A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), closely related to VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS and causing acute encephalomyelitis; chronic arthritis; PNEUMONIA; MASTITIS; and GLOMERULONEPHRITIS in goats. It is transmitted mainly in the colostrum and milk.
Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.
A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), that can cause chronic pneumonia (maedi), mastitis, arthritis, and encephalomyelitis (visna) in sheep. Maedi is a progressive pneumonia of sheep which is similar to but not the same as jaagsiekte (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE). Visna is a demyelinating leukoencephalomyelitis of sheep which is similar to but not the same as SCRAPIE.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
A mosquito-borne encephalitis caused by the Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE) occurring throughout Eastern Asia and Australia. The majority of infections occur in children and are subclinical or have features limited to transient fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges may occur and lead to transient or permanent neurologic deficits (including a POLIOMYELITIS-like presentation); SEIZURES; COMA; and death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p751; Lancet 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1094-7)
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America.
Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)
A form of arboviral encephalitis endemic to Central America and the northern latitudes of South America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, VENEZUELAN EQUINE) is transmitted to humans and horses via the bite of several mosquito species. Human viral infection may be asymptomatic or remain restricted to a mild influenza-like illness. Encephalitis, usually not severe, occurs in a small percentage of cases and may rarely feature SEIZURES and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), found in Australia and New Guinea. It causes a fulminating viremia resembling Japanese encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, JAPANESE).
Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)
Encephalitis caused by neurotropic viruses that are transmitted via the bite of TICKS. In Europe, the diseases are caused by ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, TICK-BORNE, which give rise to Russian spring-summer encephalitis, central European encephalitis, louping ill encephalitis, and related disorders. Powassan encephalitis occurs in North America and Russia and is caused by the Powassan virus. ASEPTIC MENINGITIS and rarely encephalitis may complicate COLORADO TICK FEVER which is endemic to mountainous regions of the western United States. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp14-5)
A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. Disorders in this category are endemic to regions of South America and North America. In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-10)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which comprises a number of viral species that are the etiologic agents of human encephalitis in many different geographical regions. These include Japanese encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE), St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, MURRAY VALLEY), and WEST NILE VIRUS.

Goat milk epithelial cells are highly permissive to CAEV infection in vitro. (1/95)

The main route of small ruminant lentivirus dissemination is the ingestion of infected cells present in colostrum and milk from infected animals. However, whether only macrophages or other cell subtypes are involved in this transmission is unknown. We derived epithelial cell cultures, 100% cytokeratin positive, from milk of naturally infected and noninfected goats. One such culture, derived from a naturally infected goat, constitutively produced a high titer of virus in the absence of any cytopathic effect. The other cultures, negative for natural lentivirus infection, were tested for their susceptibility to infection with the CAEV-CO strain and a French field isolate CAEV-3112. We showed that milk epithelial cells are easily infected by either virus and produce viruses at titers as high as those obtained in permissive goat synovial membrane cells. The CAEV-CO strain replicated in milk epithelial cells in absence of any cytopathic effect, whereas the CAEV-3112 field isolate induced both cell fusion and cell lysis. Our results suggest that CAEV-infected milk epithelial cells of small ruminants may play an important role in virus transmission and pathogenesis.  (+info)

Inducible nitric oxide synthase is expressed in joints of goats in the late stage of infection with caprine arthritis encephalitis virus. (2/95)

We have studied the expression of the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in joints of goats infected with the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Nitric oxide generated by iNOS is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of various types of arthritis, especially rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in humans. Surprisingly, iNOS immunoreactivity was found only in joints of long-term infected goats with severe clinical arthritis, whereas-despite the presence of high numbers of inflammatory cells in the synovial tissue-no iNOS immunoreactivity was detected in mildly arthritic and in short-term experimentally infected goats. Most iNOS-positive cells expressed neither MHC class II nor CD68, which suggests that they were fibroblast-like synoviocytes. In situ hybridization studies showed that there was no correlation between iNOS immunoreactivity and detectable virus expression in the joint. In addition, infection of macrophages in vitro-the major host cells of CAEV in vivo-did not lead to increased iNOS mRNA expression. In response to stimulation, similar levels of iNOS expression were observed in infected and in uninfected macrophages. These findings suggest that the expression of iNOS is a feature of late-stage chronic arthritis and is not involved in the development of the inflammatory lesions. Both the lack of co-localization of iNOS protein and viral transcripts in the joint and the finding that CAEV does not stimulate the expression of iNOS in vitro further suggest that iNOS is not directly induced by the virus or the anti-viral immune response in the joint, that it may well, however, be involved in tissue remodelling or scar formation.  (+info)

Conserved sequence motifs involving the tat reading frame of Brazilian caprine lentiviruses indicate affiliations to both caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus and visna-maedi virus. (3/95)

The sequence variation in small ruminant lentiviruses from Brazilian herds of milking goats was sampled in a representative region of the pol gene and in a region including the entire tat open reading frame. Clones were amplified from cDNA derived from virus produced in vitro using primers targetting conserved sequences of the pol gene. Iterative sequencing of clones indicated that animals from two herds in the Minas Gerais area were infected by a caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV)-like virus and that individual animals carried variant virus populations. Sequences derived from an infected goat from a herd in Pernambuco showed no nucleic acid variation and were distant from the CAEV-type sequence but marginally closer to ovine visna-maedi virus (VMV) sequences. Sequences amplified from a region including the tat gene, amplified with a common upstream primer within the vif coding region and different downstream primers because of the local divergence between CAEV- and VMV-type sequences, confirmed the affiliation of the Minas Gerais sequences to CAEV and indicated that the Pernambuco isolate was indeed related to VMV, which had not previously been reported to cause natural caprine infection. The overlap between the vif and tat open reading frames clearly distinguished between CAEV-like small ruminant lentiviruses, which shared eight common nucleotides, and the VMV group, where the overlap was reduced to a single base; the final adenine of the vif terminator (TAA) is the initial adenine of the presumptive tat initiator codon. This may be useful for epizoological tracing of the origin of outbreaks.  (+info)

A new sensitive serological assay for detection of lentivirus infections in small ruminants. (4/95)

Lentivirus infections in small ruminants represent an economic problem affecting several European countries with important sheep-breeding industries. Programs for control and eradication of these infections are being initiated and require reliable screening assays. This communication describes the construction and evaluation of a new serological screening enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies to maedi-visna virus (MVV) in sheep and to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) in goats. The solid phase is sensitized with a combination of the major core protein p25 of MVV produced in Escherichia coli and a peptide derived from the immunodominant region of the viral transmembrane protein gp46. The peptide carries an N-terminal biotin residue and is complexed with streptavidin prior to being coated. The new assay was evaluated with 2,336 sheep serum samples from different European countries with large differences in the levels of prevalence of MVV infections, and the results have been compared to those of the standard agar gel immunodiffusion test. Discrepant samples were analyzed by Western blotting with viral lysate, and most sera could be classified unambiguously. The estimated overall sensitivity of the new ELISA was 99.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 98.4 to 99. 8%) and the specificity was 99.3% (95% CI, 98.7 to 99.6%). A limited set of goat sera (n = 212) was also analyzed, with similar results. These data indicate that the new assay is a reliable tool that can be used in control and eradication programs for small ruminant lentivirus infections.  (+info)

Isolation of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus from goats in Mexico. (5/95)

