Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.ArthritisArthritis, Experimental: ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.Arthritis, Infectious: Arthritis caused by BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; MYCOPLASMA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; or PARASITES.Arthritis, Juvenile: Arthritis of children, with onset before 16 years of age. The terms juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) refer to classification systems for chronic arthritis in children. Only one subtype of juvenile arthritis (polyarticular-onset, rheumatoid factor-positive) clinically resembles adult rheumatoid arthritis and is considered its childhood equivalent.Arthritis, Psoriatic: A type of inflammatory arthritis associated with PSORIASIS, often involving the axial joints and the peripheral terminal interphalangeal joints. It is characterized by the presence of HLA-B27-associated SPONDYLARTHROPATHY, and the absence of rheumatoid factor.Arthritis, Reactive: An aseptic, inflammatory arthritis developing secondary to a primary extra-articular infection, most typically of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or UROGENITAL SYSTEM. The initiating trigger pathogens are usually SHIGELLA; SALMONELLA; YERSINIA; CAMPYLOBACTER; or CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. Reactive arthritis is strongly associated with HLA-B27 ANTIGEN.Synovial Membrane: The inner membrane of a joint capsule surrounding a freely movable joint. It is loosely attached to the external fibrous capsule and secretes SYNOVIAL FLUID.Joints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.Synovial Fluid: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.Arthritis, Gouty: Arthritis, especially of the great toe, as a result of gout. Acute gouty arthritis often is precipitated by trauma, infection, surgery, etc. The initial attacks are usually monoarticular but later attacks are often polyarticular.Rheumatoid Factor: Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.Mice, Inbred DBASynovitis: Inflammation of a synovial membrane. It is usually painful, particularly on motion, and is characterized by a fluctuating swelling due to effusion within a synovial sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)Osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Collagen Type II: A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Rats, Inbred LewAutoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Blood Sedimentation: Measurement of rate of settling of erythrocytes in anticoagulated blood.Injections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Rheumatic Diseases: Disorders of connective tissue, especially the joints and related structures, characterized by inflammation, degeneration, or metabolic derangement.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Arthrography: Roentgenography of a joint, usually after injection of either positive or negative contrast medium.Rheumatology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of inflammatory or degenerative processes and metabolic derangement of connective tissue structures which pertain to a variety of musculoskeletal disorders, such as arthritis.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Metacarpophalangeal Joint: The articulation between a metacarpal bone and a phalanx.Spondylitis, Ankylosing: A chronic inflammatory condition affecting the axial joints, such as the SACROILIAC JOINT and other intervertebral or costovertebral joints. It occurs predominantly in young males and is characterized by pain and stiffness of joints (ANKYLOSIS) with inflammation at tendon insertions.Sulfasalazine: A drug that is used in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. Its activity is generally considered to lie in its metabolic breakdown product, 5-aminosalicylic acid (see MESALAMINE) released in the colon. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p907)Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Gold Sodium Thiomalate: A variable mixture of the mono- and disodium salts of gold thiomalic acid used mainly for its anti-inflammatory action in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It is most effective in active progressive rheumatoid arthritis and of little or no value in the presence of extensive deformities or in the treatment of other forms of arthritis.Wrist Joint: The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).Rheumatoid Nodule: Subcutaneous nodules seen in 20-30% of rheumatoid arthritis patients. They may arise anywhere on the body, but are most frequently found over the bony prominences. The nodules are characterized histologically by dense areas of fibrinoid necrosis with basophilic streaks and granules, surrounded by a palisade of cells, mainly fibroblasts and histiocytes.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).HLA-DRB1 Chains: A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that includes over one hundred allele variants. The HLA-DRB1 subtype is associated with several of the HLA-DR SEROLOGICAL SUBTYPES.Finger Joint: The articulation between the head of one phalanx and the base of the one distal to it, in each finger.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Tarsal Joints: The articulations between the various TARSAL BONES. This does not include the ANKLE JOINT which consists of the articulations between the TIBIA; FIBULA; and TALUS.Lyme Disease: An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind TUMOR NECROSIS FACTORS and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells.HLA-DR4 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Joint DiseasesHLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.CitrullineCytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Spondylarthropathies: Heterogeneous group of arthritic diseases sharing clinical and radiologic features. They are associated with the HLA-B27 ANTIGEN and some with a triggering infection. Most involve the axial joints in the SPINE, particularly the SACROILIAC JOINT, but can also involve asymmetric peripheral joints. Subsets include ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS; REACTIVE ARTHRITIS; PSORIATIC ARTHRITIS; and others.Foot Joints: The articulations extending from the ANKLE distally to the TOES. These include the ANKLE JOINT; TARSAL JOINTS; METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT; and TOE JOINT.Psoriasis: A common genetically determined, chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by rounded erythematous, dry, scaling patches. The lesions have a predilection for nails, scalp, genitalia, extensor surfaces, and the lumbosacral region. Accelerated epidermopoiesis is considered to be the fundamental pathologic feature in psoriasis.Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Freund's Adjuvant: An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.Tarsus, Animal: The region in the hindlimb of a quadruped, corresponding to the human ANKLE.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Tenosynovitis: Inflammation of the synovial lining of a tendon sheath. Causes include trauma, tendon stress, bacterial disease (gonorrhea, tuberculosis), rheumatic disease, and gout. Common sites are the hand, wrist, shoulder capsule, hip capsule, hamstring muscles, and Achilles tendon. The tendon sheaths become inflamed and painful, and accumulate fluid. Joint mobility is usually reduced.HLA-B27 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Organogold Compounds: Organic compounds that contain GOLD as an integral part of the molecule. Some are used as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS. The term chrysotherapy derives from an ancient Greek term for gold.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Hand Joints: The articulations extending from the WRIST distally to the FINGERS. These include the WRIST JOINT; CARPAL JOINTS; METACARPOPHALANGEAL JOINT; and FINGER JOINT.Glucose-6-Phosphate Isomerase: An aldose-ketose isomerase that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate. In prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms it plays an essential role in glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways. In mammalian systems the enzyme is found in the cytoplasm and as a secreted protein. This secreted form of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase has been referred to as autocrine motility factor or neuroleukin, and acts as a cytokine which binds to the AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR RECEPTOR. Deficiency of the enzyme in humans is an autosomal recessive trait, which results in CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein: A ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It supports research into the causes, treatment, and prevention of arthritis and musculoskeletal and skin diseases; the training of basic and clinical scientists to carry out this research; and the dissemination of information on research progress. It was established in 1986.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mice, Inbred C57BLCase-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Isoxazoles: Azoles with an OXYGEN and a NITROGEN next to each other at the 1,2 positions, in contrast to OXAZOLES that have nitrogens at the 1,3 positions.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Prednisolone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.Penicillamine: 3-Mercapto-D-valine. The most characteristic degradation product of the penicillin antibiotics. It is used as an antirheumatic and as a chelating agent in Wilson's disease.Borrelia burgdorferi: A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Yersinia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus YERSINIA.Arthralgia: Pain in the joint.Spondylarthritis: Inflammation of the joints of the SPINE, the intervertebral articulations.Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Toe Joint: The articulation between the head of one phalanx and the base of the one distal to it, in each toe.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Hand Deformities, Acquired: Deformities of the hand, or a part of the hand, acquired after birth as the result of injury or disease.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Bone Resorption: Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.Matrix Metalloproteinase 3: An extracellular endopeptidase of vertebrate tissues similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 1. It digests PROTEOGLYCAN; FIBRONECTIN; COLLAGEN types III, IV, V, and IX, and activates procollagenase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Felty Syndrome: A rare complication of rheumatoid arthritis with autoimmune NEUTROPENIA; and SPLENOMEGALY.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Sternoclavicular Joint: A double gliding joint formed by the CLAVICLE, superior and lateral parts of the manubrium sterni at the clavicular notch, and the cartilage of the first rib.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Metatarsophalangeal Joint: The articulation between a metatarsal bone (METATARSAL BONES) and a phalanx.Auranofin: An oral chrysotherapeutic agent for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Its exact mechanism of action is unknown, but it is believed to act via immunological mechanisms and alteration of lysosomal enzyme activity. Its efficacy is slightly less than that of injected gold salts, but it is better tolerated, and side effects which occur are potentially less serious.Sjogren's Syndrome: Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 22: A subtype of non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases that is characterized by the presence of an N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal PROLINE-rich domain. The phosphatase subtype is predominantly expressed in LYMPHOCYTES and plays a key role in the inhibition of downstream T-LYMPHOCYTE activation. Polymorphisms in the gene that encodes this phosphatase subtype are associated with a variety of AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Gout: Hereditary metabolic disorder characterized by recurrent acute arthritis, hyperuricemia and deposition of sodium urate in and around the joints, sometimes with formation of uric acid calculi.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Spondylitis: Inflammation of the SPINE. This includes both arthritic and non-arthritic conditions.Osteitis: Inflammation of the bone.Mice, Inbred BALB CArthritis-Encephalitis Virus, Caprine: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), closely related to VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS and causing acute encephalomyelitis; chronic arthritis; PNEUMONIA; MASTITIS; and GLOMERULONEPHRITIS in goats. It is transmitted mainly in the colostrum and milk.Biological Therapy: Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)RANK Ligand: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Early Diagnosis: Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Th17 Cells: Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Aurothioglucose: A thioglucose derivative used as an antirheumatic and experimentally to produce obesity in animals.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Borrelia burgdorferi Group: Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. These spirochetes are generally transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks.Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Arthrodesis: The surgical fixation of a joint by a procedure designed to accomplish fusion of the joint surfaces by promoting the proliferation of bone cells. (Dorland, 28th ed)Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Arthroplasty, Replacement: Partial or total replacement of a joint.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Immunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.Immunoconjugates: Combinations of diagnostic or therapeutic substances linked with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; or ANTIGENS. Often the diagnostic or therapeutic substance is a radionuclide. These conjugates are useful tools for specific targeting of DRUGS and RADIOISOTOPES in the CHEMOTHERAPY and RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY of certain cancers.Joint Prosthesis: Prostheses used to partially or totally replace a human or animal joint. (from UMDNS, 1999)Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Stifle: In horses, cattle, and other quadrupeds, the joint between the femur and the tibia, corresponding to the human knee.Arthroplasty: Surgical reconstruction of a joint to relieve pain or restore motion.Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Tuberculosis, Osteoarticular: Tuberculosis of the bones or joints.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Foot Deformities, Acquired: Distortion or disfigurement of the foot, or a part of the foot, acquired through disease or injury after birth.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Elbow Joint: A hinge joint connecting the FOREARM to the ARM.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Atlanto-Axial Joint: The joint involving the CERVICAL ATLAS and axis bones.Matrilin Proteins: PROTEOGLYCANS-associated proteins that are major components of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX of various tissues including CARTILAGE; and INTERVERTEBRAL DISC structures. They bind COLLAGEN fibers and contain protein domains that enable oligomer formation and interaction with other extracellular matrix proteins such as CARTILAGE OLIGOMERIC MATRIX PROTEIN.Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Arthroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.Chondrocalcinosis: Presence of calcium salts, especially calcium pyrophosphate, in the cartilaginous structures of one or more joints. When accompanied by attacks of goutlike symptoms, it is called pseudogout. (Dorland, 27th ed)Matrix Metalloproteinases: A family of zinc-dependent metalloendopeptidases that is involved in the degradation of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components.Connective Tissue Diseases: A heterogeneous group of disorders, some hereditary, others acquired, characterized by abnormal structure or function of one or more of the elements of connective tissue, i.e., collagen, elastin, or the mucopolysaccharides.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Sacroiliac Joint: The immovable joint formed by the lateral surfaces of the SACRUM and ILIUM.Hand Bones: The CARPAL BONES; METACARPAL BONES; and FINGER PHALANGES. In each hand there are eight carpal bones, five metacarpal bones, and 14 phalanges.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Aggrecans: Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Bursa, Synovial: A fluid-filled sac lined with SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE that provides a cushion between bones, tendons and/or muscles around a joint.

