A genus of the family ARTERIVIRIDAE, in the order NIDOVIRALES. The type species is ARTERITIS VIRUS, EQUINE.
Infections caused by viruses of the genus ARTERIVIRUS.
The type species of the genus ARTERIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of an important equine respiratory disease causing abortion, pneumonia, or other infections.
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
An order comprising three families of eukaryotic viruses possessing linear, nonsegmented, positive sense RNA genomes. The families are CORONAVIRIDAE; ARTERIVIRIDAE; and RONIVIRIDAE.
A family of viruses, of the order NIDOVIRALES, containing spherical virions. In contrast to CORONAVIRIDAE, no protruding spikes are obvious on the surface.
A species ARTERIVIRUS, occurring in a number of transplantable mouse tumors. Infected mice have permanently elevated serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase.
A syndrome characterized by outbreaks of late term abortions, high numbers of stillbirths and mummified or weak newborn piglets, and respiratory disease in young unweaned and weaned pigs. It is caused by PORCINE RESPIRATORY AND REPRODUCTIVE SYNDROME VIRUS. (Radostits et al., Veterinary Medicine, 8th ed, p1048)
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
The study of medicines derived from botanical sources.
A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the Chinese culture.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
A genus of basiodiomycetous fungi in the family Coriolaceae. Members are known for infesting wood.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Communications networks connecting various hardware devices together within or between buildings by means of a continuous cable or voice data telephone system.

Genetic diversity of equine arteritis virus. (1/87)

Equine arteritis viruses (EAV) from Europe and America were compared by phylogenetic analysis of 43 isolates obtained over four decades. An additional 22 virus sequences were retrieved from GenBank. Fragments of the glycoprotein G(L) and the replicase genes were amplified by RT-PCR, prior to sequencing and construction of phylogenetic trees. The trees revealed many distinctive lineages, consistent with prolonged diversification within geographically separated host populations. Two large groups and five subgroups were distinguished. Group I consisted mainly of viruses from North America, whilst group II consisted mainly of European isolates. In most instances, where the geographic origin of the viruses appeared to be at variance with the phylogenetically predicted relationships, the horses from which the viruses were recovered had been transported between Europe and America or vice versa. Analysis of the replicase gene revealed similar phylogenetic relationships although not all of the groups were as clearly defined. Virus strains CH1 (Switzerland, 1964) and S1 (Sweden, 1989) represented separate 'outgroups' based on analysis of both genomic regions. The results of this study confirm the value of the G(L) gene of EAV for estimating virus genetic diversity and as a useful tool for tracing routes by which EAV is spread. In addition, computer-assisted predictions of antigenic sites on the G(L) protein revealed considerable variability among the isolates, especially with respect to regions associated with neutralization domains.  (+info)

Genetic divergence with emergence of novel phenotypic variants of equine arteritis virus during persistent infection of stallions. (2/87)

The persistently infected carrier stallion is the critical natural reservoir of equine arteritis virus (EAV), as venereal infection of mares frequently occurs after breeding to such stallions. Two Thoroughbred stallions that were infected during the 1984 outbreak of equine viral arteritis in central Kentucky subsequently became long-term EAV carriers. EAV genomes amplified from the semen of these two stallions were compared by sequence analysis of the six 3' open reading frames (ORFs 2 through 7), which encode the four known structural proteins and two uncharacterized glycoproteins. The major variants of the EAV population that sequentially arose within the reproductive tract of each carrier stallion varied by approximately 1% per year, and the heterogeneity of the viral quasispecies increased during the course of long-term persistent infection. The various ORFs of the dominant EAV variants evolved independently, and there was apparently strong selective pressure on the uncharacterized GP3 protein during persistent infection. Amino acid changes also occurred in the V1 variable region of the GL protein. This region has been previously identified as a crucial neutralization domain, and selective pressures exerted on the V1 region during persistent EAV infection led to the emergence of virus variants with distinct neutralization properties. Thus, evolution of the EAV quasispecies that occurs during persistent infection of the stallion clearly can influence viral phenotypic properties such as neutralization and perhaps virulence.  (+info)

Equine arteritis virus derived from an infectious cDNA clone is attenuated and genetically stable in infected stallions. (3/87)

Virus derived from an infectious cDNA clone of equine arteritis virus (EAV030H) was intranasally inoculated into two stallions, neither of which subsequently developed clinical manifestations of equine viral arteritis (EVA). Virus was isolated from nasal swabs and mononuclear cells collected from both stallions +info)

Genetic stability of equine arteritis virus during horizontal and vertical transmission in an outbreak of equine viral arteritis. (4/87)

An imported carrier stallion (A) from Europe was implicated in causing an extensive outbreak of equine viral arteritis (EVA) on a Warmblood breeding farm in Pennsylvania, USA. Strains of equine arteritis virus (EAV) present in the semen of two carrier stallions (A and G) on the farm were compared to those in tissues of foals born during the outbreak, as well as viruses present in the semen of two other stallions that became persistently infected carriers of EAV following infection during the outbreak. The 2822 bp segment encompassing ORFs 2-7 (nt 9807-12628; which encode the G(S), GP3, GP4, G(L), M and N proteins, respectively) was directly amplified by RT-PCR from semen samples and foal tissues. Nucleotide and phylogenetic analyses confirmed that virus present in the semen of stallion A initiated the outbreak. The genomes of viruses present in most foal tissues (10/11) and serum from an acutely infected mare collected during the outbreak were identical to that of virus present in the lung of the first foal that died of EVA. Virus in the placenta of one foal differed by one nucleotide (99.9% identity) from the predominant outbreak virus. The relative genetic stability of viruses that circulated during the outbreak contrasts markedly with the heterogeneous virus populations variously present in the semen of persistently infected stallions on the farm. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the carrier stallion can be a source of genetic diversity of EAV, and that outbreaks of EVA can be initiated by the horizontal aerosol transmission of specific viral variants that occur in the semen of particular carrier stallions.  (+info)

