A genus of the family ARTERIVIRIDAE, in the order NIDOVIRALES. The type species is ARTERITIS VIRUS, EQUINE.
Infections caused by viruses of the genus ARTERIVIRUS.
The type species of the genus ARTERIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of an important equine respiratory disease causing abortion, pneumonia, or other infections.
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
An order comprising three families of eukaryotic viruses possessing linear, nonsegmented, positive sense RNA genomes. The families are CORONAVIRIDAE; ARTERIVIRIDAE; and RONIVIRIDAE.
A family of viruses, of the order NIDOVIRALES, containing spherical virions. In contrast to CORONAVIRIDAE, no protruding spikes are obvious on the surface.
A species ARTERIVIRUS, occurring in a number of transplantable mouse tumors. Infected mice have permanently elevated serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase.
A syndrome characterized by outbreaks of late term abortions, high numbers of stillbirths and mummified or weak newborn piglets, and respiratory disease in young unweaned and weaned pigs. It is caused by PORCINE RESPIRATORY AND REPRODUCTIVE SYNDROME VIRUS. (Radostits et al., Veterinary Medicine, 8th ed, p1048)
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A family of wingless, blood-sucking insects of the suborder HETEROPTERA, including the bedbugs and related forms. Cimex (BEDBUGS), Heamatosiphon, and Oeciacus are medically important genera. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Acquired hemolytic anemia due to the presence of AUTOANTIBODIES which agglutinate or lyse the patient's own RED BLOOD CELLS.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
A test to detect non-agglutinating ANTIBODIES against ERYTHROCYTES by use of anti-antibodies (the Coombs' reagent.) The direct test is applied to freshly drawn blood to detect antibody bound to circulating red cells. The indirect test is applied to serum to detect the presence of antibodies that can bind to red blood cells.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Thrombocytopenia occurring in the absence of toxic exposure or a disease associated with decreased platelets. It is mediated by immune mechanisms, in most cases IMMUNOGLOBULIN G autoantibodies which attach to platelets and subsequently undergo destruction by macrophages. The disease is seen in acute (affecting children) and chronic (adult) forms.
A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
A family of RNA viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of two genera: ALPHAVIRUS (group A arboviruses), and RUBIVIRUS. Virions are spherical, 60-70 nm in diameter, with a lipoprotein envelope tightly applied to the icosahedral nucleocapsid.
A species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting cats. Transmission occurs via air and mechanical contact.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.

Genetic diversity of equine arteritis virus. (1/87)

Equine arteritis viruses (EAV) from Europe and America were compared by phylogenetic analysis of 43 isolates obtained over four decades. An additional 22 virus sequences were retrieved from GenBank. Fragments of the glycoprotein G(L) and the replicase genes were amplified by RT-PCR, prior to sequencing and construction of phylogenetic trees. The trees revealed many distinctive lineages, consistent with prolonged diversification within geographically separated host populations. Two large groups and five subgroups were distinguished. Group I consisted mainly of viruses from North America, whilst group II consisted mainly of European isolates. In most instances, where the geographic origin of the viruses appeared to be at variance with the phylogenetically predicted relationships, the horses from which the viruses were recovered had been transported between Europe and America or vice versa. Analysis of the replicase gene revealed similar phylogenetic relationships although not all of the groups were as clearly defined. Virus strains CH1 (Switzerland, 1964) and S1 (Sweden, 1989) represented separate 'outgroups' based on analysis of both genomic regions. The results of this study confirm the value of the G(L) gene of EAV for estimating virus genetic diversity and as a useful tool for tracing routes by which EAV is spread. In addition, computer-assisted predictions of antigenic sites on the G(L) protein revealed considerable variability among the isolates, especially with respect to regions associated with neutralization domains.  (+info)

Genetic divergence with emergence of novel phenotypic variants of equine arteritis virus during persistent infection of stallions. (2/87)

The persistently infected carrier stallion is the critical natural reservoir of equine arteritis virus (EAV), as venereal infection of mares frequently occurs after breeding to such stallions. Two Thoroughbred stallions that were infected during the 1984 outbreak of equine viral arteritis in central Kentucky subsequently became long-term EAV carriers. EAV genomes amplified from the semen of these two stallions were compared by sequence analysis of the six 3' open reading frames (ORFs 2 through 7), which encode the four known structural proteins and two uncharacterized glycoproteins. The major variants of the EAV population that sequentially arose within the reproductive tract of each carrier stallion varied by approximately 1% per year, and the heterogeneity of the viral quasispecies increased during the course of long-term persistent infection. The various ORFs of the dominant EAV variants evolved independently, and there was apparently strong selective pressure on the uncharacterized GP3 protein during persistent infection. Amino acid changes also occurred in the V1 variable region of the GL protein. This region has been previously identified as a crucial neutralization domain, and selective pressures exerted on the V1 region during persistent EAV infection led to the emergence of virus variants with distinct neutralization properties. Thus, evolution of the EAV quasispecies that occurs during persistent infection of the stallion clearly can influence viral phenotypic properties such as neutralization and perhaps virulence.  (+info)