A lentivirus was isolated from 2 goats in Mexico that were seropositive to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) by the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. The lentivirus was identified as CAEV by the observation of giant multinucleated cells (syncytia) in goat synovial membrane (GSM) monolayers co-cultivated with blood mononuclear (BMN) cells from the seropositive goats, and by amplifying a DNA segment of the CAEV gag gene using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Subsequently, cell supernatants from the GSM cells co-cultivated with BMN cells were used to infect 2 CAEV-seronegative goats. These goats seroconverted to CAEV as determined by the AGID test, and CAEV was re-isolated from these goats. One of the goats developed polyarthritis 8 mo after inoculation. Previous serological surveys indicate that infection with CAEV is prevalent among goats in Mexico. To our knowledge this is the first report of CAEV isolation in Mexico. Because of globalization of markets and increased trading among nations, the rapid identification and reporting of diseases such as CAEV are important to prevent the dissemination of these diseases.  (+info)

Lack of functional receptors is the only barrier that prevents caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus from infecting human cells. (6/95)

Barriers to replication of viruses in potential host cells may occur at several levels. Lack of suitable and functional receptors on the host cell surface, thereby precluding entry of the virus, is a frequent reason for noninfectivity, as long as no alternative way of entry (e.g., pinocytosis, antibody-dependent adsorption) can be exploited by the virus. Other barriers can intervene at later stages of the virus life cycle, with restrictions on transcription of the viral genome, incorrect translation and posttranslational processing of viral proteins, inefficient viral assembly, and release or efficient early induction of apoptosis in the infected cell. The data we present here demonstrate that replication of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) is restricted in a variety of human cell lines and primary tissue cultures. This barrier was efficiently overcome by transfection of a novel infectious complete-proviral CAEV construct into the same cells. The successful infection of human cells with a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) G-pseudotyped Env-defective CAEV confirmed that viral entry is the major obstacle to CAEV infection of human cells. The fully efficient productive infection obtained with the VSV-G-protein-pseudotyped infectious CAEV strengthened the evidence that lack of viral entry is the only practical barrier to CAEV replication in human cells. The virus thus produced retained its original host cell specificity and acquired no propensity to propagate further in human cultures.  (+info)

B-cell epitopes of the envelope glycoprotein of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus and antibody response in infected goats. (7/95)

Goats infected with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) develop high titres of antibodies to Env. Not only is no consistent neutralizing response found but anti-Env antibodies have even been associated with disease in infected goats. To identify the continuous antigenic determinants involved in this atypical anti-Env response, we mapped CAEV-CO Env by screening an epitope expression library with infected goat sera. In addition to the four previously described epitopes, seven novel antigenic sites were identified, of which five were located on the surface (SU) and two in the transmembrane (TM) subunits of Env. The SU antibody-binding domains located in the variable regions of the C-terminal part of the molecule (SU3 to SU5) showed the strongest reactivity and induced a rapid seroconversion in six experimentally infected goats. However, the response to these immunodominant epitopes did not appear to be associated with any neutralizing activity. The pattern of serum reactivity of naturally infected goats with these epitopes was restricted, suggesting a type-specific reaction. Interestingly, the reactivity of peptides representing SU5 sequences derived from CAEV field isolates varied with the geographical and/or breeding origin of the animals. This suggests that peptides corresponding to the immunodominant SU epitopes may well be useful in the serotyping of CAEV isolates. Furthermore, the identification of the CAEV Env epitopes will permit us to functionally dissect the antibody response and to address the role of anti-Env antibodies either in the protection from or in the pathogenesis of CAEV infection.  (+info)

Characterization of chimeric enzymes between caprine arthritis--encephalitis virus, maedi--visna virus and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrases expressed in Escherichia coli. (8/95)

In order to investigate the functions of the three putative lentiviral integrase (IN) protein domains on viral DNA specificity and target site selection, enzymatically active chimeric enzymes were constructed using the three wild-type IN proteins of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV), maedi-visna virus (MVV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The chimeric enzymes were expressed in Escherichia coli, purified by affinity chromatography and analysed in vitro for IN-specific endonuclease and integration activities on various DNA substrates. Of the 21 purified chimeric IN proteins constructed, 20 showed distinct site-specific cleavage activity with at least one substrate and six were able to catalyse an efficient integration reaction. Analysis of the chimeric IN proteins revealed that the central domain together with the C terminus determines the activity and substrate specificity of the enzyme. The N terminus appears to have no considerable influence. Furthermore, an efficient integration activity of CAEV wild-type IN was successfully demonstrated after detailed characterization of the reaction conditions that support optimal enzyme activities of CAEV IN. Also, under the same in vitro assay conditions, MVV and HIV-1 IN proteins exhibited endonuclease and integration activities, an indispensable prerequisite of domain-swapping experiments. Thus, the following report presents a detailed characterization of the activities of CAEV IN in vitro as well as the analysis of functional chimeric lentiviral IN proteins.  (+info)

