunocompromised Patient with Multiple Carcinomas: A Case Report and Brief Review of Literature
Aim - To highlight the 2.6 years follow up of reconstruction of Sequelae of Septic Arthritis of six Paediatric Hips Background- The Sequelae of paediatric hip septic arthritis is complex and diverse. The ultimate purpose of the management of these Sequelae is to provide a stable hip with minimum loss of movements.. Material & Methods: Case Reports - All six cases were male (average age 6.3 years) with definite past history suggestive of infective pathology of hips during infancy. All were treated earlier with incision drainage of abscess around affected hips. All were presented with difficulty in walking with limb shortening. Radiologically, all were Choi Type III B or Forlin Milani type 2A. After initial tibial skeletal traction for mean 2.3 weeks, Y - osteotomy of proximal femur was performed with fixation of remnant of head located in acetabulum with medial arm of this Y by K- wire with POP hip spica for 12 weeks.. Results: Average follow up was 3.6 years. Average preop shortening was 2.7 cm ...
Such as, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gonococcal arthritis, viral arthritis and many other types. ... It is completely different from the less common rheumatoid arthritis, which is an inflammatory arthritis in which the bodys immune system attacks its own tissues, causing inflammation. ... Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease, meaning that its a condition that is continuous or persistent over an extended period of time. ... The cause of rheumatoid arthritis or (RA) is still unknown. ... Joint involvement in rheumatoid arthritis usually affects both sid.... ...
A 14-year-old boy presented to another hospital with a clinical picture of septic arthritis. After aspiration of purulent material from the joint, empiric antibiotic treatment was initiated and an arthrotomy was performed. Antibiotic treatment was then modified to nafcillin according to microbiological sensitivity results of the isolated Staphylococcus aureus as determined by minimal inhibitory concentration testing. One week later purulent drainage recurred and open drainage had to be repeated; an abscess anterior to the joint was noted. Once again the infection failed to resolve, and the patient was transferred to our institution where a third arthrotomy had to be performed. The organism isolated at the first aspiration was reexamined and found to have a minimal bactericidal concentration to minimal inhibitory concentration ratio of 32, implying a tolerant organism. The antibiotic treatment was modified to an antibiotic not subject to the tolerance phenomenon, and the infection resolved without
Free, official info about 2015 ICD-9-CM diagnosis code 711.0. Includes coding notes, detailed descriptions, index cross-references and ICD-10-CM conversion info.
Q: My left knee started to swell up and hurt, and my doctor said it was some kind of arthritis and he gave me an antibiotic. What can cause this?A: Arthritis is an inflammation of one or more joints. Monoarticular arthritis (MAA) involves only one joint; polyarthritis more than one joint. Although many things can cause either MAA or polyarthritis, certain underlying conditions may be more likely in one or the other. Today I will focus on MAA.There are many possible causes of acute MAA. These
Q: My left knee started to swell up and hurt, and my doctor said it was some kind of arthritis and he gave me an antibiotic. What can cause this?A: Arthritis is an inflammation of one or more joints. Monoarticular arthritis (MAA) involves only one joint; polyarthritis more than one joint. Although many things can cause either MAA or polyarthritis, certain underlying conditions may be more likely in one or the other. Today I will focus on MAA.There are many possible causes of acute MAA. These
Q: My left knee started to swell up and hurt, and my doctor said it was some kind of arthritis and he gave me an antibiotic. What can cause this?A: Arthritis is an inflammation of one or more joints. Monoarticular arthritis (MAA) involves only one joint; polyarthritis more than one joint. Although many things can cause either MAA or polyarthritis, certain underlying conditions may be more likely in one or the other. Today I will focus on MAA.There are many possible causes of acute MAA. These
Q: My left knee started to swell up and hurt, and my doctor said it was some kind of arthritis and he gave me an antibiotic. What can cause this?A: Arthritis is an inflammation of one or more joints. Monoarticular arthritis (MAA) involves only one joint; polyarthritis more than one joint. Although many things can cause either MAA or polyarthritis, certain underlying conditions may be more likely in one or the other. Today I will focus on MAA.There are many possible causes of acute MAA. These
Arthroscopy has been used routinely for the diagnosis and irrigation of septic arthritis of the knee and other joints, and had become the gold standard of care, offering visualisation washout and adequate debridement of the whole joint. Used routinely in the knee, shoulder, elbow and ankle, it strikes us as odd that it isnt standard of care in the adult hip at least. Although arthroscopy has been used in childhood knee septic arthritis (SA), it has not replaced open arthrotomy in the treatment of childhood hip SA, mostly due to the requirement for traction and utilisation of lateral-sided portals. This makes standard hip arthroscopy difficult to perform in children. Previous authors have described single portal techniques without traction, but there are obvious advantages to washing out a joint with dual portals. These authors from San Diego, California (USA) describe a medial-based portal and assessed its safety and efficacy in accessing the hip joint in children.1 The structures at risk ...