The open reading frame 3 of equine arteritis virus encodes an immunogenic glycosylated, integral membrane protein. (5/87)

Open reading frame 3 (ORF 3) of equine arteritis virus (EAV) is predicted to encode a glycosylated membrane protein (GP3) that is uncharacterized. ORF 3 of the American Type Culture Collection strain of EAV was in vitro transcribed and the encoded GP3 protein was in vitro translated with and without canine microsomal membranes. The GP3 protein was approximately 17 kDa after in vitro translation without canine microsomal membranes whereas the glycosylated form, after translation with microsomal membranes, was a diffuse band of 36-42 kDa, indicating that the GP3 protein is extensively glycosylated. Deglycosylation reduced the GP3 protein to approximately 17 kDa, the same size as that translated without microsomal membranes, indicating that the signal sequence was not cleaved. The EAV GP3 protein was membrane associated and not released as a soluble protein, in marked contrast to the ORF 3-encoded proteins of some other arteriviruses. The GP3 protein was protected from protease digestion in closed membrane vesicles, suggesting that the protein extends into the membrane vesicles and is anchored by the N-terminal signal sequence, a C-terminal hydrophobic domain, or both, but does not span the membrane three times. A GP3 protein lacking the C-terminal transmembrane domain remained membrane associated, indicating that this terminus is not a necessary membrane anchor. Sera from stallions persistently infected with EAV and horses immunized repeatedly with the modified live EAV vaccine contained antibodies specific for the GP3 protein. The data indicate that the GP3 protein is an extensively glycosylated membrane protein that is immunogenic during some EAV infections.  (+info)

Neuropathogenicity and sensitivity to antibody neutralization of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus are determined by polylactosaminoglycan chains on the primary envelope glycoprotein. (6/87)

Common strains of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV, an arterivirus), such as LDV-P and LDV-vx, are highly resistant to antibody neutralization and invariably establish a viremic, persistent, yet asymptomatic, infection in mice. Other LDV strains, LDV-C and LDV-v, have been identified that, in contrast, are highly susceptible to antibody neutralization and are incapable of a high viremic persistent infection, but at the same time have gained the ability to cause paralytic disease in immunosuppressed C58 and AKR mice. Our present results further indicate that these phenotypic differences represent linked properties that correlate with the number of N-glycosylation sites associated with the single neutralization epitope on the short ectodomain of the primary envelope glycoprotein, VP-3P. The VP-3P ectodomains of LDV-P/vx possess three N-glycosylation sites, whereas those of LDV-C/v lack the two N-terminal sites. We have now isolated four independent neutralization escape variants of neuropathogenic LDV-C and LDV-v on the basis of their ability to establish a high viremic persistent infection in mice. The VP-3P ectodomains of all four variants had specifically regained two N-glycosylation sites concomitant with decreased immunogenicity of the neutralization eptitope and decreased sensitivity to antibody neutralization as well as loss of neuropathogenicity.  (+info)

IFN-gamma-independent IgG2a production in mice infected with viruses and parasites. (7/87)

After infection with some viruses and intracellular parasites, antibody production is restricted to IgG2a. We first observed that, whereas live viruses such as lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV) or mouse adenovirus induced mostly an IgG2a response, a large proportion of antibodies produced against killed viruses were IgG1. This IgG1 antiviral response was suppressed when live virions were added to inactivated viral particles. These results indicate that the IgG2a preponderance is related to the infectious process itself rather than to the type of antigen involved. Since IFN-gamma is known to stimulate IgG2a production by activated B lymphocytes and to be secreted after infection, we examined the role of this cytokine in the antibody isotypic distribution caused by LDV. Most IgG2a responses were relatively unaffected in mice deficient for the IFN-gamma receptor or treated with anti-IFN-gamma antibody. A similar IFN-gamma-independent IgG2a secretion was observed after infection with the parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Trypanosoma cruzi. However, the IFN-gamma-independent IgG2a production triggered by infection still required the presence of functional T(h) lymphocytes. Therefore, signal(s) other than IFN-gamma secretion may explain the T(h)-dependent isotypic bias in antibody secretion triggered by viruses and parasites.  (+info)

Effects of chlorine, iodine, and quaternary ammonium compound disinfectants on several exotic disease viruses. (8/87)

The effects of three representative disinfectants, chlorine (sodium hypochlorite), iodine (potassium tetraglicine triiodide), and quaternary ammonium compound (didecyldimethylammonium chloride), on several exotic disease viruses were examined. The viruses used were four enveloped viruses (vesicular stomatitis virus, African swine fever virus, equine viral arteritis virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus) and two non-enveloped viruses (swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV)). Chlorine was effective against all viruses except SVDV at concentrations of 0.03% to 0.0075%, and a dose response was observed. Iodine was very effective against all viruses at concentrations of 0.015% to 0.0075%, but a dose response was not observed. Quaternary ammonium compound was very effective in low concentration of 0.003% against four enveloped viruses and AHSV, but it was only effective against SVDV with 0.05% NaOH. Electron microscopic observation revealed the probable mechanism of each disinfectant. Chlorine caused complete degeneration of the viral particles and also destroyed the nucleic acid of the viruses. Iodine destroyed mainly the inner components including nucleic acid of the viruses. Quaternary ammonium compound induced detachment of the envelope of the enveloped viruses and formation of micelle in non-enveloped viruses. According to these results, chlorine and iodine disinfectants were quite effective against most of the viruses used at adequately high concentration. The effective concentration of quaternary ammonium compound was the lowest among the disinfectants examined.  (+info)

Arterivirus is a type of enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus that belongs to the family Arteriviridae. These viruses are named after their initial discovery in arteries and have since been found to infect a wide range of mammals, including pigs, horses, cats, and primates.