Equine arteritis virus derived from an infectious cDNA clone is attenuated and genetically stable in infected stallions. (3/87)

Virus derived from an infectious cDNA clone of equine arteritis virus (EAV030H) was intranasally inoculated into two stallions, neither of which subsequently developed clinical manifestations of equine viral arteritis (EVA). Virus was isolated from nasal swabs and mononuclear cells collected from both stallions +info)

Genetic stability of equine arteritis virus during horizontal and vertical transmission in an outbreak of equine viral arteritis. (4/87)

An imported carrier stallion (A) from Europe was implicated in causing an extensive outbreak of equine viral arteritis (EVA) on a Warmblood breeding farm in Pennsylvania, USA. Strains of equine arteritis virus (EAV) present in the semen of two carrier stallions (A and G) on the farm were compared to those in tissues of foals born during the outbreak, as well as viruses present in the semen of two other stallions that became persistently infected carriers of EAV following infection during the outbreak. The 2822 bp segment encompassing ORFs 2-7 (nt 9807-12628; which encode the G(S), GP3, GP4, G(L), M and N proteins, respectively) was directly amplified by RT-PCR from semen samples and foal tissues. Nucleotide and phylogenetic analyses confirmed that virus present in the semen of stallion A initiated the outbreak. The genomes of viruses present in most foal tissues (10/11) and serum from an acutely infected mare collected during the outbreak were identical to that of virus present in the lung of the first foal that died of EVA. Virus in the placenta of one foal differed by one nucleotide (99.9% identity) from the predominant outbreak virus. The relative genetic stability of viruses that circulated during the outbreak contrasts markedly with the heterogeneous virus populations variously present in the semen of persistently infected stallions on the farm. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the carrier stallion can be a source of genetic diversity of EAV, and that outbreaks of EVA can be initiated by the horizontal aerosol transmission of specific viral variants that occur in the semen of particular carrier stallions.  (+info)

The open reading frame 3 of equine arteritis virus encodes an immunogenic glycosylated, integral membrane protein. (5/87)

Open reading frame 3 (ORF 3) of equine arteritis virus (EAV) is predicted to encode a glycosylated membrane protein (GP3) that is uncharacterized. ORF 3 of the American Type Culture Collection strain of EAV was in vitro transcribed and the encoded GP3 protein was in vitro translated with and without canine microsomal membranes. The GP3 protein was approximately 17 kDa after in vitro translation without canine microsomal membranes whereas the glycosylated form, after translation with microsomal membranes, was a diffuse band of 36-42 kDa, indicating that the GP3 protein is extensively glycosylated. Deglycosylation reduced the GP3 protein to approximately 17 kDa, the same size as that translated without microsomal membranes, indicating that the signal sequence was not cleaved. The EAV GP3 protein was membrane associated and not released as a soluble protein, in marked contrast to the ORF 3-encoded proteins of some other arteriviruses. The GP3 protein was protected from protease digestion in closed membrane vesicles, suggesting that the protein extends into the membrane vesicles and is anchored by the N-terminal signal sequence, a C-terminal hydrophobic domain, or both, but does not span the membrane three times. A GP3 protein lacking the C-terminal transmembrane domain remained membrane associated, indicating that this terminus is not a necessary membrane anchor. Sera from stallions persistently infected with EAV and horses immunized repeatedly with the modified live EAV vaccine contained antibodies specific for the GP3 protein. The data indicate that the GP3 protein is an extensively glycosylated membrane protein that is immunogenic during some EAV infections.  (+info)

Neuropathogenicity and sensitivity to antibody neutralization of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus are determined by polylactosaminoglycan chains on the primary envelope glycoprotein. (6/87)

Common strains of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV, an arterivirus), such as LDV-P and LDV-vx, are highly resistant to antibody neutralization and invariably establish a viremic, persistent, yet asymptomatic, infection in mice. Other LDV strains, LDV-C and LDV-v, have been identified that, in contrast, are highly susceptible to antibody neutralization and are incapable of a high viremic persistent infection, but at the same time have gained the ability to cause paralytic disease in immunosuppressed C58 and AKR mice. Our present results further indicate that these phenotypic differences represent linked properties that correlate with the number of N-glycosylation sites associated with the single neutralization epitope on the short ectodomain of the primary envelope glycoprotein, VP-3P. The VP-3P ectodomains of LDV-P/vx possess three N-glycosylation sites, whereas those of LDV-C/v lack the two N-terminal sites. We have now isolated four independent neutralization escape variants of neuropathogenic LDV-C and LDV-v on the basis of their ability to establish a high viremic persistent infection in mice. The VP-3P ectodomains of all four variants had specifically regained two N-glycosylation sites concomitant with decreased immunogenicity of the neutralization eptitope and decreased sensitivity to antibody neutralization as well as loss of neuropathogenicity.  (+info)