Prevention of collagen-induced arthritis by gene delivery of soluble p75 tumour necrosis factor receptor. (1/2364)

Collagen type II-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1 mice can be passively transferred to SCID mice with spleen B- and T-lymphocytes. In the present study, we show that infection ex vivo of splenocytes from arthritic DBA/1 mice with a retroviral vector, containing cDNA for the soluble form of human p75 receptor of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-R) before transfer, prevents the development of arthritis, bone erosion and joint inflammation in the SCID recipients. Assessment of IgG subclass levels and studies of synovial histology suggest that down-regulating the effector functions of T helper-type 1 (Th1) cells may, at least in part, explain the inhibition of arthritis in the SCID recipients. In contrast, the transfer of splenocytes infected with mouse TNF-alpha gene construct resulted in exacerbated arthritis and enhancement of IgG2a antibody levels. Intriguingly, infection of splenocytes from arthritic DBA/1 mice with a construct for mouse IL-10 had no modulating effect on the transfer of arthritis. The data suggest that manipulation of the immune system with cytokines, or cytokine inhibitors using gene transfer protocols can be an effective approach to ameliorate arthritis.  (+info)

Modulation of acute and chronic inflammatory processes by cacospongionolide B, a novel inhibitor of human synovial phospholipase A2. (2/2364)

1. Cacospongionolide B is a novel marine metabolite isolated from the sponge Fasciospongia cavernosa. In in vitro studies, this compound inhibited phospholipase A2 (PLA2), showing selectivity for secretory PLA2 (sPLA2) versus cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2), and its potency on the human synovial enzyme (group II) was similar to that of manoalide. 2. This activity was confirmed in vivo in the 8 h zymosan-injected rat air pouch, on the secretory enzyme accumulating in the pouch exudate. Cacospongionolide B, that is bioavailable when is given orally, reduced the elevated levels of sPLA2 present in paw homogenates of rats with adjuvant arthritis. 3. This marine metabolite showed topical anti-inflammatory activity on the mouse ear oedema induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) and decreased carrageenin paw oedema in mice after oral administration of 5, 10 or 20 mg kg(-1). 4. In the mouse air pouch injected with zymosan, cacospongionolide B administered into the pouch, induced a dose-dependent reduction in the levels of eicosanoids and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) in the exudates 4 h after the stimulus. It also had a weak effect on cell migration. 5. The inflammatory response of adjuvant arthritis was reduced by cacospongionolide B, which did not significantly affect eicosanoid levels in serum, paw or stomach homogenates and did not induce toxic effects. 6 Cacospongionolide B is a new inhibitor of sPLA2 in vitro and in vivo, with anti-inflammatory properties in acute and chronic inflammation. This marine metabolite was active after oral administration and able to modify TNFalpha levels, and may offer an interesting approach in the search for new anti-inflammatory agents.  (+info)

Localization of non-Mhc collagen-induced arthritis susceptibility loci in DBA/1j mice. (3/2364)

One approach to understanding common human diseases is to determine the genetic defects responsible for similar diseases in animal models and place those defective genes in their corresponding biochemical pathways. Our laboratory is working with an animal model for human rheumatoid arthritis called collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). We are particularly interested in determining the location of disease-predisposing loci. To that end, we performed experiments to localize susceptibility loci for CIA in an F2 cross between the highly susceptible mouse strain DBA/1j and the highly resistant mouse strain SWR/j. Specifically, a quantitative trait locus analysis was performed to localize regions of the mouse genome responsible for susceptibility/severity to CIA. One susceptibility locus, Cia1 in the major histocompatibility locus, had been identified previously. Two additional loci were detected in our analysis that contribute to CIA severity (Cia2, Cia3) on chromosomes 2 and 6. A third locus was detected that contributes to the age of onset of the disease. This locus (Cia4) was located on chromosome 2 and was linked to the same region as Cia2. Determining the identity of these loci may provide insights into the etiology of human rheumatoid arthritis.  (+info)

Effects of petrosaspongiolide M, a novel phospholipase A2 inhibitor, on acute and chronic inflammation. (4/2364)

The marine product petrosaspongiolide M is a novel inhibitor of phospholipase A2 (PLA2), showing selectivity for secretory PLA2 versus cytosolic PLA2, with a potency on the human synovial enzyme (group II) similar to that of manoalide. This compound was more potent than manoalide on bee venom PLA2 (group III) and had no effect on group I enzymes (Naja naja and porcine pancreatic PLA2). Inhibition of PLA2 was also observed in vivo in the zymosan-injected rat air pouch, on the secretory enzyme accumulated in the pouch exudate. Petrosaspongiolide M decreased carrageenan paw edema in mice after the oral administration of 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg. This marine metabolite (0.01-1.0 micromol/pouch) induced a dose-dependent reduction in the levels of prostaglandin (PG)E2, leukotriene B4, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the mouse air pouch injected with zymosan 4 h after the stimulus. It also had a weaker effect on cell migration. The inflammatory response of adjuvant arthritis was reduced by petrosaspongiolide M, which also inhibited leukotriene B4 levels in serum and PGE2 levels in paw homogenates. In contrast with indomethacin, this marine compound did not reduce PGE2 levels in stomach homogenates. Petrosaspongiolide M is a new inhibitor of secretory PLA2 in vitro and in vivo, with anti-inflammatory properties in acute and chronic inflammation.  (+info)

Efficacy of sustained blood levels of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in animal models of arthritis: comparison of efficacy in animal models with human clinical data. (5/2364)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) in rat adjuvant arthritis and rat type II collagen-induced arthritis, and to compare the efficacy in rat models with that seen in human clinical trials of IL-1Ra. METHODS: Rats with developing adjuvant arthritis or established collagen-induced arthritis were treated with IL-1Ra by continuous infusion in order to determine and maintain efficacious blood levels of this IL-1 inhibitory protein in the rats for comparison with human clinical data. The effects of treatment in the rats were monitored by sequential caliper measurement of the ankle joints, determination of final paw weights, and histologic evaluation with particular emphasis on bone and cartilage lesions. The effects of IL-1Ra on joint swelling and radiographic bone damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a 6-month trial were compared with the findings in rats. RESULTS: Dramatic differences in the profile of IL-1Ra activity were seen between the 2 groups of rats. Modest antiinflammatory effects were observed in the adjuvant arthritis rats treated with IL-1Ra. However, marked inhibition of bone resorption occurred, even at doses with which antiinflammatory activity was not seen. In contrast, IL-1Ra treatment of rats with established collagen-induced arthritis resulted in nearly complete suppression of all aspects of the disease when adequate blood levels of IL-1Ra were maintained. Treatment of RA patients with IL-1Ra (150 mg daily) resulted in modest inhibition of joint swelling and inhibition of radiographic progression of bone lesions. CONCLUSION: IL-1 appears to be of major importance in mediating the bone resorption that occurs in rat adjuvant arthritis, but is less important in the pathogenesis of periarticular inflammation in this disease. In contrast, IL-1 is of major importance in mediating all aspects of disease progression in rat collagen-induced arthritis. Similar to the response in adjuvant arthritic rats, RA patients treated with IL-1Ra showed only modest antiinflammatory activity, but had evidence of inhibition of progression of bone resorption. However, a comparison of the plasma levels of IL-1Ra in humans and rats suggests that the optimal level of dosing for continuous saturation of IL-1 receptors may not have been achieved in humans, although this was achieved in the rat studies.  (+info)

Somatostatin receptor subtype expression in cells of the rat immune system during adjuvant arthritis. (6/2364)

Somatostatin is a neuropeptide that is widely distributed throughout the body. It acts as a neurohormone and a neurotransmitter and may also have an immunomodulatory role. The genes for five subtypes of somatostatin receptors (sst) have been cloned, suggesting that the diverse effects of the peptide might be mediated by different receptors. We are interested in studying the role of sst ininflammation, using an animal model. Because of the up-regulation of sst expression in inflamed joints in human rheumatoid arthritis, we chose rat adjuvant arthritis as an experimental model. In order to determine which of the sst subtypes might be important in immune modulation, subtype expression in leukocytes isolated from different lymphoid tissues of the rat was studied. Also, the expression levels of the most abundantly expressed sst mRNAs in leukocytes from spleen and blood were compared in rats with adjuvantarthritis and controls, using a semi-quantitative approach. Furthermore, the effect of systemic administration of a long-acting somatostatin analogue, octreotide, which binds selectively to sst subtypes 2 and 5 (sst2 and sst5), on the incidence and the severity of rat adjuvant arthritis, was studied. The main sst expressed in cells of the rat immune system, both resting and activated, were found to be sst3 and sst4. This contrasts with the human and murine situations, in which sst2 appears to be the main subtype expressed in the immune system. No quantitative differences in sst subtype mRNA levels in leukocytes from spleen and blood were found between rats with adjuvant arthritis and controls. Finally, no effect of systemic administration of octreotide on either the incidence or severity of adjuvant arthritis in Lewis rats was found. As octreotide binds selectively to sst2 and sst5, the absence of an immunomodulatory effect of this analogue in rat adjuvant arthritis corroborates our finding that these sst subtypes are not expressed in cells of the rat immune system. In conclusion, cells of the rat immune system appear to express a spectrum of sst (sst3 and sst4) different from that found in human granulomatous and autoimmune disease (mainly sst2). Therefore, the rat adjuvant arthritis model appears to be suitable only for studying the immunomodulatory effects of somatostatin analogues which have a high affinity for sst3 and sst4, but not for studying the immunomodulatory effects of octreotide, which has a high affinity only for sst2 and sst5.  (+info)

Prevention of collagen-induced arthritis in mice by a polyphenolic fraction from green tea. (7/2364)

Identification of common dietary substances capable of affording protection or modulating the onset and severity of arthritis may have important human health implications. An antioxidant-rich polyphenolic fraction isolated from green tea (green tea polyphenols, GTPs) has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties in experimental animals. In this study we determined the effect of oral consumption of GTP on collagen-induced arthritis in mice. In three independent experiments mice given GTP in water exhibited significantly reduced incidence of arthritis (33% to 50%) as compared with mice not given GTP in water (84% to 100%). The arthritis index also was significantly lower in GTP-fed animals. Western blot analysis showed a marked reduction in the expression of inflammatory mediators such as cyclooxygenase 2, IFN-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor alpha in arthritic joints of GTP-fed mice. Histologic and immunohistochemical analysis of the arthritic joints in GTP-fed mice demonstrated only marginal joint infiltration by IFN-gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha-producing cells as opposed to massive cellular infiltration and fully developed pannus in arthritic joints of non-GTP-fed mice. The neutral endopeptidase activity was approximately 7-fold higher in arthritic joints of non-GTP-fed mice in comparison to nonarthritic joints of unimmunized mice whereas it was only 2-fold higher in the arthritic joints of GTP-fed mice. Additionally, total IgG and type II collagen-specific IgG levels were lower in serum and arthritic joints of GTP-fed mice. Taken together our studies suggest that a polyphenolic fraction from green tea that is rich in antioxidants may be useful in the prevention of onset and severity of arthritis.  (+info)

Specific targeting of activated endothelium in rat adjuvant arthritis with a 99mTc-radiolabeled E-selectin-binding peptide. (8/2364)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the potential of an E-selectin-binding peptide (ESbp) to specifically bind activated endothelium in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) animal models. METHODS: ESbp (KYDGDITWDQLWDLMK; 2,027 daltons) was labeled with biotin and 99mTc. The affinity of ESbp derivatives for E-selectin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The binding of biotin-ESbp was compared with that of an anti-E-selectin antibody, by immunohistochemical analyses of human synovial sections and sections from the Mycoplasma pulmonis MRL-lpr/lpr mouse arthritis model. 99mTc-ESbp was sequentially imaged in vivo with a gamma camera in the rat adjuvant-induced arthritis model. RESULTS: E-selectin expression was detected in human RA synovium and mouse arthritic synovium using biotin-ESbp. Both biotin-ESbp and 99mTc-labeled ESbp had high affinity for E-selectin (dissociation constant 2-5 nM). In vivo imaging showed specific binding of 99mTc-ESbp to the rat ankle joint prior to clinical manifestations of inflammation. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that activated endothelium can be targeted with 99mTc-ESbp. The specificity of targeting can be used to evaluate up-regulation of E-selectin in RA models, and to follow changes in this up-regulation during treatment trials.  (+info)

*Bernard Fantus

The Effect of Salicylates on Experimental Arthritis in Rabbits. Chicago: American Medical Association, 1917. Fantus, Bernard. ... to strengthen New Jersey's competitive position for business and industry The effect of salicylates on experimental arthritis ... Tolu and sugar coating in the disguising of medicines Tungstates of alkaloids-An experimental pharmacologic study X‐Ray ... "Tungstates of alkaloids-An Experimental Pharmacologic Study." YMLC The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 3, no. 3 ( ...

*Regulatory B cells

"Novel suppressive function of transitional 2 B cells in experimental arthritis". Journal of Immunology. 178 (12): 7868-78. PMID ... By contrast mouse Bregs in model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) were mainly CD21 and CD23 positive. Breg were found in ... Then a role of Bregs was found in many mouse models of autoimmune diseases as rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus ... Mauri, C; Gray, D; Mushtaq, N; Londei, M (Feb 17, 2003). "Prevention of arthritis by interleukin 10-producing B cells". The ...

*Cathepsin K

... -dependent toll-like receptor 9 signaling revealed in experimental arthritis. Science, 319(5863), 624-627. Hussein, ...

*Etanercept

"Dominant-negative inhibitors of soluble TNF attenuate experimental arthritis without suppressing innate immunity to infection ... It has U.S. F.D.A. approval to treat rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis, plaque ... juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and, potentially, in a variety of other ... Moderate to Severe Polyarticular Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (May 1999) Psoriatic Arthritis (Jan 2002) Ankylosing Spondylitis ...

*ERB-26

"Suppression of the inflammatory response in experimental arthritis is mediated via estrogen receptor alpha but not estrogen ... receptor beta". Arthritis Res. Ther. 12 (3): R101. doi:10.1186/ar3032. PMC 2911889 . PMID 20497523. ...

*ERB-79

"Suppression of the inflammatory response in experimental arthritis is mediated via estrogen receptor alpha but not estrogen ... ERB-79 is active in preclinical models of arthritis. The chemical structure of ERB-79 does not appear to have been disclosed. ... receptor beta". Arthritis Res. Ther. 12 (3): R101. doi:10.1186/ar3032. PMC 2911889 . PMID 20497523. Attia DM, Ederveen AG (2012 ...

*Binding immunoglobulin protein

... molecular chaperone BiP is an autoantigen for rheumatoid arthritis and prevents the induction of experimental arthritis". ... relevance to the treatment of inflammatory arthritis". Arthritis and Rheumatism. 50 (4): 1164-71. doi:10.1002/art.20134. PMID ... Arthritis and Rheumatism. 54 (3): 854-63. doi:10.1002/art.21654. PMID 16508967. Roe ND, Ren J (March 2013). "Oxidative ... Clinical and Experimental Immunology. 165 (3): 292-300. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2249.2011.04433.x. PMC 3170978 . PMID 21671907. ...

*Tyrosine kinase 2

A role of Tyk2 in rheumatoid arthritis is directly observed in Tyk2-deficient mice that were resistant to experimental ... arthritis. Tyk2−/− mice displayed a lack of responsiveness to a small amount of IFN-α, but they respond normally to a high ...

*Electroacupuncture

"CB1 and CB2 contribute to antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of electroacupuncture on experimental arthritis of the ... and CB2 receptors contribute to antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of electroacupuncture on experimental arthritis ... "Acupuncture and electroacupuncture for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4): CD003788. doi: ... The Cochrane Collaboration also reviewed acupuncture and electroacupuncture for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Because ...

*Microfracture surgery

Arthroscopy 2(1):54-69 Key JA (1931) Experimental arthritis: The changes in joints produced by creating defects in the ...

*Gingerol

"Comparative Effects of Two Gingerol-Containing Zingiber officinale Extracts on Experimental Rheumatoid Arthritis". Journal of ... Gingerol seems to be effective in an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis. Gingerol and its analogues have a favourable ...

