Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus, Caprine: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), closely related to VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS and causing acute encephalomyelitis; chronic arthritis; PNEUMONIA; MASTITIS; and GLOMERULONEPHRITIS in goats. It is transmitted mainly in the colostrum and milk.Lentivirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Goat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.Visna-maedi virus: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), that can cause chronic pneumonia (maedi), mastitis, arthritis, and encephalomyelitis (visna) in sheep. Maedi is a progressive pneumonia of sheep which is similar to but not the same as jaagsiekte (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE). Visna is a demyelinating leukoencephalomyelitis of sheep which is similar to but not the same as SCRAPIE.Encephalitis Virus, Japanese: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.Encephalitis, Japanese: A mosquito-borne encephalitis caused by the Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE) occurring throughout Eastern Asia and Australia. The majority of infections occur in children and are subclinical or have features limited to transient fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges may occur and lead to transient or permanent neurologic deficits (including a POLIOMYELITIS-like presentation); SEIZURES; COMA; and death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p751; Lancet 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1094-7)Encephalitis Virus, Venezuelan Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne: A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.Encephalitis Virus, St. Louis: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.Encephalitis Viruses: A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Encephalitis Virus, Eastern Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.Encephalitis Virus, Western Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America.Encephalitis, Viral: Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. Encephalitis may occur as primary or secondary manifestation of TOGAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; HERPESVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ADENOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; FLAVIVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; BUNYAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PICORNAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; PARAMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS; and ARENAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Encephalitis, St. Louis: A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)Encephalomyelitis, Venezuelan Equine: A form of arboviral encephalitis endemic to Central America and the northern latitudes of South America. The causative organism (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, VENEZUELAN EQUINE) is transmitted to humans and horses via the bite of several mosquito species. Human viral infection may be asymptomatic or remain restricted to a mild influenza-like illness. Encephalitis, usually not severe, occurs in a small percentage of cases and may rarely feature SEIZURES and COMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp9-10)ArthritisEncephalitis Virus, Murray Valley: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), found in Australia and New Guinea. It causes a fulminating viremia resembling Japanese encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, JAPANESE).Encephalitis, Arbovirus: Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)Encephalitis, Tick-Borne: Encephalitis caused by neurotropic viruses that are transmitted via the bite of TICKS. In Europe, the diseases are caused by ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, TICK-BORNE, which give rise to Russian spring-summer encephalitis, central European encephalitis, louping ill encephalitis, and related disorders. Powassan encephalitis occurs in North America and Russia and is caused by the Powassan virus. ASEPTIC MENINGITIS and rarely encephalitis may complicate COLORADO TICK FEVER which is endemic to mountainous regions of the western United States. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp14-5)Encephalomyelitis, Equine: A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. Disorders in this category are endemic to regions of South America and North America. In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-10)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).Flavivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.Arthritis, Experimental: ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.Encephalitis Viruses, Japanese: A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which comprises a number of viral species that are the etiologic agents of human encephalitis in many different geographical regions. These include Japanese encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE), St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), Murray Valley encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, MURRAY VALLEY), and WEST NILE VIRUS.Lentiviruses, Ovine-Caprine: A subgenus of LENTIVIRUS comprising viruses that produce multi-organ disease with long incubation periods in sheep and goats.Pneumonia, Progressive Interstitial, of Sheep: Chronic respiratory disease caused by the VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS. It was formerly believed to be identical with jaagsiekte (PULMONARY ADENOMATOSIS, OVINE) but is now recognized as a separate entity.Games, Experimental: Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedures, or strategies.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.HistoryWorld Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Tyrothricin: A polypeptide antibiotic mixture obtained from Bacillus brevis. It consists of a mixture of three tyrocidines (60%) and several gramicidins (20%) and is very toxic to blood, liver, kidneys, meninges, and the olfactory apparatus. It is used topically.Commonwealth of Independent StatesCeremonial Behavior: A series of actions, sometimes symbolic actions which may be associated with a behavior pattern, and are often indispensable to its performance.Micronesia: The collective name for islands of the Pacific Ocean east of the Philippines, including the Mariana, PALAU, Caroline, Marshall, and Kiribati Islands. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p761 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p350)HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).RNA, Guide: Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats: Repetitive nucleic acid sequences that are principal components of the archaeal and bacterial CRISPR-CAS SYSTEMS, which function as adaptive antiviral defense systems.VirginiaChromosomes, Artificial, Human: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Illusions: The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.

Goat milk epithelial cells are highly permissive to CAEV infection in vitro. (1/95)

The main route of small ruminant lentivirus dissemination is the ingestion of infected cells present in colostrum and milk from infected animals. However, whether only macrophages or other cell subtypes are involved in this transmission is unknown. We derived epithelial cell cultures, 100% cytokeratin positive, from milk of naturally infected and noninfected goats. One such culture, derived from a naturally infected goat, constitutively produced a high titer of virus in the absence of any cytopathic effect. The other cultures, negative for natural lentivirus infection, were tested for their susceptibility to infection with the CAEV-CO strain and a French field isolate CAEV-3112. We showed that milk epithelial cells are easily infected by either virus and produce viruses at titers as high as those obtained in permissive goat synovial membrane cells. The CAEV-CO strain replicated in milk epithelial cells in absence of any cytopathic effect, whereas the CAEV-3112 field isolate induced both cell fusion and cell lysis. Our results suggest that CAEV-infected milk epithelial cells of small ruminants may play an important role in virus transmission and pathogenesis.  (+info)

Inducible nitric oxide synthase is expressed in joints of goats in the late stage of infection with caprine arthritis encephalitis virus. (2/95)

We have studied the expression of the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in joints of goats infected with the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Nitric oxide generated by iNOS is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of various types of arthritis, especially rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in humans. Surprisingly, iNOS immunoreactivity was found only in joints of long-term infected goats with severe clinical arthritis, whereas-despite the presence of high numbers of inflammatory cells in the synovial tissue-no iNOS immunoreactivity was detected in mildly arthritic and in short-term experimentally infected goats. Most iNOS-positive cells expressed neither MHC class II nor CD68, which suggests that they were fibroblast-like synoviocytes. In situ hybridization studies showed that there was no correlation between iNOS immunoreactivity and detectable virus expression in the joint. In addition, infection of macrophages in vitro-the major host cells of CAEV in vivo-did not lead to increased iNOS mRNA expression. In response to stimulation, similar levels of iNOS expression were observed in infected and in uninfected macrophages. These findings suggest that the expression of iNOS is a feature of late-stage chronic arthritis and is not involved in the development of the inflammatory lesions. Both the lack of co-localization of iNOS protein and viral transcripts in the joint and the finding that CAEV does not stimulate the expression of iNOS in vitro further suggest that iNOS is not directly induced by the virus or the anti-viral immune response in the joint, that it may well, however, be involved in tissue remodelling or scar formation.  (+info)