Doses provided in this table are for patients with normal renal and hepatic function. Click on drug link to go to dosing guidelines. Some antimicrobials are restricted (ID-R). Click on link for guidelines on obtaining authorization.. ...
... are a very important part of pain management for anybody with arthritis in the hips. It is also probably the best way to limit the devel(...)
Pain management information for pain medicine healthcare professionals in treating and caring for their patients. Clinical Pain Advisor offers news, case studies and more.
Pain management information for pain medicine healthcare professionals in treating and caring for their patients. Clinical Pain Advisor offers news, case studies and more.
Septic Arthritis, It can be difficult to tell the difference between a flare-up of non-infective arthritis and infective (septic) arthritis. As a rule, if you already have ... ...
Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world. The Merck Veterinary Manual was first published in 1955 as a service to the community. The legacy of this great resource continues as the Merck Veterinary Manual in the US and Canada and the MSD Manual outside of North America.. ...
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Die Universität zu Köln ist eine Exzellenzuniversität mit dem klassischen Fächerspektrum einer Volluniversität. Als eine der größen Hochschulen Europas arbeitet sie in Forschung und Lehre auch international auf höchstem Niveau.
Septic arthritis is treated with antibiotics. Youll normally need to stay in hospital for at least two weeks to have antibiotics given to you directly into a vein (intravenously). You may need to rest in bed for a few days to take pressure off the affected joint. Youll be given medication to relieve the pain.. You might also have the fluid drained from your infected joint using a needle and syringe, or during a procedure called an arthroscopy.. This is where a fine, metal tube is inserted through a small cut made near the affected joint. This will normally be done by an orthopaedic surgeon.. After you finish the course of intravenous antibiotics, youll probably need to take antibiotic tablets at home for at least another four weeks.. You should completely recover after antibiotic treatment, although some people still experience persistent limited movement in the affected joint.. ...
Septic arthritis is treated with antibiotics. Youll normally need to stay in hospital for at least two weeks to have antibiotics given to you directly into a vein (intravenously). You may need to rest in bed for a few days to take pressure off the affected joint. Youll be given medication to relieve the pain.. You might also have the fluid drained from your infected joint using a needle and syringe, or during a procedure called an arthroscopy.. This is where a fine, metal tube is inserted through a small cut made near the affected joint. This will normally be done by an orthopaedic surgeon.. After you finish the course of intravenous antibiotics, youll probably need to take antibiotic tablets at home for at least another four weeks.. You should completely recover after antibiotic treatment, although some people still experience persistent limited movement in the affected joint.. ...
Reactive arthritis information including symptoms, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, treatment, causes, patient stories, videos, forums, prevention, and prognosis.
Caring for a child with an osteoarticular infection or considering the possibility of an osteoarticular infection in a child is one of the most common clinical dilemmas encountered by clinicians caring for children. In such a scenario, one most often considers infection with frequently encountered pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae or Kingella kingae. A large variety of opportunistic osteoarticular pathogens may be found in the immunosuppressed patient or the postoperative or post-trauma patient, due to breaches in the immune system and nosocomial or post-traumatic exposure to multiple organisms. However, an enlarging spectrum of less commonly encountered bacterial pathogens is also increasingly appreciated in community-acquired osteoarticular infections in otherwise healthy children, particularly in this era of pneumococcal and Haemophilus influenzae serotype B immunization. Given the limitations of culture-based detection methods in ...
This article describes the first reported outbreak of invasive K kingae disease. The high incidence of colonization and invasive disease in the affected toddler 1 classroom and the indistinguishable PFGE pattern of the isolates within the outbreak child care center are consistent with child-to-child transmission, which may include direct person-to-person and/or fomite transmission.. Invasive infections in young children are frequently caused by pathogens that are carried asymptomatically in the oropharynx, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseriameningitidis; K kingae seems to behave similarly. Although K kingae is a common colonizer, it is identified only occasionally as a cause of invasive disease, primarily osteomyelitis or acute monoarticular septic arthritis (65-75% of cases) in young children, bacteremia (20-30% of cases) in infants 6 to 12 months of age, and endocarditis in all ages, especially in those with preexisting structural defects.5-25 Diskitis, ...