*Eicosanoid receptor

... of capillary permeability in inflammation and allergic responses as well as partial suppression of experimental arthritis in ... activation is critical for the development of arthritis in different animal models. PGF2α: FP-(PGF2α) (PTGFR) - PTGFR; FP is ...

*List of MeSH codes (C05)

... arthritis, experimental MeSH C05.550.114.099 --- arthritis, infectious MeSH C05.550.114.099.500 --- arthritis, reactive MeSH ... C05.550.114.145 --- arthritis, psoriatic MeSH C05.550.114.154 --- arthritis, rheumatoid MeSH C05.550.114.154.114 --- arthritis ... arthritis, psoriatic MeSH C05.116.900.845.800.150 --- arthritis, reactive MeSH C05.116.900.845.800.782 --- reiter disease MeSH ... arthritis, psoriatic MeSH C05.550.114.865.800.150 --- arthritis, reactive MeSH C05.550.114.865.800.782 --- reiter disease MeSH ...

*Laboratory rat

Current research applications include transplantation research, induced arthritis and inflammation, experimental allergic ... Drachman RH, Root RK, Wood WB Jr (1966). "Studies on the effect of experimental nonketotic diabetic mellitus on antibacterial ... The reproductive function of rats was studied at Institute for Experimental Biology at University of California, Berkeley by ... Krinke, George J. (June 15, 2000). "History, Strains and Models". The Laboratory Rat (Handbook of Experimental Animals). ...

*Effects of parasitic worms on the immune system

published their experimental findings that arthritis-induced mice infected with the parasitic worm Schistosoma mansoni had down ... describe their experimental findings that an allergic response against peanuts is inhibited in mice infected with an intestinal ... This led to resistance to arthritis. In 2007, Dr. Jorge Correale et al. studied the effects of parasitic infection on multiple ... 2008). "Schistosoma mansoni infection reduces severity of collagen-induced arthritis via down-regulation of pro-inflammatory ...

*Enzyme potentiated desensitization

Despite encouraging results in an experimental model of rheumatoid arthritis the company was placed into liquidation in April ... EPD is considered experimental by some doctors and allergists. However, there is evidence for the efficacy of EPD in the ... EPD treatment of rheumatoid arthritis proof of concept results on Epidyme website use of EPD to treat autoimmune diseases. ...

*Anakinra

... which is already used for rheumatoid arthritis in experimental studies of stroke: MRI scans revealed that the rats that were ... from rheumatoid arthritis to adult-onset Still's disease and systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis". Expert Opin ... also known as Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) or Still's Disease. A 2005 article published in Arthritis & Rheumatism ... Among 5,300 rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with anakinra in clinical trials for a mean of 15 months (approximately 6,400 ...

*Infliximab

These experimental mice develop arthritis as a result of their production of human TNF-α, and when administered after disease ... It was approved for treating ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis. Infliximab is also ... psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. It is used off-label outside its FDA approval for ... psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. Only its use in rheumatoid arthritis requires the concomitant use of ...

*HNRNPA2B1

... by RNA Interference-Mediated Silencing of Heterogeneous Nuclear RNP A2/B1 in Two Experimental Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis". ... HnRNPA2B1 is an autoantigen in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and mixed ... Arthritis & Rheumatology. 67: 2536-2546. doi:10.1002/art.39223. PMID 26017221. Kentaro I, Shinji K, Shoko U, Akihito M, Nozomi ...

*CCL8

2010). "Genetic variants of CC chemokine genes in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid ... arthritis". Genes Immun. 11 (2): 142-54. doi:10.1038/gene.2009.82. PMID 19865101. Xie Z, Zhang J, Wu J, et al. (2008). " ...

*Inflammatory reflex

Evidence from experimental disease models of arthritis, colitis, sepsis, hemorrhagic shock, and congestive heart failure ...

*Mesobuthus eupeus

... eupeus has anti-inflammatory properties and is effective as an anti-arthritis treatment in an experimental rat model, but the ... venom in adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats" (PDF). Archives of Razi Institute. 64 (1): 51-56. Ozkan, O.; Kat, I. (Oct 30, 2005 ...

*Bath salts

"Dead Sea bath salts for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis". Clinical and experimental rheumatology. 8 (4): 353-357. PMID ... Researchers have also studied their use in treating arthritis. Bath fizzies are material products designed to effervesce in ...

*Poseltinib

... (HM71224, LY3337641) is an experimental Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis ... Phase II clinical trials began in August 2016 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Additional phase II trials are planned for ...

*Sandra Saouaf

... is an American immunologist who researches autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, ... Experimental and Molecular Pathology. 83 (3): 283-295. doi:10.1016/j.yexmp.2007.08.014. Saouaf, Sandra J; Brennan, Patrick J; ... Experimental and Molecular Pathology. 87 (2): 99-104. doi:10.1016/j.yexmp.2009.06.003. Friedman, Sally (8 July 2014). " ... "Deacetylase inhibition increases regulatory T cell function and decreases incidence and severity of collagen-induced arthritis ...