IFN-gamma-independent IgG2a production in mice infected with viruses and parasites. (7/87)

After infection with some viruses and intracellular parasites, antibody production is restricted to IgG2a. We first observed that, whereas live viruses such as lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV) or mouse adenovirus induced mostly an IgG2a response, a large proportion of antibodies produced against killed viruses were IgG1. This IgG1 antiviral response was suppressed when live virions were added to inactivated viral particles. These results indicate that the IgG2a preponderance is related to the infectious process itself rather than to the type of antigen involved. Since IFN-gamma is known to stimulate IgG2a production by activated B lymphocytes and to be secreted after infection, we examined the role of this cytokine in the antibody isotypic distribution caused by LDV. Most IgG2a responses were relatively unaffected in mice deficient for the IFN-gamma receptor or treated with anti-IFN-gamma antibody. A similar IFN-gamma-independent IgG2a secretion was observed after infection with the parasites Toxoplasma gondii and Trypanosoma cruzi. However, the IFN-gamma-independent IgG2a production triggered by infection still required the presence of functional T(h) lymphocytes. Therefore, signal(s) other than IFN-gamma secretion may explain the T(h)-dependent isotypic bias in antibody secretion triggered by viruses and parasites.  (+info)

Effects of chlorine, iodine, and quaternary ammonium compound disinfectants on several exotic disease viruses. (8/87)

The effects of three representative disinfectants, chlorine (sodium hypochlorite), iodine (potassium tetraglicine triiodide), and quaternary ammonium compound (didecyldimethylammonium chloride), on several exotic disease viruses were examined. The viruses used were four enveloped viruses (vesicular stomatitis virus, African swine fever virus, equine viral arteritis virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus) and two non-enveloped viruses (swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV)). Chlorine was effective against all viruses except SVDV at concentrations of 0.03% to 0.0075%, and a dose response was observed. Iodine was very effective against all viruses at concentrations of 0.015% to 0.0075%, but a dose response was not observed. Quaternary ammonium compound was very effective in low concentration of 0.003% against four enveloped viruses and AHSV, but it was only effective against SVDV with 0.05% NaOH. Electron microscopic observation revealed the probable mechanism of each disinfectant. Chlorine caused complete degeneration of the viral particles and also destroyed the nucleic acid of the viruses. Iodine destroyed mainly the inner components including nucleic acid of the viruses. Quaternary ammonium compound induced detachment of the envelope of the enveloped viruses and formation of micelle in non-enveloped viruses. According to these results, chlorine and iodine disinfectants were quite effective against most of the viruses used at adequately high concentration. The effective concentration of quaternary ammonium compound was the lowest among the disinfectants examined.  (+info)

