Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Iliac Artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Radial Artery: The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.Mammary Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Subclavian Artery: Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Brachial Artery: The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.Splenic Artery: The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.Oxygen Inhalation Therapy: Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Carotid Artery, Common: The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Singlet Oxygen: An excited state of molecular oxygen generated photochemically or chemically. Singlet oxygen reacts with a variety of biological molecules such as NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS; causing oxidative damages.Celiac Artery: The arterial trunk that arises from the abdominal aorta and after a short course divides into the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries.Ophthalmic Artery: Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.Mesenteric Artery, Superior: A large vessel supplying the whole length of the small intestine except the superior part of the duodenum. It also supplies the cecum and the ascending part of the colon and about half the transverse part of the colon. It arises from the anterior surface of the aorta below the celiac artery at the level of the first lumbar vertebra.Umbilical Arteries: Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Renal Artery Obstruction: Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).Thoracic Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles, mammary gland and the axillary aspect of the chest wall.Temporal Arteries: Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.Bronchial Arteries: Left bronchial arteries arise from the thoracic aorta, the right from the first aortic intercostal or the upper left bronchial artery; they supply the bronchi and the lower trachea.Popliteal Artery: The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.Ulnar Artery: The larger of the two terminal branches of the brachial artery, beginning about one centimeter distal to the bend of the elbow. Like the RADIAL ARTERY, its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to their locations in the forearm, wrist, and hand.Uterine Artery: A branch arising from the internal iliac artery in females, that supplies blood to the uterus.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Carotid Artery, External: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Carotid Artery Injuries: Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Axillary Artery: The continuation of the subclavian artery; it distributes over the upper limb, axilla, chest and shoulder.Retinal Artery Occlusion: Sudden ISCHEMIA in the RETINA due to blocked blood flow through the CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY or its branches leading to sudden complete or partial loss of vision, respectively, in the eye.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Carotid Artery Thrombosis: Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.Hyperbaric Oxygenation: The therapeutic intermittent administration of oxygen in a chamber at greater than sea-level atmospheric pressures (three atmospheres). It is considered effective treatment for air and gas embolisms, smoke inhalation, acute carbon monoxide poisoning, caisson disease, clostridial gangrene, etc. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992). The list of treatment modalities includes stroke.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Meningeal Arteries: Arteries which supply the dura mater.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Aneurysm: Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Maxillary Artery: A branch of the external carotid artery which distributes to the deep structures of the face (internal maxillary) and to the side of the face and nose (external maxillary).Angioplasty, Balloon: Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection: The splitting of the vessel wall in one or both (left and right) internal carotid arteries (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the internal carotid artery and aneurysm formation.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump: Coronary artery bypass surgery on a beating HEART without a CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS (diverting the flow of blood from the heart and lungs through an oxygenator).Oximetry: The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.Coronary Stenosis: Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.Internal Mammary-Coronary Artery Anastomosis: Direct myocardial revascularization in which the internal mammary artery is anastomosed to the right coronary artery, circumflex artery, or anterior descending coronary artery. The internal mammary artery is the most frequent choice, especially for a single graft, for coronary artery bypass surgery.Vascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Vertebral Artery Dissection: Splitting of the vessel wall in the VERTEBRAL ARTERY. Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the vertebral artery, aneurysm formation, or THROMBOEMBOLISM. Vertebral artery dissection is often associated with TRAUMA and injuries to the head-neck region but can occur spontaneously.Mesenteric Artery, Inferior: The artery supplying nearly all the left half of the transverse colon, the whole of the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and the greater part of the rectum. It is smaller than the superior mesenteric artery (MESENTERIC ARTERY, SUPERIOR) and arises from the aorta above its bifurcation into the common iliac arteries.