*PSMD7

Several experimental and clinical studies have indicated that aberrations and deregulations of the UPS contribute to the ... Lastly, autoimmune disease patients with SLE, Sjogren's syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) predominantly exhibit ...
Studies in IL-6-deficient (IL-6-/-) mice highlight that IL-6 contributes to arthritis progression. However, the molecular mechanism controlling its activity in vivo remains unclear. Using an experimental arthritis model in IL-6-/- mice, we have established a critical role for the soluble IL-6R in joint inflammation. Although intra-articular administration of IL-6 itself was insufficient to reconstitute arthritis within these mice, a soluble IL-6R-IL-6 fusion protein (HYPER-IL-6) restored disease activity. Histopathological assessment of joint sections demonstrated that HYPER-IL-6 increased arthritis severity and controlled intrasynovial mononuclear leukocyte recruitment through the CC-chemokine CCL2. Activation of synovial fibroblasts by soluble IL-6R and IL-6 emphasized that these cells may represent the source of CCL2 in vivo. Specific blockade of soluble IL-6R signaling in wild-type mice using soluble gp130 ameliorated disease. Consequently, soluble IL-6R-mediated signaling represents a ...
Methods Expression levels of Mincle mRNA was determined in inflamed paws from hTNFtg and IL1-/-IL6-/-hTNFtg mice by qPCR. To study the role of mincle deficiency in experimental arthritis, we generated mincle-/-hTNFtg mice as well as their hTNFtg littermates. Mice were weekly assessed for clinical signs of arthritis from week 4 to 11 after birth. We quantitatively analysed inflammatory joint destruction in H&E, TRAP and TB stained sections from hind paws. The effect of mincledeficiency was also evaluated in the K/BxN serum transfer model. Therefore, mincle-/- and mincle+/+ mice received i.v. injections of K/BxN serum on day 1 and day 3. Animals were assessed from day1 to 12 for clinical signs of arthritis. Quantitative histopathological analysis were performed as above mentioned in hind paws.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of Notch signalling ameliorates experimental inflammatory arthritis. AU - Park, Jong Sung. AU - Kim, Seol Hee. AU - Kim, Kwang Meyung. AU - Jin, Cheng Hao. AU - Choi, Ki Young. AU - Jang, Jiyeon. AU - Choi, Yuri. AU - Gwon, A. Ryeong. AU - Baik, Sang Ha. AU - Yun, Ui Jeong. AU - Chae, Su Young. AU - Lee, Seulki. AU - Kang, Young Mo. AU - Lee, Kang Choon. AU - Arumugam, Thiruma V.. AU - Mattson, Mark P.. AU - Park, Jae Hyung. AU - Jo, Dong Gyu. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Objective: To test the hypothesis that Notch signalling plays a role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to determine whether pharmacological inhibition of Notch signalling with γ-secretase inhibitors can ameliorate the RA disease process in an animal model.Methods Collagen-induced arthritis was induced in C57BL/6 or Notch antisense transgenic mice by immunisation with chicken type II collagen (CII). C57BL/6 mice were administered with different doses of inhibitors of ...
The use of regulatory or immature dendritic cells (DCs) as tools for modulating experimental rheumatoid arthritis is very recent. TNF-stimulated DCs have been shown to restore tolerance in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA).. Objective: We investigated the capacity of short-term lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated DCs pulsed with type-II collagen (CII) to induce tolerance against established CIA.. Methods: Bone marrow-derived DCs were generated in the presence of GM-CSF. After CIA induction, mice were injected at day 35 with a single dose of 4- or 24-hour LPS-stimulated DCs that had been loaded with CII (CII/DCs, 4hLPS/CII/DCs or 24hLPS/CII/DCs). Arthritis progression was monitored by clinical and histologic evaluations.. Results Flow cytometry of 4hLPS/CII/DCs showed intermediate CD40 and CD86 expression, lower than that of 24hLPS/CII/DCs (fully mature) and higher than that of CII/DCs (immature). A functional assay showed that 4hLPS/CII/DCs display ...
Experimental Arthritis: ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.
Most antirheumatic therapies are given systemically, which may result in complications because of the high dosage needed to achieve therapeutic levels in the joints. Gene therapy might provide a more efficient system to deliver therapeutic compounds at the site of inflammation. The artificial chromosome expression system (ACes) is a unique, nonintegrating, nonviral gene-expression system, which functions like a natural chromosome. This technology offers advantages over current expression systems because it allows stable expression of genes producing single or multiple proteins over long periods. We are developing ex vivo gene therapy using artificial chromosomes containing reporter genes (LacZ or RFP) for local delivery of genes in rats with adjuvant arthritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the transfection efficiency in cell lines or primary cells, including rat skin fibroblasts (RSFs) and fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs). Furthermore, we investigated the feasibility of local ...
There is considerable evidence implicating tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. This evidence is based not only on the universal presence of TNF-alpha in arthritic joints accompanied by the upregulation of TNF-alpha receptors but also on the effects of neutralizing TNF-alpha in joint cell cultures. Thus, neutralization of TNF-alpha in vitro results in inhibition of the production of interleukin 1, which like TNF-alpha, is believed to contribute to joint inflammation and erosion. To determine the validity of this concept in vivo, the effect of administering TNF-neutralizing antibodies to mice with collagen-induced arthritis has been studied. This disease model was chosen because of its many immunological and pathological similarities to human rheumatoid arthritis. TN3-19.12, a hamster IgG1 monoclonal antibody to murine TNF-alpha/beta, was injected i.p. into mice either before the onset of arthritis or after the establishment of clinical disease. Anti-TNF
It has been demonstrated that pterostilbene inhibits reactive oxygen species production in neutrophils in vitro. However, little is known about its effects on neutrophils during inflammation in vivo. In this study, the effect of pterostilbene on neutrophil activity was investigated in experimental arthritis model. Lewis rats were injected by a single intradermal injection of heat-killed Mycobacterium butyricum in Freunds adjuvant to develop arthritis. Another group of arthritic animals received pterostilbene 30mg/kg, daily, p.o. The number and activity of neutrophils in blood were measured on a weekly basis during the whole experiment. Moreover, the total radical trapping potential in plasma was measured at the end of the experiment. In the pterostilbene treated arthritic group, the treatment significantly lowered the number of neutrophils in blood on days 14 and 21 without significant downregulation of neutrophil oxidative burst. Pterostilbene nonsignificantly increased total radical trapping ...
A rapid and synchronized alternative to the CIA and K/BxN models that reduces variability, eliminates the need for expensive colonies and conserves test compound, controls and vivarium space.
Incidence and severity of K/BxN serum transfer-induced arthritis are not reduced in IL-36 receptor (R) knockout (KO) mice. Incidence of arthritis (A), arthritis
In humans and in animal models, susceptibility to arthritis is under complex genetic control, reflecting influences on the immunological processes that initiate autoimmunity and on subsequent inflammatory mechanisms in the joints. The effector phases are conveniently modeled by the K/BxN serum transfer system, a robust model well suited for genetic analysis where arthritis is initiated by pathogenic Ig. Here, we mapped the genetic loci distinguishing the high-responder BALB/c vs. low-responder SJL strains. After computational modeling of potential breeding schemes, we adapted a stepwise selective breeding strategy, with a whole-genome scan performed on a limited number of animals. Several genomic regions proved significantly associated with high sensitivity to arthritis. One of these regions, on distal chr2, was centered on the interleukin 1 gene family. Quantitation of transcripts of the Il1a and Il1b candidate genes revealed a 10-fold greater induction of Il1b mRNA in BALB/c than in SJL
Second, in order to investigate whether other MHC genes also contribute to arthritis susceptibility, we assessed arthritis development in congenic strains mapped to other parts of the MHC region. We identified a second arthritis-regulatory QTL in the MHC class III region, that regulates not only the onset and severity, but also chronicity of arthritis. We subsequently mapped this effect to a conserved, 33-kb large haplotype Ltab-Ncr3 comprising five polymorphic genes. Interestingly, unlike other positionally-identified arthritis genes in rats, Ltab-Ncr3 regulates only adjuvant arthritis models but not autoimmunity triggered by specific tissue antigens, such as type II collagen. Furthermore, we found that gene expression and alternative splicing of the Ltab-Ncr3 genes correlate remarkably with arthritis severity and some of the gene expression differences were reproduced in a cohort of RA patients and healthy controls ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Peptide analogues of disease-associated epitopes were studied for inhibition of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) and adjuvant arthritis (AA) in Lewis rats. EAE- and AA-associated analogues were selected as competitors because of their in vitro inhibitory activity on proliferation of encephalitogenic and arthritogenic T cells. Although the EAE-associated competitor had a superior major histocompatibility complex (MHC) binding affinity, the AA-associated competitor was a better inhibitor of the in vitro proliferation of arthritogenic T cells. Furthermore, although in vivo EAE was inhibited by both competitors, AA was only inhibited by the AA-associated competitor. Remarkably, in contrast to what was expected of a regular MHC competitor peptide, the AA-associated peptide analogue also prevented AA upon immunization before disease induction and appeared to induce T cell responses that crossreacted with the original disease-associated epitope. Therefore, it is concluded that ...
In collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) of mouse, self-reactive T cells recognize a peptide antigen from type II collagen (CII). CII is of particular interest, as an autoimmune response to this protein leads to CIA in mice, rats, and primates. Activation of T cells is believed to be an important pathogenic factor in autoimmune disease. So, T cells have become a focal point of study for the development of novel therapeutic approaches to the treatment of autoimmune disease. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and mechanism of recombinant MHC II molecules in regulation of the antigen-specific T cell clones by using mouse I-Aq, combined with an auto-antigen peptide from type II collagen (CII260-274) in CIA model. It was found that recombinant I-Aq/CII260-274 molecules not only activate CII-specific T cell clone but also inhibit the same clone in vitro according to the condition of stimulation. Furthermore, development of CIA in mice was successfully prevented by the in vivo injection of a ...
Abs to the α-chain of the IL-2 receptor (anti-CD25) are used clinically to achieve immunosuppression. Here we investigated the effects of DNA vaccination with the whole CD25 gene on the induction of rat adjuvant arthritis. The DNA vaccine protected the rats and led to a shift in the cytokine profile of T cells responding to disease target antigens from Th1 to Th2. The mechanism of protection was found to involve the induction of an antiergotypic response, rather than the induction of anti-CD25 Abs. Antiergotypic T cells respond to activation molecules, ergotopes, expressed on syngeneic activated, but not resting, T cells. CD25-derived peptides function as ergotopes that can be recognized by the antiergotypic T cells. Antiergotypic T cells taken from control sick rats did not proliferate against activated T cells and secreted mainly IFN-γ. In contrast, antiergotypic cells from CD25-DNA-protected rats proliferated against activated T cells and secreted mainly IL-10. Protective antiergotypic T ...
Animals, Antibodies; Monoclonal/pharmacology, Antigen-Antibody Complex/immunology, Arthritis; Experimental/genetics/*immunology, Collagen Type II/immunology, Comparative Study, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Immunoglobulin G/*metabolism, Macrophages; Peritoneal/*immunology, Mice, Mice; Mutant Strains, Receptors; IgG/antagonists & inhibitors/genetics/*metabolism, Research Support; Non-U.S. Govt ...
Rhomboid family member 2 gene (Rhbdf2) is an inactive homologue lacking essential catalytic residues of rhomboid intramembrane serine proteases. The protein is necessary for maturation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) converting enzyme, which is the molecule responsible for the release of TNF-α. In this study, Rhbdf2 knockout (KO) mice were produced by CRISPR/CAS9. To see the effects of the failure of TNF-α release induced by Rhbdf2 gene KO, collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), which is the representative TNF-α related disease, was induced in the Rhbdf2 mutant mouse using chicken collagen type II. The severity of the CIA was measured by traditional clinical scores and histopathological analysis of hind limb joints. A rota-rod test and grip strength test were employed to evaluate the severity of CIA based on losses of physical functions. The results indicated that Rhbdf2 mutant mice showed clear alleviation of the clinical severity of CIA as demonstrated by the significantly lower severity ...
A risk score encompassing clinical characteristics, serologic findings, and imaging tests could be used to predict which antibody-positive patients are likely to go on to develop rheumatoid arthritis,
Mediators of Inflammation is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles on all types of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules.
These findings raise the important question of why TNFα blockade is effective in reducing disease activity despite increasing numbers of Th1 and Th17 cells. To address this question, we used an adoptive transfer system established previously (15) to confirm that the expanded Th1/Th17 cells were potentially pathogenic. Spleen and LN cells from arthritic mice treated for 10-14 d with anti-TNFα mAb or control Ab were pooled and injected into CB-17 SCID mice (5 × 107 cells/mouse or 107 cells/mouse). The SCID recipients were also injected i.p. with 100 μg of type II collagen without adjuvant, which is required for the successful transfer of arthritis (15). The proportion of LN cells to spleen cells was ∼1:10 and was identical in both anti-TNFα-treated and control groups.. Transfer of 5 × 107 cells from either anti-TNFα-treated or control mice led to efficient transfer of arthritis, although onset of arthritis was much earlier when donor cells were derived from anti-TNFα-treated mice (Fig. ...
The 60 kDa heat shock protein (HSP60) has been reported to influence T-cell responses in two ways: as a ligand of toll-like receptor 2 signalling and as an antigen. Here we describe a new mechanism of T-cell immuno-regulation focused on HSP60: HSP60 is up-regulated and presented by activated T cells (HSP60 is an ergotope) to regulatory (anti-ergotypic) T cells. Presentation of HSP60 by activated T cells was found to be MHC-restricted and dependent on accessory molecules - CD28, CD80 and CD86. Anti-ergotypic T cells responded to T-cell HSP60 by proliferation and secreted IFNγ and TGFβ1. In vitro, the anti-ergotypic T cells inhibited IFNγ production by their activated T-cell targets. In vivo, adoptive transfer of an anti-ergotypic HSP60-specific T-cell line led to decreased secretion of IFNγ by arthritogenic T cells and ameliorated adjuvant arthritis (AA). Thus, the presentation of HSP60 by activated T cells turns them into targets for anti-ergotypic regulatory T cells specific for HSP60. ...
(a)-(c) Typical histological appearance of CIA mouse paws: (a) severe inflammatory cellular infiltration-synovitis and pannus formation; (b) bone and cartil
BioAssay record AID 184149 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of streptococcal cell wall-washed arthritis model in rats at 30.0 mg/kg peroral dose.
Connect with 24+ autoimmune and chronic pain nonprofits to learn about their resources for you and your family. Build awareness for autoimmune arthritis!
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
引用Abcams Anti-Collagen III抗体[FH-7A] (ab6310)的参考文献列表。为您列举引用本产品的发表文章,并提供信息包括论文文献数据库中的检索编号以便您搜寻文章
In this issue, we offer a Q&A between the most recent Past Chair of the Joint Section, Mike Groff, and John Ratliff. We will try to continue to interview each o
Ordem Bactrim Online AGORA a preço de desconto! A nossa oferta Rx Farmácia Online baratos Bactrim sem prescrição com entrega rápida em todo o mundo.
Najlepsze hotele 3-gwiazdkowe w Hualianie na TripAdvisor: setki opinii podróżnych, ceny noclegów, oferty i zdjęcia hoteli 3-gwiazdkowych w Hualianie, Tajwan.
Abstract: To evaluate the effect of methotrexate on collagen-induced arthritis, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histopathological analyses were used in male Wistar rats. Rats were divided randomly into three groups. Group 1 was treated with 0.9% saline, and groups 2 and 3 were boosted with type Ⅱ collagen. From day 21 to 42, groups 1 and 2 were orally treated with 0.9% saline and group 3 was orally treated with 1.5 mg/kg methotrexate. All rats were sacrificed at day 42 after the first collagen treatment. Micro-CT analyses showed bony parameters, such as bone volume and trabecular number, were decreased in group 2 compared to group 1, and these parameters were recovered in group 3. Histopathological examination and pathological parameter scoring showed that the knee joints of rats in group 2 had severe joint destruction, showing cartilage and bone erosion, enlarged cavities with inflammatory cell infiltration and activation of synovial fibroblasts. By contrast, these changes were ...
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease, which is characterized by inflammation of synovial joints leading to the destruction of cartilage and bone. Infiltrating mast cells can be found within the inflamed synovial tissue, however their role in disease pathogenesis is unclear. Therefore we have studied the role of mast cells during different phases of experimental arthritis. We induced collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), the most frequently used animal model of arthritis, in an inducible mast cell knock-out mouse and determined the effect of mast cell depletion on the development and severity of arthritis. Depletion of mast cells in established arthritis did not affect clinical outcome. However, depletion of mast cells during the preclinical phase resulted in a significant reduction in arthritis. This reduction coincided with a decrease in circulating CD4+ T cells and inflammatory monocytes but not in the collagen-specific antibody levels. Mast cell depletion resulted in reduced
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anti-inflammatory effects of licorice and roasted licorice extracts on TPA-induced acute inflammation and collagen-induced arthritis in mice. AU - Chung, Won Yoon. AU - Kim, Ki Rim. AU - Jeong, Chan Kwon. AU - Park, Kwang Kyun. AU - Choi, Jong Hoon. AU - Park, Jung Han Yoon. AU - Lim, Soon Sung. PY - 2010/5/6. Y1 - 2010/5/6. N2 - The anti-inflammatory activity of licorice (LE) and roated licorice (rLE) extracts determined in the murine phorbol ester-induced acute inflammation model and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model of human rheumatoid arthritis. rLE possessed greater activity than LE in inhibiting phorbol ester-induced ear edema. Oral administration of LE or rLE reduced clinical arthritis score, paw swelling, and histopathological changes in a murine CIA. LE and rLE decreased the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in serum and matrix metalloproteinase-3 expression in the joints. Cell proliferation and cytokine secretion in response to type II collagen or ...
IL-17 is implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and has previously been shown to be induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in vitro. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of TNF inhibition on IL-17 production in collagen-induced arthritis, a model of RA. TNF blockade using TNFR-Fc fusion protein or anti-TNF monoclonal antibody reduced arthritis severity but, unexpectedly, expanded populations of Th1 and Th17 cells, which were shown by adoptive transfer to be pathogenic. Th1 and Th17 cell populations were also expanded in collagen-immunized TNFR p55(-/-) but not p75(-/-) mice. The expression of IL-12/IL-23 p40 was up-regulated in lymph nodes (LN) from p55(-/-) mice, and the expansion of Th1/Th17 cells was abrogated by blockade of p40. Treatment of macrophages with rTNF also inhibited p40 production in vitro. These findings indicate that at least one of the ways in which TNF regulates Th1/Th17 responses in arthritis is by down-regulating the expression of p40. Finally,
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease mediated by T cells. Collagen type II (CII) is one of the autoantigens associated with RA. CII263-272 is a predominant CII antigenic peptide that can induce T-cell activation upon binding to MHC and interaction with the appropriate T-cell receptor (TCR). Altered CII263-272 peptides with substitution of specific amino acids could bind to RA-associated HLA-DR4/1 with no T cell stimulating effects and could inhibit T cell activation in RA. We performed this study to evaluate the effect of mucosal administration and to explore the mechanism of the inhibitory effect of altered CII263-272 peptide (267Q A, 270K A and 271G A) on collagen induced arthritis (CIA). CIA was induced in Lewis rats by immunization with bovine CII. Altered CII263-272 peptide was given intranasally beginning from arthritis onset. Wild CII263-272 peptide or PBS was administered as controls. Therapeutic effects were evaluated by arthritis scores, body weight ...
Recently, therapy with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) has been attempted to relieve rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and reconstruct cartilage injury. However, treatment has been unsuccessful in complete prevention of persistent cartilage destruction and resulted in inferior outcomes of cartilage regeneration. Scaffolds are an important construct in the field of cartilage tissue engineering, but their role in arthritis treatment has not yet been fully examined. Here, we transplanted two types of scaffold-assisted BMMSCs: fibrin gel- and poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide)−poly(ethylene glycol)−poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA−PEG−PLGA) hydrogel-assisted BMMSCs referred as FGB and HGB groups, respectively, into subchondral defects for the treatment of antigen-induced arthritis. The administration of exogenous BMMSCs ameliorated joint swelling and decreased both joint surface temperature and inflammatory cytokine levels in both groups. Immune cell composition of the inflammation of surrounding