The subsequent steps in herpesvirus maturation have been disputed for some time. One model, originally proposed for HSV-1, suggested that perinuclear virions retain their integrity and leave the cell via the secretory pathway (10, 17, 38, 89). During this transit, viral envelope glycoproteins are modified in situ. In this model, perinuclear virions already contain the full complement of tegument and envelope proteins characteristic of mature extracellular virions. An alternative model proposed that the primary envelope fuses with the outer leaflet of the nuclear membrane (or the endoplasmic reticulum [ER] membrane with which it is contiguous), resulting in loss of the primary envelope and, presumably, the primary tegument and translocation of capsids into the cytoplasm (reviewed in references 25 and 51; Fig. 3, step 2). Final tegumentation and envelopment then occur in cytoplasmic compartments. In this model, perinuclear and intracytoplasmic/extracellular enveloped virions may differ in ...
The subsequent steps in herpesvirus maturation have been disputed for some time. One model, originally proposed for HSV-1, suggested that perinuclear virions retain their integrity and leave the cell via the secretory pathway (10, 17, 38, 89). During this transit, viral envelope glycoproteins are modified in situ. In this model, perinuclear virions already contain the full complement of tegument and envelope proteins characteristic of mature extracellular virions. An alternative model proposed that the primary envelope fuses with the outer leaflet of the nuclear membrane (or the endoplasmic reticulum [ER] membrane with which it is contiguous), resulting in loss of the primary envelope and, presumably, the primary tegument and translocation of capsids into the cytoplasm (reviewed in references 25 and 51; Fig. 3, step 2). Final tegumentation and envelopment then occur in cytoplasmic compartments. In this model, perinuclear and intracytoplasmic/extracellular enveloped virions may differ in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Amino acid substitutions in the structural or nonstructural proteins of a vaccine strain of equine arteritis virus are associated with its attenuation. AU - Zhang, Jianqiang. AU - Go, Yun Young. AU - Maclachlan, Nigel J. AU - Meade, Barry J.. AU - Timoney, Peter J.. AU - Balasuriya, Udeni B R. PY - 2008/9/1. Y1 - 2008/9/1. N2 - Comparative sequence analysis of a series of strains of equine arteritis virus (EAV) of defined virulence for horses, ranging from the horse-adapted virulent Bucyrus (VB) strain to a fully attenuated vaccine strain derived from it, identified 13 amino acid substitutions associated with attenuation. These include 4 substitutions in the replicase proteins and 9 in the structural proteins. Using reverse genetic techniques, these amino acid substitutions were introduced into a virulent infectious cDNA clone pEAVrVBS derived from the VB strain of EAV. Inoculation of horses with the recombinant viruses clearly demonstrated that changes in either the replicase ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection of equine arteritis virus by real-time TaqMan® reverse transcription-PCR assay. AU - Balasuriya, Udeni B R. AU - Leutenegger, Christian M.. AU - Topol, J. B.. AU - McCollum, William H.. AU - Timoney, Peter J.. AU - Maclachlan, Nigel J. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - A one-tube real-time TaqMan® reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed for the detection of equine arteritis virus (EAV). The test was validated using the seminal plasma and nasal secretions of infected horses that were proven to contain EAV by traditional virus isolation in rabbit kidney thirteen (RK-13) cells, as well as a variety of cell culture-propagated European and North American strains of EAV. The primers and a fluorogenic TaqMan® probe were designed to amplify and detect a highly conserved region of open reading frame 7 (ORF7) of EAV. The real-time TaqMan® PCR assay detected EAV RNA in all samples that were confirmed to contain infectious EAV by virus isolation. ...
Serological analysis of blood samples submitted to the Animal Health Trust showed that during 1995, 185 of 9203 unvacdnated horses (2.0 per cent) tested positive for antibodies to equine arteritis virus (EAV), and that during 1996,46 of 8851 unvaccinated horses (0.52 per cent) tested positive. During both years thoroughbreds were the predominant breed tested and only a small proportion of these (<0.3 per cent), consisting predominantly of imported mares, were seropositive. In contrast, among standardbred horses, from which samples were actively solicited in 1995,84 of 454 (18.5 per cent) were seropositive. Among standardbreds there was a difference in prevalence between types of horses, with 3.7 per cent of racing horses, 25 per cent of non-radng horses and 41 per cent of stallions testing seropositive. Investigations of seropositive stallions identified during 1994 and 1995 demonstrated that clinically inapparent equine viral arteritis (EvA) had occurred previously in the uKC Of 50 ...
Udeni Balasuriya, a professor at the University of Kentucky Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center, recently received $2.9 million to identify the genetic factors responsible for establishment of the equine arteritis virus (EAV) carrier state in stallions. The five-year grant was awarded by the U. S. Department of Agriculture-Agriculture and Food Research Initiative.. According to Nancy Cox, associate dean for research in UKs College of Agriculture and administrative leader for UKs Ag Equine Programs, Balasuriyas grant was ranked the highest in its category, unusual for a USDA grant program that normally targets food animals.. This is one of the largest grants awarded in the College of Agriculture in the last year, she said, and is a special kind that includes funds for getting results out to the public in the fastest, most efficient way.. Outbreaks of equine viral arteritis (EVA) result in significant economic losses to the equine industry due to high rates of foal loss in pregnant mares, ...