Conserved sequence motifs involving the tat reading frame of Brazilian caprine lentiviruses indicate affiliations to both caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus and visna-maedi virus. (3/95)

The sequence variation in small ruminant lentiviruses from Brazilian herds of milking goats was sampled in a representative region of the pol gene and in a region including the entire tat open reading frame. Clones were amplified from cDNA derived from virus produced in vitro using primers targetting conserved sequences of the pol gene. Iterative sequencing of clones indicated that animals from two herds in the Minas Gerais area were infected by a caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV)-like virus and that individual animals carried variant virus populations. Sequences derived from an infected goat from a herd in Pernambuco showed no nucleic acid variation and were distant from the CAEV-type sequence but marginally closer to ovine visna-maedi virus (VMV) sequences. Sequences amplified from a region including the tat gene, amplified with a common upstream primer within the vif coding region and different downstream primers because of the local divergence between CAEV- and VMV-type sequences, confirmed the affiliation of the Minas Gerais sequences to CAEV and indicated that the Pernambuco isolate was indeed related to VMV, which had not previously been reported to cause natural caprine infection. The overlap between the vif and tat open reading frames clearly distinguished between CAEV-like small ruminant lentiviruses, which shared eight common nucleotides, and the VMV group, where the overlap was reduced to a single base; the final adenine of the vif terminator (TAA) is the initial adenine of the presumptive tat initiator codon. This may be useful for epizoological tracing of the origin of outbreaks.  (+info)

A new sensitive serological assay for detection of lentivirus infections in small ruminants. (4/95)

Lentivirus infections in small ruminants represent an economic problem affecting several European countries with important sheep-breeding industries. Programs for control and eradication of these infections are being initiated and require reliable screening assays. This communication describes the construction and evaluation of a new serological screening enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies to maedi-visna virus (MVV) in sheep and to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) in goats. The solid phase is sensitized with a combination of the major core protein p25 of MVV produced in Escherichia coli and a peptide derived from the immunodominant region of the viral transmembrane protein gp46. The peptide carries an N-terminal biotin residue and is complexed with streptavidin prior to being coated. The new assay was evaluated with 2,336 sheep serum samples from different European countries with large differences in the levels of prevalence of MVV infections, and the results have been compared to those of the standard agar gel immunodiffusion test. Discrepant samples were analyzed by Western blotting with viral lysate, and most sera could be classified unambiguously. The estimated overall sensitivity of the new ELISA was 99.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 98.4 to 99. 8%) and the specificity was 99.3% (95% CI, 98.7 to 99.6%). A limited set of goat sera (n = 212) was also analyzed, with similar results. These data indicate that the new assay is a reliable tool that can be used in control and eradication programs for small ruminant lentivirus infections.  (+info)

Isolation of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus from goats in Mexico. (5/95)

A lentivirus was isolated from 2 goats in Mexico that were seropositive to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) by the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. The lentivirus was identified as CAEV by the observation of giant multinucleated cells (syncytia) in goat synovial membrane (GSM) monolayers co-cultivated with blood mononuclear (BMN) cells from the seropositive goats, and by amplifying a DNA segment of the CAEV gag gene using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Subsequently, cell supernatants from the GSM cells co-cultivated with BMN cells were used to infect 2 CAEV-seronegative goats. These goats seroconverted to CAEV as determined by the AGID test, and CAEV was re-isolated from these goats. One of the goats developed polyarthritis 8 mo after inoculation. Previous serological surveys indicate that infection with CAEV is prevalent among goats in Mexico. To our knowledge this is the first report of CAEV isolation in Mexico. Because of globalization of markets and increased trading among nations, the rapid identification and reporting of diseases such as CAEV are important to prevent the dissemination of these diseases.  (+info)

Lack of functional receptors is the only barrier that prevents caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus from infecting human cells. (6/95)

Barriers to replication of viruses in potential host cells may occur at several levels. Lack of suitable and functional receptors on the host cell surface, thereby precluding entry of the virus, is a frequent reason for noninfectivity, as long as no alternative way of entry (e.g., pinocytosis, antibody-dependent adsorption) can be exploited by the virus. Other barriers can intervene at later stages of the virus life cycle, with restrictions on transcription of the viral genome, incorrect translation and posttranslational processing of viral proteins, inefficient viral assembly, and release or efficient early induction of apoptosis in the infected cell. The data we present here demonstrate that replication of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) is restricted in a variety of human cell lines and primary tissue cultures. This barrier was efficiently overcome by transfection of a novel infectious complete-proviral CAEV construct into the same cells. The successful infection of human cells with a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) G-pseudotyped Env-defective CAEV confirmed that viral entry is the major obstacle to CAEV infection of human cells. The fully efficient productive infection obtained with the VSV-G-protein-pseudotyped infectious CAEV strengthened the evidence that lack of viral entry is the only practical barrier to CAEV replication in human cells. The virus thus produced retained its original host cell specificity and acquired no propensity to propagate further in human cultures.  (+info)

B-cell epitopes of the envelope glycoprotein of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus and antibody response in infected goats. (7/95)

Goats infected with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) develop high titres of antibodies to Env. Not only is no consistent neutralizing response found but anti-Env antibodies have even been associated with disease in infected goats. To identify the continuous antigenic determinants involved in this atypical anti-Env response, we mapped CAEV-CO Env by screening an epitope expression library with infected goat sera. In addition to the four previously described epitopes, seven novel antigenic sites were identified, of which five were located on the surface (SU) and two in the transmembrane (TM) subunits of Env. The SU antibody-binding domains located in the variable regions of the C-terminal part of the molecule (SU3 to SU5) showed the strongest reactivity and induced a rapid seroconversion in six experimentally infected goats. However, the response to these immunodominant epitopes did not appear to be associated with any neutralizing activity. The pattern of serum reactivity of naturally infected goats with these epitopes was restricted, suggesting a type-specific reaction. Interestingly, the reactivity of peptides representing SU5 sequences derived from CAEV field isolates varied with the geographical and/or breeding origin of the animals. This suggests that peptides corresponding to the immunodominant SU epitopes may well be useful in the serotyping of CAEV isolates. Furthermore, the identification of the CAEV Env epitopes will permit us to functionally dissect the antibody response and to address the role of anti-Env antibodies either in the protection from or in the pathogenesis of CAEV infection.  (+info)