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Angiography, Digital Subtraction: A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Oxyhemoglobins: A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Aneurysm, False: Not an aneurysm but a well-defined collection of blood and CONNECTIVE TISSUE outside the wall of a blood vessel or the heart. It is the containment of a ruptured blood vessel or heart, such as sealing a rupture of the left ventricle. False aneurysm is formed by organized THROMBUS and HEMATOMA in surrounding tissue.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Nitroglycerin: A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Transposition of Great Vessels: A congenital cardiovascular malformation in which the AORTA arises entirely from the RIGHT VENTRICLE, and the PULMONARY ARTERY arises from the LEFT VENTRICLE. Consequently, the pulmonary and the systemic circulations are parallel and not sequential, so that the venous return from the peripheral circulation is re-circulated by the right ventricle via aorta to the systemic circulation without being oxygenated in the lungs. This is a potentially lethal form of heart disease in newborns and infants.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.NADPH Oxidase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary: Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency: Localized or diffuse reduction in blood flow through the vertebrobasilar arterial system, which supplies the BRAIN STEM; CEREBELLUM; OCCIPITAL LOBE; medial TEMPORAL LOBE; and THALAMUS. Characteristic clinical features include SYNCOPE; lightheadedness; visual disturbances; and VERTIGO. BRAIN STEM INFARCTIONS or other BRAIN INFARCTION may be associated.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Aneurysm, Ruptured: The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.Catalase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Cell Hypoxia: A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Angina Pectoris: The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Vascular Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.Saphenous Vein: The vein which drains the foot and leg.Vasomotor System: The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.Angioplasty: Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY) to compress an ATHEROMA. Except for ENDARTERECTOMY, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Hyperoxia: An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Biological Factors: Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Brachiocephalic Trunk: The first and largest artery branching from the aortic arch. It distributes blood to the right side of the head and neck and to the right arm.Cerebral Arterial Diseases: Pathological conditions of intracranial ARTERIES supplying the CEREBRUM. These diseases often are due to abnormalities or pathological processes in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Aorta, Abdominal: The aorta from the DIAPHRAGM to the bifurcation into the right and left common iliac arteries.15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid: A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Circle of Willis: A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.Gastroepiploic Artery: Abdominal artery that follows the curvature of the stomach. The right gastroepiploic artery is frequently used in CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFTING; MYOCARDIAL REVASCULARIZATION, and other vascular reconstruction.Anastomosis, Surgical: Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Constriction: The act of constricting.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Myography: The recording of muscular movements. The apparatus is called a myograph, the record or tracing, a myogram. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Ultrasonography, Interventional: The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.Aneurysm, Dissecting: Aneurysm caused by a tear in the TUNICA INTIMA of a blood vessel leading to interstitial HEMORRHAGE, and splitting (dissecting) of the vessel wall, often involving the AORTA. Dissection between the intima and media causes luminal occlusion. Dissection at the media, or between the media and the outer adventitia causes aneurismal dilation.Mice, Inbred C57BLModels, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.
Cerebral arteries supply the blood that perfuses the cerebrum. This arterial blood carries oxygen, glucose, and other nutrients ... The main arteries supplying the cortex are the anterior cerebral artery, the middle cerebral artery, and the posterior cerebral ... The posterior cerebral artery supplies the occipital lobes. The circle of Willis is the main blood system that deals with blood ... The anterior cerebral artery supplies the anterior portions of the brain, including most of the frontal lobe. The middle ...
The term "arterial blood" is nevertheless used to indicate blood high in oxygen, although the pulmonary artery carries "venous ... In all arteries apart from the pulmonary artery, hemoglobin is highly saturated (95-100%) with oxygen. In all veins apart from ... ACA (anterior communicating, Recurrent artery of Heubner, Orbitofrontal artery). *MCA (anterolateral central, Prefrontal artery ... In addition to carrying oxygen, blood also carries hormones, waste products and nutrients for cells of the body. ...
The arteries in the dura carry oxygen-rich blood from the heart. These arteries split into the capillaries in the pia mater.[6] ... The veins in the dura carry blood from the brain to the heart after the brain has used up the oxygen in the blood. ... Like all parts of the body, the arachnoid mater needs blood and oxygen to survive. Small blood vessels bring these things to ... like blood and oxygen. The pia's capillaries also make up an important part of the blood-brain barrier.[3] This is the brain's ...