Arteriviruses can cause various diseases, such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) in pigs, equine arteritis virus (EAV) in horses, and simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) in non-human primates. In humans, Arterivirus infection is rare, but some cases of human infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus have been reported.

Arteriviruses are characterized by their unique viral structure, including a distinctive "coronavirus-like" appearance due to the presence of club-shaped projections on their surface called peplomers. However, they differ from coronaviruses in several ways, such as genome organization and replication strategy.

Overall, Arterivirus is an important group of viruses that can cause significant economic losses in the livestock industry and pose a potential threat to human health.

Arterivirus infections are viral diseases caused by members of the Arteriviridae family, which includes several species that can infect a variety of animals. The most well-known arterivirus is the equine arteritis virus (EAV), which causes equine arteritis in horses. Other examples include the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in pigs, and simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) in non-human primates.

Arterivirus infections typically cause respiratory or reproductive symptoms, depending on the specific virus and host species. For example, EAV can cause respiratory disease, abortion, and infertility in horses, while PRRSV primarily affects the reproductive system of pigs, causing abortions, stillbirths, and weak piglets.

Transmission of arteriviruses typically occurs through direct contact with infected animals or their bodily fluids, such as respiratory droplets or semen. Some arteriviruses can also be transmitted vertically, from mother to offspring, during pregnancy or birth.

There are currently no specific treatments for arterivirus infections, and prevention efforts focus on biosecurity measures, such as quarantine and vaccination of susceptible animals.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but there seems to be a mistake in your question. "Arteritis Virus, Equine" is not a recognized medical term or virus in humans or animals. There is a condition called "Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA)," which is a viral disease that affects horses and other equine species. However, it does not affect humans.

Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA) is caused by the Equine Arteritis Virus (EAV). This virus primarily affects the respiratory system and can cause symptoms such as fever, lethargy, loss of appetite, and a runny nose in infected horses. In some cases, it may also lead to inflammation of the lining of blood vessels (vasculitis), which can result in abortion in pregnant mares or infertility in stallions.

It's essential to maintain proper biosecurity measures when dealing with horses, especially those that have been exposed to EVA, to prevent its spread and protect the health of other equine populations.

Porcine Respiratory and Reproductive Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) is an enveloped, positive-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Arteriviridae family. It is the causative agent of Porcine Respiratory and Reproductive Syndrome (PRRS), also known as "blue ear disease" or "porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome."

The virus primarily affects pigs, causing a wide range of clinical signs including respiratory distress in young animals and reproductive failure in pregnant sows. The infection can lead to late-term abortions, stillbirths, premature deliveries, and weak or mummified fetuses. In growing pigs, PRRSV can cause pneumonia, which is often accompanied by secondary bacterial infections.

PRRSV has a tropism for cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage, and it replicates within these cells, leading to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the development of the clinical signs associated with the disease. The virus is highly infectious and can spread rapidly in susceptible pig populations, making it a significant concern for the swine industry worldwide.

It's important to note that PRRSV has two distinct genotypes: Type 1 (European) and Type 2 (North American). Both types have a high degree of genetic diversity, which can make controlling the virus challenging. Vaccination is available for PRRSV, but it may not provide complete protection against all strains of the virus, and it may not prevent infection or shedding. Therefore, biosecurity measures, such as strict sanitation and animal movement controls, are critical to preventing the spread of this virus in pig populations.

Nidovirales is an order of viruses that includes important pathogens such as coronaviruses and arteriviruses. These viruses are characterized by their large, complex genomes and the production of nested sets of subgenomic mRNAs during replication. They have a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome and are enveloped. The name "Nidovirales" is derived from the Latin word "nidus," meaning "nest," which refers to the nested set of subgenomic mRNAs produced during replication.

Coronaviruses, which include well-known human pathogens such as SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 (which causes COVID-19), primarily infect the respiratory tract and can cause a range of symptoms from mild cold-like illness to severe pneumonia.

Arteriviruses, on the other hand, mainly infect animals and are associated with diseases such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) in pigs and simian hemorrhagic fever in non-human primates.

It's important to note that Nidovirales have a high potential for cross-species transmission, which can lead to the emergence of new viruses with the ability to infect humans and cause disease.

Arteriviridae is a family of enveloped, positive-strand RNA viruses that infect a variety of animal hosts, including mammals and birds. The name "Arteriviridae" comes from the fact that some members of this family were initially identified as causes of diseases affecting arteries and the vascular system.

The genome of Arteriviridae viruses is around 12-16 kilobases in length and contains several open reading frames (ORFs) that encode various structural and non-structural proteins. The replication of these viruses occurs in the cytoplasm of infected cells, and they are known to have a complex transcription strategy involving discontinuous transcription and production of subgenomic mRNAs.

Arteriviridae includes several important veterinary pathogens, such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), equine arteritis virus (EAV), and lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV) of mice. These viruses can cause a range of clinical symptoms in their respective hosts, including respiratory distress, reproductive failure, and immunosuppression.

Human pathogens belonging to Arteriviridae are not yet known, although some members of this family have been found to infect human cells in vitro. Further research is needed to determine the potential impact of Arteriviridae viruses on human health.

Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV) is an RNA virus that primarily infects mice. It is a member of the family Arteriviridae and is unique to murine species. LDV infection results in a persistent, chronic viremia without causing any overt signs of disease in the host. However, it is associated with a significant increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity due to virus-induced damage to infected cells.

The virus infects various tissues and cell types, including macrophages and hepatocytes, and establishes a persistent infection by evading the host's immune response. LDV has been widely used as a model system for studying viral pathogenesis, persistence, and immunosuppression in mice.

It is important to note that Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus is not known to infect humans or other primates, and it is primarily studied in the context of basic research on viral infections and the immune response.

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is a viral disease that affects pigs, causing reproductive failure in breeding herds and respiratory illness in young pigs. The disease is caused by the PRRS virus, which belongs to the family Arteriviridae.

In pregnant sows, PRRS can cause abortions, stillbirths, mummified fetuses, and weak or infertile offspring. In growing pigs, it can lead to pneumonia, reduced growth rates, and increased susceptibility to other infections. The virus is highly contagious and can spread rapidly within a herd through direct contact with infected pigs, aerosols, or contaminated fomites.

PRRS is a significant disease of global importance, causing substantial economic losses to the swine industry. Control measures include biosecurity practices, vaccination, and testing to detect and eliminate the virus from affected herds. However, there is no specific treatment for PRRS, and eradication of the virus from the pig population is unlikely due to its widespread distribution and ability to persist in infected animals and the environment.

RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, also known as RNA replicase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the production of RNA from an RNA template. It plays a crucial role in the replication of certain viruses, such as positive-strand RNA viruses and retroviruses, which use RNA as their genetic material. The enzyme uses the existing RNA strand as a template to create a new complementary RNA strand, effectively replicating the viral genome. This process is essential for the propagation of these viruses within host cells and is a target for antiviral therapies.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

An open reading frame (ORF) is a continuous stretch of DNA or RNA sequence that has the potential to be translated into a protein. It begins with a start codon (usually "ATG" in DNA, which corresponds to "AUG" in RNA) and ends with a stop codon ("TAA", "TAG", or "TGA" in DNA; "UAA", "UAG", or "UGA" in RNA). The sequence between these two points is called a coding sequence (CDS), which, when transcribed into mRNA and translated into amino acids, forms a polypeptide chain.

In eukaryotic cells, ORFs can be located in either protein-coding genes or non-coding regions of the genome. In prokaryotic cells, multiple ORFs may be present on a single strand of DNA, often organized into operons that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that not all ORFs necessarily represent functional proteins; some may be pseudogenes or result from errors in genome annotation. Therefore, additional experimental evidence is typically required to confirm the expression and functionality of a given ORF.

Viral nonstructural proteins (NS) are viral proteins that are not part of the virion structure. They play various roles in the viral life cycle, such as replication of the viral genome, transcription, translation regulation, and modulation of the host cell environment to favor virus replication. These proteins are often produced in large quantities during infection and can manipulate or disrupt various cellular pathways to benefit the virus. They may also be involved in evasion of the host's immune response. The specific functions of viral nonstructural proteins vary depending on the type of virus.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

A viral genome is the genetic material (DNA or RNA) that is present in a virus. It contains all the genetic information that a virus needs to replicate itself and infect its host. The size and complexity of viral genomes can vary greatly, ranging from a few thousand bases to hundreds of thousands of bases. Some viruses have linear genomes, while others have circular genomes. The genome of a virus also contains the information necessary for the virus to hijack the host cell's machinery and use it to produce new copies of the virus. Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is important for developing vaccines and antiviral treatments.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "horses" is not a medical term. It is the common name given to the species *Equus ferus caballus*, which are large domesticated mammals used for transportation, work, and recreation. If you have any questions about horses or a related topic that you would like a medical perspective on, please let me know and I'd be happy to help!

Cricetinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes hamsters, gerbils, and relatives. These small mammals are characterized by having short limbs, compact bodies, and cheek pouches for storing food. They are native to various parts of the world, particularly in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Some species are popular pets due to their small size, easy care, and friendly nature. In a medical context, understanding the biology and behavior of Cricetinae species can be important for individuals who keep them as pets or for researchers studying their physiology.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Chinese herbal drugs, also known as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), refer to a system of medicine that has been practiced in China for thousands of years. It is based on the belief that the body's vital energy, called Qi, must be balanced and flowing freely for good health. TCM uses various techniques such as herbal therapy, acupuncture, dietary therapy, and exercise to restore balance and promote healing.

Chinese herbal drugs are usually prescribed in the form of teas, powders, pills, or tinctures and may contain one or a combination of herbs. The herbs used in Chinese medicine are typically derived from plants, minerals, or animal products. Some commonly used Chinese herbs include ginseng, astragalus, licorice root, and cinnamon bark.

It is important to note that the use of Chinese herbal drugs should be under the guidance of a qualified practitioner, as some herbs can interact with prescription medications or have side effects. Additionally, the quality and safety of Chinese herbal products can vary widely depending on the source and manufacturing process.

Herbal medicine, also known as botanical medicine or phytomedicine, refers to the use of plants and plant extracts for therapeutic purposes. This traditional form of medicine has been practiced for thousands of years across various cultures worldwide. It involves the utilization of different parts of a plant, such as leaves, roots, seeds, flowers, and fruits, either in their whole form or as extracts, infusions, decoctions, tinctures, or essential oils.

Herbal medicines are believed to contain active compounds that can interact with the human body, influencing its physiological processes and helping to maintain or restore health. Some herbs have been found to possess pharmacological properties, making them valuable in treating various ailments, including digestive disorders, respiratory conditions, sleep disturbances, skin issues, and cardiovascular diseases.