Previous studies in our laboratory have identified equine CXCL16 (EqCXCL16) to be a candidate molecule and possible cell entry receptor for equine arteritis virus (EAV). In horses, the CXCL16 gene is located on equine chromosome 11 (ECA11) and encodes a glycosylated, type I transmembrane protein with 247 amino acids. Stable transfection of HEK-293T cells with plasmid DNA carrying EqCXCL16 (HEK-EqCXCL16 cells) increased the proportion of the cell population permissive to EAV infection from | 3% to almost 100%. The increase in permissiveness was blocked either by transfection of HEK-EqCXCL16 cells with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) directed against EqCXCL16 or by pretreatment with guinea pig polyclonal antibody against EqCXCL16 protein (Gp anti-EqCXCL16 pAb). Furthermore, using a virus overlay protein-binding assay (VOPBA) in combination with far-Western blotting, gradient-purified EAV particles were shown to bind directly to the EqCXCL16 protein in vitro. The binding of biotinylated virulent EAV strain
cDNA copies of the M and N genes of equine arteritis virus (EAV) isolates were synthesized by reverse transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction amplification. The cDNA was subjected to a cycle sequencing strategy using Taq polymerase, and the nucleotide and derived amino acid sequences of 10 virus isolates were compared. The M and N genes of all isolates had the same initiation and termination sites as the prototype Bucyrus strain and the encoded proteins were conserved between viruses. Comparison of nucleotide sequence homologies and phylogenetic tree analysis implied the existence of three EAV variants originating from the U.S.A. (Bucyrus), Austria (Vienna) and Switzerland (Bibuna), and suggested that RNA recombination between EAV isolates may have occurred.
Moyo, N, Westcott, D, Simmonds, R and Steinbach, F (2012) Equine arteritis virus replication in monocytic cells suppresses differentiation and function of dendritic cells In: European Congress of Immunology, 2012-09-05 - 2012-09-08, Glasgow, SCOTLAND. Full text not available from this repository ...
Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is a positive stranded RNA virus that infects horses worldwide. Sporadic respiratory disease and sudden death in foals, abortion in mares, and mild or subclinical infections in adult horses have been described resulting from this infection. Adult stallions may become chronically infected; they can become a reservoir and spread the virus via their semen. VetPCR EAV Detection Kit is the direct detection of Equine arteritis virus on the basis of a genetic database, so it can diagnose very fast and accurately. It can amplify only specific gene using the PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) method, and take only 3 hours for detection. Therefore, it is a very fast, accurate, reliable technique.
Nawrocki, J F.; Pease, L R.; and Murphy, W H., Etiologic role of lactic dehydrogenase virus infection in an age-dependent neuroparalytic disease in c58 mice. (1980). Subject Strain Bibliography 1980. 1380 ...
Zitterkopf NL, McNeal DW, Eyster KM, Bradley DS, Cafruny WA. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus induces apoptosis in cultured macrophages and in spinal cords of C58 mice coincident with onset of murine amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ...
The replicase polyprotein 1ab is a multifunctional protein: it contains the activities necessary for the transcription of negative stranded RNA, leader RNA, subgenomic mRNAs and progeny virion RNA as well as proteinases responsible for the cleavage of the polyprotein into functional products.
The change of just four nucleotides in the CXCL16 gene is all that is necessary to determine whether or not stallions are likely to become long-term carriers of EAV. Sanjay Sarkar, Ernest Baily and Udeni Balasuriya of the University of Kentucky, Lexington, and colleagues report these findings Dec. 8, 2016 in PLOS Genetics.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world. The Merck Veterinary Manual was first published in 1955 as a service to the community. The legacy of this great resource continues as the Merck Veterinary Manual in the US and Canada and the MSD Manual outside of North America.. ...
Biological Sciences Shirley, Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is a disease of horses caused by an RNA virus of the genus Arterivirus. The virus which cau...
4IUM: Deubiquitinase function of arterivirus papain-like protease 2 suppresses the innate immune response in infected host cells.
Genetic Testing at Gluck offers several disease mutation tests including JEB, OLWS, Myotonia, Dwarfism in Miniature Horses, Dwarfism in Friesian, and Hydrocephaly in Friesian. In 2016, the laboratory started offering a test to determine CXCL16 Haplotype, a genetic basis for the likelihood of a stallion becoming a long term shedder/carrier of the Equine Arteritis Virus (EAV). More information is available on each of these tests by following the links to the left. ...
Structure of the equine arteritis virus nucleocapsid protein reveals a dimer-dimer arrangement. Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography. 63:581-586. 2007 ...
Other Professional Memberships Research Funding Selected Publications. Research Interests:. Structure-function studies on poxvirus membrane biogenesis and immune evasion. Poxviruses include some dangerous emerging or re-emerging pathogens as well as some promising vaccine vectors for infectious diseases and cancers. They are unique among viruses in that they encode a large number of proteins that are dedicated to evading host immune responses. These proteins include secreted inhibitors of cytokines as well as intracellular inhibitors of immune signaling or antiviral factors. Structure and function study on the cytokine inhibitors is one of the major aims in this lab. Enveloped viruses typically acquire their outer lipid bilayer by budding from cellular membranes, a process that is similar to the formation of cellular transport vesicles. Poxviruses, however, are unusual in that their primary envelope is not acquired by budding but through extending of open-ended crescent membranes. The origin and ...