In chelicerates and crustaceans, the blood carries oxygen to the tissues, while hexapods use a separate system of tracheae. ... Arthropods have open circulatory systems, although most have a few short, open-ended arteries. ... Far more serious are the effects on humans of diseases carried by blood-sucking insects. Other blood-sucking insects infect ... Tracheae, systems of branching tunnels that run from the openings in the body walls, deliver oxygen directly to individual ...
Here blood passes from small arteries into capillaries, then small veins and the process begins again. Blood carries oxygen, ... From here, it is pumped into the body's largest artery, the aorta, and then progressively smaller arteries and arterioles until ... It brings oxygen from the air and excretes carbon dioxide and water back into the air. The urinary system consists of the ... Blood vessels carry blood throughout the body, which moves because of the beating of the heart. Venules and veins collect blood ...
The blood flow in arteries and veins are closely linked to the blood vessel properties. Carrying the oxygen and nutrients to ... Arteries carry the oxygenated blood while the veins carry the deoxygenated blood. The fluids associated with the human body ... The Heart, arteries, and veins (a network of tubes to carry blood) constitute the cardiovascular system or circulatory system ... The pulmonary and systemic circulations take the blood through large arteries first and then branches into smaller arteries ...
The impact caused his head and neck restraint to strain the arteries carrying oxygen to his brain, causing his death. Baker's ...
The uterine arteries carry blood to the placenta, and the blood permeates the sponge-like material there. Oxygen then diffuses ... Some of the blood moves from the aorta through the internal iliac arteries to the umbilical arteries, and re-enters the ... has a higher affinity for oxygen than does adult hemoglobin, which allows a diffusion of oxygen from the mother's circulatory ... Blood from the placenta is carried to the fetus by the umbilical vein. In humans, less than a third of this enters the fetal ...
Blood is moved by the pumping of the heart and carries oxygen to the tissues. ... Blood vessels that take blood away from the heart are arteries. Blood vessels that take blood back to the heart are veins. ... A blood vessel is a tube that carries blood in the circulatory system. ... Capillaries are between veins and arteries and they supply tissue with blood. ...
Hoffman, B. M.; Petering, D. H (October 1970). "Coboglobins: Oxygen-Carrying Cobalt-Reconstituted Hemoglobin and Myoglobin". ... Blood of this type would be amber yellow in colour when in the veins while uncoloured and clear in the arteries. ... 28 April 2000). "Modulation of the Oxygen Affinity of Cobalt-Porphyrin by Globin". FEBS Letters. 472 (2-3): 221-224. doi: ... the coboglobins are able to reversibly bind molecular oxygen (O2) at the metal atom. However they lose this ability much faster ...
... some climbers carry supplemental oxygen to prevent hypoxia, edema, and HAPE. The standard drug treatment of dexamethasone does ... is a physiological phenomenon in which small pulmonary arteries constrict in the presence of alveolar hypoxia (low oxygen ... This contrasts with the classical explanation of HPV which presumes that hypoxia is sensed at the pulmonary artery smooth ... The process might initially seem counterintuitive, as low oxygen levels might theoretically stimulate increased blood flow to ...
Compression of blood vessels may also lead to brain ischemia, by blocking the arteries that carry oxygen to the brain. Tumors ... Ischemia within the arteries branching from the vertebral arteries in the back of the brain may result in symptoms such as ... Ischemia within the arteries branching from the internal carotid artery may result in symptoms such as blindness in one eye, ... Blockage of arteries due to plaque buildup may also result in ischemia. Even a small amount of plaque build up can result in ...
Since oxygen is delivered directly, the circulatory system is not used to carry oxygen, and is therefore greatly reduced. The ... insect circulatory system has no veins or arteries, and instead consists of little more than a single, perforated dorsal tube ... It differs from vertebrate blood in that it doesn't contain any red blood cells and therefore is without high oxygen carrying ... An air bubble provides an insect with only a short-term supply of oxygen, but thanks to its unique physical properties, oxygen ...
The pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs, where carbon dioxide is released and oxygen is picked up during ... Arteries are further divided into very fine capillaries which are extremely thin-walled. The pulmonary vein returns oxygenated ... Blood is then pumped from the right ventricle through the pulmonary valve and into the main pulmonary artery. From the right ... The vessels of the pulmonary circulation are the pulmonary arteries and the pulmonary veins. A separate system known as the ...
The thin skin of the octopus absorbs additional oxygen. When resting, around 41% of an octopus's oxygen absorption is through ... is used by the veined octopus when carrying stacked coconut shells. The octopus carries the shells underneath it with two arms ... The blood vessels consist of arteries, capillaries and veins and are lined with a cellular endothelium which is quite unlike ... "The control of ventilatory and cardiac responses to changes in ambient oxygen tension and oxygen demand in Octopus". The ...
The hepatic artery carries oxygen-rich blood from the aorta, whereas the portal vein carries blood rich in digested nutrients ... The hepatic arteries supply arterial blood to the liver, accounting for the remaining quarter of its blood flow. Oxygen is ... includes the opening known as the porta hepatis which carries the common bile duct and common hepatic artery, and the opening ... The ductus venosus carries blood from the left portal vein to the left hepatic vein and then to the inferior vena cava, ...
The term "arterial blood" is nevertheless used to indicate blood high in oxygen, although the pulmonary artery carries "venous ... In all arteries apart from the pulmonary artery, hemoglobin is highly saturated (95-100%) with oxygen. In all veins apart from ... In addition to carrying oxygen, blood also carries hormones, waste products and nutrients for cells of the body. ... The arteries and veins have three layers. The middle layer is thicker in the arteries than it is in the veins: *The inner layer ...
... which contain oxygen-carrying haemoglobin. The oxygenated blood can be directed towards only the brain and other essential ... There is no costocervical artery. There is no direct connection between the internal carotid artery and the vessels of the ... One study, carried out around the Galápagos, found that squid from the genera Histioteuthis (62%), Ancistrocheirus (16%), and ... The flexible ribcage allows lung collapse, reducing nitrogen intake, and metabolism can decrease to conserve oxygen.[60][61] ...
In the lower extremities, weak pulses in the femoral arteries and arteries of the feet are found. The coarctation typically ... oxygen three times a day (3 x 3-4 hours) beyond 34 weeks of gestation. The oxygen is transferred via the placenta to the fetus ... The first operations to treat coarctation were carried out by Clarence Crafoord in Sweden in 1944. In some cases angioplasty ... This can be fixed by either another coarctectomy[citation needed]. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major issue for patients ...
Blood is supposed to pick up oxygen in the lungs and then carry that oxygen to the rest of the body. If blood cannot get ... This kind of embolus blocks the pulmonary artery, which carries blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs. This makes ... Oxygen. Oxygen can be given through a special mask to make it easier for the person's body to get the oxygen it needs. ... Low oxygen saturation (because the body is not getting enough oxygen). Saddle embolus[change , change source]. The worst kind ...
The term "arterial blood" is nevertheless used to indicate blood high in oxygen, although the pulmonary artery carries "venous ... In all arteries apart from the pulmonary artery, hemoglobin is highly saturated (95-100%) with oxygen. In all veins apart from ... There are various kinds of blood vessels: Arteries Elastic arteries Distributing arteries Arterioles Capillaries (the smallest ... In addition to carrying oxygen, blood also carries hormones, waste products and nutrients for cells of the body. Blood vessels ...
The unpaired umbilical vein carries oxygen and nutrient rich blood derived from fetal-maternal blood exchange at the chorionic ... Closure of the umbilical vein usually occurs after the umbilical arteries have closed. This prolongs the communication between ... The umbilical vein is a vein present during fetal development that carries oxygenated blood from the placenta into the growing ...