However, it is essential to note that the regulation of herbal medicines varies significantly between countries, and their safety, efficacy, and quality may not always be guaranteed. Therefore, consulting a healthcare professional before starting any herbal medicine regimen is advisable to ensure proper usage, dosage, and potential interactions with other medications or health conditions.

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is a system of medicine that has been developed in China over thousands of years. It is based on the philosophy that the body's vital energy (Qi) circulates through a network of channels called meridians, and that disease results from an imbalance or blockage in this flow of Qi.

TCM uses a variety of treatments to restore balance and promote health, including acupuncture, herbal medicine, moxibustion (the burning of herbs near the skin), cupping, dietary therapy, and tuina (Chinese massage). The use of Chinese herbal medicines is a major component of TCM, with formulas often consisting of combinations of several different herbs tailored to the individual patient's needs.

In addition to these treatments, TCM practitioners may also use diagnostic techniques such as pulse diagnosis and tongue examination to assess a person's overall health and determine the underlying cause of their symptoms. The goal of TCM is not only to treat specific symptoms or diseases but to address the root causes of illness and promote overall wellness.

Phytotherapy is the use of extracts of natural origin, especially plants or plant parts, for therapeutic purposes. It is also known as herbal medicine and is a traditional practice in many cultures. The active compounds in these plant extracts are believed to have various medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, or sedative effects. Practitioners of phytotherapy may use the whole plant, dried parts, or concentrated extracts to prepare teas, capsules, tinctures, or ointments for therapeutic use. It is important to note that the effectiveness and safety of phytotherapy are not always supported by scientific evidence, and it should be used with caution and preferably under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

"Poria" is not a term commonly used in medical terminology. However, it might be a reference to "Poria cocos," a type of fungus that is sometimes used in traditional Chinese medicine. In this context, "Poria" is said to have anti-inflammatory, diuretic, and sedative properties, although its efficacy and safety are not well-studied or established by modern medical standards.

It's important to note that the use of traditional herbal remedies like "Poria cocos" can interact with other medications and have side effects, so it's crucial to consult with a healthcare provider before using them.

Medicinal plants are defined as those plants that contain naturally occurring chemical compounds which can be used for therapeutic purposes, either directly or indirectly. These plants have been used for centuries in various traditional systems of medicine, such as Ayurveda, Chinese medicine, and Native American medicine, to prevent or treat various health conditions.

Medicinal plants contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, including alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenes, and saponins, among others. These compounds have been found to possess various pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities.

Medicinal plants can be used in various forms, including whole plant material, extracts, essential oils, and isolated compounds. They can be administered through different routes, such as oral, topical, or respiratory, depending on the desired therapeutic effect.

It is important to note that while medicinal plants have been used safely and effectively for centuries, they should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Some medicinal plants can interact with prescription medications or have adverse effects if used inappropriately.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Local Area Networks" (LANs) are not a medical term. They are a common term in the field of computer networking. Here is a general definition:

A Local Area Network (LAN) is a network that connects computers and other devices in a relatively small area, typically a single building or a group of buildings. Most LANs are used to share resources such as printers, games or applications. A LAN is usually owned, created, managed and supported by a single organization, such as a school, hospital, or business.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I would be happy to help!