Diagnosing horse ailments requires a vet. (Click here for a list of Florida veterinarians by county). Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is a disease of horses caused by an RNA virus of the genus Arterivirus. The virus which causes EVA was first isolated from horses in Ohio in 1953 but the disease has afflicted equine animals worldwide for centuries. It has been more common in some breeds of horses in the United States, but there is no breed immunity. There is no known human hazard.. Arteriviruses are small, enveloped, animal viruses with an icosahedral core containing a positive-sense RNA genome. The family includes Equine arteritis virus (EAV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus (LDV) of mice and simian haemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV).. ...
Summary Reasons for performing study:A serological study conducted in 1995 revealed that 7 stallions at the Lipizzaner Centre, Gauteng, South Africa, were seropositive for antibody to equine arteritis virus (EAV). A Lipizzaner stallion imported into South Africa from Yugoslavia in 1981 had previously (1988) been confirmed to be an EAV carrier. Despite being placed under life-long breeding quarantine, EAV had been transmitted between stallions at the Lipizzaner Centre. Objectives: To investigate the phylogenetic relationships between the strain of EAV shed in the semen of the original carrier stallion and strains recovered from the semen of 5 other stallions; and to investigate the means whereby lateral transmission of EAV occurred among 7 in-contact, nonbreeding stallions at the Centre. Methods: EAV was isolated from semen collected from the seropositive stallions using RK-13 cells. Viral RNA was reverse transcribed and amplified by polymerase chain reaction using ORF5-specific primers, ...
Equine arteritis virus (EAV) and Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are enveloped RNA viruses belonging to the family Arteriviridae. EAV infection leads to abortion and respiratory illness in horses. PRRSV causes persistent infections in pigs, which is one of the main reasons for the economic losses in the swine industry. The glycoprotein complex Gp2/3/4 and Gp5/M are essential for cell entry and budding, respectively. PRRSV and EAV Gp2/3/4 ectodomains were co-expressed to determine their complex formation in insect cells. The results revealed that PRRSV Gp2/3/4 proteins secreted into the cell culture supernatant as a disulphide linked complex. In contrast, Gp3 of EAV was expressed, but not associated with Gp2/4. The Gp2/3/4 proteins of both PRRSV and EAV are attached to the membrane through their C-terminal hydrophobic transmembrane region as they were secreted when it is removed. This result showed that all the proteins contain type I membrane topology except EAV Gp3 since
1MBM: Structure of Arterivirus nsp4: the smallest chymotrypsin-like proteinase with an alpha/beta C-terminal extension and alternate conformations of the oxyanion hole
Lu Zǂ, Zhang Jǂ, Huang C, Go YY, Faaberg KS, Rowland RR, Timoney PJ, and Balasuriya UBR. (2012). Chimeric viruses containing the N-terminal ectodomains of GP5 and M proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus do not change the cellular tropism of equine arteritis virus. Virology. 432 (1), 99-109 [ǂ The first two authors should be acknowledged as joint first authors ...
Lu Zǂ, Zhang Jǂ, Huang C, Go YY, Faaberg KS, Rowland RR, Timoney PJ, and Balasuriya UBR. (2012). Chimeric viruses containing the N-terminal ectodomains of GP5 and M proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus do not change the cellular tropism of equine arteritis virus. Virology. 432 (1), 99-109 [ǂ The first two authors should be acknowledged as joint first authors ...
This chapter focuses on the arterivirus proteins that are involved in genome replication and subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) synthesis. These proteins, which are collectively referred to as
Little Kurt looks like any other baby horse as he frolics playfully in his pen. But the 2-month-old, dun-colored colt is actually a clone.
Morgan, SB, Graham, SP, Salguero, J, Steinbach, F and Frossard, JP (2012) Increased pathology during infection with an atypical European porcine Arterivirus correlates with an enhanced adaptive immune response In: European Congress of Immunology, 2012-09-05 - 2012-09-08, Glasgow, SCOTLAND. Full text not available from this repository ...
There are four stages in the spontaneous generation of Bryopsis sub-protoplasts: aggregation of cell organelles, changes in protoplasmic masses to a spherical shape, primary envelope formation and secondary membrane development. Our data indicate that at least two types of molecules are involved in the aggregation of cell organelles, one acts at an optimum of pH 5-6 and the other on the surfaces of cell organelles acts at an optimum of pH 8-9. This result was surprising because it is contrary to previous results (Pak et al., 1991). Pak et al. suggested that the most effective material for agglutination of cell organelles might be contained in the vacuolar sap and, therefore, the sequential action of vacuolar sap (pH 5-6) and seawater would be very important for the aggregation of cell organelles. They also reported that prompt dilution of extruded algal cell contents with 20 volumes of seawater prevented aggregation. The discrepancy between our results and those of Pak et al. may be due to ...
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InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
A stallion handler must be able to focus the stallions mind on him, as well as the mare, and make him wait for instructions. This cannot be achieved through fear or abusiveness, but through training basic cues and maneuvers to the stallion before he