... blocking branches of the pulmonary artery that carry blood with little oxygen from the right side of the heart to the lungs. ... When the abscess wall ruptures internally, the drainage carrying bacteria seeps through the soft tissue and infects the nearby ...
It can carry more oxygen and sustain aerobic activity. Type I muscle fiber are sometimes broken down into Type I and Type Ic ... The coronary arteries help fulfill this function. 1.They carry out movements of the body. 2.They support the body. 3.They ... and small arteries, arterioles and veins. Smooth muscle is also found in lymphatic vessels, the urinary bladder, uterus (termed ... rely on an available blood and electrical supply to deliver oxygen and nutrients and remove waste products such as carbon ...
Each lamella is equipped with tiny arteries that carry blood in a direction opposite to that of the water flowing over them. To ... This delay allows sufficient time for dissolved oxygen to diffuse into a shark's blood. Port Jackson sharks have the ability to ... compensate for the relatively low concentration of dissolved oxygen in seawater, water passes over the secondary lamellae of ...
The thin skin of the octopus absorbs additional oxygen.[39] When resting, around 41% of an octopus's oxygen absorption is ... is used by the veined octopus when carrying stacked coconut shells. The octopus carries the shells underneath it with two arms ... The blood vessels consist of arteries, capillaries and veins and are lined with a cellular endothelium which is quite unlike ... "The control of ventilatory and cardiac responses to changes in ambient oxygen tension and oxygen demand in Octopus". The ...
Which artery carries oxygen-poor blood?. Biology: The Unity and Diversity of Life (MindTap Course List) ... Hemoglobin is the protein that transports oxygen in mammals. Hemoglobin is 0.347% Fe by mass, and each hemoglob.... Chemistry: ... The warmer water is, the _________ oxygen it can hold. a. more b. less. BIOLOGY:CONCEPTS+APPL.(LOOSELEAF) ...
... with a new hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier solution specifically developed for ex vivo utilization. In those studies, MP ... with a new hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier solution specifically developed for ex vivo utilization. In those studies, MP ... hepatic artery; HBOC, hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier; IFN, interferon; IL, interleukin; IR, ischemia/reperfusion; KC, Kupffer ... Machine Perfusion of Porcine Livers with Oxygen-Carrying Solution Results in Reprogramming of Dynamic Inflammation Networks. ...
The pulmonary artery carries oxygen-poor blood to the lungs.. Stenosis, or narrowing, occurs when the valve cannot open wide ... This procedure is done through an artery in the groin.. *The doctor sends a flexible tube (catheter) with a balloon attached to ... This is the valve separating the right ventricle (one of the chambers in the heart) and the pulmonary artery. ...
... the chamber of the heart that pumps oxygen-poor blood to ... Both the pulmonary artery (which carries oxygen-poor blood to ... In DORV, both arteries flow out of the RV. This is a problem because the RV carries oxygen-poor blood. This blood is then ... which carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the body) come from the same pumping chamber. No arteries are connected to ... This helps the infant with DORV by allowing oxygen-rich blood to mix with oxygen-poor blood. Even with this mixture, the body ...
Its known as hardening of the arteries, too. Arteries carry blood and oxygen to your heart. ... Coronary Heart Disease is plaque buildup in your arteries. ... Arteries carry blood and oxygen to your heart. Heart disease is ... It occurs as your arteries become blocked from plaque (fatty substances). This makes it hard for blood and oxygen to reach your ... Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). Coronary artery disease is also called CAD. It is the most common form of heart disease in the U ...
It is caused when these arteries are damaged and dont dilate properly. ... Small vessel disease is a condition that affects the tiny arteries in your heart. ... They carry oxygen-rich blood to your heart. CAD is caused by a build-up of a fatty substance (plaque) in your large vessels. ... Diseased arteries. Small vessel disease is not the same as coronary artery disease (CAD). CAD affects the large vessels in your ...