Objectives: To establish if changes in Th1/Th17 cell populations previously reported in experimental arthritis occur in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) agents, and whether the therapeutic response to anti-TNFα is compromised in patients and mice because of elevated Th17/IL-17 levels. Finally, to assess the efficacy of combined blockade of anti-TNFα and anti-IL-17 in experimental arthritis. Methods: A longitudinal study of two independent cohorts (cohort 1, n=24; cohort 2, n=19) of patients with RA treated with anti-TNFα biological agents was carried out to assess their Th17/IL-17 levels before and after the start of anti-TNFá therapy. IL-12/23p40 production was assessed in plasma Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and monocytes. Mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) were treated with anti-TNFα alone, anti-IL17 alone or a combination of the two. Efficacy of treatment and response was assessed from changes in Disease Activity Score 28
In countries where parasitic infections are endemic, autoimmune disease is relatively rare, leading to the hypothesis that parasite-derived immunomodulators may protect against its development. Consistent with this, we have previously demonstrated that ES-62, a 62 kDa phosphorylcholine (PC)-containing glycoprotein that is secreted by filarial nematodes, can exert anti-inflammatory action in the murine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model and human rheumatoid arthritis-derived synovial tissue cultures. As a first step to developing ES-62-based drugs, the aim of this study was to determine whether the PC-moiety of ES-62 was responsible for its anti-inflammatory actions. We compared the anti-inflammatory activity of a PC-free form of recombinant ES-62 (rES-62) and a synthetic PC-ovalbumin conjugate (OVA-PC) with that of native ES-62 in the CIA model and synovial tissues from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Results: The anti-inflammatory actions of ES-62 in CIA appear to be dependent on the PC ...
article{418b5550-2321-4395-ab0c-946f90945ceb, abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To characterize the arthritis-modulating effects of 3 non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in rat experimental arthritis in the disease-resistant E3 strain, and to investigate the disease-modulating effects of the MHC region (RT1) in various genetic backgrounds. METHODS: A congenic fragment containing Ncf1 along with congenic fragments containing the strongest remaining loci, Pia5/Cia3 and Pia7/Cia13 on chromosome 4, were transferred from the arthritis-susceptible DA strain into the background of the completely resistant E3 strain. The arthritis-regulatory potential of the transferred alleles was evaluated by comparing the susceptibility to experimental arthritis in congenic rats with that in E3 rats. The RT1(u) haplotype from the E3 strain was transferred into the susceptible DA strain (RT1(av1)), and various F(1) and F(2) hybrids were generated to assess the effects of RT1 on arthritis ...
Background A long-term existing schistosome infection can certainly help in keeping immuno-homeostasis, thus providing protection against various types of autoimmune diseases to the infected sponsor. human rheumatoid arthritis. Illness by Schistosoma japonicum significantly reduced the severity and the incidence of experimental autoimmune collagen-induced arthritis. However, this beneficial effect can only be provided by a pre-established acute stage of illness but not by a pre-established early stage of the illness. The safety against collagen-induced arthritis correlated with reduced levels of anti-collagen II IgG, especially the subclass of IgG2a. Moreover, in safeguarded mice increased levels of IL-4 were present at the time of collagen II injection together with sustained higher IL-4 levels during the course of arthritis development. In contrast, in unprotected mice minimal levels of IL-4 were ITF2357 present at the initial stage of collagen II challenge together with lack of IL-4 induction ...
Human Rheumatoid Arthritis powerpoint presentation slides is available for free download uploaded in belonging ppt presentation Health & Wellness category, Download and Use!
B cells have a central role in the pathogenesis of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), an animal model of the autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis. In this report, a specific subset of an innate type of B cells, B-1 B cells, have been studied for the involvement in CIA. The B-1 B cells were shown to produce small amounts of collagen-specific antibodies upon stimulation in vitro, suggesting that they play a minor role in the development of CIA. This report also includes how marginal zone B cells, another innate type of B cells with natural collagen-reactivity, can be identified in the medullary sinuses of lymph nodes of collagen-immunized mice, implying involvement in auto antigen trapping. ...
Y-320 is an orally active immunomodulator, and inhibits IL-17 production by CD4 T cells stimulated with IL-15 with IC50 of 20 to 60 nM. Y-320 also inhibits the production of IFN-γ and TNF-α by mouse CD4 T cells stimulated with IL-15, CXCL12, and anti-CD3 mAb. Y-320 (0.3-3 mg/kg p.o.) ameliorates collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in Mice with a reduction of IL-17 mRNA in arthritic joints, and also shows therapeutic effects on CIA in cynomolgus monkeys. Moreover, Y-320 shows a synergistic effect in combination with anti-TNF-α mAb on chronic-progressing CIA in mice. "Selleck Chemicals Y-320, IL-17 Inhibitor". 26 Sep 2014. Ushio H, et al. (2013). "A new phenylpyrazoleanilide, y-320, inhibits interleukin 17 production and ameliorates collagen-induced arthritis in mice and cynomolgus monkeys". Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 7 (1): 1-17. doi:10.3390/ph7010001. PMC 3915191 . PMID 24366113 ...
Therapeutic Treatment of Arthritic Mice with 15-Deoxy Δ12,14-Prostaglandin J2 15d-PGJ2 Ameliorates Disease through the Suppression of Th17 Cells and the Induction of CD4 CD25−FOXP3 Cells. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Elevated expression of LL-37 and its activating protease have been described in RA patients (6, 64), and mechanistic studies are beginning to unravel the role of LL-37 in this disease. Periarticular osteopenia is a common finding among patients with RA (65), and LL-37 induces apoptosis of osteoblasts, which could contribute to reduced bone formation in arthritic joints (7). Furthermore, a recent report characterized elevated expression of LL-37 primarily in the osteoclasts and granulocytes within the human RA synovium (66). Using a pristane-induced arthritis model in rats, upregulation of rCRAMP, the rat ortholog of LL-37, was demonstrated in granulocytes, macrophages, and γδ T cells of synovial fluid. Importantly, transfer of pristane-exposed neutrophils induced arthritis, whereas type I IFN or autoantibody responses in control rats did not (66). This suggests that LL-37 may contribute to arthritis development, but further studies are needed to clarify its role.. An association between ...
Phasic changes in the immune response were observed in rats and mice with adjuvant disease: stimulation of antibody formation on the seventh day after injection of Freunds complete adjuvant (FCA)...
We have now previously reported a rise in interleukin (IL)-oneβ and IL-17 amounts, along with a ongoing activation of caspase-1 in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. These success recommend that medications concentrating on IL-1β regulatory pathways, Together with tumor necrosis variable (TNF), may perhaps constitute promising therapeutic agents in early RA. We have just lately utilized a THP-one macrophage-like mobile line to screen 2320 compounds for those who down-regulate both of those IL-1β and TNF secretion. Celastrol was one of the most promising therapeutic candidates determined in that review. Our major aim within the existing get the job done was to research no matter whether administration of celastrol can attenuate inflammation in a very rat design of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA). Additionally, since IL-1β is thought to Perform a task within the polarization of Th17 cells, we also investigate irrespective of whether administration of digoxin, a specific inhibitor of ...
The application of tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) is a major breakthrough in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). While the anti-inflammatory nature of TNFi is thought to contribute to the therapeutic effects, recent data show that the pharmacology of TNF- blockade is probably...
Background The systems underlying tolerance maintenance and induction in autoimmune arthritis stay elusive. to na?ve rodents ameliorated the advancement of CII-induced joint disease. Bottom line Our data recommend that endogenous display of the CII-peptide on N cells can be one of the essential members to joint disease patience induction and maintenance. Electronic ancillary materials The online edition of this content (doi:10.1186/s13075-016-1037-7) contains supplementary materials, which is obtainable to authorized users. IgG ELISA Heat-killed L37Ra (Difco,?BD Biosciences,?Franklin Ponds, New Shirt,?USA) 0.4?mg/ml was dissolved in carbonate barrier, and filtered through a 22?m Millipore filtration system. A 96-well dish (Nunc Maxisorp) was covered with 100?d per good of the option and incubated in 4?C further and overnight blocked with PBS with BSA 1?%, Tween 1?%. The serum was serially diluted from 1:8 to 1:512 and the dish was incubated at 4?C overnight. Biotinylated goat anti-mouse IgG ...
Stem cell-derived tissue- associated regulatory T cells ameliorate the development of autoimmune arthritis. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The other day I was talking with my aunt about her severe arthritis. She kept mentioning that her hands and knees were really bothering her and no matter what she tried, she could get no relief.
WASHINGTON - Some of the worlds largest drugmakers will face an uphill battle next week in their bid to revive a class of experimental arthritis drugs that have been sidelined by safety concerns for nearly two years.. The Food and Drug Administration says there is a clear association between the nerve-blocking medications and incidences of joint failure that led the agency to halt studies of the drugs in 2010. However, the agency also notes that those side effects were less common when the drugs were used at lower doses, potentially leaving the door open for future use. The agency released its safety analysis ahead of a public meeting next week where outside experts will discuss the drugs safety.. On Monday, Pfizer Inc., Johnson & Johnson and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals will make their case to continue studies of the drugs, with safety precautions to protect patients.. The request to restart testing is unusual, since drugmakers often abandon research on experimental drugs that appear to have ...
New data raising safety concerns for Pfizer Incs experimental arthritis drug sent its shares down 3 percent, while lifting shares of rival drugmaker Abbott Laboratories, analysts said.
The present study was conducted to assess the anti-rheumatic therapeutic potential of IL-18 neutralization, by investigating the effect of blocking endogenous IL-18 in an experimental model of rheumatoid arthritis. Two distinct IL-18 neutralizing reagents were administered therapeutically to mice with CIA. Our results clearly demonstrate that blocking endogenous IL-18 after disease onset significantly decreases the clinical symptoms of arthritis, and, more importantly, that this therapeutic approach protects joints from further destruction. The disease-modifying property of the treatment was demonstrated by a significant decrease in cartilage erosion scores and reduction of the levels of COMP in the serum. Neutralization of IL-18 with the antibody, at the single concentration investigated, consistently and significantly reduced all parameters studied, i.e., visual clinical scores, paw swelling, cartilage degradation, levels of serum COMP, and IL-6.. A dose-finding study using rhIL-18BP revealed ...
Interpretation of experimental data from genetically aberrant mice is complicated by the impact of a single mutation on many aspects of a complex biological system. The use of mice with defects in the Kit-KitL axis to study the role of MCs exemplifies this problem, since Kit is expressed by both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells and mutant mice demonstrate phenotypic abnormalities extending beyond MC deficiency. Recent studies have raised the concern that these abnormalities may limit the utility of Kit mutants as useful tools for experimental MC biology, calling into question multiple findings from the MC literature (7, 8, 14).. Using IgG-mediated K/BxN arthritis as a disease model, we undertook to evaluate the suggestion that findings generated using Kit mutants fail to accurately reflect MC function. We and others have previously used MC knockin mice to identify a role for these cells in arthritis, identifying thereby roles for MC Fc receptors, the C5a receptor, c-Jun N-terminal kinase ...
Feeling JOINT SWELLING while using ZOCOR? JOINT SWELLING Causes, Patient Concerns and Latest Treatments and ZOCOR Reports and Side Effects.
Feeling JOINT SWELLING while using Dilaudid? JOINT SWELLING Causes, Patient Concerns and Latest Treatments and Dilaudid Reports and Side Effects.
Abstract The transcription factor NF-kappaB is a pivotal regulator of inflammatory responses. While the activation of NF-kappaB in the arthritic joint has been associated with rheu..
Abcam provides specific protocols for Anti-Collagen I antibody [COL-1] (ab6308) : Immunohistochemistry protocols, Immunocytochemistry & immunofluorescence…
NEW YORK - The Food and Drug Administration has postponed its decision whether or not to approve an experimental arthritis drug made by Pfizer, the drug maker said. Pfizer said the FDA had extended its action date for the drug tofacitinib by three months, to Nov. 21, because additional analyses of data that the company submitted constituted a major amendment to Pfizers regulatory application and will require additional time to review.
Free resource for searching and exporting immune epitopes. Includes more than 95% of all published infectious disease, allergy, autoimmune, and transplant epitope data.
Introduction The pleiotropic cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of different illnesses, including arthritis rheumatoid (RA). Therapeutic impact was evaluated inside a human being IL-6-induced severe stage response model in the same varieties, and in a collagen-induced joint disease (CIA) model in rhesus monkeys, using tocilizumab as positive control. Outcomes ALX-0061 was made to confer the required pharmacological properties. A 200-collapse increase of focus on affinity was acquired through affinity maturation from the parental site. The high affinity SB 431542 for sIL-6R (0.19 pM) translated to a concentration-dependent and full neutralization of sIL-6R affinity and potency was demonstrated. Albumin DNAJC15 binding as a half-life extension technology resulted in describable SB 431542 and expected pharmacokinetics. Strong IL-6R engagement was shown to translate to effect in non-human primates, exhibited via biomarker deregulation as well as clinical ...
Report says interrogations were more brutal than CIA had said and it misled Congress and White House about its activities; agency disputes reports conclusions
Trust Readers Digest to provide you accurate information on arthritis symptoms, treatment, building the perfect diet, and pain relief.
Trust Readers Digest to provide you accurate information on arthritis symptoms, treatment, building the perfect diet, and pain relief.
Kremowy żel do mycia ciała marki Sylveco delikatnie myje i pielęgnuje, wspomaga regenerację skóry oraz chroni przed wysuszeniem. Jest hypoalergiczny.
Pojęcia takie jak biotechnologia, teoria gier czy fraktale na stałe weszły do artystycznego słownika. Twórcy wykorzystują osiągnięcia naukowe: poszerzają definicje, wyzyskują matematyczne paradoksy i antynomie.
Jostra Bently part numbers 311033-000 C130S C330S C440S C120S 341233-000 341244-000 C-480S 331033-000 321444-000 C330S 301009-000 341333-000 341333-000 SFC10 342333-000
Definícia pre hľadané cudzie slovo haematotoxicus, haemotoxicus - hematotoxický, hemotoxický, týkajúci sa krvných jedov alebo poškodenia krvotvorného tkaniva jedmi...
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE Morus bombycis Koidzumi is widely distributed in Asia. In Korea, it has been used in traditional medicine because of its apparent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties. AIM OF THE STUDY Although the extract of Morus bombycis Koidzumi (MB) has long since been used as a traditional anti-inflammatory medicine in Korea, its effect on arthritis remains unknown. We aimed to investigate the anti-arthritis activity of MB and the mechanism underlying it. MATERIALS AND METHODS The anti-arthritis activity of MB was assessed by using mouse models of type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). The clinical arthritis index and histopathological changes were evaluated in mice. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), and other biologic approaches were used for measuring the effect of MB on arthritis and understanding the underlying mechanism. RESULTS MB significantly decreased the clinical
INTRODUCTION: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease that mainly affects synovial joints. Biologics directed against tumor-necrosis-factor (TNF)-alpha are efficacious in the treatment of RA. However, the role of TNF receptor-1 (TNFR1) in mediating the TNFalpha effects in RA has not been elucidated and conflicting data exist in experimental arthritis models. The objective is to investigate the role of TNFR1 in the synovial lining cells (SLC) and the reticuloendothelial system (RES) during experimental arthritis. METHODS: Third generation of adenovirus serotype 5 were either injected locally in the knee joint cavity or systemically by intravenous injection into the retro-orbital venous sinus to specifically target SLC and RES, respectively. Transduction of organs was detected by immunohistochemistry of the eGFP transgene. An adenoviral vector containing a short hairpin (sh) RNA directed against TNFR1 (HpTNFR1) was constructed and functionally evaluated in vitro using a ...
Szántó, Sándor Zoltán and Bárdos, Tamás and Gál, István and Glant, Tibor T. and Mikecz, Katalin (2004) Enhanced neutrophil extravasation and rapid progression of proteoglycan-induced arthritis in TSG-6-knockout mice. ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM, 50 (9). pp. 3012-3022. ISSN 0004-3591 ...
Results Crocetin dose dependently reduced joint inflammation as support via reduce the joint diameter and decreased inflammatory cell infiltration. Crocetin showed the improvement the synovium redox status (down-regulation in MDA and GSH and boost the CAT and SOD level). Crocetin significantly reduced the expression of inflammatory marker viz., TNF-α. Crocetin enhanced The HO-1/Nrf-2 and reduced the NF-κB mRNA expression in adjuvant joint. Additionally, crocetin treatment decreased the expression of degrading enzymes such AS MMP-3 and MMP-9 in adjuvant induced arthritic rats. ...
Definition of Bayer Timed-Release Arthritic Pain Formula in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Bayer Timed-Release Arthritic Pain Formula? Meaning of Bayer Timed-Release Arthritic Pain Formula as a finance term. What does Bayer Timed-Release Arthritic Pain Formula mean in finance?
List of Tables. Table 1: Clinical subtypes of Indication. Table 2: Risk Factors. Table 3: Prevalence cases (%) Region wise. Table 4: Sources used for forecasting the data. Table 5: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Global Epidemiology, (2013-2023). Table 6: Prevalent Cases of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) (Ages =XX Years), US (2013-2023). Table 7: Prevalent Cases of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) By Sex (Males & Females), US (2013-2023). Table 8: Prevalent Cases By Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Sub-population, US (2013-2023). Table 9: Prevalent Cases of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) (Ages =XX Years), United Kingdom (2013-2023). Table 10: Prevalent Cases of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) By Sex (Males & Females), United Kingdom (2013-2023). Table 11: Prevalent Cases By Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Sub-population, United Kingdom (2013-2023). Table 12: Prevalent Cases of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) (Ages =XX Years), Germany (2013-2023). Table 13: Prevalent Cases of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) By Sex (Males & Females), Germany ...
Ebook How To Tell If A Dog Has Arthritis :: How to know if your dog has arthritis 4 steps, How to avoid dog s joint discomfort best joint pain, Arthritis in dogs signs your dog has arthritis and tips, How to know if your dog has arthritis 4 steps, How to know if my dog has arthritis condition, Your dog how will i know if my dog has arthritis dog, How to tell if your pet has arthritis deerfield, 5 signs your dog may have arthritis, Information about dog arthritis, Dog arthritis information
Arthritis is a term that is used to describe the inflammation of a joint. Some of the characteristics of arthritis are pain, swelling, redness and warmth within the joints. Rheumatic arthritis is a type of chronic arthritis that affects both sides of the body such as wrists, hands or knees. It is the second most common form of arthritis and it can affect people at any age. Typically though, its onset is around the middle years say between 30 and 50 years of age.. CAUSES. The exact cause of this condition is not yet known, but according to research, it is thought to be caused by three factors which are environmental, hormonal, and genetical. Research has shown that certain genes which are connected to the immune system are linked with rheumatoid arthritis. It is believed that something (stress, hormonal changes, or a viral infection) does trigger rheumatoid arthritis in people that has the genetic tendency to develop the condition. There is another school of thought that suggests that smoking ...
Treatment of The nagging pains and physical limitations of the more than 100 forms of arthritis are common to millions of people. Rheumatoid arthritis is among the most debilitating of all forms, causing joints to ache and throb and eventually become deformed. Sometimes these symptoms make even the simplest activities - such as opening a jar or taking a walk - difficult to manage, Unlike osteoarthritis, which results from wear and tear on your joints, rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory condition. The exact cause of rheumatoid arthritis is unknown, but its believed to be the bodys immune system attacking the tissue that lines your joints, synovium, Rheumatoid arthritis is two to three times more common in women than in men and generally strikes between the ages of 20 and 50. But rheumatoid arthritis can also affect young children and adults older than age 50, Theres no cure for rheumatoid arthritis. But with proper treatment, a strategy for joint protection and changes in lifestyle, you can live
A serious disease of the autoimmune system, rheumatoid arthritis mostly affects the joints. Nonetheless, since it is a systemic autoimmune disease, rheumatoid arthritis may also affect other body areas. Here are some of the other symptoms that can be linked with a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis.. Heart. One area that may be unfavorably affected due to rheumatoid arthritis is the heart. It is common for fluid to collect near the heart as a result of inflammation caused by rheumatoid arthritis. Although such symptoms are frequently fairly mild, this problem may potentially develop into something more serious.. If severe inflammation occurs, it can affect the heart muscle. Coronary arteries may swell, making the heart muscle work harder. The lungs might also be involved in rheumatoid arthritis. Similar to the heart muscle, fluid may collect around the lungs, and the lung tissue may stiffen. Rheumatoid arthritis related inflammation can make breathing difficult.. Skin. It is not uncommon for ...