The clean, modern lines of a large stallion barn with an arched doorway provide a frame to this photograph of a green pasture with grazing horses. This wall mural is available in your choice of sizes, making it an ideal focal point for an office wall.
Classic N Credible is a fantastic horse. It would be a once in a lifetime opportunity to own such a great prospect for breeding and/or showing.
Email me at [email protected] I am a Registered Dietitian and nutritionist and hold two Masters degrees in nutrition education, public health nutrition and maternal and child health. See my interests and learn what you might because I live to do what interests me. I practice as a registered dietitian, create creative weight control kits,run weight control groups for adults and children, lead weight loss support groups and write. Besides that however, I have been happily married for 23 years and we have 5 children who keep us very busy. I try to watch my weight, walk daily and do yoga 30 min, 5 days a week ...
Viral respiratory infections are common in horses; the most notable are equine herpesvirus infection, equine influenza, and equine viral arteritis. The clinical manifestations are similar and include pyrexia, serous nasal discharge, submandibular lymphadenopathy, anorexia, and cough. In addition to respiratory disease, equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) can cause abortion and neurologic disease, and equine herpesvirus type 5 (EHV-5) is a newly recognized cause of multinodular pulmonary fibrosis. Equine viral arteritis produces respiratory disease, vasculitis, and abortion. Equine herpesvirus type 2 (EHV-2), equine rhinitis virus, and reovirus are ubiquitous viral respiratory pathogens, and infection results in minimal clinical disease. Adenovirus pneumonia is most often seen in association with severe combined immunodeficiency in Arabian foals. Hendra virus () is a zoonotic disease of horses identified in Australia; it is rapidly fatal in horses, and close contact is necessary for disease transmission.
Dynon K , V A , Ficorilli N , et al. Identification of equine herpesvirus 3 (equine coital exanthema virus), equine gammaherpesviruses 2 and 5, equine adenoviruses 1 and 2, equine arteritis virus and equine rhinitis A virus by polymerase chain reaction. Aust Vet J 2001;19:695-701 ...
2014: New Zealand celebrated freedom from equine viral arteritis (EVA). EVA is a serious cause of abortion in horses and has significant trade implications for the horse breeding industry. Eradication of EVA was made possible by more than 20 years of work at Wallaceville, testing breeding horses and preventing further spread of the disease. 2013: The MPI laboratory at Wallaceville carried out more than 30,000 tests on a wide range of samples from farm animals to companion animals and other species. Results were used in 286 exotic disease investigation cases, surveillance work, and certifying animals as disease-free for trade. 2013: an epidemic of anaemia in Northland cattle was identified at Wallaceville as being caused by Theileria orientalis Ikeda. This led to a major disease control programme involving MPI and the beef and dairy industries. Wallaceville scientists developed new, faster and more accurate tests for the new strain. This test has now been distributed to commercial veterinary ...
Before I begin, let me say that there are minor spoilers in this review. I dont believe that they will destroy anyones sense of anticipation and suspense when it comes to this book, but hey, better safe than sorry. You know what to do if you intend to read this book some time in the future.. So, Forever a Stallion. If you have been following the series, you will know that it is not about a family of porn stars, and doing things like seducing a Stallion and making love to a Stallion will not get anyone arrested. The Stallions are a bunch of super beautiful and amazingly rich people who also make love like an exploding volcano. So far, all four Stallions featured in their own books have been men, I guess because such awesomeness can only be carried in the Y chromosome.. However, we have Phaedra Parrish here who discovers that, through her mothers personal The Bridges of Madison County story, she is actually a Stallion. What, do you expect a Stallion man to fail to impregnate any woman that ...
About this Data. This app uses data from the U.S. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Fines are listed for the past three years if a home has made partial or full payment (fines under appeal are not included). Information on deficiencies come from a homes last three inspection cycles, or roughly three years in total. Special focus facilities, or homes flagged for having a history of serious quality issues, are marked with an sign. ...
2] Velthuis, A. J., Sjoerd H. E. Van Den Worm, Sims, A. C., Baric, R. S., Snijder, E. J., & Hemert, M. J. (2010). Zn2 Inhibits Coronavirus and Arterivirus RNA Polymerase Activity In Vitro and Zinc Ionophores Block the Replication of These Viruses in Cell Culture. PLoS Pathogens, 6(11). doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1001176 ...
Highly successful advanced dressage stallion at stud in the UK KWPN Registered AES Approved this long lined expressive homozygous black dressage Stallion due to his genetic make up will not produce chestnut foals
AQHA Quarter Horse Journal Stallion Ad This is a full size page ad approximately 8 x 10 . Please see picture for condition . Guaranteed Origin
AQHA Quarter Horse Journal Stallion Ad This is a full size page ad approximately 8 x 10 . Please see picture for condition . Guaranteed Origin
|P>Envision this: In his first season, the young stallion fulfills his purpose as a breeding animal. He matures from a rambunctious colt into a skillful stud. So how do you make this dream a reality? As the handler, you want the horse to behave
8 years old Appaloosa stallion. Elegant build, exquisite head, intelligent. Good athlete with lots of natural quickness and elasticity.