Background: Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by a Gram negative rod named after Bruce in 1887. It is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution. In Saudi Arabia, the prevalence is high and is attributed to widespread animal husbandry and to the traditional drinking of raw milk. Shoulder brucellosis commonly seen in old population. We have recently treated an old patient diagnosed with brucellosis, who was seen with clinical, radioisotopic, microbiologic, and surgical evidence of shoulder septic arthritis, a rare site of Brucella involvement. Case presentation: A 75 year old male presented with history of fever for the past 10 days with associated right shoulder pain. He was admitted under internal medicine for further investigations for fever of unknown origin. Right shoulder pain was described as generalized dull ache of with gradual onset .Patient Denied any contact with any sheep, animal urine or dairy products, there was no obvious source of ongoing infection and no history of recent ...
The Autoinflammatory Alliance is a non-profit dedicated to increasing awareness, care and treatment for patients with Cryopyrin-Associated Periodic Syndromes, including: NOMID/CINCA, Muckle-Wells (MWS) Familial Cold Autoinflammatory Syndromes (FCAS), and other autoinflammatory diseases.
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Visna virus of sheep and arthritis-encephalitis virus of goats are serologically related but genetically distinct retroviruses which cause slowly progressive diseases in their natural hosts. To localize homologous regions of the DNAs of these two viruses, we constructed a physical map of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus DNA and aligned it with the viral RNA. Cloned probes of visna virus DNA were then used to localize regions of homology with the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus DNA. These studies showed homology in the 5 region of the genome encompassing U5 and the gag and pol genes and also in a small region in the env gene. These findings correlate with biological data suggesting that the regions of the DNA which are homologous may be responsible for virus group characteristics such as the closely related virus core antigens. Regions which did not show homology such as large sections in the env gene may represent unique sequences which control highly strain-specific characteristics ...
The aim of the present transversal descriptive study was to determine the exposure and risk factors associated with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) in southern Spain. A total of 3,312 serum samples were collected from goat belonging to three different breeds coming from 48 flocks located in different geographic areas from southern Spain. In addition, health and productive parameters were surveyed during the visit to the herds. Serum samples were analysed by INgezim Maedi Screening (Ingenasa®) ELISA kit. The total percentage of herds exposed to CAEV was 87.71% (CI95 78.42-97.00). A total of 733 goats were seropositive with overall seroprevalence of 23.22% (CI95 21.78-24.65). The intraherd seroprevalence was 20.82%±24.07. Multivariate logistic regression showed significant association between CAEV and the next variables: (i) herd size (P,0.0001; OR: 2.07; CI95: 1.73-2.50), (ii) kidding area (P,0.0020; OR: 1.38; CI95: 1.13-1.69), (iii) cleaning and disinfection program (P,0.0067; OR: ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Primary arthrodesis and sural artery flap coverage for subtalar joint osteomyelitis in a diabetic patient. AU - Ramanujam, Crystal. AU - Zgonis, Thomas. PY - 2011/4. Y1 - 2011/4. N2 - Diabetic chronic wounds with joint sepsis and osteomyelitis of the hindfoot can be difficult pathologic entities to treat. Limb salvage approaches are based on careful preoperative evaluation, surgical technique, and postoperative care. This article reviews the overall management of subtalar joint osteomyelitis with a case report showing primary arthrodesis with external fixation and soft tissue coverage with a reverse sural artery neurofasciocutaneous flap.. AB - Diabetic chronic wounds with joint sepsis and osteomyelitis of the hindfoot can be difficult pathologic entities to treat. Limb salvage approaches are based on careful preoperative evaluation, surgical technique, and postoperative care. This article reviews the overall management of subtalar joint osteomyelitis with a case report showing ...
Schmitt, SK (June 2017). "Reactive Arthritis". Infectious Disease Clinics of North America (Review). 31 (2): 265-77. doi: ... It is associated with HLA B27 arthropathies like ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, and reactive arthritis.[3][4] ... Sagittal magnetic resonance images of ankle region: psoriatic arthritis. (a) Short tau inversion recovery (STIR) image, showing ...