Risks for Caprine arthritis encephalitis, Caprine arthritis encephalitis treatments, recommended products for Caprine arthritis encephalitis, ways to prevent Caprine arthritis encephalitis, causes of Caprine arthritis encephalitis
Visna virus of sheep and arthritis-encephalitis virus of goats are serologically related but genetically distinct retroviruses which cause slowly progressive diseases in their natural hosts. To localize homologous regions of the DNAs of these two viruses, we constructed a physical map of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus DNA and aligned it with the viral RNA. Cloned probes of visna virus DNA were then used to localize regions of homology with the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus DNA. These studies showed homology in the 5 region of the genome encompassing U5 and the gag and pol genes and also in a small region in the env gene. These findings correlate with biological data suggesting that the regions of the DNA which are homologous may be responsible for virus group characteristics such as the closely related virus core antigens. Regions which did not show homology such as large sections in the env gene may represent unique sequences which control highly strain-specific characteristics ...
Comparison of Serological and Molecular Tests for Diagnosis of Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis and Clinical Evaluation of Mammary Glands of Infected Dairy Goats
The aim of the present transversal descriptive study was to determine the exposure and risk factors associated with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) in southern Spain. A total of 3,312 serum samples were collected from goat belonging to three different breeds coming from 48 flocks located in different geographic areas from southern Spain. In addition, health and productive parameters were surveyed during the visit to the herds. Serum samples were analysed by INgezim Maedi Screening (Ingenasa®) ELISA kit. The total percentage of herds exposed to CAEV was 87.71% (CI95 78.42-97.00). A total of 733 goats were seropositive with overall seroprevalence of 23.22% (CI95 21.78-24.65). The intraherd seroprevalence was 20.82%±24.07. Multivariate logistic regression showed significant association between CAEV and the next variables: (i) herd size (P,0.0001; OR: 2.07; CI95: 1.73-2.50), (ii) kidding area (P,0.0020; OR: 1.38; CI95: 1.13-1.69), (iii) cleaning and disinfection program (P,0.0067; OR: ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modulation of lentivirus replication by antibodies. Non-neutralizing antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus enhance early stages of infection in macrophages, but do not cause increased production of virions. AU - Jolly, P. E.. AU - Huso, D.. AU - Hart, G.. AU - Narayan, O.. PY - 1989/1/1. Y1 - 1989/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0024374144&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0024374144&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1099/0022-1317-70-8-2221. DO - 10.1099/0022-1317-70-8-2221. M3 - Article. C2 - 2549189. AN - SCOPUS:0024374144. VL - 70. SP - 2221. EP - 2226. JO - Journal of General Virology. JF - Journal of General Virology. SN - 0022-1317. IS - 8. ER - ...
CAPRINE arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) is an important infectious disease that contributes to low productivity of goat herds in developing countries. Many factors, such as breed and production system, have been reported to interfere in its occurrence. Nevertheless, the effect of farmer association (cooperatives) in its control has never been investigated. Therefore, the goal of this study was to report a difference of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) seroreactivity by agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) in associated versus non-associated farmers in the same region in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. A total of 562 blood samples were sampled from 28 goat herds. Animals were randomly selected from each herd. A total 79 of 562 (14.0 per cent) serum samples were reactive for CAEV. According to the serology, 80 per cent of the herds belonging to independent farmers presented at least one seroreactive animal, with a herd level average among those of 25.7 per cent (11.1 to 62.5 per cent; median ...
Learn symptoms and how to treat caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE), one of the most significant diseases affecting the goat industry.
By Gail Bowman CAE or CAEV (Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus) is a common disease of goats that is prevalent worldwide. In the United States, prevalence as high as 81% has been reported for goat herds. According to a recent study by J. D. Rowe, DVM, Infection most commonly occurs when the virus is present in colostrum…
Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) and Visna-Maedi virus (MVV) are lentivirus that cross the species barriers between goats and sheep and are therefore referred to as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). In our laboratory we study different aspects of these fascinating viruses in various projects. ...
A retrospective study of brain lesions in goats was conducted to identify the range of lesions and diseases recognized and to make recommendations regarding the best tissues to examine and tests to conduct in order to maximize the likelihood of making a definitive diagnosis in goats that may have had clinical signs referable to the brain. One hundred thirty-nine goats with a brain lesion were identified. The most common lesion, in 52.5% of the goats, was suppurative inflammation. Approximately two-thirds of these goats had encephalitic listeriosis. Other goats were found to have suppurative inflammation in association with septicemia, pituitary abscesses, dehorning injury, and otitis. Thirty goats (21.6%) were diagnosed with polioencephalomalacia. Twenty-one goats (15.1%) were diagnosed with nonsuppurative inflammation. In more than half of these goats, no definitive diagnosis was made, while 8 were infected with Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus and 1 with Rabies virus. However, few goats ...
Baselgia, S., Doherr, M.G., Mellor, R., Torsteinsdottir, S., Jermann, T., Zurbriggen, A., Jungi, T., and Marti, E. (2006) Evaluation of an in vitro sulphidoleukotriene release test for diagnosis of insect bite hypersensitivity in horses. Equine Veterinary Journal 38:1, 40-46.. Baumrucker, C.R., Saurer, S., Blum, J.W., Jungi, T., and Friis, R.R. (2006) Lactoferrin (Lf): Retinoid interactions in the mammary glands of transgenic mice overexpressing human Lf. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 251:1-2, 56-66.. Fluri, A., Nenci, C., Zahno, M.L., Vogt, H.R., Charan, S., Busato, A., Pancino, G., Peterhans, E., Obexer-Ruff, G., and Bertoni, G. (2006) The MHC-haplotype influences primary, but not memory, immune responses to an immunodominant peptide containing T- and B-cell epitopes of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus Gag protein. Vaccine 24:5, 597-606.. Franchini, M., Schweizer, M., Mätzener, P., Magkouras, I., Sauter, K.S., Mirkovitch, J., Peterhans, E., and Jungi, T.W. (2006) Evidence for ...
Samir Sam Chachoua is an Australian alternative medicine practitioner, trained as a medical doctor. He is not actively licensed to practice medicine in Australia or the United States. Chachoua offers treatments in Mexico that he claims to be effective alternative medicine vaccine therapies for cancer and HIV, among other diseases. His claims lack scientific support, and are disputed by medical doctors. Chachouas treatments depend on theories he has named, including Induced Remission Therapy and The Nemesis Theory, i.e. for every disease there is an anti-disease organism capable of destroying it and restoring health. For treatment of HIV, Chachoua vaccinates patients with Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, which is known to cross-react immunologically with HIV. He claims to have eradicated HIV from the nation of Comoros in 2006. This claim has been refuted by Savlator Niyonzima, the UNAIDS country director of Madagascar, Comoros, Mauritius, and Seychelles. As of 2012, the adult HIV ...
But what if he could, tho?. What would this super awesome therapy THE MAN doesnt want you to know about look like? How would it work?. That would be a fun and educational game to play!. Okay, to play this game you first have to understand what CAEV is. Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus is a retrovirus that infects goats. It is like HIV in the sense that they are both lentiviruses, that is, more complex (more genes) retroviruses. They both share the standard gag, pol, and env genes all retroviruses have, plus a few accessory genes: rev, tat, and vif. HIV also has a few more.. But while there are similarities, CAEV and HIV are not the same any more than you and blue whales are the same (I tried to align an amino acid sequence of a CAEV Env with an HIV-1 Env, and the program was like Nuh uh. Dees dont go together.). So: How could CAEV be used to cure HIV?. 1- Anti-CAEV antibodies from goats could stop HIV!. Dr. Whatever said, specifically, that he looked for the absence of disease. ...
Caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE) virus is a member of the small ruminant lentiviruses (also includes ovine progressive pneumonia, or OPP, of sheep), which may lead to chronic disease of the joints, and on rare occasions, encephalitis in goat kids less than six months of age. The CAE virus is intimately associated with white blood cells; therefore, any body secretions that contain blood cells are potential sources of virus to other goats in the herd. Since not all goats that become infected with CAE virus develop clinical disease, it is important to test goats routinely for infection by means of a serologic test that detects viral antibodies in the serum. (Credit: http://waddl.vetmed.wsu.edu/animal-disease-faq/cae) ...
Animals, Goats, Bacteria, Human, Medicine, Peptides, Animal, Animal Model, Arthritis, Caev, Caprine Arthritis-encephalitis Virus, Cell, Cell Count, Cohort Study, Encephalitis, Encephalitis Virus, Hand, Infection, Lactose, Milk
Listen, nobody thinks the guy who cured Charlie Sheen of HIV cured Charlie Sheen of HIV. Even Charlie Sheen. Dr Sam I was with u in Mexico for 1 day. Its illegal for u to practice in U.S.A. where u treated me for 2 months © https://t.co/lKv6YPYdhm - Charlie Sheen (@charliesheen) February 1, 2016 ... But what if he could, tho? What would this super awesome therapy THE MAN doesnt want you to know about look like? How would it work? That would be a fun and educational game to play! Okay, to play this game you first have to understand what CAEV is. Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus is a… ...
Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world. The Merck Veterinary Manual was first published in 1955 as a service to the community. The legacy of this great resource continues as the Merck Veterinary Manual in the US and Canada and the MSD Manual outside of North America.. ...
WELCOME TO WWW.TSWRTUGANESH.IN, S. GANESH, PGT(MATHS), TSWRS & JR COLLEGE(COE), HAYATHNAGAR, RANGAREDDY(DIST.) MY CONTACT NO:9347009732 & Whatsapp NO: 9441931242 ...
Die Fahrplanauskunft für den öffentlichen Nahverkehr in München und Umgebung. Linienverläufe, P+R-Plätze, MVV-Verkaufsstellen auf interaktiver Karte anzeigen lassen.
Die Fahrplanauskunft für den öffentlichen Nahverkehr in München und Umgebung. Linienverläufe, P+R-Plätze, MVV-Verkaufsstellen auf interaktiver Karte anzeigen lassen.
The cost and effort involved in ridding a goat herd of the Caprine Arthritis and Encephalitis (CAE) Virus are well worth the investment according to a new animal disease model that puts real costs on the financial impact the disease can have. CAE is a production limiting disease that infects cells of the lung, central nervous system, joints and mammary glands.. A low impact outbreak of CAE in a 100 head goat breeding and meat herd could cost the operation up to $710 and a high impact outbreak up to $28,900. Those figures were generated by the model based on 2010 cost and revenue data provided by real Ontario producers.. Click here to access the On-Farm Cost of Disease Calculator. Producers must input a series of data in the spreadsheet, such as feed costs, average daily gain, mortality rates and others depending on the particular commodity, in order for the model to generate results.. Funding was provided in part through Growing Forward, a federal-provincial-territorial initiative. The ...
Comtet, L. (IDvet), Feliziani, F. (CEREL - IZS Umbria e Marche, Italy), Lesceu, S. (IDvet). Validation of the ID Screen® Maedi Visna Indirect ELISA: specificity on BTV-8 vaccinated sheep and detection of seroconversion. Poster presented at the 2010 EAVLD meeting, Lelystad, Holland ...
What producers can do to prevent introduction and reduce transmission. Slowly progressive illnesses like Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis (CAE) in goats are major production limiting diseases that can be a source of significant stress and economic loss for farmers.. Once an animal has the CAE virus, it results in a persistent, lifelong infection. Most goats dont show any symptoms but can be carriers, which means they can transmit the disease to other animals in the herd. There is currently no treatment or vaccine, and the prevalence across Ontario is unknown.. Thats why Ontario Goat has recently partially funded two research projects at the University of Guelph focused on learning more about the disease, its prevalence and how it behaves on Ontario goat farms.. Determining CAE prevalence. A preliminary study of 45 randomly selected Ontario goat herds - 30 dairy goat breeders and 15 meat goat operations - was carried out in 2012 to determine how widespread the CAE virus infection is in the ...
Aalto-yliopisto on suomalaisille vahvuuksille rakentuva kansainvälinen yliopisto. Aalto-yliopistossa tiede ja taide kohtaavat tekniikan ja talouden. ...
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This case report describes a Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection in an adult, female single pet goat kept on a dairy cattle farm. The doe showed the habitus of a chronically ill animal, with poor body condition and chronic diarrhoea, when presented at the clinic. The animal displayed a grave manifestation of the disease with severe enteritis and typhlocolitis, lymphadenitis and some up to 10 cm in diameter pyogranulomatous inflammation in the liver, spleen, pancreas, omasum and the intestinal lymph nodes. All other causative agents that might explain the described signs were ruled out (Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, tuberculosis, tumorous alterations, foreign bodies, caprine arthritis encephalitis). Goats seem to be vulnerable for yersiniosis, but in contrast to this case report, in most cases, Yersinia enterocolitica, and not Y. pseudotuberculosis, can be proved as infectious cause of yersiniosis. ...
Make a huge model cell in your classroom! A spectacular way to teach the cell! Students make the components and join them together to make an entire cell model. You can make the cell as big as you like by printing more parts. This bundle comprises the following 5 sets: Cell Membranes Cell Nucleus Mighty Mitochondria En
Maedi visna virus (MVV) vertical transmission in sheep via infected colostrums is a very important route of infection in lambs. To verify colostral transmission and to study early viral entry in lambs, colostrum samples, and small intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes of lambs born from experimentally infected ewes were examined by histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridisation (ISH) studies. In particular, newborn lambs were naturally fed maternal colostrum and humanely killed at 10, 24, 48, 72, 96 h and 7 and 10 days after birth; two caesarian-derived lambs served as uninfected controls. No lesions suggestive of MVVinfection were found, but marked immunoreactions for MVV capsid antigen (CA, p28) were detected in lambs fed maternal colostrum and in macrophages cultured from colostrum. IHC results in lambs suggest a initial viral absorption by intestinal epithelial cells at the tip of the villi, passage to mononuclear cells in the lamina propria and involvement of ileum ...
Maedi visna virus (MVV) is a retrovirus that is member of the Lentivirus genus. MVV infects sheep and goats and causes progressive pneumonia or paralysis, leading to death. Since the discovery of the receptor for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) all include the chemokine receptor CXCR4, it has been postulated that all members of the Lentivirus share a common mechanism of entry that involves the use of CXCR4. With the use of syncytia assays, infection-, inhibition- and enhancement studies, it was shown that CXCR4 is not a common lentivirus receptor. U87 and HOS cells, both celllines lacking CXCR4, were susceptible to infection. However, cells transfected with CD4 and CXCR4 showed an increased syncytia formation and the presence of CD¤ and CXCR4 augments virus-induced cell fusion. The nature of MVV receptor is still not known, but our data suggest the use of CD4 and/or CXCR4 as accessory molecules or as part of a ...
Cell Membrane Cell membrane integrity  vital for proper cell functioning. Most cells can only withstand transient ruptures of the cell membrane. If the cell membrane suffers massive breaches -loses the ability to accumulate and contain vital components and will be subject to outside toxins. There is a term for cells that suffer massive cell membrane trauma - Dead Cells.