Characterization of chimeric enzymes between caprine arthritis--encephalitis virus, maedi--visna virus and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrases expressed in Escherichia coli. (8/95)

In order to investigate the functions of the three putative lentiviral integrase (IN) protein domains on viral DNA specificity and target site selection, enzymatically active chimeric enzymes were constructed using the three wild-type IN proteins of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV), maedi-visna virus (MVV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The chimeric enzymes were expressed in Escherichia coli, purified by affinity chromatography and analysed in vitro for IN-specific endonuclease and integration activities on various DNA substrates. Of the 21 purified chimeric IN proteins constructed, 20 showed distinct site-specific cleavage activity with at least one substrate and six were able to catalyse an efficient integration reaction. Analysis of the chimeric IN proteins revealed that the central domain together with the C terminus determines the activity and substrate specificity of the enzyme. The N terminus appears to have no considerable influence. Furthermore, an efficient integration activity of CAEV wild-type IN was successfully demonstrated after detailed characterization of the reaction conditions that support optimal enzyme activities of CAEV IN. Also, under the same in vitro assay conditions, MVV and HIV-1 IN proteins exhibited endonuclease and integration activities, an indispensable prerequisite of domain-swapping experiments. Thus, the following report presents a detailed characterization of the activities of CAEV IN in vitro as well as the analysis of functional chimeric lentiviral IN proteins.  (+info)