Septic arthritis, a severe infection of the joint that can lead to permanent joint damage. Spondyloarthropathies. Viral ... Infectious, such as Lyme disease and osteomyelitis. Neurological, such as spinal cord injury and vertebral degeneration. ... Juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Lyme disease, which is transmitted by ticks and is characterized by debilatating polyarthritis, ... Rheumatic, such as ankylosing spondylitis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout. Others, such as fractures, osteoarthritis, Paget's ...
Sallusto F, Lanzavecchia A (2002). "The instructive role of dendritic cells on T-cell responses". Arthritis Res. 4 Suppl 3: ... When microbes were first recognized as the cause of infectious diseases, it was immediately clear that multicellular organisms ... Clinical Infectious Diseases. 41 Suppl 7: S421-426. doi:10.1086/431992. PMID 16237641. ...
"What is Reactive Arthritis?". Reactive Arthritis. Acheson, David; Allos, Ban Mishu (2001-04-15). "Campylobacter jejuni ... Campylobacteriosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the genus Campylobacter. In most people who become ill with ... 2001). The 5 minute infectious diseases consult (1st ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 0-683-30736-3. "Multiple ... "Campylobacter jejuni-An Emerging Foodborne Pathogen". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 5 (1): 28-35. doi:10.3201/eid0501.990104. ...
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). *National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin ... natomiast National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases w Rocky Mountain Labs w Hamilton w Montanie. ...
Complications can include post infectious arthritis, sepsis, seizures, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Shigellosis is caused by ... Reactive arthritis and hemolytic uremic syndrome are possible sequelae that have been reported in the aftermath of shigellosis ... Clinical Infectious Diseases. 21 (Supplement 1): S84-S93. doi:10.1093/clinids/21.supplement_1.s84. Todar, Kenneth. "Shigella ... Diarrheal diseases Gastroenteritis Infectious diarrhea Traveler's diarrhea "General Information, Shigella - Shigellosis , CDC ...
Ahmeti, Salih; Ajazaj-Berisha, Lindita; Halili, Bahrije; Shala, Anita (Apr 2014). "Acute arthritis in Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic ... fever". Journal of Global Infectious Diseases. 6 (2): 79-81. doi:10.4103/0974-777X.132052. PMC 4049045 . PMID 24926169. Heyman ... injuries leading to a haemarthrosis are associated with cartilage damage that can lead to progressive degenerative arthritis. X ...
... nonspecific arthritis of infectious genesis and post-traumatic osteoporosis. Naftalan oil also helps to reduce the number of ... Infectious specific arthritis, polyarthritis (Brucellosis, dysentery, viral); Deforming spondylosis, spondylarthrosis; ... Rheumatic polyarthritis (Sokolsky-Bulyno disease in the inactive phase with minimal activity); Rheumatoid arthritis, ... Male infertility Rheumatoid arthritis in children, inactive stage, Still's disease; Small chorea; Effects of cerebral palsy; ...
... the Paul Bunn Award in Infectious Disease; the Lee C. Howley Prize in Arthritis Research; and the Irish Society for Immunology ... He started his own group in the National Cancer Institute in 1989, and then moved to the National Institute of Arthritis and ... in 1981 for subspecialty training in Allergy and Immunology in the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. He ... FoxP3+ regulatory T cells confer infectious tolerance in a TGF- -dependent manner". Journal of Experimental Medicine. 205 (9): ...
This was also the second case of M. catarrhalis causing septic arthritis (although in the first case, no mention of bacteremia ... Clinical Infectious Diseases. 21 (2): 390-397. doi:10.1093/clinids/21.2.390. Peng D, Hong W, Choudhury BP, Carlson RW, Gu XX ( ... During the first reported case of M. catarrhalis causing bacteremia that was associated with septic arthritis, the microbe was ... M. catarrhalis has also been linked with septic arthritis in conjunction with bacteremia. Although cases of bacteremia cased by ...
... and infectious arthritis in swine; and soft-tissue infections in small animals. While tylosin may be one appropriate ...
Infectious canine hepatitis is a sometimes fatal infectious disease of the liver. Canine herpesvirus is an infectious disease ... Symptoms in dogs include acute arthritis, anorexia and lethargy. There is no rash as is typically seen in humans. Ehrlichiosis ... Pseudorabies is an infectious disease that primarily affects swine, but can also cause a fatal disease in dogs with signs ... Leptospirosis is an infectious disease caused by a spirochaete. Symptoms include liver and kidney failure and vasculitis. Lyme ...
On occasion, it causes cellulitis, osteomyelitis, and infectious arthritis. It is one cause of neonatal infection. Due to ...