Contributor Comment: This is the respiratory form of small ruminant lentiviruses. This respiratory disease is caused by a group of non-oncogenic exogenous retroviruses of the genus lentivirus that target immune cells, mainly macrophages. The Small Ruminant Lentiviruses are a group of highly related single stranded RNA viruses with high mutational potential that affect mainly sheep but also goats.1 These viruses induce chronic inflammation that usually remains subclinical. When it becomes clinical, the disease can express mainly in four different locations: lung, joints (mainly carpus), central nervous system and mammary gland.3 The expression of each form as well as the gravity of the lesion depends on host immune response and the viral factors. The respiratory form, termed maedi or ovine progressive pneumonia, is the most common presentation of the disease in sheep.1 The process consists of an afebrile chronic progressive pneumonia that leads to weight loss and marked dyspnea. Grossly, the ...
This volume contains papers and abstracts of the Second Biennial Conference of the African Small Ruminant Network. In addition to the keynote address, there are nine papers on Small Ruminant Production Systems, Economics and Policy, nine papers on Small Ruminant Performance and Reproduction, ten papers on Small Ruminant Health and Reproductive Wastage, eight papers on Small Ruminant Feeds and Feeding Systems and eight papers on Small Ruminant Genetic Resources and Breeding. Ten poster abstracts covering the above topics add to the volume ...
The chlor-alkali membrane process is one of the largest in industrial electrolysis with the production of roughly 40 million metric tons of both chlorine and caustic soda per year. Chlorine is used predominantly for the production of vinyl chloride monomer, which in turn is used for the production of poly vinyl chloride (PVC). Current density in membrane-cell technology has increased dramatically during the last decade as the membranes themselves have improved. This results in lower investment costs for greater production. However, the increase in current density implies an increase in power consumption if nothing is done to dampen the voltage increase. Advances in cell design including increased internal convection, decreased ohmic losses, and better membranes have allowed for large increases in current density with small increases in cell voltage. This example describes the current-density distribution in realistic anode and cathode structures in a membrane cell.. ...
The biologist Idoia Glaria-Ezquer has developed a diagnostic tool specifically for detecting encephalitis caused by small-ruminant...
Recent years have seen considerable advances in our knowledge of the biology and properties of stem/progenitor cells isolated from placental tissues. This has encouraged researchers to address the potential effects of these cells in animal models of different diseases, resulting in increasing expectations regarding their possible utility for cell-based therapeutic applications. This rapidly evolving research field is also enriched by studies aimed at expanding the use of the whole amniotic membrane (AM), a well-known surgical material, for pathological conditions other than those tested so far and for which clinical applications already exist. In this review, we provide an update on studies that have been performed with placenta-derived cells and fragments of the entire AM to validate their potential clinical applications in a variety of diseases, in particular those associated with degenerative processes induced by inflammatory and fibrotic mechanisms. We also offer, as far as possible, insight ...
This white paper explains: Membrane cell chlorine production, problems with conventional pH electrodes, pNa/pH technology, measurement challenges, plug and Measure - fast and simple start up.
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Difference between wild-type lentivirus and integrase-deficient lentivirus - posted in Microbiology: Hi, I dont know what is the difference between wild-type lentivirus and integrase-deficient lentivirus. Are they used in different purpose? If so, what is it? Anyone help Thanks in advance.
"Cross-reactivity between caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus and type 1 human immunodeficiency virus". Arch. Med. Res. 34 (5 ... Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is a retrovirus which infects goats and cross-reacts immunologically with HIV, due ... "APHIS info sheet: Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus" (PDF). United States Department of Agriculture • Animal and Plant ... causing a disease known as caprine arthritis encephalitis. Common symptoms resulting from CAEV infection include arthritis, ...
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV; Pfam PF05851), Visna virus (MVV) and Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (Pfam PF07401). ... January 2016). "A Naturally Occurring Domestic Cat APOBEC3 Variant Confers Resistance to Feline Immunodeficiency Virus ... Vif has been found in other Lentiviruses, including the Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), ... The mamallian APOBEC3 enzymes are in an arms race with Vifs found in those viruses, actively evolving and diversifying to ...
"Cross-reactivity between caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus and type 1 human immunodeficiency virus". Arch. Med. Res. 34 (5 ... Chachoua vaccinates patients with Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, which is known to cross-react immunologically with HIV ...
2010). "Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus". Fenner's Veterinary Virology (5th ed.). Academic Press. pp. 294-295. ISBN ... Caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE) is a viral disease of goats caused by a lentivirus called caprine arthritis encephalitis ... Matthews, JG (2016). "Caprine arthritis encephalitis". Diseases of the goat (4th ed.). John Wiley & Sons. pp. 98-102. ISBN ... 2011). "Caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE) and Maedi Visna (MV)". Goat medicine (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN ...
She performed similar work with caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV), a closely related virus of goats. With the ... This article helped to establish HIV as a lentivirus, not a leukemia virus as was originally thought. At the time, the origin ... Lentiviruses are a complex type of retroviruses, and include the human immunodeficiency viruses HIV-1 and HIV-2. Clements was ... Later, it was found that simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains from chimpanzee and monkey hosts were the likely ...
Visna virus is closely related to the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus but has limited nucleotide sequence similarity with ... "Maedi-Visna Virus and Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus Genomes Encode a Vpr-Like but No Tat Protein". J. Virol. 77 (17): ... Al Ahmad MZ, Chebloune Y, Chatagnon G, Pellerin JL, Fieni F (2012). "Is caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) transmitted ... "Goat endothelial cells may be infected in vitro by transmigration of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus infected leukocytes ...
Adedeji, Adeyemi; Barr, Bradd; Gomez-Lucia, Esperanza; Murphy, Brian (2013). "A Polytropic Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus ... Viruses. 5 (8): 2005-2018. doi:10.3390/v5082005. PMC 3761239. PMID 23955501. Wilkie, I. W. (1980). "Leukomyelitis in the goat: ...
April 2003). "Specific G2 arrest of caprine cells infected with a caprine arthritis encephalitis virus expressing vpr and vpx ... Vpx is a virion-associated protein encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 2 HIV-2 and most simian immunodeficiency virus ... Vicenzi E, Poli G (February 2013). "Novel factors interfering with human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 replication in vivo and ... February 2012). "SAMHD1 restricts the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by depleting the intracellular pool of ...
... caprine arthritis encephalitis virus) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Caprine. If an internal ... Caprine may refer to: A goat-antelope Caprine, norleucine, aminoacid Ovicaprids, goats and sheep taken together in archaeology ... and paleontology Caprine, an adjective that means "pertaining to or belonging to the subfamily Caprinae" (see goat-antelope, ...
Cache Valley virus infection caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE) enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma foot-and-mouth disease mastitis ... scrapie Diseases caused by viruses include: Akabane virus infection bluetongue disease border disease (hairy shaker disease) ... Wesselsbron virus infection Diseases caused by bacteria include: anaplasmosis blackleg braxy brucellosis caseous lymphadenitis ... Rift Valley fever Schmallenberg virus infection ulcerative dermatosis variola caprina (goatpox) variola ovina (sheeppox) ...