... arterivirus infections MeSH C02.782.600.100.700 - porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome MeSH C02.782.600.550 - ... cardiovirus infections MeSH C02.782.687.207 - common cold MeSH C02.782.687.359 - enterovirus infections MeSH C02.782.687.359. ... deltaretrovirus infections MeSH C02.782.815.200.260 - enzootic bovine leukosis MeSH C02.782.815.200.470 - htlv-i infections ... avulavirus infections MeSH C02.782.580.600.080.600 - newcastle disease MeSH C02.782.580.600.400 - henipavirus infections MeSH ...
Following infection, the first sign is fever, peaking at 41 °C (106 °F), followed by various signs such as lethargy, nasal ... EVA is caused by an arterivirus called equine arteritis virus (EAV). Arteriviruses are small, enveloped, animal viruses with an ... Most horses with EVA infection do not show any signs; if a horse does show signs, these can vary greatly in severity. ... As well as equine arteritis virus the Arterivirus family includes porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), ...
But, unlike other viral infections, the incidence of polio - the rarer severe form of the infection - increased in the 20th ... equine arterivirus was discovered. In the 1950s, improvements in virus isolation and detection methods resulted in the ... Many bacteriologists soon discovered the cause of numerous infections. However, some infections remained, many of them ... Ivanovsky suggested the infection might be caused by a toxin produced by bacteria, but did not pursue the idea. In 1898, the ...
In all those infections, about 25% infections lead to sudden death. Besides other causes like diarrhea, pneumonia and ... The recent molecular analysis of the virus revealed its similarities with Arterivirus and coronaviruses, which led to the ... Virus Infections of Ruminants. 3rd edn. Sweden: Elsevier Science, pp. 311-316 Bosch, A., Rosa M. Pintó, and Abad, Xavier. June ... Cattle, pig, and horse serve as the natural host of Toroviruses and infection is thought to be via the faecal-oral route. The ...
Prevents Zika Virus Infection and its Associated Congenital Microcephaly in Mice". eBioMedicine. 24: 189-194. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Zn2+ Inhibits Coronavirus and Arterivirus RNA Polymerase Activity In Vitro and Zinc Ionophores Block the Replication of These ... Inhibits Zika Virus Infection in Different Cell Models". Viruses. 8 (12): 322. doi:10.3390/v8120322. PMC 5192383. PMID 27916837 ... antibiotics for respiratory infections with sore throat: An antibiotic stewardship perspective". Journal of Clinical Pharmacy ...
Neither drug prevents SARS-CoV-2 infection. Cleavage of the SARS-CoV-2 S2 spike protein required for viral entry into cells can ... inhibits coronavirus and arterivirus RNA polymerase activity in vitro and zinc ionophores block the replication of these ... Savarino A, Boelaert JR, Cassone A, Majori G, Cauda R (November 2003). "Effects of chloroquine on viral infections: an old drug ... August 2005). "Chloroquine is a potent inhibitor of SARS coronavirus infection and spread". Virology Journal. 2: 69. doi: ...
PRRSV infection starts with an acute infection during which tonsils and lungs serve as preferential sites of infection leading ... 10 November 2015). "In the family Arteriviridae create 10 species (1 unassigned, 9 in the genus Arterivirus) and rename one ... The first stage of infection results in a cell-free viremia starting from 6-12 h post infection and lasting for several weeks ... The clinical outcome of a PRRSV infection can be aggravated by co-infections with other pathogens. It is characterized by ...
Ivanovsky suggested the infection might be caused by a toxin produced by bacteria, but he did not pursue the idea. At the time ... In 1957 equine arterivirus and the cause of bovine virus diarrhoea (a pestivirus) were discovered. In 1963 the hepatitis B ... Viral load tests are an important in the control of infections by HIV. This versatile method can be used for plant viruses. ... For plant viruses, the natural host plants can be used or, particularly when the infection is not obvious, so-called indicator ...
However, arteriviruses are known to cause persistent/asymptomatic infections (e.g., equine arteritis virus, simian hemorrhagic ... Vanmechelen B, Vergote V, Laenen L, Koundouno FR, Bore JA, Wada J, et al. Expanding the arterivirus host spectrum: Oliviers ... Arterivirus molecular biology and pathogenesis. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:2141-63. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Novel Arterivirus Associated with Outbreak of Fatal Encephalitis in European Hedgehogs, England, 2019 On This Page ...
... arterivirus infections MeSH C02.782.600.100.700 - porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome MeSH C02.782.600.550 - ... cardiovirus infections MeSH C02.782.687.207 - common cold MeSH C02.782.687.359 - enterovirus infections MeSH C02.782.687.359. ... deltaretrovirus infections MeSH C02.782.815.200.260 - enzootic bovine leukosis MeSH C02.782.815.200.470 - htlv-i infections ... avulavirus infections MeSH C02.782.580.600.080.600 - newcastle disease MeSH C02.782.580.600.400 - henipavirus infections MeSH ...
These findings advance LDV as a model of arterivirus infection and viral persistence while adding to a growing body of ... Arterivirus/genética , Arterivirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arterivirus/metabolismo , Carpas , Linhagem Celular , ... Mitochondria were protected from Ars-induced damage by WNV infection until late times in the infection cycle. The results ... suggesting SARS-CoV-2 entry into the brain by this route after intranasal infection. Our data indicate that direct infection of ...
When this happens, the infection time is unknown, so it can not be guaranteed when infection has really occurred.. Consequently ... porcine arterivirus). In: 10th ed. Diseases of swine, Ed. Wiley-Blackwell. 2012, 31:463-86. ... Regarding virological parameters, vaccines helps to reduce transmission of the infection, since they can contribute to reduce ... Evaluation of immune responses to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in pigs during early stage of infection ...
Arterivirus Infections [C01.925.782.600.100] Arterivirus Infections * Coronaviridae Infections [C01.925.782.600.550] ... caused by members of the Coronaviridae family: do not confuse with CORONAVIRUS INFECTIONS caused by members of the Coronavirus ... Infections à Coronaviridae Entry term(s):. Coronaviridae Infection. Infection, Coronaviridae. Infections, Coronaviridae. ...