Cooke GS, Hill AV (December 2001). "Genetics of susceptibility to human infectious disease". Nature Reviews. Genetics. 2 (12): ... Researchers speculate that HLA-B27 may abnormally display to the immune system peptides that trigger arthritis. Other research ... Following an infection, affected individuals may develop arthritis, back pain, and eye inflammation. Like ankylosing ... reactive arthritis, is typically triggered by bacterial infections of the gastrointestinal or genital tract. ...
Several different animal species are susceptible to infection by S.dysgalactiae, but bovine mastitis and infectious arthritis ... "Sources of Streptococcus dysgalactiae in English and Welsh sheep flocks affected by infectious arthritis (joint ill)". The ... The first pivotal step in infectious pathogenesis is the attachment to the host tissues. The M-protein, the most extensively ... S.dysgalactiae has been isolated from infectious polyarthritis in several animal species, including piglets, lambs, calves and ...
Patients are usually no longer infectious once the rash has appeared. Teenagers and adults may present with a self-limited ... It manifests in painful swelling of the joints that feels similar to arthritis. Older children and adults with fifth disease ... Individuals with fifth disease are most infectious before the onset of symptoms. Typically, school children, day-care workers, ...
"Impact of staphylococcal protease expression on the outcome of infectious arthritis". Microbes and Infection. 6 (2): 202-206. ... Mutation of scpA did not show any impact on the outcome of a skin abscess nor a septic arthritis model. Overlapping activity ...
Infectious arthritis, encephalitis, rashes and fever are the most commonly observed symptoms. Larger mammals such as humans and ...
... is implicated as one of the pathogenic causes of reactive arthritis worldwide. Diarrheal diseases Enterotoxigenic E. ... ISBN 978-0-7234-3259-3. Bowen A (2016). "Chapter 3: Infectious Diseases Related to Travel". The Yellow Book: Health Information ... 2004). Sherris medical microbiology: an introduction to infectious diseases (4th ed.). McGraw-Hill Professional Med/Tech. ISBN ... Hill Gaston, J (2003). "Arthritis associated with enteric infection". Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology. 17 (2): ...
Other Infections such as, bacterial arthritis and Mastitis-metritis-agalactia (MMA) syndrome in sows. Trimidox is not to be ... Other Infections such as, Infectious pododermatitis (foot rot) and septicaemias. In Swine, Trimidox is used to treat: ...
Other important causes are infectious arthritis, osteomyelitis, and slipped capital femoral epiphysis in children. Septic ... People with septic arthritis usually look clinically toxic or sick. Even in the absence of any of these factors, however, ... Transient synovitis is a reactive arthritis of the hip of unknown cause. People are usually able to walk and may have a low ... A ultrasound or x-ray guided aspiration of the hip joint maybe required to rule out an infectious process within the hip. A ...
Examples include Sjogren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and celiac disease. Guillain-Barre ... Certain infectious diseases. Some viruses and bacteria, such as botulism, Lyme disease and HIV, can cause autonomic neuropathy ...
... include Hodgkin's disease lung and breast carcinoma and non-infectious inflammatory diseases include rheumatoid arthritis and ... Anemia of chronic disease may also be due to neoplastic disorders and non-infectious inflammatory diseases. Neoplastic ... Mechanism of anemia in rheumatoid arthritis: Demonstration of raised interleukin-1 beta concentrations in anemic patients and ...
"Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis" (IBK) is a disease affecting cattle caused by the bacteria Moraxella bovis. "Pink eye ... "Sicca" means "dryness" in medical contexts.) It occurs with 20% of rheumatoid arthritis patients. The term "Vernal ... in sheep and goat" is another infectious keratoconjunctivitis of veterinary concern, mostly caused by Chlamydophila pecorum " ...
Flagellin, which is a TLR5-activating ligand, is present in synovial fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Activation ... Bone loss and osteoclastogenesis are induced by inflammation in infectious and autoimmune diseases. A recent study has ... They recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are expressed on infectious agents, and mediate the ...
Outpatient clinics for: cystic fibrosis, diabetes, cancer, blood diseases, arthritis, infectious diseases, Weight Management ... emergency medicine Pediatric endocrinology Pediatric gastroenterology Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Pediatric infectious ...