... ovine-caprine MeSH B04.820.650.589.600.070 - arthritis-encephalitis virus, caprine MeSH B04.820.650.589.600.900 - visna-maedi ... ovine-caprine MeSH B04.909.777.731.589.600.070 - arthritis-encephalitis virus, caprine MeSH B04.909.777.731.589.600.900 - visna ... encephalitis virus, st. louis MeSH B04.820.250.350.300.950 - west nile virus MeSH B04.820.250.350.350 - encephalitis viruses, ... encephalitis virus, st. louis MeSH B04.909.777.270.475.950 - west nile virus MeSH B04.909.777.270.511 - encephalitis viruses, ...
Pathogenesis of visna/maedi and caprine arthritis-encephalitis: New leads on the mechanism of restricted virus replication and ... T1 - Pathogenesis of visna/maedi and caprine arthritis-encephalitis. T2 - New leads on the mechanism of restricted virus ... Pathogenesis of visna/maedi and caprine arthritis-encephalitis: New leads on the mechanism of restricted virus replication and ... Pathogenesis of visna/maedi and caprine arthritis-encephalitis : New leads on the mechanism of restricted virus replication and ...
Affinity (tropism) of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus for brain cells IA Adebayo, TAM Awoniyi, OD Olaleye ...
Studies of the Structure of Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus Surface Envelope Glycoprotein. Isidro Hötzel, William P. ... Equine Infectious Anemia Virus as a Model for Lentiviral Pathogenesis. Susan L. Payne, Wah-Seng Lim, Frederick J. Fuller, ...
Caprine arthritis-encephalitis Caseous lymphadenitis Clostridial infections (other than Blackleg). Coccidiosis Cryptococcosis ... Duck virus enteritis Enzootic abortion of ewes (Chlamydophila abortus). Enzootic bovine leukosis ...
A common one is Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis (CAE), which was identified by research workers at Washington State University. ... The virus causes arthritis in goats of all ages. It occasionally causes paralysis in kids. In fact, more than 80% of goats ... Besides arthritis, they can cause pneumonia, mastitis, abortion, eye problems, and other illnesses. And while these diseases ...
Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus, Caprine B4.909.777.731.589.600.70 Arthropod Proteins D12.776.92 Artificial Intelligence L1.224.65 ... Encephalitis Virus, Murray Valley B4.909.777.270.475.300 B4.820.230.475.300 B4.909.777.310.350.300.300 Encephalitis Virus, St. ... Encephalitis Virus, Eastern Equine B4.909.777.270.150 B4.820.230.150 B4.909.777.923.54.320 Encephalitis Virus, Japanese B4.909. ... Encephalitis Virus, Western Equine B4.909.777.270.440 B4.820.230.440 B4.909.777.923.54.360 Encephalitis Viruses B4.909.777.270 ...
Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus (CAEV) is an incurable disease of goats that has both social and economic impacts. ... The Current Prevalence Of Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus In Midwestern Goat Herds, Bradley Todd Jones DVM University of ... The Current Prevalence Of Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus In Midwestern Goat Herds, Bradley Todd Jones Dvm. Dissertations ... Clinical disease in goats includes encephalitis in kids; chronic arthritis, inflammatory mastitis and progressive respiratory ...
Demonstration of coinfection with and recombination by caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus and maedi-visna virus in naturally ... phenotypically distinct North American ovine lentiviruses and their possible origin from caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. ... Phylogenetic analysis of H1N2 isolates of Influenza A Virus from pigs in the United States. Virus Research. 87(2): 173-179. ... Whole-genome analysis of Human Influenza A Virus reveals multiple persistent lineages and reassortment among recent H3N2 Virus ...
Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus Caprine Brucellosis Caprino Caprirom Carcass Caribbean Carina Visser Carol Delaney ... Development of innovative tools for the detection and control of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus 7/26/2021 ... Caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE) is an important disease in goats and can have a profound impact on dairy goat production. ... Arthritis Arthur Goetsch Artificial Insemination ASAS ASF Asia Aso August Australia Austria Award Banat White Barbara ...
Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus RT PCR kit. RTq-V320-100R 100T. EUR 1311 ... Description: The Japanese Encephalitis(JE) IgM ELISA test for exposure to Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) is an ELISA assay ... Description: The Japanese Encephalitis(JE) IgG ELISA for exposure to Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) is an ELISA assay system ... Natrol Meningitis-Encephalitis Controls. Natrol Meningitis-Encephalitis Controls To Order Contact us: [email protected] ...
Quantitative estimation of the impact of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus infection on milk production by dairy goats  ... of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection over one lactation in 4543 Murciano-Granadina ... ...
Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Viruses Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus Virus, Caprine ... Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Viruses. Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Viruses. Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus. Caprine ... Arthritis Encephalitis Virus, Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Viruses, Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Viruses, Caprine CAEV ... Arthritis Encephalitis Virus, Caprine. Arthritis Encephalitis Viruses, Caprine. Arthritis-Encephalitis Viruses, Caprine. CAEV. ...
Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (organism). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus ( ... Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus Active Synonym false false 60271019 CAEV Active Synonym false false ...
SEROLOGICAL SURVEY OF CAPRINE ARTHRITIS-ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS INFECTION IN SIBIU COUNTY, ROMANIA. Written by Adrian-Valentin ... SEROLOGICAL SURVEY OF CAPRINE ARTHRITIS-ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS INFECTION IN SIBIU COUNTY, ROMANIA. Scientific Works. Series C. ...
Seroprevalence of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus in the northwest of the Yauyos Province, Lima. Eric Callapiña, E. & ... Seroprevalence of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus in the northwest of the Yauyos Province, Lima. ... Seroprevalence of caprine artritis-encephalitis virus in goats of Lima Region, Peru. ... SEROPREVALENCIA DEL VIRUS DE LA RINOTRAQUEITIS INFECCIOSA BOVINA EN GANADO LECHERO DEL VALLE DE LIMA. Translated title of the ...
Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). *Bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV). *Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus ... Comparison with feline leukemia virus[edit]. FIV and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are sometimes mistaken for one another though ... Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a Lentivirus that affects cats worldwide, with 2.5% to 4.4%[1][2] of felines being ... variations of the virus strains. "Single-strain" vaccines, i.e., vaccines that only protect against a single virus variant, ...
Ovine herpes virus type 2 detection kits. Quick View Ovine Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus detection kits ... Channel catfish virus (CCV), or ictalurid herpesvirus 1, is a member of the Alloherpesviridae family, and a cytopathic ...
5 Diagnosis of Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus infection in dairy goats by ELISA, PCR and Viral Culture ... 3 Cytokine profiles of dendritic cells (DCs) during infection with bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) ...
Prevalence of antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus in breeding goats in Poland ... An industry operated programme for bovine leukaemia virus in New Zealand. Burton (L), Allen (G), Hayes (D), Pfeiffer (D) & ... Persistent bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection in U.S. beef herds. Wittum (T), Groteluschen (D), Brock (K), Kvasnicka (W), ... An experimental infection with a classical swine fever virus on weaner pigs. Can the serological data be used to estimate the ...
Caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) and Maedi-Visna virus (MVV) have been reportedly found in goats and sheep, but not ... All samples were negative for the presence of antibodies against caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) and Maedi-Visna viruses. ... caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) and Maedi-Visna viruses by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and enzyme linked immunosorbent ... Serosurvey of bluetongue, caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) and Maedi-Visna in Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) of a ...
Ahmad MZAli Al, Chebloune Y, Bouzar BA, et al. Lack of risk of transmission of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) ...