Risks for Caprine arthritis encephalitis, Caprine arthritis encephalitis treatments, recommended products for Caprine arthritis encephalitis, ways to prevent Caprine arthritis encephalitis, causes of Caprine arthritis encephalitis
Visna virus of sheep and arthritis-encephalitis virus of goats are serologically related but genetically distinct retroviruses which cause slowly progressive diseases in their natural hosts. To localize homologous regions of the DNAs of these two viruses, we constructed a physical map of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus DNA and aligned it with the viral RNA. Cloned probes of visna virus DNA were then used to localize regions of homology with the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus DNA. These studies showed homology in the 5 region of the genome encompassing U5 and the gag and pol genes and also in a small region in the env gene. These findings correlate with biological data suggesting that the regions of the DNA which are homologous may be responsible for virus group characteristics such as the closely related virus core antigens. Regions which did not show homology such as large sections in the env gene may represent unique sequences which control highly strain-specific characteristics ...
The aim of the present transversal descriptive study was to determine the exposure and risk factors associated with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) in southern Spain. A total of 3,312 serum samples were collected from goat belonging to three different breeds coming from 48 flocks located in different geographic areas from southern Spain. In addition, health and productive parameters were surveyed during the visit to the herds. Serum samples were analysed by INgezim Maedi Screening (Ingenasa®) ELISA kit. The total percentage of herds exposed to CAEV was 87.71% (CI95 78.42-97.00). A total of 733 goats were seropositive with overall seroprevalence of 23.22% (CI95 21.78-24.65). The intraherd seroprevalence was 20.82%±24.07. Multivariate logistic regression showed significant association between CAEV and the next variables: (i) herd size (P,0.0001; OR: 2.07; CI95: 1.73-2.50), (ii) kidding area (P,0.0020; OR: 1.38; CI95: 1.13-1.69), (iii) cleaning and disinfection program (P,0.0067; OR: ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modulation of lentivirus replication by antibodies. Non-neutralizing antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus enhance early stages of infection in macrophages, but do not cause increased production of virions. AU - Jolly, P. E.. AU - Huso, D.. AU - Hart, G.. AU - Narayan, O.. PY - 1989/1/1. Y1 - 1989/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0024374144&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0024374144&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1099/0022-1317-70-8-2221. DO - 10.1099/0022-1317-70-8-2221. M3 - Article. C2 - 2549189. AN - SCOPUS:0024374144. VL - 70. SP - 2221. EP - 2226. JO - Journal of General Virology. JF - Journal of General Virology. SN - 0022-1317. IS - 8. ER - ...
CAPRINE arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) is an important infectious disease that contributes to low productivity of goat herds in developing countries. Many factors, such as breed and production system, have been reported to interfere in its occurrence. Nevertheless, the effect of farmer association (cooperatives) in its control has never been investigated. Therefore, the goal of this study was to report a difference of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) seroreactivity by agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) in associated versus non-associated farmers in the same region in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. A total of 562 blood samples were sampled from 28 goat herds. Animals were randomly selected from each herd. A total 79 of 562 (14.0 per cent) serum samples were reactive for CAEV. According to the serology, 80 per cent of the herds belonging to independent farmers presented at least one seroreactive animal, with a herd level average among those of 25.7 per cent (11.1 to 62.5 per cent; median ...
Learn symptoms and how to treat caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE), one of the most significant diseases affecting the goat industry.
By Gail Bowman CAE or CAEV (Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus) is a common disease of goats that is prevalent worldwide. In the United States, prevalence as high as 81% has been reported for goat herds. According to a recent study by J. D. Rowe, DVM, Infection most commonly occurs when the virus is present in colostrum…
Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) and Visna-Maedi virus (MVV) are lentivirus that cross the species barriers between goats and sheep and are therefore referred to as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). In our laboratory we study different aspects of these fascinating viruses in various projects. ...
A retrospective study of brain lesions in goats was conducted to identify the range of lesions and diseases recognized and to make recommendations regarding the best tissues to examine and tests to conduct in order to maximize the likelihood of making a definitive diagnosis in goats that may have had clinical signs referable to the brain. One hundred thirty-nine goats with a brain lesion were identified. The most common lesion, in 52.5% of the goats, was suppurative inflammation. Approximately two-thirds of these goats had encephalitic listeriosis. Other goats were found to have suppurative inflammation in association with septicemia, pituitary abscesses, dehorning injury, and otitis. Thirty goats (21.6%) were diagnosed with polioencephalomalacia. Twenty-one goats (15.1%) were diagnosed with nonsuppurative inflammation. In more than half of these goats, no definitive diagnosis was made, while 8 were infected with Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus and 1 with Rabies virus. However, few goats ...
Baselgia, S., Doherr, M.G., Mellor, R., Torsteinsdottir, S., Jermann, T., Zurbriggen, A., Jungi, T., and Marti, E. (2006) Evaluation of an in vitro sulphidoleukotriene release test for diagnosis of insect bite hypersensitivity in horses. Equine Veterinary Journal 38:1, 40-46.. Baumrucker, C.R., Saurer, S., Blum, J.W., Jungi, T., and Friis, R.R. (2006) Lactoferrin (Lf): Retinoid interactions in the mammary glands of transgenic mice overexpressing human Lf. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 251:1-2, 56-66.. Fluri, A., Nenci, C., Zahno, M.L., Vogt, H.R., Charan, S., Busato, A., Pancino, G., Peterhans, E., Obexer-Ruff, G., and Bertoni, G. (2006) The MHC-haplotype influences primary, but not memory, immune responses to an immunodominant peptide containing T- and B-cell epitopes of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus Gag protein. Vaccine 24:5, 597-606.. Franchini, M., Schweizer, M., Mätzener, P., Magkouras, I., Sauter, K.S., Mirkovitch, J., Peterhans, E., and Jungi, T.W. (2006) Evidence for ...
Samir "Sam" Chachoua is an Australian alternative medicine practitioner, trained as a medical doctor. He is not actively licensed to practice medicine in Australia or the United States. Chachoua offers treatments in Mexico that he claims to be effective alternative medicine vaccine therapies for cancer and HIV, among other diseases. His claims lack scientific support, and are disputed by medical doctors. Chachouas treatments depend on theories he has named, including "Induced Remission Therapy" and "The Nemesis Theory", i.e. "for every disease there is an anti-disease organism capable of destroying it and restoring health". For treatment of HIV, Chachoua vaccinates patients with Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, which is known to cross-react immunologically with HIV. He claims to have eradicated HIV from the nation of Comoros in 2006. This claim has been refuted by Savlator Niyonzima, the UNAIDS country director of Madagascar, Comoros, Mauritius, and Seychelles. As of 2012, the adult HIV ...
But what if he could, tho?. What would this super awesome therapy THE MAN doesnt want you to know about look like? How would it work?. That would be a fun and educational game to play!. Okay, to play this game you first have to understand what CAEV is. Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus is a retrovirus that infects goats. It is like HIV in the sense that they are both lentiviruses, that is, more complex (more genes) retroviruses. They both share the standard gag, pol, and env genes all retroviruses have, plus a few accessory genes: rev, tat, and vif. HIV also has a few more.. But while there are similarities, CAEV and HIV are not the same any more than you and blue whales are the same (I tried to align an amino acid sequence of a CAEV Env with an HIV-1 Env, and the program was like Nuh uh. Dees dont go together.). So: How could CAEV be used to cure HIV?. 1- Anti-CAEV antibodies from goats could stop HIV!. Dr. Whatever said, specifically, that he looked for the absence of disease. ...
Caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE) virus is a member of the small ruminant lentiviruses (also includes ovine progressive pneumonia, or OPP, of sheep), which may lead to chronic disease of the joints, and on rare occasions, encephalitis in goat kids less than six months of age. The CAE virus is intimately associated with white blood cells; therefore, any body secretions that contain blood cells are potential sources of virus to other goats in the herd. Since not all goats that become infected with CAE virus develop clinical disease, it is important to test goats routinely for infection by means of a serologic test that detects viral antibodies in the serum. (Credit: http://waddl.vetmed.wsu.edu/animal-disease-faq/cae) ...
Animals, Goats, Bacteria, Human, Medicine, Peptides, Animal, Animal Model, Arthritis, Caev, Caprine Arthritis-encephalitis Virus, Cell, Cell Count, Cohort Study, Encephalitis, Encephalitis Virus, Hand, Infection, Lactose, Milk
Listen, nobody thinks the guy who cured Charlie Sheen of HIV cured Charlie Sheen of HIV. Even Charlie Sheen. Dr Sam I was with u in Mexico for 1 day. Its illegal for u to practice in U.S.A. where u treated me for 2 months © https://t.co/lKv6YPYdhm - Charlie Sheen (@charliesheen) February 1, 2016 ... But what if he could, tho? What would this super awesome therapy THE MAN doesnt want you to know about look like? How would it work? That would be a fun and educational game to play! Okay, to play this game you first have to understand what CAEV is. Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus is a… ...
The cost and effort involved in ridding a goat herd of the Caprine Arthritis and Encephalitis (CAE) Virus are well worth the investment according to a new animal disease model that puts real costs on the financial impact the disease can have. CAE is a production limiting disease that infects cells of the lung, central nervous system, joints and mammary glands.. A low impact outbreak of CAE in a 100 head goat breeding and meat herd could cost the operation up to $710 and a high impact outbreak up to $28,900. Those figures were generated by the model based on 2010 cost and revenue data provided by real Ontario producers.. Click here to access the On-Farm Cost of Disease Calculator. Producers must input a series of data in the spreadsheet, such as feed costs, average daily gain, mortality rates and others depending on the particular commodity, in order for the model to generate results.. Funding was provided in part through Growing Forward, a federal-provincial-territorial initiative. The ...
Comtet, L. (IDvet), Feliziani, F. (CEREL - IZS Umbria e Marche, Italy), Lesceu, S. (IDvet). Validation of the ID Screen® Maedi Visna Indirect ELISA: specificity on BTV-8 vaccinated sheep and detection of seroconversion. Poster presented at the 2010 EAVLD meeting, Lelystad, Holland ...
What producers can do to prevent introduction and reduce transmission. Slowly progressive illnesses like Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis (CAE) in goats are major production limiting diseases that can be a source of significant stress and economic loss for farmers.. Once an animal has the CAE virus, it results in a persistent, lifelong infection. Most goats dont show any symptoms but can be carriers, which means they can transmit the disease to other animals in the herd. There is currently no treatment or vaccine, and the prevalence across Ontario is unknown.. Thats why Ontario Goat has recently partially funded two research projects at the University of Guelph focused on learning more about the disease, its prevalence and how it behaves on Ontario goat farms.. Determining CAE prevalence. A preliminary study of 45 randomly selected Ontario goat herds - 30 dairy goat breeders and 15 meat goat operations - was carried out in 2012 to determine how widespread the CAE virus infection is in the ...
Aalto-yliopisto on suomalaisille vahvuuksille rakentuva kansainvälinen yliopisto. Aalto-yliopistossa tiede ja taide kohtaavat tekniikan ja talouden. ...
This case report describes a Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection in an adult, female single pet goat kept on a dairy cattle farm. The doe showed the habitus of a chronically ill animal, with poor body condition and chronic diarrhoea, when presented at the clinic. The animal displayed a grave manifestation of the disease with severe enteritis and typhlocolitis, lymphadenitis and some up to 10 cm in diameter pyogranulomatous inflammation in the liver, spleen, pancreas, omasum and the intestinal lymph nodes. All other causative agents that might explain the described signs were ruled out (Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, tuberculosis, tumorous alterations, foreign bodies, caprine arthritis encephalitis). Goats seem to be vulnerable for yersiniosis, but in contrast to this case report, in most cases, Yersinia enterocolitica, and not Y. pseudotuberculosis, can be proved as infectious cause of yersiniosis. ...
Maedi visna virus (MVV) vertical transmission in sheep via infected colostrums is a very important route of infection in lambs. To verify colostral transmission and to study early viral entry in lambs, colostrum samples, and small intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes of lambs born from experimentally infected ewes were examined by histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridisation (ISH) studies. In particular, newborn lambs were naturally fed maternal colostrum and humanely killed at 10, 24, 48, 72, 96 h and 7 and 10 days after birth; two caesarian-derived lambs served as uninfected controls. No lesions suggestive of MVVinfection were found, but marked immunoreactions for MVV capsid antigen (CA, p28) were detected in lambs fed maternal colostrum and in macrophages cultured from colostrum. IHC results in lambs suggest a initial viral absorption by intestinal epithelial cells at the tip of the villi, passage to mononuclear cells in the lamina propria and involvement of ileum ...
Maedi visna virus (MVV) is a retrovirus that is member of the Lentivirus genus. MVV infects sheep and goats and causes progressive pneumonia or paralysis, leading to death. Since the discovery of the receptor for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) all include the chemokine receptor CXCR4, it has been postulated that all members of the Lentivirus share a common mechanism of entry that involves the use of CXCR4. With the use of syncytia assays, infection-, inhibition- and enhancement studies, it was shown that CXCR4 is not a common lentivirus receptor. U87 and HOS cells, both celllines lacking CXCR4, were susceptible to infection. However, cells transfected with CD4 and CXCR4 showed an increased syncytia formation and the presence of CD¤ and CXCR4 augments virus-induced cell fusion. The nature of MVV receptor is still not known, but our data suggest the use of CD4 and/or CXCR4 as accessory molecules or as part of a ...
Cell Membrane Cell membrane integrity  vital for proper cell functioning. Most cells can only withstand transient ruptures of the cell membrane. If the cell membrane suffers massive breaches -loses the ability to accumulate and contain vital components and will be subject to outside toxins. There is a term for cells that suffer massive cell membrane trauma - Dead Cells.
Contributor Comment: This is the respiratory form of small ruminant lentiviruses. This respiratory disease is caused by a group of non-oncogenic exogenous retroviruses of the genus lentivirus that target immune cells, mainly macrophages. The Small Ruminant Lentiviruses are a group of highly related single stranded RNA viruses with high mutational potential that affect mainly sheep but also goats.1 These viruses induce chronic inflammation that usually remains subclinical. When it becomes clinical, the disease can express mainly in four different locations: lung, joints (mainly carpus), central nervous system and mammary gland.3 The expression of each form as well as the gravity of the lesion depends on host immune response and the viral factors. The respiratory form, termed maedi or ovine progressive pneumonia, is the most common presentation of the disease in sheep.1 The process consists of an afebrile chronic progressive pneumonia that leads to weight loss and marked dyspnea. Grossly, the ...
This volume contains papers and abstracts of the Second Biennial Conference of the African Small Ruminant Network. In addition to the keynote address, there are nine papers on Small Ruminant Production Systems, Economics and Policy, nine papers on Small Ruminant Performance and Reproduction, ten papers on Small Ruminant Health and Reproductive Wastage, eight papers on Small Ruminant Feeds and Feeding Systems and eight papers on Small Ruminant Genetic Resources and Breeding. Ten poster abstracts covering the above topics add to the volume ...