The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 184 (5): 582-90. doi:10.1086/322803. ISSN 0022-1899. JSTOR 30137322. PMID 11474432.. ... septic arthritis, endocarditis, peritonitis, pericarditis, cellulitis, and brain abscess.[6] ... Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease. 90 (4): 248-250. doi:10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2017.12.003. ISSN 1879-0070. PMID ... The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 20 (12): 1144-9. doi:10.1097/00006454-200112000-00010. PMID 11740321.. ...
... see infectious arthritis). Noninfectious tenosynovitis can arise from overuse or secondary to other systemic inflammatory ... Most infectious tenosynovitis cases should be managed with tendon sheath irrigation and drainage, with or without debridement ... Treatment for infectious tenosynovitis is more effective the earlier the condition is identified and treated. Factors that ... Aspirated fluid can also be cultured to identify the infectious organism. X-rays are typically unremarkable but can help rule ...
Learn why people get infectious arthritis, tests needed and how it is treated. ... Infectious or septic arthritis is a bacterial infection of the joint. ... ClinicalTrials.gov: Arthritis, Infectious (National Institutes of Health) * ClinicalTrials.gov: Arthritis, Reactive (National ... One type of infectious arthritis is reactive arthritis. The reaction is to an infection somewhere else in your body. The joint ...
Infectious arthritis is a condition in which the fluid and tissues of a joint become infected. The signs of infectious ... Infectious arthritis, also called septic arthritis, is an infection in the fluid and tissues of a joint. It is most commonly a ... If a case of infectious arthritis is bacterial, antibiotics should begin clearing it up within 48 hours. Fungal infectious ... you should consult a doctor immediately as you may have infectious arthritis. Those with chronic arthritis should consult a ...
Get information and read articles on Infectious Arthritis signs, symptoms, causes, treatment, prevention and diagnosis at ... Infectious Arthritis - Get information and read articles on Infectious Arthritis signs, symptoms, causes, treatment, prevention ...
The knee is the joint most frequently affected by infectious arthritis. Infectious arthritis is diagnosed by taking a sample of ... "Infectious arthritis" (open studies are recruiting volunteers) and 153 "Infectious arthritis" studies with "all" status. Visit ... Infectious arthritis is a painful swelling in the joints caused by a bacterial, viral, or fungal infection. Infectious ... TNFalpha blockers and infectious risk in rheumatoid arthritis]. Author(s): B Raffeiner, C Botsios, F Ometto, L Bernardi, A ...
So there is infectious arthritis. What diseases may cause this pathology? What specific symptoms does infectious arthritis? ... Infectious arthritis: etiology, pathogenesis and clinical course. Arthritis is a term that encompasses various inflammatory ... Infectious arthritis of the knee joint. Among all diseases of musculoskeletal system arthritis of the knee joint is the most ... It can be bacterial, and fungal infectious agents. Often infectious (or pyogenic) arthritis is a secondary disease, that is in ...
Sternoclavicular joint (SCJ) infectious arthritis is an unusual disease accounting for 1% of all bone and joint infections [1 ... Sternoclavicular joint (SCJ) infectious arthritis is a rare disease. A standard treatment for SCJ infection has not been ... In the current study, a three-stage procedure with BT was used to treat six patients with SCJ infectious arthritis. The ... Six patients (mean age 39.5 years) with chronic SCJ infectious arthritis were included in the study. The patients underwent a ...
Juvenile arthritis is a general name for many types of arthritis that occur in children. Learn more from Boston Childrens ... JIA is arthritis with no known cause (this is what "idiopathic" means), to distinguish it from infectious forms of childhood ... What is juvenile arthritis?. Juvenile arthritis isnt one condition, but is the general name for many types of arthritis that ... Septic arthritis: arthritis caused by an infection of the joint *Lupus: a chronic autoimmune condition that can have arthritis ...
Most infectious arthritis cases involve only one joint and more than half of these affect the knee. It can also affect the ... Led by Arthritis Consumer Experts and the Arthritis Research Centre of Canada, the Arthritis Broadcast Network (ABN) is a multi ... 2013 Arthritis Broadcast Network / Arthritis Consumer Experts / Arthritis Research Centre of Canada ... Infectious arthritis can last for hours or days and is marked by pain, heat, rash, redness, and swelling. Some people, ...
Reactive arthritis is a type of arthritis that follows an infection. It may also cause inflammation of the eyes, skin and ... Mandell, Douglas, and Bennetts Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, Updated Edition. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... Reactive arthritis is a type of arthritis that follows an infection. It may also cause inflammation of the eyes, skin and ... Blood tests to rule out other types of arthritis such as rheumatoid arthritis, gout, or systemic lupus erythematosus ...