Chachoua claims that the Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus in arthritic goats milk attacks the HIV virus but leaves healthy ... Itd be meaningless without long term follow-up, because the virus eventually starts replicating again." ...
Learn about the veterinary topic of Septic Arthritis in Goats. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the ... suggests caprine arthritis and encephalitis virus Caprine Arthritis and Encephalitis Caprine arthritis and encephalitis virus ... Treatment of Septic Arthritis in Goats To be successful, treatment of septic arthritis must be provided early, and when ... Control of Septic Arthritis in Goats For control of septic arthritis, hygiene at parturition is essential, including a clean, ...
The disease results from inflammation as immune system reacts to the virus. Goats can develop a blood titer in 2-8 weeks but ... In animals over 6 months of age arthritis, mastitis, and pneumonia may occur. A progressive arthritis is the most common and ... Infection is widespread and arthritis in more than one joint is the most common clinical signs. The most common means of ... The target tissues of CAE virus are the joints, mammary glands, lungs, and brain. ...
Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus, Caprine B4.909.777.731.589.600.70 Arthropod Proteins D12.776.92 Artificial Intelligence L1.224.65 ... Encephalitis Virus, Murray Valley B4.909.777.270.475.300 B4.820.230.475.300 B4.909.777.310.350.300.300 Encephalitis Virus, St. ... Encephalitis Virus, Eastern Equine B4.909.777.270.150 B4.820.230.150 B4.909.777.923.54.320 Encephalitis Virus, Japanese B4.909. ... Encephalitis Virus, Western Equine B4.909.777.270.440 B4.820.230.440 B4.909.777.923.54.360 Encephalitis Viruses B4.909.777.270 ...
Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus, Caprine B4.909.777.731.589.600.70 Arthropod Proteins D12.776.92 Artificial Intelligence L1.224.65 ... Encephalitis Virus, Murray Valley B4.909.777.270.475.300 B4.820.230.475.300 B4.909.777.310.350.300.300 Encephalitis Virus, St. ... Encephalitis Virus, Eastern Equine B4.909.777.270.150 B4.820.230.150 B4.909.777.923.54.320 Encephalitis Virus, Japanese B4.909. ... Encephalitis Virus, Western Equine B4.909.777.270.440 B4.820.230.440 B4.909.777.923.54.360 Encephalitis Viruses B4.909.777.270 ...
Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus, Caprine B4.909.777.731.589.600.70 Arthropod Proteins D12.776.92 Artificial Intelligence L1.224.65 ... Encephalitis Virus, Murray Valley B4.909.777.270.475.300 B4.820.230.475.300 B4.909.777.310.350.300.300 Encephalitis Virus, St. ... Encephalitis Virus, Eastern Equine B4.909.777.270.150 B4.820.230.150 B4.909.777.923.54.320 Encephalitis Virus, Japanese B4.909. ... Encephalitis Virus, Western Equine B4.909.777.270.440 B4.820.230.440 B4.909.777.923.54.360 Encephalitis Viruses B4.909.777.270 ...
Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus, Caprine B4.909.777.731.589.600.70 Arthropod Proteins D12.776.92 Artificial Intelligence L1.224.65 ... Encephalitis Virus, Murray Valley B4.909.777.270.475.300 B4.820.230.475.300 B4.909.777.310.350.300.300 Encephalitis Virus, St. ... Encephalitis Virus, Eastern Equine B4.909.777.270.150 B4.820.230.150 B4.909.777.923.54.320 Encephalitis Virus, Japanese B4.909. ... Encephalitis Virus, Western Equine B4.909.777.270.440 B4.820.230.440 B4.909.777.923.54.360 Encephalitis Viruses B4.909.777.270 ...
  • Contagious Caprine logic examination. (cdc.gov)
  • Molecular evidence, however, shows that non-African isolates are quite distinct from African isolates, 112 and it seems probable that PPR was overlooked in areas where rinderpest and contagious caprine pleuropneumonia were or are common. (anipedia.org)
  • The prototype lentiviruses, visna/maedi of sheep and arthritis-encephalitis virus of goats (CAEV), infect cells of the monocyte-macrophage system and replicate at a restricted level in these cells. (elsevier.com)
  • The virus causes arthritis in goats of all ages. (caprinesupply.com)
  • Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus (CAEV) is an incurable disease of goats that has both social and economic impacts. (bepress.com)
  • Caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE) is an important disease in goats and can have a profound impact on dairy goat production. (iga-goatworld.com)
  • EN] This study evaluated the effect of the inclusion of orange pulp in the diet of dairy goats on production, milk composition, cheese yield and RCS. (upv.es)
  • EN] Two repeated experiments were carried out in 2 different years to study the effect of estrus on somatic cell count (SCC) in dairy goats. (upv.es)
  • EN] Two experiments were carried out to compare mechanical milking in mid-level (ML) and low-level (LL) milkline in goats. (upv.es)
  • Chachoua claims that the Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus in arthritic goats' milk attacks the HIV virus but leaves healthy human cells alone. (scroll.in)
  • Viruses isolated from Norwegian goats have a genetic sequence so different from the same type of virus in other countries that that they may be considered a separate genetic group of SMLV. (vet-magazin.ro)
  • Both goats and sheep may become infected by this type of virus, and transmission is predominantly from goat to sheep. (vet-magazin.ro)
  • Mapping of virus variants in goats and sheep will provide knowledge of the distribution of the virus and the degree of genetic variation, which will be important for the establishment of reliable techniques of diagnosis and control. (vet-magazin.ro)
  • Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis (CAE) is widespread among Norwegian goats, while mædi-visna (MV) outbreaks in sheep have only appeared sporadically since the disease was first demonstrated here in Norway in the 1970's. (vet-magazin.ro)
  • It was originally believed that CAE- and MV-virus were two different viruses that were specific for either goats or sheep. (vet-magazin.ro)
  • It is important to establish an overview of the virus variants in sheep and goats in Norway, and to document the differences between these variants. (vet-magazin.ro)
  • Databases of genetic relationships indicate that both goats and sheep in combined herds may be infected by the same virus variant. (vet-magazin.ro)
  • No features of the virus were found that would indicate specificity for either goats or sheep. (vet-magazin.ro)
  • Infection with the virus produces characteristic pathological changes in both sheep and goats. (vet-magazin.ro)
  • This virus type was not found in Norwegian goats, in contrast to the situation outside Norway. (vet-magazin.ro)
  • Participación como profesora colaboradora en más de 5 cursos a nivel nacional en.2-12 (Thread / Flange) Stainless Steel.This Invermectin injectable comes in 50 ml bottle, enough for about 50 goats.He's been a strength and conditioning coach for over 15 years and began writing about what it means to be KŪ over ten years ago. (brownandlittlelaw.com)
  • This compound is also often used for veterinary purposes such as the treatment of the acute respiratory form of caprine arthritis encephalitis and the prevention of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in pregnant and lactating goats. (dewysparkle.com)
  • 114 The virus and its disease are also widespread in Asia, having been reported in epidemic form affecting both sheep and goats in India, Iran, Israel, Pakistan, Turkey and much of the Arabian peninsula. (anipedia.org)
  • Similarly, although rinderpest virus (RPV) can infect sheep and goats in Africa, most experimental studies have induced only mild or subclinical infection. (anipedia.org)
  • 17, 57 El Hag Ali and Taylor 42 used specific antisera and transmission studies to confirm that virus isolates originally considered to be RPV from goats were actually the first isolates of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) in eastern Africa. (anipedia.org)
  • CAEV infections can have a significant impact on animal welfare due to the chronic nature of the diseases that may develop (arthritis, pneumonia, mastitis), and economically results in decreased animal lifespan and production, premature culling and trade restrictions. (iga-goatworld.com)
  • Sixteen additional pathogens were tested by PCR or reverse transcription PCR: bluetongue virus, maedi-visna virus, goat arthritis encephalitis virus, foot and mouth disease virus, rinderpest virus, bovine parainfluenza virus 3, Coxiella burnetii , Clostridium welchii , Pasteurella spp. (cdc.gov)
  • Co-cultivation of sheep or goat lymphocytes with macrophages infected with visna or CAE viruses results in production of a unique interferon (LV-IFN). (elsevier.com)
  • EN] The aim of the work was to study the effect of milking fraction on electrical conductivity of milk (EC) to improve its use in dairy goat mastitis detection using automatic EC measurements during milking. (upv.es)
  • By sequencing the entire genome of a virus from a goat with CAE, researchers discovered clear dissimilarities in sequences from Norwegian animals and from known virus isolates from small ruminants in other countries. (vet-magazin.ro)