The chlor-alkali membrane process is one of the largest in industrial electrolysis with the production of roughly 40 million metric tons of both chlorine and caustic soda per year. Chlorine is used predominantly for the production of vinyl chloride monomer, which in turn is used for the production of poly vinyl chloride (PVC). Current density in membrane-cell technology has increased dramatically during the last decade as the membranes themselves have improved. This results in lower investment costs for greater production. However, the increase in current density implies an increase in power consumption if nothing is done to dampen the voltage increase. Advances in cell design including increased internal convection, decreased ohmic losses, and better membranes have allowed for large increases in current density with small increases in cell voltage. This example describes the current-density distribution in realistic anode and cathode structures in a membrane cell.. ...
This white paper explains: Membrane cell chlorine production, problems with conventional pH electrodes, pNa/pH technology, measurement challenges, plug and Measure - fast and simple start up.
Difference between wild-type lentivirus and integrase-deficient lentivirus - posted in Microbiology: Hi, I dont know what is the difference between wild-type lentivirus and integrase-deficient lentivirus. Are they used in different purpose? If so, what is it? Anyone help Thanks in advance.
"Cross-reactivity between caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus and type 1 human immunodeficiency virus". Arch. Med. Res. 34 (5 ... Chachoua vaccinates patients with Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, which is known to cross-react immunologically with HIV ...
She performed similar work with caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV), a closely related virus of goats. With the ... This article helped to establish HIV as a lentivirus, not a leukemia virus as was originally thought. At the time, the origin ... Lentiviruses are a complex type of retroviruses, and include the human immunodeficiency viruses HIV-1 and HIV-2. Clements was ... Later, it was found that simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains from chimpanzee and monkey hosts were the likely ...
2003). "Specific G2 arrest of caprine cells infected with a caprine arthritis encephalitis virus expressing vpr and vpx genes ... Vpx is a virion-associated protein encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 2 HIV-2 and most simian immunodeficiency virus ... Vicenzi, E.; Poli, G. (2013). "Novel factors interfering with human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 replication in vivo and in ... 2012). "SAMHD1 restricts the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by depleting the intracellular pool of ...
... caprine arthritis encephalitis virus). ... Caprine may refer to: A goat-antelope Caprine, norleucine, ... aminoacid Caprine, an adjective that means "pertaining to or belonging to the subfamily Caprinae" (see goat-antelope, ...
... is closely related to the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus but has limited nucleotide sequence similarity with ... "Maedi-Visna Virus and Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus Genomes Encode a Vpr-Like but No Tat Protein". J. Virol. 77 (17): ... Goat endothelial cells may be infected in vitro by transmigration of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus infected leukocytes. ... "Is caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) transmitted vertically to early embryo development stages (morulae or blastocyst ...
2010). "Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus". Fenner's Veterinary Virology (5th ed.). Academic Press. pp. 294-295. ISBN ... Caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE) is a viral disease of goats caused by a lentivirus called caprine arthritis encephalitis ... Matthews, JG (2016). "Caprine arthritis encephalitis". Diseases of the goat (4th ed.). John Wiley & Sons. pp. 98-102. ISBN ... 2011). "Caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE) and Maedi Visna (MV)". Goat medicine (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN ...
... virus Capim orthobunyavirus Capraria yellow spot virus Caprine alphaherpesvirus 1 Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus Caprine ... virus A Potato virus H Potato virus M Potato virus P Potato virus S Potato virus T Potato virus U Potato virus V Potato virus X ... virus Garlic virus A Garlic virus B Garlic virus C Garlic virus D Garlic virus E Garlic virus X Gayfeather mild mottle virus ... virus Vibrio virus 493 Vibrio virus CTXphi Vibrio virus fs1 Vibrio virus fs2 Vibrio virus K139 Vibrio virus Kappa Vibrio virus ...
"Cross-reactivity between caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus and type 1 human immunodeficiency virus". Arch. Med. Res. 34 (5 ... Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is a retrovirus which infects goats and cross-reacts immunologically with HIV, due ... "APHIS info sheet: Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus" (PDF). United States Department of Agriculture • Animal and Plant ... causing a disease known as caprine arthritis encephalitis. Common symptoms resulting from CAEV infection include arthritis, ...
Bovine immunodeficiency virus Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus Equine infectious anemia virus Feline immunodeficiency virus ... encephalitis virus Capim virus Caraparu virus Catu virus Estero Real virus Gamboa virus Guajara virus Guama virus Guaroa virus ... virus Shuni virus Simbu virus Tacaiuma virus Tete virus Thimiri virus Timboteua virus Turlock virus Wyeomyia virus Zegla virus ... Louis encephalitis virus Tembusu virus Tick-borne encephalitis virus Tyuleniy virus Uganda S virus Usutu virus Wesselsbron ...
Bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV). *Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus. *Visna virus. Spumavirus. *Simian foamy virus ... Such viruses are either single stranded RNA (e.g. HIV) or double stranded DNA (e.g. Hepatitis B virus) viruses. ... Genus Betaretrovirus; type species: Mouse mammary tumour virus. *Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2018b Release" (html). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2019. Retrieved 16 March ...
Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). *Bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV). *Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus ... Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus: Classification[citation needed] Xenotropic viruses (xenos Gr. foreign; tropos ... Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a retrovirus which was first described in 2006 as an apparently novel ... "XMRV (Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-related Virus) , CDC". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2018-04-17.. .mw-parser-output cite. ...
Bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV). *Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus. *Visna virus. Spumavirus. *Simian foamy virus ... dsDNA-RT viruses are the seventh group in the Baltimore virus classification. They are not considered DNA viruses (class I of ... Khan, Jawaid A.; Dijkstra, Jeanne (2002). Plant viruses as molecular pathogens. Psychology Press. pp. 317-. ISBN 978-1-56022- ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=DsDNA-RT_virus&oldid=748922731" ...
Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus. *Equine infectious anemia virus. *Feline immunodeficiency virus. *Jembrana disease virus ... "AIDS virus" redirects here. For the computer virus, see AIDS (computer virus). ... Montagnier's group named their isolated virus lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV).[132] As these two viruses turned out to ... Viruses, F. Animal Virus Life Cycles , 3. The Life Cycle of HIV". Doc Kaiser's Microbiology Home Page. Community College of ...
Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus. Visna/maedi virus. Primate lentivirus group. Human immunodeficiency virus 1. Human ... Bovine immunodeficiency virus. Jembrana disease virus. Equine lentivirus group. Equine infectious anemia virus. Feline ... Simian immunodeficiency virus. Gray mouse lemur prosimian immunodeficiency virus (pSIVgml). Lentivirus (lente-, Latin for "slow ... Visna virus. Notes[edit]. *^ a b "What is Lentivirus?". News-Medical.net. Retrieved 2015-11-30.. .mw-parser-output cite. ...
Bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV). *Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus. *Visna virus. Spumavirus. *Simian foamy virus ... Genus Betaretrovirus; type species: Mouse mammary tumour virus. *Genus Gammaretrovirus; type species: Murine leukemia virus; ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2018b Release" (html). International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2019. Retrieved 16 March ... Group VII viruses[edit]. Both families in Group VII have DNA genomes contained within the invading virus particles. The DNA ...
... arthritis-encephalitis virus, caprine MeSH B04.909.777.731.589.600.900 --- visna-maedi virus MeSH B04.909.777.731.589.650 --- ... ovine-caprine MeSH B04.820.650.589.600.070 --- arthritis-encephalitis virus, caprine MeSH B04.820.650.589.600.900 --- visna- ... la crosse virus MeSH B04.909.777.270.150 --- encephalitis virus, eastern equine MeSH B04.909.777.270.369 --- encephalitis virus ... dengue virus MeSH B04.820.250.350.300 --- encephalitis viruses, japanese MeSH B04.820.250.350.300.227 --- encephalitis virus, ...