12th October of every year is observed as World Arthritis Day. This is to raise awareness about arthritis amongst patients and the general public. Arthritis affects the vast majority of people worldwide and is a major cause of suffering and disability. Arthritis societies world over, have come together to raise awareness about rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases on this day.. There are more than 100 to 150 types of arthritis. People of all age groups, including children can be affected by Arthritis. Certain types of arthritis like rheumatoid arthritis affect women more commonly than men. Whereas, ankylosing spondylitis, which affects the spine, is more common in men. Arthritis can be chronic, severely disabling and cause deformities if not diagnosed and treated promptly. Not only does it affect their quality of life and social life, but it may also lead to sickness absenteeism, loss of pay, and hence cause a huge economic burden to family and society. Certain types of arthritis also reduce ...
No one, not even the doctors could identify the exact time frame when arthritis will attack the patient. Even the intensity of the pain brought by arthritis cannot be determined. Arthritis doesnt only make the joints painful and stiff, the worse thing is that it causes damage to the joints and may result to a person becoming crippled due to the disease. The proper arthritis treatment is needed to somehow alleviate the pain and at the same can be a prevention of damaging the muscles more. The Right Drug Varies from One Person to Another For such a long time, the traditional arthritis treatment refers to the dependency on arthritis drugs. The effects however vary because they rely on how the arthritic patients body responds to the drugs. Not to mention, there is a risk of incurring side effects from the intake of arthritis drugs. Thats why it is truly hard to find the best arthritis drug that suits an individual. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like salsalate and salicyate are ...
Read Kellys onset story now. Jump to main index of stories. Your Rheumatoid Arthritis stories Welcome to the Rheumatoid Arthritis Onset Story Project on RA Warrior. We are glad to feature patients of Rheumatoid Arthritis onset stories here. This section of the RA Warrior website is very special. In these pages, you w
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with amino acid variants in multiple MHC molecules. The association to MHC class II (MHC-II) has been studied in several animal models of RA. In most cases these models depend on T cells restricted to a single immunodominant peptide of the immunizing Ag, which does not resemble the autoreactive T cells in RA. An exception is pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) in the rat where polyclonal T cells induce chronic arthritis after being primed against endogenous Ags. In this study, we used a mixed genetic and functional approach to show that RT1-Ba and RT1-Bb (RT1-B locus), the rat orthologs of HLA-DQA and HLA-DQB, determine the onset and severity of PIA. We isolated a 0.2-Mb interval within the MHC-II locus of three MHC-congenic strains, of which two were protected from severe PIA. Comparison of sequence and expression variation, as well as in vivo blocking of RT1-B and RT1-D (HLA-DR), showed that arthritis in these strains is regulated by coding polymorphisms in ...
Arthritis is a term that is used to describe the inflammation of a joint. Some of the characteristics of arthritis are pain, swelling, redness and warmth within the joints. Rheumatic arthritis is a type of chronic arthritis that affects both sides of the body such as wrists, hands or knees. It is the second most common form of arthritis and it can affect people at any age. Typically though, its onset is around the middle years say between 30 and 50 years of age.. CAUSES. The exact cause of this condition is not yet known, but according to research, it is thought to be caused by three factors which are environmental, hormonal, and genetical. Research has shown that certain genes which are connected to the immune system are linked with rheumatoid arthritis. It is believed that something (stress, hormonal changes, or a viral infection) does trigger rheumatoid arthritis in people that has the genetic tendency to develop the condition. There is another school of thought that suggests that smoking ...
Symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. It causes inflammation of the synovium, low grade fever, joint pain, swelling in joints. Watch this video to know in detail about the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. Symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. It causes inflammation of the synovium, low grade fever, joint pain, swelling in joints. Watch this video to know in detail about the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. Symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. It causes inflammation of the synovium, low grade fever, joint pain, swelling in joints. Watch this video to know in detail about the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.
... is a common forms of arthritis. Like other types of arthritis, the material that cushions the joints, called cartilage, breaks down. This causes the bones to rub against each other which in turn causes a lot of swelling in the joints resulting in stiffness and inflammation. In hemorrhagic arthritis, the joint inflammation may result from autoimmune disease (meaning your bodys immune system, which usually protects your health by attacking foreign substances such as bacteria and viruses, mistakenly attacks your joints), broken bone, general wear and tear on joints, and infection usually due to a virus or bacteria. The main cause of hemorrhagic arthritis is trauma, that is an injury, lesion or cut to a joint. The most commonly affected area is the knee. Individuals affected by sickle cell disease, hemophila A and hemophilia B have a higher rist of developing hemorrhagic arthritis. Hemorrhagic arthritis may be found in both men and women. Therapy for hemorrhagic arthritis ...
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common form of inflammatory arthritis and affects more than 2 million Americans. The diagnosis is not easy to make in many instances. There are more than 100 different kinds of arthritis. Most of them involve inflammation. When a patient goes to a rheumatologist to get a diagnosis, there is a process of elimination in order to arrive at the proper diagnosis. This process of elimination is called "differential diagnosis.". Differential diagnosis can be a difficult undertaking because so many forms of arthritis, particularly inflammatory forms of arthritis look alike. Generally it is helpful to divide the differential diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis into two groups. The first group are the non-infectious diseases to consider and the second group are the infection-related conditions.. Since the discussion is rather long I have chosen to divide the article into two parts.. The following is a partial list of forms of inflammatory arthritis that can be seen and ...
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common form of inflammatory arthritis and affects more than 2 million Americans. The diagnosis is not easy to make in many instances. There are more than 100 different kinds of arthritis. Most of them involve inflammation. When a patient goes to a rheumatologist to get a diagnosis, there is a process of elimination in order to arrive at the proper diagnosis. This process of elimination is called "differential diagnosis.". Differential diagnosis can be a difficult undertaking because so many forms of arthritis, particularly inflammatory forms of arthritis look alike. Generally it is helpful to divide the differential diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis into two groups. The first group are the non-infectious diseases to consider and the second group are the infection-related conditions.. Since the discussion is rather long I have chosen to divide the article into two parts.. The following is a partial list of forms of inflammatory arthritis that can be seen and ...
Arthritis Care & Research merged into Arthritis & Rheumatism as a section in 2001. From 2001-2009, Arthritis care & research was issued as odd numbered volume of Arthritis & rheumatism. Arthritis care & research. Beginning with v.62 (2010), Arthritis care & research issued independently. Holdings: Vol. 45, no. 1 (Feb. 2001)-v. 61, no. 12 (Dec. 2009). Related titles: Continues Arthritis Care & Research ; Continued by Arthritis Care & Research (2010). For USC users only. Requires USC network connection.. Usage Restrictions ...
Why Rheumatoid Arthritis diagnosis must be improved We have over 60 Rheumatoid Arthritis diagnosis stories here on Rheumatoid Arthritis Warrior. In some wa
Symptoms and How to Cure Arthritis Disease - Arthritis (Rheumatoid Arthritis) is a joint disorder that includes inflammation. Arthritis is often also said to be joint inflammation. The joint is the area of ​​the body where two unequal bones unite. The joints act to move the body parts associated with the bones. Arthritis is an autoimmune disease (a disease that occurs when the body is attacked by its own immune system) that causes inflammation of the joint over a long period of time.. Usually this disease attacks on the joints of the fingers, wrists, shoulders, knees, and legs. in patients with advanced stages can make the patient unable to move daily and the quality of natural health decline. Other signs are fever-shaped, natural appetite decreased, natural weight loss, weak and less blood. But sometimes the patient does not feel the symptoms. it is estimated that the problem of rheumatoid arthritis is exposed at an age above 18 years. And ranges from 0, ...
That is a good question. Most people are familiar with Osteoarthritis (OA) and with good reason. That is the most common type of "arthritis" that we deal with. That is far from the only kind of arthritis that can affect your life.. Arthritis is very common but is not well understood. Actually, "arthritis" is not a single disease; it is an informal way of referring to joint pain or joint disease. There are more than 100 different types of arthritis and related conditions. People of all ages, sexes and races can and do have arthritis, and it is the leading cause of disability in America. More than 50 million adults and 300,000 children have some type of arthritis. It is most common among women and occurs more frequently as people get older.. OA affects more people in the United States in enormous numbers. In one form or another, joint stiffness; joint warmth; tenderness; or swelling are indications of arthritis. And, in many instances that involves discomfort or pain. Given the wide range of ...
Arthritis is a common condition that causes pain and inflammation in joints. In the UK around 10 million people have arthritis, which affects people of all ages. The two most common types of arthritis are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.. What does the data say?. Rheumatoid Arthritis prevalence (QOF). Rheumatoid arthritis is a long-term condition that causes pain, swelling and stiffness in the joints, commonly affecting the hands, feet and wrists. It is an autoimmune disease and can cause actual damage to the joints, cartilage and nearby bones over time. Risks increase for females, those with a family history of the condition and smokers. 2013/14 data from PHE indicated that approximately 1,100 patients aged 16 and over are diagnosed in B&NES CCG GP practices with rheumatoid arthritis 1. The 2013/14 CCG prevalence is 0.66%, compared to 0.73% for England 2. Osteoarthritis Prevalence Estimates 3. Osteoarthritis is a condition that causes the joints to become painful and stiff and is the ...
Synonyms for Arthritis in children in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Arthritis in children. 11 words related to arthritis: inflammatory disease, atrophic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatism, degenerative arthritis, degenerative joint disease. What are synonyms for Arthritis in children?
The major symptom of rheumatoid arthritis is the joint stiffness felt when you wake up in the morning, most often in the feet and hands. The stiffness can persist for more than an hour or so. This can also be associated with pain and swelling that can last for more than 6 weeks. This can be an indication of the rheumatoid arthritis.. Rheumatoid Arthritis usually affects the joints close to the hand and wrist. It can even affect the joints in your feet. However, the disease can affect other parts of the body as well. Anybody can be affected by rheumatoid arthritis. But women are most likely to develop such signs or symptoms more than men.. Rheumatoid Arthritis can occur between ages 20 to 30. The main reasons of rheumatoid arthritis are yet to be understood. But there are several successful strategies that have been developed to deal with the symptoms.. The joint discomfort can well be typically symmetrical, for instance both hands and legs will hurt or feel the stiffness, not just one. The early ...
Arthritis symptoms include pain, joint inflammation, and swelling. get the facts on arthritis diet, treatment, and medications.. How to identify symptoms of gastritis. bubbling stomach. if you notice an on-going problem with stomach upset accompanied with pain, you may want to keep track if. How to identify symptoms of clogged arteries. atherosclerosis is the medical term used to describe clogged arteries or hardening of the arteries. it is a common form.. What are risk factors for arthritis? what are arthritis symptoms and signs? who is affected by arthritis? how is arthritis diagnosed, and why is a diagnosis important?. 3 ways to identify symptoms of gastritis inflammation last updated: oct 10, 2015 , by livestrong contributor gastritis written on a ibook. photo credit. Reporting symptoms: most doctors and nurses report that one of the greatest barriers to good symptom management is a persons unwillingness to.. ...
Anti-CII associated with elevated CRP, ESR, SJC, DAS28 and DAS28CRP at diagnosis and up to 6 months, whereas anti-CCP2 associated with SJC and DAS28 from 6 months to 5 years, but not earlier. The anti-CII-associated phenotype was strong, and predominated in anti-CII/anti-CCP2 double-positive patients. Anti-CII was associated with improvements in CRP, ESR, SJC, TJC and DAS28, whereas anti-CCP2 was associated with deteriorations in SJC and DAS28 over time. Anti-CII-positive patients achieved European League Against Rheumatism good or moderate response more often than negative patients. Anti-CII was positively associated with HLA-DRB1*01 and HLA-DRB1*03, with significant interaction, and double-positive individuals had >14 times higher mean anti-CII levels than HLA double negatives. Whereas smoking was associated with elevated anti-CCP2 levels, smokers had lower anti-CII levels.. CONCLUSIONS ...
Arthritis literally means "inflammation of a joint." In some forms of arthritis, such as osteoarthritis, the inflammation arises because the smooth covering (articular cartilage) on the ends of bones wears away. In other forms of arthritis, such as rheumatoid arthritis, the joint lining becomes inflamed as part of a systemic disease. These diseases are considered the inflammatory arthritides.. The three most common types of inflammatory arthritis that affect the hip are:. ...
Youre probably looking at the title of this note and thinking "World Arthritis Day? What does that have to do with me?" Well, a lot, actually. Did you know that 1 in 5 Americans has been diagnosed with arthritis (~50 million) and public health experts expect this number to continue to rise as the population ages? (1) Many people think of arthritis as a disease of the elderly, but thats only part of the story. Nearly two-thirds of arthritis diagnoses are in people under the age of 65, including children, teens, and young adults (1). Likely several people close to you have been affected by arthritis, though you may not know it because the symptoms are often invisible.. "Arthritis" is an umbrella term that covers over 100 different diseases and conditions. The most common form of arthritis is Osteoarthritis (OA), the kind of wear-and-tear, comes-with-old-age arthritis that is limited to the joints, is generally diagnosed in older adults, and can often be managed with exercise, weight loss, and ...
Related Queries:. natural treatment rheumatoid arthritis arthritis and hand treatment for arthritis for english springer coq10 for arthritis sulfur drug and arthritis cashiers and thumb arthritis 5c 22the arthritis foundation 5c 22 arthritis in daschunds ischemia of heart and rheumatoid arthritis voltaren syrup side effects voltaren resinat 2 kapseln auf einmal voltaren injection half life help for arthritic toes and feet biologic agents for arthritis voltaren spray 40 mg voltaren uso oftalmico rheumatoid arthritis feet treating rheumatoid arthritis with alternative med can voltaren taken paracetamol voltaren celulitis drugs for arthritis pain combination therapy in rheumatoid arthritis herbs for rhuematoid arthritis is voltaren diclofenac rheumatoid arthritis and face rash arthritis back blood flow to legs voltaren side effects voltaren diclofenac sodium paracetamol and chlorzoxazone tablets inyeccion de coltrax con voltaren tylenol arthritis dosing voltaren schmerzgel gegen knutschflecke ...
relief from arthritis pain, lakota arthritis topical pain reliever, homeopathic treatment for inflammatory arthritis, relief from arthritis pain, gout surgery, rheumatoid arthritis treatment hyderabad, gout in healthy people, will exercise cure gout, ways to cure arthritis, bbc news arthritis cure, thermoskin arthritis relief gloves, arthritis lebensmittel, rheumatoid arthritis nursing care plan, psoriatic arthritis rsna, natural painkiller for arthritis, occupational therapy for rheumatoid arthritis, what helps dogs with arthritis, backache arthritis pain, heat or ice for arthritis, osteoarthritis alternative medicine, rheumatoid arthritis natural treatment, relief from arthritis pain, arthritis pain relief current affair, common prescription for gout, arthritis corticosteroids, arthritis grape juice remedy, indomethacin acute gout dosage, arthritis victoria membership, gout lab values, alternative therapies for arthritis pain, gout uric acid cures, arthritis pain relief home remedies, ...
This Arthritis Guide Takes It One Step Further. There has never been a Arthritis Guide like this. |p||p|It contains 196 answers, much more than you can imagine; comprehensive answers and extensive details and references, with insights that have never before been offered in print. Get the information you need--fast! This all-embracing guide offers a thorough view of key knowledge and detailed insight. This Guide introduces what you want to know about Arthritis. |p||p|A quick look inside of some of the subjects covered: Septic arthritis - Diagnosis, Shoulder surgery - Arthritis or Osteolysis of the AC (acromioclavicular) joint, Reactive arthritis - Notable cases, Wrist osteoarthritis - Medical history, Inflammatory arthritis, Osteoarthritis - Dietary supplements, Clarins - The Courtin Arthritis Foundation, Arthritis Research UK - Vision, Inflammatory arthritis - Symptoms and signs, Reactive arthritis - Causes, Tripterygium wilfordii - Rheumatoid arthritis, Arthritis Care - People, Polyarthritis -
article{a79f8280-0e9f-4f33-82c9-d5b574133dd0, abstract = {We present a novel animal model for rheumatoid arthritis induced with a well defined synthetic adjuvant oil, pristane. Two weeks after a single intradermal injection of 150 microliters of pristane, the rats developed severe and chronic arthritis. The inflammation was restricted to the joints and involved pannus formation, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression, and T lymphocyte infiltration. The initial development as well as the chronic stage of pristane-induced arthritis was ameliorated by treatment with antibodies to the alpha beta-T-cell receptor showing that the disease is T cell dependent. Increased levels of interleukin in serum was seen after pristane injection but not during the chronic stage of arthritis. Joint erosions were accompanied by elevated serum levels of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein. Comparison of MHC congenic LEW strains showed that the severity and chronicity of arthritis varied among the ...
Rheumatoid Arthritis; Osteoarthritis; Juvenile Arthritis; Other Types of Arthritis; Arthritis Pain; previous joint injury overuse of the joint weak thigh muscles and genetics. Arthritis Due To Excess Levels Of Uric Acid In Blood Joint Medicine Pain Clinic Mayo has served a variety of purposes including topical use for joint or musculoskeletal pain. administering a child care center syllabus.. Basically everything I like to do in focusing on the ACL injury as well as the other knee where I have quite a bit of arthritis. Home , Heel Pain , Stress Fractures. Includes back pain articles and tips for reducing pain. Rheumatoid arthritis can be a difficult disease to parvovirus reactive arthritis treating fingers diagnose infection including rheumatic fever Lyme disease fungal arthritis Fifth disease tuberculosis Other spondyloarthropathies include psoriatic arthritis rheumatoid arthritis and gum disease nursing reactive arthritis ucellar spondylitis enteropathic arthritis and sacroiliitis8. Defining ...
Rheumatoid arthritis is the most commonly diagnosed systemic inflammatory arthritis. Women, smokers, and those with a family history of the disease are most often affected. Criteria for diagnosis include having at least one joint with definite swelling that is not explained by another disease. The likelihood of a rheumatoid arthritis diagnosis increases with the number of small joints involved. In a patient with inflammatory arthritis, the presence of a rheumatoid factor or anti-citrullinated protein antibody, or elevated C-reactive protein level or erythrocyte sedimentation rate suggests a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. Initial laboratory evaluation should also include complete blood count with differential and assessment of renal and hepatic function. Patients taking biologic agents should be tested for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and tuberculosis. Earlier diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis allows for earlier treatment with disease-modifying antirheumatic agents. Combinations of medications are often
Other arthritis forms are rheumatoid arthritis , psoriatic arthritis , and related autoimmune diseases . Psoriatic arthritis may be difficult to distinguish from other forms of arthritis, particularly when skin changes are minimal or absent. In a small number of cases, it develops in the absence of noticeable skin changes . It is a chronic disease characterized by inflammation of the skin - psoriasis - and joints - arthritis.. Karason A, Love TJ, Gudbjornsson B. A strong heritability of psoriatic arthritis over four generations-the Reykjavik Psoriatic Arthritis Study. A genome-wide association study of psoriatic and psoriasis arthritis identifies new disease loci. The term inflammatory arthritis encompasses rheumatoid arthritis, reactive arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. Acute and subacute bursitis Epicondylitis Acute nonspecific tenosynovitis Acute gouty arthritis Psoriatic arthritis Ankylosing spondylitis 3. The clinical course of peripheral and psoriatic axial ...