Coronavirus infections - More than just the common cold. JAMA 2020;323:707. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2020.0757. ... Zn(2+) inhibits coronavirus and arterivirus RNA polymerase activity in vitro and zinc ionophores block the replication of these ... Recent advances in the detection of respiratory virus infection in humans. J Med Virol 2020;92(4):408-417. DOI: 10.1002/jmv. ... Lopinavir/ritonavir: a review of its use in the management of HIV infection. Drugs 2006;66(8):1275-1299. DOI: 10.2165/00003495- ...
READ: The Importance of Sleep to Survive a Viral Infection. Vitamin D Vitamin D does not kill the virus, instead what it does, ... show that corona- and arterivirus replication can be inhibited by increased Zn2+ levels....." ... In The Importance of Sleep to Survive a Viral Infection, I referenced a JAMA study where the cases of COVID-19 are actually ... Just maybe, Quercetin, being a flavonoid could also play a part in this slowing down of infection and replication of the virus ...
INFECTION DISEASE. 15 Elizbarashvili E.I., Zuev Yu.V., Shevtcova L.I., Atrohova S.V., Emelianov I.A., Kokorina E.G., Kudesova A ... genus Arterivirus, family Arteriviridae), depending on the age of donors. Key words: porcine alveolar macrophages, porcine ...
Potential repurposed SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection drugs. Gamal El-Din A. Abuo-Rahma, Mamdouh F. A. Mohamed, Tarek S. Ibrahim ... High antiviral activity of mercaptoethane sulfonate functionalized Te/BSA nanostars against arterivirus and coronavirus. ... Automated multiplex nucleic acid tests for rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2, influenza A and B infection with direct reverse- ... A phytochemical-based medication search for the SARS-CoV-2 infection by molecular docking models towards spike glycoproteins ...
Cross Infection C23.550.291.875.500 Cross-Priming G12.425.260 Crowns E6.323.428.100 E6.780.346.250 E6.323.528.250 E7.695.190.88 ... Arterivirus B4.820.504.80.100 B4.820.504.80.500 B4.909.777.500.80.500 Arthralgia C23.888.646.130 C10.597.617.133 C23.888. ... Tumor Virus Infections C4.619.935 C4.925 Tungrovirus B4.715.835 Tunica Intima A7.231.330.800 A10.272.491.355.800 Tunica Media ... Epstein-Barr Virus Infections C4.619.935.313 C4.925.313 Erbium D1.268.477.437 Erbovirus B4.909.777.618.290 Erectile Dysfunction ...
Impact of porcine arterivirus, influenza B, and their coinfection on antiviral response in the porcine lung (Peer Reviewed ... Persistent infection and protection against Senecavirus A in pigs previously infected with a homologous and a heterologous ... innate immune-biased transcriptional signatures of whole blood in early weeks after experimental Mycobacterium bovis infection ...
Subclinical Infection of Macaques and Baboons with A Baboon Simarterivirus. Buechler C, Semler M, Baker DA, Newman C, Cornish ... Complexity of the single linear neutralization epitope of the mouse arterivirus lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus P G ... Complexity of the single linear neutralization epitope of the mouse arterivirus lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus P G ...
Regulatory T cells in arterivirus and coronavirus infections: do they protect against disease or enhance it?. Cecere TE; Todd ... Mucosal but not peripheral FOXP3+ regulatory T cells are highly increased in untreated HIV infection and normalize after ...
Infections caused by viruses of the genus ARTERIVIRUS.. Terms. Arterivirus Infections Preferred Term Term UI T054408. Date01/01 ... RNA Virus Infections [C01.925.782] * Nidovirales Infections [C01.925.782.600] * Arterivirus Infections [C01.925.782.600.100] * ... Infections caused by viruses of the genus ARTERIVIRUS.. Entry Version. ARTERIVIRUS INFECT. Entry Term(s). Infections, ... Infections, Arterivirus Term UI T054407. Date03/17/1993. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1994). ...
Infections caused by viruses of the genus ARTERIVIRUS.. Terms. Arterivirus Infections Preferred Term Term UI T054408. Date01/01 ... RNA Virus Infections [C01.925.782] * Nidovirales Infections [C01.925.782.600] * Arterivirus Infections [C01.925.782.600.100] * ... Infections caused by viruses of the genus ARTERIVIRUS.. Entry Version. ARTERIVIRUS INFECT. Entry Term(s). Infections, ... Infections, Arterivirus Term UI T054407. Date03/17/1993. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1994). ...
Infections à artérivirus Entry term(s):. Arterivirus Infection. Infection, Arterivirus. Infections, Arterivirus. ... Arterivirus Infections - Preferred Concept UI. M0027401. Scope note. Infections caused by viruses of the genus ARTERIVIRUS. ...
Infections with viruses of the order NIDOVIRALES. The concept includes ARTERIVIRUS INFECTIONS and CORONAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS. AN ... AN - infection = POLYOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS + TUMOR VIRUS INFECTIONS HN - 2002 MH - Polyomavirus Infections UI - D027601 MN - ... AN - infection: coord IM with RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS (IM) HN - 2002 MH - Nidovirales Infections UI - D030341 MN - C2.782.600 MS ... AN - infection: coord IM with RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS (IM) + TUMOR VIRUS INFECTIONS (IM) HN - 2002 BX - Mammalian Type B ...
However, arterivirus infection in wild nonhuman primates had not been described prior to 2011. The arteriviruses recently ... Infecções por Arterivirus/transmissão , Infecções por Arterivirus/veterinária , Arterivirus/fisiologia , Doenças dos Primatas/ ... While we did not find evidence of active ZIKV infection in wild NHPs in Africa, we found variable ZIKV seropositivity of up to ... We anticipate that this study will be useful for future studies that examine the spread of infections from wild animals to ...
However, arteriviruses are known to cause persistent/asymptomatic infections (e.g., equine arteritis virus, simian hemorrhagic ... Vanmechelen B, Vergote V, Laenen L, Koundouno FR, Bore JA, Wada J, et al. Expanding the arterivirus host spectrum: Oliviers ... Arterivirus molecular biology and pathogenesis. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:2141-63. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Novel Arterivirus Associated with Outbreak of Fatal Encephalitis in European Hedgehogs, England, 2019 On This Page ...
Zn2+ inhibits coronavirus and arterivirus RNA polymerase activity in vitro and zinc ionophores block the replication of these ... On the other hand, trials of prophylactic drugs or physical prophylaxis are often performed for infections, such as infection ... Respiratory infection Inflammatory pneumonia → Zn2+. ・Zn homeostatic immune conc 3~8 mg/day from 7 month, 3 year to 13 year ... secondary to live-vaccines and frequent viral infections), leading to probably early control of infection at the site of entry ...