Arteries carry oxygen throughout the body. Veins carry metabolic waste and deoxygenated blood to the lungs to be exhaled as ... Arterial blood is usually taken from an artery in the wrist called the radial artery. This is the major artery in line with the ... Arteries carry blood at higher pressures than veins, so it takes more time for the blood to form a clot.) ... Or, blood can be collected from the brachial artery in the elbow or the femoral artery in the groin. To get an arterial blood ...
Unlike the aorta, the bodys other main artery, the pulmonary artery, carries oxygen-poor blood. From the right ventricle, the ... This can affect all major arteries in the body - including the coronary arteries. When coronary arteries become inflamed, a ... Arteries carry blood away from the heart. They are the thickest blood vessels, with muscular walls that contract to keep the ... Veins carry blood back to the heart. Theyre not as muscular as arteries, but they contain valves that prevent blood from ...
Arteries bring oxygenated blood from the heart and lungs; veins return oxygen-depleted blood back to the heart and lungs.. ... blood vessels - Tubes that carry blood as it circulates. ...
Arteries carry oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the body. Veins carry oxygen-poor blood back from the body to the heart. A ... blood clot in an artery, called arterial thrombosis, can cause heart attacks or strokes. ...
Arteries carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body this blood contais oxygen.. 3.8. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= ... Arteries carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body.. 3.10. Veins carry the blood back to the heart.. 3.11. Capillaries ... Red blood cells give blood its colour they carry oxygen and carbon dioxide.. 3.5. White blood cells give blood its colour they ... Plasma is a yellowish liquid which is 90% water it carries the nutrients and waste products.. 3.4. ...
Umbilical Artery. Carries oxygen poor blood from the fetus. Dectus Venosus. Allows blood returning from the placenta to bypass ... Popliteal Artery is located?. Behind the knee.. Dorsalis Pedis Artery is located. On the front surface of the foot, below the ... Arteries. Distribute blood through the body. Tunica Externa. Outer layer of veins and arteries made of connective fibers so ... Smooth inner layer of veins and arteries. Tunica Intima. Most inner layer of veins and arteries made of a single layer of ...
And you know what blood carries? Oxygen. You wont survive more than ten minutes without oxygen to your brain. ... Your Carotid Artery Closes. Photo: Internet Archive Book Images/flickr/No known copyright restrictions. Your carotid arteries ... Put simply, this is when all the veins and arteries that carry blood to your brain are blocked. ... If Youre Not Lucky, Oxygen to Your Brain Is Reduced. Photo: Internet Archive Book Images/flickr/No known copyright ...
... providing oxygen to you muscles. This is why your heart beats faster when you run. ... Your arteries The circulatory system carries blood around your body, ... 3. Your arteries. The circulatory system carries blood around your body, providing oxygen to you muscles. This is why your ... Arteries What are the parts in the circulatory system including the arteries. ?. The human body has 3 main parts: The heart The ...
It occurs when arteries cannot carry enough oxygen.. Molecules of IPOXYN, which Plant says is the only anti-necrosis drug ...
... carries nutrients and oxygen to tissues, and removes metabolic products. Oxygenated blood travels from the heart in arteries, ... The blood carries oxygen and nutrients to the body tissues and removes carbon dioxide and other wastes. The colorless fluid of ... They carry out the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and the body tissues. To effectively combine with ... Oxygen and food are carried to tissues, and carbon dioxide and chemical (nitrogenous) waste are transported from tissues to ...
It is the liquid that flows through a persons arteries and veins. It carries oxygen and nutrients to the lungs and tissue. It ... For example, when a person has a cut, the vessels that carry blood are torn open. Platelets stick to the vessels torn surface ... Theyre filled with the red-colored protein hemoglobin, which picks up oxygen in the lungs and delivers it to the cells around ... carries away waste products by taking them to the kidneys and liver, which clean the blood. ...