Patente US4925787 - Monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody, method for production thereof, and ... - Google PatentesPatente US4925787 - Monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody, method for production thereof, and ... - Google Patentes

Journal of Experimental Medicine, Vol. 158, pages 718-730 (1983)]; H35.1.1,0467.3 strain [Journal of Experimental Medicine, Vol ... The G(Ag1)2 -cl 7B strain is obtained by transforming peripheral blood lymphocytes of a patient of rheumatoid arthritis with ... T1 B20 ; Journal of Experimental Medicine, Vol. 148, page 313 (1978)], and MPC-11 strain [ATCC No. CCL 167; Journal of ... Experimental Medicine, Vol. 131, page 515 (1970)]; myeloma cell strains originating in rats such as Y3-Ag 1.2.3. strain [ATCC ...
more infohttp://www.google.es/patents/US4925787

Experimental Arthritis
     Summary Report | CureHunterExperimental Arthritis Summary Report | CureHunter

Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include ... Experimental Arthritis: ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. ... Experimental Arthritis. Subscribe to New Research on Experimental Arthritis ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. ... Arthritis, Experimental; Arthritis, Adjuvant; Collagen Arthritis; Arthritides, Collagen; Arthritis, Collagen; Collagen ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD001169-Experimental-Arthritis.do

Experimental arthritis drug prevents stem cell transplant complication | EurekAlert! Science NewsExperimental arthritis drug prevents stem cell transplant complication | EurekAlert! Science News

An investigational drug in clinical trials for rheumatoid arthritis prevents a common, life-threatening side effect of stem ... experimental-arthritis-drug-prevents-stem-cell-transplant-complication/. More in Medicine & Health. * A Trojan Horse delivery ... Experimental arthritis drug prevents stem cell transplant complication Drug fights graft-versus-host-disease in mice ... Experimental arthritis drug prevents stem cell transplant complication. Washington University in St. Louis ...
more infohttps://eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-04/wuis-ead042418.php

Cardiff Regional Experimental Arthritis Treatment and Evaluation Centre (CREATE) - Research - Cardiff UniversityCardiff Regional Experimental Arthritis Treatment and Evaluation Centre (CREATE) - Research - Cardiff University

... to develop and test drugs to treat patients with Rheumatoid and Psoriatic arthritis. ... The Cardiff Regional Experimental Arthritis Treatment and Evaluation Centre works alongside volunteer patients from Cardiff and ... Protocol for a randomised controlled trial for Reducing Arthritis Fatigue by clinical Teams (RAFT) using cognitive-behavioural ... Functional analysis of a complement polymorphism (rs17611) associated with rheumatoid arthritis. The Journal of Immunology 194 ...
more infohttp://www.cardiff.ac.uk/research/explore/research-units/cardiff-regional-experimental-arthritis-treatment-and-evaluation-centre

JCI -
Peptide-siRNA nanocomplexes targeting NF-κB subunit p65 suppress nascent experimental arthritisJCI - Peptide-siRNA nanocomplexes targeting NF-κB subunit p65 suppress nascent experimental arthritis

Peptide-siRNA nanocomplexes targeting NF-κB subunit p65 suppress nascent experimental arthritis. ... Peptide-siRNA nanocomplexes targeting NF-κB subunit p65 suppress nascent experimental arthritis. ... The NF-κB signaling pathway is implicated in various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA); therefore, ... The p5RHH-p65 siRNA nanocomplexes potently suppressed early inflammatory arthritis without affecting p65 expression in off- ...
more infohttps://jci.org/articles/view/75673/figure/1

JCI -
Peptide-siRNA nanocomplexes targeting NF-κB subunit p65 suppress nascent experimental arthritisJCI - Peptide-siRNA nanocomplexes targeting NF-κB subunit p65 suppress nascent experimental arthritis

Peptide-siRNA nanocomplexes targeting NF-κB subunit p65 suppress nascent experimental arthritis. ... Peptide-siRNA nanocomplexes targeting NF-κB subunit p65 suppress nascent experimental arthritis. ... The NF-κB signaling pathway is implicated in various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA); therefore, ... The p5RHH-p65 siRNA nanocomplexes potently suppressed early inflammatory arthritis without affecting p65 expression in off- ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/75673/figure/1

Molecules | Free Full-Text | Ferulaldehyde Improves the Effect of Methotrexate in Experimental ArthritisMolecules | Free Full-Text | Ferulaldehyde Improves the Effect of Methotrexate in Experimental Arthritis

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect FRA and MTX administered alone or in combination in adjuvant arthritis. The ... is still the gold standard for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The therapeutic efficacy of low-dose of MTX can be ... rheumatoid arthritis ferulaldehyde; methotrexate; adjuvant arthritis; combination treatment; rheumatoid arthritis ... Ferulaldehyde Improves the Effect of Methotrexate in Experimental Arthritis. Lukáš Slovák 1,* , Karol Švík 1. ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/22/11/1911

Therapeutic effect of cortistatin on experimental arthritis by downregulating inflammatory and Th1 responsesTherapeutic effect of cortistatin on experimental arthritis by downregulating inflammatory and Th1 responses

Arthritis induction and treatment. Animal experimental protocols were reviewed and approved by the ethics committee of the ... CST decreases the severity of collagen‐induced arthritis. CIA is a murine experimental disease model that shares a number of ... 9. Delgado M, Abad C, Martinez C, Receta J, Gomariz R P. Vasoactive intestinal peptide prevents experimental arthritis by ... Therapeutic effect of cortistatin on experimental arthritis by downregulating inflammatory and Th1 responses. Elena Gonzalez‐ ...
more infohttp://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC1954632/

A1.69 C1Q is absolutely required for disease development in experimental arthritis | Annals of the Rheumatic DiseasesA1.69 C1Q is absolutely required for disease development in experimental arthritis | Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases

You need to be signed in to access email alerts. If you have an account log in with your user name and password. If you dont have an account you can just enter your email address in the email box below ...
more infohttp://ard.bmj.com/content/73/Suppl_1/A30.1.alerts

Dominant-Negative Inhibitors of Soluble TNF Attenuate Experimental Arthritis without Suppressing Innate Immunity to Infection |...Dominant-Negative Inhibitors of Soluble TNF Attenuate Experimental Arthritis without Suppressing Innate Immunity to Infection |...