Arterivirus Arterivirus Infections Arthralgia Arthritis Arthritis, Experimental Arthritis, Gouty Arthritis, Infectious ... Astroviridae Infections Asymmetric Cell Division Asymptomatic Diseases Asymptomatic Infections AT Rich Sequence AT-Hook Motifs ... Central Nervous System Infections Central Nervous System Neoplasms Central Nervous System Parasitic Infections Central Nervous ... Bacterial Infections Bacterial Infections and Mycoses Bacterial Load Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins Bacterial Physiological ...
Skalny A.V., Rink L., Ajsuvakova O.P. Zinc and respiratory tract infections: Perspectives for COVID-19 (Review) Int J Mol Med. ... inhibits coronavirus and arterivirus RNA polymerase activity in vitro and zinc ionophores block the replication of these ... Safety and efficacy of antiviral combination therapy in symptomatic patients of Covid-19 infection - a randomised controlled ...
Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections C01.252.400.050 Aliivibrio Infections C01.252.400.054 Anaplasmataceae Infections C01.252. ... Arterivirus B04.820.504.080.500.100 Equartevirus B04.820.504.080.500.500 Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus B04.820.504.080. ... Bacteroidaceae Infections C01.252.400.110.109 Bacteroides Infections C01.252.400.126 Bartonellaceae Infections C01.252.400.126. ... Bordetella Infections C01.252.400.143.740 Whooping Cough C01.252.400.155 Borrelia Infections C01.252.400.155.569 Lyme Disease ...
Plasma proteomic signature predicts who will get persistent symptoms following SARS-CoV-2 infection PubMed/MEDLINE: MERS-CoV ... We find that CD163 acts as an intracellular receptor for simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV; a simian arterivirus), a rare ... Most had a short-lived mild or asymptomatic infection, while others had symptoms that persisted for weeks or months. We ... With rapid growing of environmental contact infection, more and more attentions are focused on the precise and absolute ...
Cross Infection C23.550.291.875.500 Cross-Priming G12.425.260 Crowns E6.323.428.100 E6.780.346.250 E6.323.528.250 E7.695.190.88 ... Arterivirus B4.820.504.80.100 B4.820.504.80.500 B4.909.777.500.80.500 Arthralgia C23.888.646.130 C10.597.617.133 C23.888. ... Tumor Virus Infections C4.619.935 C4.925 Tungrovirus B4.715.835 Tunica Intima A7.231.330.800 A10.272.491.355.800 Tunica Media ... Epstein-Barr Virus Infections C4.619.935.313 C4.925.313 Erbium D1.268.477.437 Erbovirus B4.909.777.618.290 Erectile Dysfunction ...
Malaria Infection Depletes Hepatic DDAH1, a Regulator of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthesis. Author(s): JH Chertow, MS Alkaitis ... Fully Automated Cell Culture System Increases the Efficiency and Consistency of Arterivirus Plaque Assays. Author(s): NM ... Genome-wide siRNA screens detect a requirement for the IKK complex in vaccinia virus infection. Author(s): G Sivan, S Martin, E ... Signaling via the IL-20 receptor inhibits cutaneous production of IL-1β and IL-17A to promote infection with methicillin- ...
  • The article presents the results of a study of the sensitivity of porcine alveolar macrophages to the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (genus Arterivirus, family Arteriviridae), depending on the age of donors. (journalveterinariya.ru)
  • These findings advance LDV as a model of arterivirus infection and viral persistence while adding to a growing body of literature suggesting that CD163 utilization is a broad feature of arteriviruses.IMPORTANCEMouse models of viral infection play an especially large role in virology. (bvsalud.org)
  • In The Importance of Sleep to Survive a Viral Infection , I referenced a JAMA study where the cases of COVID-19 are actually quite mild and that recovery can be high if there are no comorbidity conditions. (foodforlifehk.com)
  • Recent advances in the detection of respiratory virus infection in humans. (sbvjournals.com)
  • But what interests me is this study published in the BMJ (Business Medical Journal) that suggests daily or weekly supplementation of Vitamin D cut the risk of respiratory infection in half, where as big one off doses did not. (foodforlifehk.com)
  • A murine arterivirus, lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV), was first described in 1960 and quickly became a promising model for understanding immune failure due to its unique ability to persist in immunocompetent adult mice. (bvsalud.org)
  • Vaccines induce only partial immunity against heterologous challenge but they are effective to reduce abortions, mortality of new-born piglets and other reproductive disorders related to PRRS virus infection in sows. (prrscontrol.com)
  • Arteriviruses are RNA viruses related to coronaviruses but have not yet been associated with human infection. (bvsalud.org)
  • Regarding virological parameters, vaccines helps to reduce transmission of the infection, since they can contribute to reduce viraemia and shedding. (prrscontrol.com)
  • Infections caused by viruses of the genus ARTERIVIRUS . (nih.gov)
  • Here, we report that neutralizing antibodies against Omicron variants are undetected following COVID-19 infection with ancestral or past SARS-CoV-2 variant viruses or after two-dose mRNA vaccination. (nih.gov)
  • Zinc induced pediatric preventing respiratory 2019-nCoV is required that supplementation with zinc gluconate 20 mg in Zn deficient children resulted in a nearly twofold reduction of acute lower respiratory infections as well as the time to recovery. (vaccinesimmunojournal.com)
  • On the other hand, for aults, the zinc-homeostatic immune concentration may provide a protective role against the COVID-19 pandemic, likely by improving the host's resistance against viral infection. (vaccinesimmunojournal.com)
  • 50 mg of zinc per day might provide an additional shield against the COVID-19 pandemic, possibly by increasing the host resistance to viral infection to minimize the burden of the disease. (vaccinesimmunojournal.com)
  • In adults, zinc induced ROS generation in pulmonary COVID-19 infected cells is that alterations of ROS-producing and scavenging pathways that are caused by respiratory viral infections are implicated in inflammation, lung epithelial disruption, and tissue damage, and, in some cases, even pulmonary fibrosis. (vaccinesimmunojournal.com)
  • In an open-label trial conducted at 2 sites in the United States, outpatients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were randomized to receive either 10 days of zinc gluconate 50 mg, ascorbic acid 8,000 mg, both agents, or standard of care. (nih.gov)
  • The arterivirus genome is composed of a single, 12-16 kb, polyadenylated, RNA strand that contains 2 major genomic regions. (cdc.gov)
  • We hypothesized that the plasma proteome at the time of first infection would reflect differences in the inflammatory response that linked to symptom severity and duration. (nih.gov)

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