Doctors call this condition septic arthritis, bacterial arthritis, or infectious arthritis. ... Doctors call this condition septic arthritis, bacterial arthritis, or infectious arthritis.. Germs dont have to invade a joint ... Infectious arthritis. Mayo Clinic online... National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases. Questions and Answers ... Both septic arthritis and reactive arthritis can cause pain and swelling in a joint. Septic arthritis most often occurs in one ...
... ANSWER Many organisms may infect the knee. Gonorrhea, a ...
Make research projects and school reports about Infectious arthritis easy with credible articles from our FREE, online ... and pictures about Infectious arthritis at Encyclopedia.com. ... Septic arthritis What Is Infectious Arthritis?. Most of the ... Infectious Arthritis. Definition. Infectious arthritis, which is sometimes called septic arthritis or pyogenic arthritis, is a ... Arthritis, Infectious Complete Human Diseases and Conditions COPYRIGHT 2008 Gale Group. Arthritis, Infectious. What Is ...
swollen joints and pain from infectious arthritis are treated with antibiotics to stop the infection. sometimes, you may ... "Psoriatic Arthritis;" and "Systemic Lupus Erythematotus." The Merck Manual of Medical Information: "Infectious Arthritis." ... "Psoriatic Arthritis;" and "Systemic Lupus Erythematotus." The Merck Manual of Medical Information: "Infectious Arthritis." ... Swollen joints and pain from infectious arthritis are treated with antibiotics to stop the infection. Sometimes, you may ...
Infectious arthritis is a type of inflammatory arthritis that affects young and old people alike. It is usually caused by ... Infectious arthritis is a type of inflammatory arthritis that affects young and old people alike. It is usually caused by ... If undetected or untreated, infectious arthritis can destroy a joint within days. So, if an infection is suspected, diagnostic ...
Septic Arthritis (Infectious Arthritis) in Children. What is septic arthritis in children?. Septic arthritis is an infection in ... How is septic arthritis diagnosed in a child?. Early diagnosis of septic arthritis is important. This is to prevent long-term ( ... What are the symptoms of septic arthritis in a child?. The most common joints affected by septic arthritis are the knee, hip, ... Key points about septic arthritis in a child. *Septic arthritis is an infection in the joint fluid (synovial fluid) and joint ...
... also known as septic arthritis or pyogenicarthritis, is a joint inflammation caused by infection by one of a number of ... What Is Infectious Arthritis?. Infectious arthritis, which is also called septic arthritis or pyogenicarthritis, is a joint ... Infectious Arthritis Treatment. *Antibiotics are prescribed to treat bacterial infections and Lyme arthritis. These drugs ... Fungal infection may cause infectious arthritis; it typically progresses more slowly and is milder than bacterial arthritis. ...
What is infectious arthritis? Meaning of infectious arthritis medical term. What does infectious arthritis mean? ... Looking for online definition of infectious arthritis in the Medical Dictionary? infectious arthritis explanation free. ... Related to infectious arthritis: Lyme disease, Reactive arthritis, Metabolic arthritis. Infectious Arthritis. Definition. ... infectious arthritis. Septic arthritis, see there. arthritis. inflammation of a joint. See also arthropathy, polyarthritis. ...
General Illness Information. Common Name: ARTHRITIS, INFECTIOUS. Medical Term: Septic Arthritis. Description:. Painful swelling in an inflamed joint resulting from infection in the synovial fluid and the tissues of the joint. Any joint may be involved, but larger joints are more commonly affected.. Causes:. Infection is mainly caused by bacteria which usually enter the joint through the blood stream. However, a joint can be infected directly if it is contaminated by injury, injection or surgery.. Also entry into a joint by germs, usually bacteria (streptococci, staphylococci, gonococci, hemophilus or tubercle bacillus) or fungi. Germs gain entry from ...
It is also called septic arthritis. Infectious arthritis is usually not a long-term or chronic illness. Treated promptly and ... However, without proper treatment, infectious arthritis can result in serious damage to the joints involved and may ... Infectious arthritis is a form of arthritis that is produced by an infection. ... properly, it is generally a curable form of arthritis. ... Basics of Infectious Arthritis. Infectious arthritis is a form ...