DN-TNF and decoy receptor reduce arthritis in the mouse collagen-induced arthritis model. Arthritis was induced using a 5 mg/kg ... Experimental arthritis was induced on day 0 by i.v. injection of four anti-collagen mAbs (MD Biosciences) at 25 mg/kg each ... Experimental arthritis was induced as in A and hind paw thickness (mean ± SEM) was monitored for 28 days. XENP1595 and ... CIA is another established experimental arthritis model and has been used to demonstrate anti-inflammatory activity of Ab and ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/179/3/1872.long

Suppression of Ongoing Experimental Arthritis by a Chinese Herbal Formula (Huo-Luo-Xiao-Ling Dan) Involves Changes in Antigen...Suppression of Ongoing Experimental Arthritis by a Chinese Herbal Formula (Huo-Luo-Xiao-Ling Dan) Involves Changes in Antigen...

Suppression of Ongoing Experimental Arthritis by a Chinese Herbal Formula (Huo-Luo-Xiao-Ling Dan) Involves Changes in Antigen- ... F. H. Durie, R. A. Fava, and R. J. Noelle, "Collagen-induced arthritis as a model of rheumatoid arthritis," Clinical Immunology ... "Activation of T cells recognizing self 60-kD heat shock protein can protect against experimental arthritis," Journal of ... γ regulates susceptibility to collagen-induced arthritis through suppression of interleukin-17," Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2011/642027/ref/

Brief report: Autologous stem cell transplantation restores immune tolerance in experimental arthritis by renewal and...Brief report: Autologous stem cell transplantation restores immune tolerance in experimental arthritis by renewal and...

Brief report: Autologous stem cell transplantation restores immune tolerance in experimental arthritis by renewal and ... ABMT resulted in amelioration and stabilization of arthritis scores. BM grafts containing T cells and T cell-depleted grafts ... induces long-term drug-free disease remission in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. This study was undertaken to ... further unravel the immunologic mechanisms underlying ASCT by using a mouse model of proteoglycan-induced arthritis (PGIA). For ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/24504807

Effects of Low-Level Laser Therapy, 660 nm, in Experimental Septic ArthritisEffects of Low-Level Laser Therapy, 660 nm, in Experimental Septic Arthritis

... Bruna Formentão Araujo,1 Lígia Inez Silva,1 ... M. E. Shirtliff and J. T. Mader, "Acute septic arthritis," Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 527-544, 2002. ... Implications for joint destruction and repair," Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 1170-1179, 1990. View at Google ... Kaya, M. Kaya, N. Gürsan, E. Kireççi, M. Güngörmüş, and H. Balta, "The use of 808 nm light therapy to treat experimental ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2013/341832/ref/

Anti-inflammatory effects of cell-based therapy with tyrosine hydroxylase-positive catecholaminergic cells in experimental...Anti-inflammatory effects of cell-based therapy with tyrosine hydroxylase-positive catecholaminergic cells in experimental...

Conclusions The anti-inflammatory effect of TH+ neuronal cells on experimental arthritis has been presented for the first time ... Objectives Studies in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthritis (OA) and mice with arthritis demonstrated tyrosine hydroxylase- ... inflammatory effects of cell-based therapy with tyrosine hydroxylase-positive catecholaminergic cells in experimental arthritis ... inflammatory effects of cell-based therapy with tyrosine hydroxylase-positive catecholaminergic cells in experimental arthritis ...
more infohttp://ard.bmj.com/content/74/2/444

Suppression of ongoing experimental arthritis by a Chinese herbal formula (Huo-luo-xiao-ling dan) involves changes in antigen...Suppression of ongoing experimental arthritis by a Chinese herbal formula (Huo-luo-xiao-ling dan) involves changes in antigen...

Suppression of ongoing experimental arthritis by a Chinese herbal formula (Huo-luo-xiao-ling dan) involves changes in antigen- ... Suppression of ongoing experimental arthritis by a Chinese herbal formula (Huo-luo-xiao-ling dan) involves changes in antigen- ... Suppression of ongoing experimental arthritis by a Chinese herbal formula (Huo-luo-xiao-ling dan) involves changes in antigen- ... Suppression of ongoing experimental arthritis by a Chinese herbal formula (Huo-luo-xiao-ling dan) involves changes in antigen- ...
more infohttps://dash.harvard.edu/handle/1/4874817

Technetium-99m labelled liposomes to image experimental arthritis. - Semantic ScholarTechnetium-99m labelled liposomes to image experimental arthritis. - Semantic Scholar

METHODS Adjuvant arthritis was induced in the ankle joint of the left hind foot by injection of Mycobacterium butyricum in ... In addition to their use as vehicles for scintigraphic imaging of arthritis PEG-liposomes might also be used for the site ... CONCLUSION This study shows that 99mTc-labelled PEG-liposomes may be an excellent agent to visualise arthritis. Increased label ... labelled with technetium-99m were tested for their ability to image adjuvant arthritis in a rat model. ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Technetium-99m-labelled-liposomes-to-image-Boerman-Oyen/6511bd0c64ac43923383b4816e411ba07625080f

Estrogen regulates T helper 17 phenotype and localization in experimental autoimmune arthritis. | Sigma-AldrichEstrogen regulates T helper 17 phenotype and localization in experimental autoimmune arthritis. | Sigma-Aldrich

Arthritis research & therapy 2015-4-19 Estrogen regulates T helper 17 phenotype and localization in experimental autoimmune ... This is the first study in which the effects of E2 on Th17 cells have been characterized in experimental autoimmune arthritis. ... The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of estrogen on Th17 cells in experimental arthritis. Ovariectomized DBA/1 ... Treatment with estradiol potently inhibits experimental autoimmune arthritis. Interleukin-17-producing T helper cells (Th17) ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/25888974

Genome-wide gene expression in experimental arthritis: defining new targets of chronic/destructive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) |...Genome-wide gene expression in experimental arthritis: defining new targets of chronic/destructive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) |...

Genome-wide gene expression in experimental arthritis: defining new targets of chronic/destructive rheumatoid arthritis (RA). ... Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a complex multigenic disease with yet unknown ethiology, and consequently, suitable target for ... Seventy-seven common candidates, possibly involved in sub-chronic or destructive arthritis, were defined. Many of these are ... Possible candidate genes for (sub)chronic inflammation or destructive arthritis were defined by two-parameter and cluster ...
more infohttps://arthritis-research.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/ar467

Gene therapy with an improved doxycycline-regulated plasmid encoding a tumour necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor in experimental...Gene therapy with an improved doxycycline-regulated plasmid encoding a tumour necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor in experimental...

When pGTTMIK was delivered after the onset of arthritis, progression of the disease in terms of both paw thickness and clinical ... encoding dTNFR was delivered by the same route with and without administration of Dox to mice with collagen-induced arthritis. ... alpha with biological molecules has proven an effective treatment for rheumatoid arthritis, achieving a 20% improvement in ... Inhibition of collagen-induced arthritis by pGTTMIK Development of arthritis in the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model was ...
more infohttps://arthritis-research.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/ar2113

Autoimmunity to type II collagen an experimental model of arthritis. | JEMAutoimmunity to type II collagen an experimental model of arthritis. | JEM

Autoimmunity to type II collagen an experimental model of arthritis.. D E Trentham, A S Townes, A H Kang ... The disease is a chronic proliferative synovitis, resembling adjuvant arthritis in rats and rheumatoid arthritis in humans. ... Journal of Experimental Medicine Sep 1977, 146 (3) 857-868; DOI: 10.1084/jem.146.3.857 ... Native type II co-lagen modified by limited pepsin digestion still produces arthritis, suggesting that type-specific ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/146/3/857.abstract

Therapeutic Effect of a Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1 Inhibitor on Experimental Arthritis by Downregulating Inflammation and...Therapeutic Effect of a Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1 Inhibitor on Experimental Arthritis by Downregulating Inflammation and...

Polymerase-1 Inhibitor on Experimental Arthritis by Downregulating Inflammation and Th1 Response. Gonzalez_Arthritis.pdf (318.4 ... Here, we investigate the impact of a selective PARP-1 inhibitor in experimental arthritis. PARP-1 inhibition with 5- ... Therapeutic Effect of a Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1 Inhibitor on Experimental Arthritis by Downregulating Inflammation and ... Our results provide evidence of the contribution of PARP-1 to the progression of arthritis and identify this protein as a ...
more infohttp://digibug.ugr.es/handle/10481/30951

Optical imaging of experimental arthritis using allogeneic leukocytes labeled with a near-infrared fluorescent probe<...Optical imaging of experimental arthritis using allogeneic leukocytes labeled with a near-infrared fluorescent probe<...

Optical imaging of experimental arthritis using allogeneic leukocytes labeled with a near-infrared fluorescent probe. European ... Optical imaging of experimental arthritis using allogeneic leukocytes labeled with a near-infrared fluorescent probe. / Simon, ... Optical imaging of experimental arthritis using allogeneic leukocytes labeled with a near-infrared fluorescent probe. ... title = "Optical imaging of experimental arthritis using allogeneic leukocytes labeled with a near-infrared fluorescent probe", ...
more infohttps://ucdavis.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/optical-imaging-of-experimental-arthritis-using-allogeneic-leukoc

Experimental approach may reverse rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis - ScienceBlog.comExperimental approach may reverse rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis - ScienceBlog.com

... because they effectively prevent bone loss and inflammation in most patients with rheumatoid arthritis. They have also been ... a powerful new way to limit bone destruction and inflammation-induced bone loss seen in osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis ...
more infohttps://scienceblog.com/25401/experimental-approach-may-reverse-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-osteoporosis/

Total glucosides of paeony prevents juxta-articular bone loss in experimental arthritis | BMC Complementary and Alternative...Total glucosides of paeony prevents juxta-articular bone loss in experimental arthritis | BMC Complementary and Alternative...

TGP has been used in rheumatoid arthritis therapy for many years. However, the mechanism by which TGP prevents bone loss has ... TGP was orally administered for 3 months to New Zealand rabbits with antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). Digital x-ray knee images ... Total glucosides of paeony prevents juxta-articular bone loss in experimental arthritis. ... Arthritis Res Ther. 2011, 13: 215-10.1186/ar3280.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar. ...
more infohttps://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6882-13-186

T cell activation Rho GTPase activating protein (TAGAP) is upregulated in clinical and experimental arthritis. - Nuffield...T cell activation Rho GTPase activating protein (TAGAP) is upregulated in clinical and experimental arthritis. - Nuffield...

... and there were differences in the expression level of TAGAP in the tissues of mice with experimental arthritis. Gene expression ... CD4+ T cells subsets from healthy humans and in mice with collagen-induced arthritis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC ... association studies have identified various susceptibility variants and loci associated with incidence of rheumatoid arthritis ... T cell activation Rho GTPase activating protein (TAGAP) is upregulated in clinical and experimental arthritis. Share Share ...
more infohttps://www.ndorms.ox.ac.uk/publications/735205
  • Objective: To test the hypothesis that Notch signalling plays a role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to determine whether pharmacological inhibition of Notch signalling with γ-secretase inhibitors can ameliorate the RA disease process in an animal model. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Objective: To test the hypothesis that Notch signalling plays a role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to determine whether pharmacological inhibition of Notch signalling with γ-secretase inhibitors can ameliorate the RA disease process in an animal model.Methods Collagen-induced arthritis was induced in C57BL/6 or Notch antisense transgenic mice by immunisation with chicken type II collagen (CII). (elsevier.com)
  • Acute aseptic arthritis was induced in 8 healthy donkeys aged 3-4 years and weighing 80-100 kg. (eurekamag.com)
  • Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors, either antibodies to TNF-α (infliximab, adalimumab) or TNF receptors (TNFRs) fused to an immunoglobulin G-Fc backbone (etanercept), used in combination with methotrexate are the most effective disease-modifying agents for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in terms of improvement in symptoms, quality of life, and prevention of structural damage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) induces long-term drug-free disease remission in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • METHODS: Low-dose irradiation was used before the induction of arthritis or at the onset of disease. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Genome-wide association studies have identified various susceptibility variants and loci associated with incidence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in different populations. (ox.ac.uk)
  • sgp130Fc and etanercept delayed mCIA onset, after 5 doses arthritis incidence was 0% (sgp130Fc) versus 17% (etanercept) and 83% (vehicle). (cf.ac.uk)
  • An investigational drug in clinical trials for rheumatoid arthritis prevents a common, life-threatening side effect of stem cell transplants, new research from Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis shows. (eurekalert.org)
  • Increased TAGAP expression was observed in RA patients compared to healthy controls, and there were differences in the expression level of TAGAP in the tissues of mice with experimental arthritis. (ox.ac.uk)