Cloned probes of visna virus DNA were then used to localize regions of homology with the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus ... Genetic variation among lentiviruses: homology between visna virus and caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus is confined to the ... Genetic variation among lentiviruses: homology between visna virus and caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus is confined to the ... Genetic variation among lentiviruses: homology between visna virus and caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus is confined to the ...
Seroprevalence and risk factors of exposure to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus in southern Spain ... Seroprevalence and risk factors of exposure to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus in southern Spain ... descriptive study was to determine the exposure and risk factors associated with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) in ...
Non-neutralizing antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus enhance early stages of infection in macrophages, but do ... Non-neutralizing antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus enhance early stages of infection in macrophages, but do ... Non-neutralizing antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus enhance early stages of infection in macrophages, but do ... Non-neutralizing antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus enhance early stages of infection in macrophages, but do ...
... recommended products for Caprine arthritis encephalitis, ways to prevent Caprine arthritis encephalitis, causes of Caprine ... Risks for Caprine arthritis encephalitis, Caprine arthritis encephalitis treatments, ... Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus detection in blood by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the ... Caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE) is a multisystemic inflammatory disease of goats, caused by caprine arthritis encephalitis ...
"Cross-reactivity between caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus and type 1 human immunodeficiency virus". Arch. Med. Res. 34 (5 ... Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is a retrovirus which infects goats and cross-reacts immunologically with HIV, due ... "APHIS info sheet: Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus" (PDF). United States Department of Agriculture • Animal and Plant ... causing a disease known as caprine arthritis encephalitis. Common symptoms resulting from CAEV infection include arthritis, ...
... these viruses are known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). Infection of goats and sheep with SRLV typically results in ... is a lentivirus that infects both goats and sheep and is closely related to maedi-visna virus that infects sheep; collectively ... discrete inflammatory diseases which include arthritis, mastitis, pneumonia or encephalomyelitis. SRLV-infected animals ... Viruses 2013, 5, 2005-2018. AMA Style. Adedeji AO, Barr B, Gomez-Lucia E, Murphy B. A Polytropic Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis ...
CAAEV stands for Caprine Arthritis And Encephalitis Virus. CAAEV is defined as Caprine Arthritis And Encephalitis Virus very ... How is Caprine Arthritis And Encephalitis Virus abbreviated? ... Caprine arthritis and encephalitis virus - Clinical signs: Firm ... Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus infects goats and.... What is caprine arthritis encephalitis? Caprine arthritis ... Small ruminant lentiviruses (maedi-visna virus, caprine arthritis and encephalitis virus) In Belgium, it is possible to take ...
Achievements of an eradication program against caprine arthritis encephalitis virus in South Tyrol, Italy ... Achievements of an eradication program against caprine arthritis encephalitis virus in South Tyrol, Italy ... Achievements of an eradication program against caprine arthritis encephalitis virus in South Tyrol, Italy ...
Antigenic cross reactions between the viruses have been demonstrated in gag and env encoded structural proteins. Antigens from ... and caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) are two retroviral infections distributed world wide. ... Characterization of the immunodominant cross-reacting epitope of visna maedi virus and caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus ... Maedi visna (MV) and caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) are two retroviral infections distributed world wide. Antigenic cross ...
Severity of arthritis is predicted by antibody response to gp135 in chronic infection with caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus ... Detection of Serum Antibodies to Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Virus in Sheep by Using a Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus ... Detection of Serum Antibodies to Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Virus in Sheep by Using a Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus ... Detection of Serum Antibodies to Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Virus in Sheep by Using a Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus ...
"Development of TaqMan-based qPCR method for detection of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection, Archives of ... Development of TaqMan-based qPCR method for detection of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection. Li, Yi; Zhou, ... Development of TaqMan-based qPCR method for detection of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus... Li, Yi; Zhou, Fengjuan; Li, ... Serological survey of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus in 83 goat herds of Yucatan, Mexico ...
Detection of Serum Antibodies to Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Virus in Sheep by Using a Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus ... Detection of Serum Antibodies to Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Virus in Sheep by Using a Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus ... Detection of Serum Antibodies to Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Virus in Sheep by Using a Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus ... Detection of Serum Antibodies to Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Virus in Sheep by Using a Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus ...
... demonstrated that the virus was localized in glandular and epithelial cells. This study clearly demonstrates that goat uterine ... Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) was first described as a cause of chronic arthritis in American goats [1-3], and ... Efficient replication of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus in goat granulosa cells. Virus Res. 2001, 79: 165-172. 10.1016/ ... Rowe JD, Van Hoosear K, East N, Derock EJ: The presence of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus proviral DNA in postpartum ...
Cohort study of natural transmission and two methods for control of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection in goats on ... Cohort study of natural transmission and two methods for control of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection in goats on ... Cohort study of natural transmission and two methods for control of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection in goats on ... Cohort study of natural transmission and two methods for control of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection in goats on ...
Enzootic ataxia and caprine arthritis/encephalitis virus infection in a New England goat herd. Primary tabs. *View(active tab) ... Enzootic ataxia and caprine arthritis/encephalitis virus infection in a New England goat herd ... Lofstedt, J., Jakowski, R., & Sharko, P. (1988). Enzootic ataxia and caprine arthritis/encephalitis virus infection in a New ... Concurrent infection with the caprine arthritis/encephalitis (CAE) virus contributed to the development of hind limb ataxia and ...
1997) Antibody reactivity to the transmembrane protein of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus correlates with severity of ... Serum and synovial antibody reactivities of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) infected goats were assessed by Western ... Antibody reactivity to the transmembrane protein of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus correlates with severity of ... We observed that the antibody reactivity to the CAEV TM protein associated with severity of arthritis however epitope mimicry ...
Caprine Arthritris Encephalitis Virus (CAEV). Diagnostic spectrum * CAEV (Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus) - Antibodies ... You are here LABOKLIN / Products / Infectious Diseases: Pathogenic Agents and Antibody Detection / Viruses / Caprine Arthritis ... It is a viral disease in goats which causes encephalitis, arthritis and/or mastitis, depending on the age of the animals ... The pathogen which causes CAE is a retrovirus and belongs to the genus Lentivirus, just like the maedi visna virus. ...
About Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis (CAEV)/Maedi-Visna (MVV). Maedi-visna virus (MVV) infection of sheep is characterised by ... This classification also includes caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV), which manifests itself in adult goats mainly in ... Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis (CAEV)/Maedi-Visna (MVV). The IDEXX MVV/CAEV p28 Ab Screening Tests is based on the use of an ... slowly progressive arthritis, pneumonia, mastitis and encephalomyelitis. The causative agent of the disease is a virus ...
Enzootic bovine leukosis (Bovine leukemia virus). caprine/ovine. •. Caprine (contagious) arthritis/encephalitis) ...
Caprine Artritis Encephalitis Virus Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus Info Sheet (CAEV) Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) ...
Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus is a…. GMO trees: Saving the American Chestnut tree. ... I love viruses. And so should you. :-D Once again, a BIG THANK YOU to The Thinking Atheist for putting this together and ... AIDS is the syndrome caused by infection by HIV-1. HIV-1 is the virus, not AIDS :) Who would win in an HIV-1 vs rabies battle ... I recently got to chat with the guys of Skeptiles this weekend about viruses, vaccines/anti-vaxers, HIV, HepC, Creationists-- ...
Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) and maedi-visna virus (MVV) are two highly related small-ruminant lentiviruses ( ... Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) and maedi-visna virus (MVV) are two highly related small-ruminant lentiviruses ( ... Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) and ovine maedi-visna virus (MVV) are small-ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) that ... Villet S, Bouzar BA, Morin T, Verdier G, Legras C, Chebloune Y: Maedi-visna virus and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus ...
The results indicate that antigenic cross-reactivity between the caprine and ovine virus isolates involves all of the major ... Antigenic cross-reactivity was assessed by immunoprecipitation of disrupted, radiolabelled virus with goat, sheep and rabbit ... Summary Antigenic relatedness between the virion-associated proteins of caprine arthritis-encephalitis, visna and progressive ... Antigenic Cross-reactivity between Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis, Visna and Progressive Pneumonia Viruses Involves All Virion- ...
This study aimed at assessing the occurrence of antibodies against the caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV), Toxoplasma ... Reproductive failures associated with antibodies against caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus, Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora ... Reproductive failures associated with antibodies against caprine arthritis-encephalitis vi ... Animals , Antibodies/immunology , Goats/classification , Reproduction/genetics , Arthritis/pathology , Encephalitis/pathology ...
Caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. Niort Laboratory. Aujeszkys disease. Ploufragan-Plouzané Laboratory. Brucellosis. ...
  • These findings correlate with biological data suggesting that the regions of the DNA which are homologous may be responsible for virus group characteristics such as the closely related virus core antigens. (asm.org)
  • To his credit, Dr. Dude did say that his magic approach to curing HIV was not like what scientists were doing-- genetically modifying viruses to cure cancers and genetic diseases . (scienceblogs.com)
  • Indeed as long as there are such diseases there will be suggestions that viruses are responsible. (springer.com)
  • 1984) Characterisation of IM virus which is frequently isolated from cerebro-spinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis and other chronic diseases of the central nervous system. (springer.com)
  • The same blood sample can also be tested for other caprine diseases, like CL and Johne's Disease, for a few additional dollars. (tennesseemeatgoats.com)
  • Caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) is now considered one of the most significant diseases affecting the goat industry in the United States. (purinamills.com)
  • Primates naturally infected with these viruses usually remain healthy without the development of AIDS-like diseases, but their transmission to humans gave rise to two genetically different viruses (HIV-1 and HIV-2), still closely related to their ancestral species. (news-medical.net)
  • Inactivated whole-virus preparations are useful against some diseases, but these vaccines generally do not generate a potent major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response necessary to clear lentiviral-infected cells and are not effective against lentivirus variants ( 15 , 29 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Such a doublet is also observed in cells infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), a virus closely related to HIV-2. (google.es)
  • Two culture systems, a primary cell culture and a cell line transformed with the large T antigen of simian virus 40, were developed, and both were identified as microglial in origin as indicated by expression of several microglial phenotype markers. (asm.org)
  • Later, it was found that simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains from chimpanzee and monkey hosts were the likely progenitors of HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • A single amino acid change in the cytoplasmic domain of the simian immunodeficiency virus transmembrane molecule increases envelope glycoprotein expression on infected cells. (asm.org)
  • Vpx is a virion-associated protein encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type 2 HIV-2 and most simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains, but that is absent from HIV-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Respective roles of pyrimidine dimer and pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts in UV mutagenesis of simian virus 40 DNA in mammalian cells. (asm.org)
  • Several lineages of closely related human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV, respectively) are found in primates, which can both result in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (news-medical.net)
  • Barber SA, Gama L, Dudaronek JM, Voelker T, Tarwater PM, Clements JE (2006a) Mechanism for the establishment of transcriptional HIV latency in the brain in a simian immunodeficiency virus-macaque model. (springer.com)
  • Barber SA, Gama L, Li M, Voelker T, Anderson JE, Zink MC, Tarwater PM, Carruth LM, Clements JE (2006b) Longitudinal analysis of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication in the lungs: compartmentalized regulation of SIV. (springer.com)
  • Identification of relevant Th lymphocyte epitopes remains an important step in the development of an efficacious subunit peptide vaccine against equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), a naturally occurring lentivirus of horses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Antibody reactivity to the GST-TM correlated with clinically detectable arthritis (R = 0.642, P ≤ 0.007). (edu.au)
  • Krueger, G.R.F., Koch, B. and Ablashi, D.V. (1987) Persistent fatigue and depression in patients with antibody to human B lymphotropic virus. (springer.com)
  • Nucleotide sequence and protein analysis of a complex piscine retrovirus, walleye dermal sarcoma virus. (asm.org)
  • A single point mutation of Ala-25 to Asp in the 14,000-Mr envelope protein of vaccinia virus induces a size change that leads to the small plaque size phenotype of the virus. (asm.org)
  • The regions important for the activator and repressor functions of herpes simplex virus type 1 alpha protein ICP27 map to the C-terminal half of the molecule. (asm.org)
  • This study aimed to analyze heterogeneity of SRLV Env regions - TM amino terminal and SU V4, C4 and V5 segments - in order to assess virus compartmentalization in CNS. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These findings correlate with biological data suggesting that the regions of the DNA which are homologous may be responsible for virus group characteristics such as the closely related virus core antigens. (asm.org)
  • Little changes between variants of influenza drastically effect your immune systems ability to stop the virus. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The qPCR method is a useful gene expression analysis tool, but studies on immune system genes are still limited, especially on the caprine immune system. (mdpi.com)
  • The bovine herpesvirus alpha gene trans-inducing factor activates transcription by mechanisms different from those of its herpes simplex virus type 1 counterpart VP16. (asm.org)
  • A novel function of the herpes simplex virus type 1 Fc receptor: participation in bipolar bridging of antiviral immunoglobulin G. (asm.org)