Post-Chikungunya Rheumatoid Arthritis, Saint Martin. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2015;21(3):530-532. doi:10.3201/ ... rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriatic arthritis (2,4,5). Although the proportion of patients with chronic disease has decreased, ... Post-chikungunya chronic arthritis-our experience with DMARDs over two year follow up. J Assoc Physicians India. 2011;59:83-6 . ... A report of 21 cases of rheumatoid arthritis following chikungunya fever. A mean follow-up of two years. Joint Bone Spine. 2009 ...
Nongonococcal infectious arthritis is an acute or subacute illness with potentially significant morbidity and mortality. It can ... encoded search term (Nongonococcal Infectious Arthritis) and Nongonococcal Infectious Arthritis What to Read Next on Medscape. ... to be mindful of the possibility that infectious arthritis and crystal-induced arthritis may be coexisting in a single joint, ... Nongonococcal Infectious Arthritis Workup. Updated: Dec 31, 2019 * Author: Edward Dwyer, MD; Chief Editor: Herbert S Diamond, ...
Infectious Arthritis. What is infectious arthritis?. Click Image to Enlarge. Infectious arthritis is an infection in the joint ... Treatment for infectious arthritis. Specific treatment for infectious arthritis will be determined by your doctor based on:. * ... How is infectious arthritis diagnosed?. Prompt diagnosis of infectious arthritis is necessary to prevent permanent damage to ... What are the symptoms of infectious arthritis?. The most common joints affected by infectious arthritis are the knee, hip, ...
... in reactive arthritis, 20% in enteric arthritis or psoriatic arthritis). All of these diseases can be viewed as seronegative ... Classification of Reactive Arthritides. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998;4(3):510-512. doi:10.3201/eid0403.980350.. ... Blumberg, D. R., & Sloan, V. S. (1998). Classification of Reactive Arthritides. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 4(3), 510-512. ... Reactive arthritis is so named because it is felt that the arthritis and other inflammatory manifestations are an immune ...
Chronic infectious arthritis. Chronic infectious arthritis is usually caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (the main cause of ... Acute infectious arthritis. Acute infectious arthritis that is caused by bacteria begins quickly. It accounts for 95% of ... Chronic infectious arthritis. Chronic infectious arthritis begins gradually over several weeks. It accounts for 5% of ... Acute infectious arthritis. Acute infectious arthritis is usually caused by bacteria and viruses. ...
... (septic arthritis) is caused by a bacterial, viral, or fungal infection inside a ... Infectious arthritis usually affects one joint, but it can affect many joints. Symptoms may include:. *Severe pain with the ...
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an important cause of acute infectious arthritis in sexually active individuals. (chromoscience.com)
  • However, many of the microbes that cause infectious arthritis can be transmitted from an infected patient to another, including Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Staphylococcus aureus , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , and HIV . (medicinenet.com)
  • coagulase-negative staphylococci - usually due to prosthetic joint Streptococci - the second most common causeStreptococcus pyogenes - a common cause in children under 5 Streptococcus pneumoniae Group B streptococci - a common cause in infants Haemophilus influenzae Neisseria gonorrhoeae - the most common cause of septic arthritis in young, sexually active adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • About 2% 1-4 of people who are infected with the type of Shigella called Shigella flexneri will experience post-infectious arthritis, which causes joint pains, eye irritation, and painful urination. (cdc.gov)
  • After the fourth course the patient presented to our clinic for fever with chills, pollakiuria, hematuria, conjunctivitis, myalgia and disabling migratory arthritis of the left ankle and right knee. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Septic arthritis and osteomyelitis often present with a subacute course of illness and vague signs and symptoms. (ebmedicine.net)
  • This issue provides evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of pediatric patients with septic arthritis and/or osteomyelitis and offers guidance for appropriate antibiotic treatment. (ebmedicine.net)
  • Septic arthritis and osteomyelitis in pediatric patients represent true emergencies, and can quickly threaten life and limb. (ebmedicine.net)
  • This issue reviews the current literature and provides an evidence-based approach for the evaluation and management of pediatric patients with septic arthritis and osteomyelitis. (ebmedicine.net)
  • Four out of six foals with infectious arthritis had osseous lesions in MR images indicative of osteomyelitis and only 4/19 lesions were detected on digital radiographs. (avmi.net)
  • MR imaging appears to be better than radiography in the detection of osseous lesions in foals diagnosed with infectious arthritis and may be a valuable screening test for the presence of osteomyelitis. (avmi.net)
  • In mid-October 2003, 2 confirmed and 1 probable case of K kingae osteomyelitis/septic arthritis occurred among children in the same 16- to 24-month-old toddler classroom of a child care center. (aappublications.org)