  • Therefore, viruses from both pure sheep and goat herds, and in combined herds, were cultured and sequenced. (vet-magazin.ro)
  • Especie de LENTIVIRUS, subgénero de lentivirus ovino-caprinos (LENTIVIRUS OVINO-CAPRINO), íntimamente relacionado con el VIRUS VISNA-MAEDI y que causa encefalomielitis aguda, artritis crónica, NEUMONÍA, MASTITIS y GLOMERULONEFRITIS en cabras. (bvsalud.org)
  • Feline immunodeficiency virus ( FIV ) is a Lentivirus that affects cats worldwide, with 2.5% to 4.4% [1] [2] of felines being infected. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bakhanashvili M., Hizi A., Fidelity of DNA synthesis exhibited in vitro by the reverse transcriptase of the lentivirus equine infectious anemia virus, Biochemistry 32 (1993) 7559-7567. (vetres.org)
  • Small ruminant lentivirus is a more variable group of viruses than was previously thought. (vet-magazin.ro)
  • It usually presents as a slowly progressing, chronic debilitating disease of adult animals, but in some breeds severe, acute encephalitis may be encountered in kids at a very young age. (iga-goatworld.com)
  • chronic arthritis, inflammatory mastitis and progressive respiratory disease in adults. (bepress.com)
  • In animals over 6 months of age arthritis, mastitis, and pneumonia may occur. (extension.org)
  • Infection is widespread and arthritis in more than one joint is the most common clinical signs. (extension.org)
  • Ball J.M., Rushlow K.E., Issel C.J., Montelaro R.C., Detailed mapping of the antigenicity of the surface unit glycoprotein of equine infectious anemia virus by using synthetic peptide strategies, J. Virol. (vetres.org)
  • Description: The Japanese Encephalitis(JE) IgM ELISA test for exposure to Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) is an ELISA assay system for the detection of IgM antibodies in human serum to JEV derived recombinant antigen (JERA). (wlsolutions.be)
  • Genetic comparisons show that Norwegian SRLV constitute a separate genogroup and this should be taken into consideration when evaluating procedures for detection of virus. (vet-magazin.ro)
  • Clements J.E., Gabuzda D.H., Gdovin S.L., Cell type specific and viral regulation of visna virus gene expression, Virus Res. (vetres.org)
  • Once integrated into the host cell's genome, the virus can lay dormant in the asymptomatic stage for extended periods of time without being detected by the immune system or can cause lysis of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bouillant A.M., Nielsen K., Ruckerbauer G.M., Samagh B.S., Hare W.C., The persistent infection of a canine thymus cell line by equine infectious anaemia virus and preliminary data on the production of viral antigens, J. Virol. (vetres.org)
  • Chen C., Li F., Montelaro R.C., Functional roles of equine infectious anemia virus Gag p9 in viral budding and infection, J. Virol. (vetres.org)
  • FIV was first isolated in 1986, by Niels C Pedersen and Janet K. Yamamoto at the UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine in a colony of cats that had a high prevalence of opportunistic infections and degenerative conditions and was originally called Feline T-lymphotropic virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • aegypti were tested for dengue, Zika and chikungunya virus infection. (bvsalud.org)
  • Septic arthritis, or joint-ill, is an infection of one or more joints that is usually due to hematogenous transmission of bacteria to the synovial structures of young animals. (msdvetmanual.com)
  • Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV): what has HIV's country cousin got to tell us? (vetres.org)
  • Albrecht T.R., Lund L.H., Garcia-Blanco M.A., Canine cyclin T1 rescues equine infectious anemia virus tat trans-activation in human cells, Virology 268 (2000) 7-11. (vetres.org)
  • Belshan M., Baccam P., Oaks J.L., Sponseller B.A., Murphy S.C., Cornette J., Carpenter S., Genetic and biological variation in equine infectious anemia virus Rev correlates with variable stages of clinical disease in an experimentally infected pony, Virology 279 (2001) 185-200. (vetres.org)
  • Benton C.V., Brown B.L., Harshman J.S., Gilden R.V., In vitro host range of equine infectious anemia virus, Intervirology 16 (1981) 225-232. (vetres.org)
  • Carpenter S., Chesebro B., Change in host cell tropism associated with in vitro replication of equine infectious anemia virus, J. Virol. (vetres.org)
  • Carpenter S., Alexandersen S., Long M.J., Perryman S., Chesebro B., Identification of a hypervariable region in the long terminal repeat of equine infectious anemia virus, J. Virol. (vetres.org)
  • Carvalho M., Derse D., Mutational analysis of the equine infectious anemia virus Tat- responsive element, J. Virol. (vetres.org)
  • Carvalho M., Derse D., Physical and functional characterization of transcriptional control elements in the equine infectious anemia virus promoter, J. Virol. (vetres.org)
  • Charman H.P., Bladen S., Gilden R.V., Coggins L., Equine infectious anemia virus: evidence favoring classification as a retrovirus, J. Virol. (vetres.org)
  • Chen C., Montelaro R.C., Characterization of RNA elements that regulate gag-pol ribosomal frameshifting in equine infectious anemia virus, J. Virol. (vetres.org)
  • Chung H., Derse D., Binding sites for Rev and ASF/SF2 map to a 55-nucleotide purine-rich exonic element in equine infectious anemia virus RNA, J. Biol. (vetres.org)
  • Field observation, however, showed that the disease is independent of RP and cattle, and serology has indicated that the immunological relationship between the two viruses is as distant as that between RPV and the other morbilliviruses (including measles and canine distemper). (anipedia.org)
  • 32, 33, 74 It has been proposed that RPV is the direct descendent of an ancestral morbillivirus from which the others evolved, and that PPRV diverged from RPV more recently than did measles and canine distemper viruses. (anipedia.org)
  • Infections with viruses of the family Retroviridae. (usda.gov)
  • Channel catfish virus (CCV), or ictalurid herpesvirus 1, is a member of the Alloherpesviridae family, and a cytopathic herpesvirus that causes a severe hemorrhagic disease in young channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. (kitpcr.com)
  • Characterization of avian H9N2 influenza viruses from United Arab Emirates 2000 to 2003. (ufrgs.br)
  • The disease results from inflammation as immune system reacts to the virus. (extension.org)
  • 47, 48, 107, 121 Studies with monoclonal antibodies and nucleic acid techniques confirmed the distinction between the two viruses, and that PPRV is a completely separate pathogen. (anipedia.org)
  • The American Association of Feline Practitioners (an organization in the United States), as well as many feral cat organizations, recommends against euthanizing FIV-positive cats, or even spending funds to test for the virus, as spaying or neutering cats seems to effectively control transmission (spayed/neutered cats are less likely to engage in territorial fights). (wikipedia.org)
  • Several early studies showed the close relationship between PPR and RP viruses 48, 76, 116 and for a time PPRV was considered to be a host-adapted variant of RPV. (anipedia.org)
  • A common one is Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis (CAE), which was identified by research workers at Washington State University. (caprinesupply.com)
  • A progressive arthritis is the most common and usually noted in the front pastern joints, with chronic progression over the years. (extension.org)
  • The virus gains entry to host cells through the interaction of its own envelope glycoproteins with the target cells' surface receptors . (wikipedia.org)
  • The chance that an FIV-infected cat will pass the virus to other cats within a household is low, unless there is fighting between cats, or wounds present that could allow entry of the virus from infected to non-infected cat. (wikipedia.org)
  • The target tissues of CAE virus are the joints, mammary glands, lungs, and brain. (extension.org)
  • Thus, by curtailing virus replication and enhancing expression of MHC class II antigens, LV-IFN may contribute to the induction and augmentation of the host's lymphoproliferative response to the virus. (elsevier.com)
  • It'd be meaningless without long term follow-up, because the virus eventually starts replicating again. (scroll.in)
  • Virus replication in the monocyte-macrophage results in lesions characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration of the central nervous system (CNS), lungs, synovium and mammary gland and their draining lymph nodes. (elsevier.com)
  • FIV is transmitted primarily through deep bite wounds, where the virus present in the infected cat's saliva enters the body tissues of another cat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neutrophils dominate the cell population in septic arthritis, and intracellular bacteria may be present. (msdvetmanual.com)

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