... no sense for the artery carrying oxygen-poor blood to the lungs to connect by a big blood vessel to the artery carrying oxygen- ... In adults, oxygen-rich blood travels away from the heart through arteries under high pressures, and oxygen-poor blood flows ... The umbilical vein carries oxygen-rich blood toward the heart. At a spot next to the liver, it connects to a large vein ... which is the right amount to meet metabolic needs but not for oxygen-carrying purpose--which does not yet exist. ...
The coronary arteries surround the heart and carry the blood which nourishes the heart muscle. The right coronary artery ... The left side of the heart pumps the oxygen-carrying blood to the rest of the body. A heartbeat is a single pumping cycle of ... The coronary arteries surround the heart and carry the blood which nourishes the heart muscle. The right coronary artery ... The left side of the heart pumps the oxygen-carrying blood to the rest of the body. A heartbeat is a single pumping cycle of ...
Learn about the heart and types of blood vessels: arteries, capillaries and veins. ... Arteries carry blood away from the heart. They are filled with oxygen-rich blood. The largest artery is called the aorta. Other ... The arteries must carry oxygen-rich blood all around the body. Smaller blood vessels keep branching off until they reach the ... Blood carries oxygen and nutrition to the cells. Blood must also carry waste away from the cells. Carbon dioxide is one type of ...
Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up inside your arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich ... All arteries carry oxygenated blood except for pulmonary artery.. Aorta. Pulmonary Vein. Carries oxygenated blood even though ... Arteries. Subclavian Arteries. There are two subclavian arteries that supply our arms with blood. The subclavian arteries ... These carry oxygenated blood up to the brain from the base of the neck.. Right subclavian artery. Veins. Arteries, Veins, ...
When this combination of oxygen and hemoglobin occurs, the oxygen-carrying blood turns brighter red. This blood oxygen ... Arteries and veins both carry and move blood throughout the body, but the process for each is very different. ... Oxygen-carrying blood travels from the left side of the heart to all the tissues of the body. The oxygen attached to a red ... Oxygen is carried within the red blood cell by a molecule known as hemoglobin. ...
... deoxygenated blood carried by Pulmonary Artery to lungs. 2.) Blood picks up oxygen, drops of carbon dioxide 3.) Oxygen rich ... 2.) Arteries, carry away from heart to arterioles. 3.) Arterioles to Capillaries. 4.) Capillary exchange O2/CO2, transfer to ... Right Coronary Artery Left Coronary Artery, which branches to:. - Circumflex: wraps around. - Left Anterior Descending (LAD). ... Connection between pulmonary Artery and Aorta; Allows fetal oxygenated blood to bypass the "non-functioning" lungs ...
Left pulmonary arteries. -carries what type of blood oxygen poor blood to lungs ... 1. right coronary artery. 2. left coronary artery. 3. anterior interventricular artery. 4. posterior interventricular artery. 5 ... 1. Left and right pulmonary arteries. 2. left atrium. 3. left atrioventicular valve (left AV valve, bicuspid valve). 4. left ... open when ventricular pressure > aortic and pulmonary artery pressure. -Blood pumped through open semilunar valves into ...
Red blood cells carry oxygen to the cells and organs. • White blood cells carry cells to fight infections. • T-cells are ... Blood pressure is the pressure on your veins and arteries that occurs with each beat. Your heart pumps 5 quarts of blood every ... carries nerve impulses from…. Oentrities ? Axon - carries nerve impulses to….. Myelin Sheath - coat of white fatty tissue Axon ... We carry all the types. As we become unbalanced or stuck with a few then we can become unbalanced or unhealthy and perhaps even ...
  • After having a coronary artery bypass graft, most people will experience a significant improvement in symptoms such as breathlessness and chest pain , and their heart attack risk will be lowered. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Symptoms of intermittent claudication are different depending on whether it's due to gradual or sudden narrowing of an artery. (canada.com)
  • If the disease has affected your child's coronary (heart) arteries, a pediatric cardiologist will confirm the diagnosis and give ongoing treatment. (nih.gov)