Nodaviridae is a family of non-enveloped isometric viruses with bipartite positive-sense RNA genomes. The Nodaviridae family consists of two genera: alpha- and beta-nodavirus. Alphanodaviruses usually infect insect cells. Some commercially available insect cell lines have been latently infected by Alphanodaviruses. A non-enveloped small virus of approximately 30 nm in diameter was discovered co-existing with a recombinant Helicoverpa armigera single nucleopolyhedrovirus (Hear NPV) in Hz-AM1 cells. Genome sequencing and phylogenetic assays indicate that this novel virus belongs to the genus of alphanodavirus in the family Nodaviridae and was designated HzNV. HzNV possesses a RNA genome that contains two segments. RNA1 is 3038 nt long and encodes a 110 kDa viral protein termed protein A. The 1404 nt long RNA2 encodes a 44 kDa protein, which exhibits a high homology with coat protein precursors of other alphanodaviruses. HzNV virions were located in the cytoplasm, in association with cytoplasmic membrane
Horse serum is manufactured from blood collected from select donor horse herds maintained within the United States. Sterility tests are performed on each lot of horse serum using current USP methods.  ATCC checks each lot for its ability to support the growth of cells.  Specific testing for contaminants are listed below in the Specification Certificate. Origin Horse serum is manufactured from blood collected from select donor horse herds maintained within the United States. Test* Specification Sterility Testing (Current USP) Bacteria and Fungi No growth Virus Testing (9 CFR 113.53) Fluorescent antibody Equine Herpesvirus Equine Viral Arteritis Bovine Diarrhea Virus Rabies Reovirus Cytopathogenic Agents (e.g. IBR) Hemadsorbing Agents (e.g., PI3) Equine Infectious Anemia (Coggins) Not detected             Mycoplasma Testing Large volume, direct culture                       Hoechst DNA stain      
The most important viral respiratory diseases affecting horses are equine herpesvirus, equine influenza, and equine viral arteritis. Equine rhinitis virus and equine adenovirus-1 infection can be a cause of equine respiratory disease too.. The ISU VDL offers PCR assays for detecting all of these respiratory viruses. EHV-1, EHV-4 and EAV are also the most common viral causative agents for equine abortion. Equine herpes myeloencephalopathy (EHM) outbreaks have increased in recent years. The EHV1 neuropathotyping PCR is able to differentiate DNApol (ORF30) D/N752 strains; the D752 strains are strongly associated with EHM occurrence. EHV-3 is the etiologic agent of the reproductive disease - equine coital exanthema.. The ISU VDL also offers virus isolation for the above listed equine viruses.. See a listing of fees and days tested here.. For more information or questions related to testing, please contact ...
EVA possesses a major threat to immunologically naïve mares and stallions. The virus is generally first introduced into a farm by a mare that has recently been bred or inseminated with infected semen, or by an asymptomatic animal that has acquired the infection via respiratory route in a show or sale. If these animals are housed together with pregnant mares that have no antibodies to EAV, pregnant mares may abort after clinical or asymptomatic infection. Abortion rates can be as high as 70% and an entire foal crop can be lost.. Infection of a breeding stallion can result in temporary subfertility for up to 8 weeks. After acute infection, stallion fertility recovers but the stallion can remain chronically infected. Duration of virus persistence varies from several months to years. During the carrier state, the stallion harbors the virus in the accessory sex glands and shed virus constantly in his semen. Venereal transmission rates can be as high as 100%. Although some carrier stallions can ...
Etoulon is a modern beautiful stallion, brilliance worldwide, eyecatching stallion, quality chilled semen available, talented for sport and breeding, huge charisma
Discover Stallions at Stud for sale right now, on the UKs #1 equestrian marketplace today - Browse Stallions at Stud, or place a FREE advert!
On April 28, fashion retailer DTLR celebrated the phases of fashion with its 4th annual fashion show, Genesis with Houstons own Megan Thee Stallion.
The Houchin Blood Bank held a drive on Saturday, Sept. 19 at the CSD Community Center in the Corral Room, hosted by your Stallion Springs Community
The Black StallionThe 1941 novel thundered onto the big screen in 1979, with San Antonios own Cass Ole as the title star of the film and its 1983 sequel, The Black Stallion Returns. ...
But, unlike other viral infections, the incidence of polio - the rarer severe form of the infection - increased in the 20th ... equine arterivirus was discovered.[62] In the 1950s, improvements in virus isolation and detection methods resulted in the ... Many bacteriologists soon discovered the cause of numerous infections. However, some infections remained, many of them ... Ivanovsky suggested the infection might be caused by a toxin produced by bacteria, but did not pursue the idea.[3] ...
The presence of IgM in the blood of the host is used to test for acute infection, whereas IgG indicates an infection sometime ... equine arterivirus and the cause of Bovine virus diarrhoea (a pestivirus) were discovered. In 1963, the hepatitis B virus was ... Vaccination is a cheap and effective way of preventing infections by viruses. Vaccines were used to prevent viral infections ... Smallpox infections have been eradicated.[196] Vaccines are available to prevent over thirteen viral infections of humans,[197] ...
Infection prevention and control during health care for probable or confirmed cases of novel coronavirus (nCoV) infection (PDF) ... Arterivirus(英语:Arterivirus). *冠状病毒科 Coronaviridae. *Roniviridae(英语:Roniviridae) ... WHO: Novel coronavirus infection. 2013-02-11 [2013-02-13].. *^ James Gallagher. Coronavirus: Signs the new Sars-like virus can ... Camel infection 'led to Mers death'. BBC News. 2014-06-05 [2014-06-05].. ...
Increased pathology during infection with an atypical European porcine Arterivirus correlates with an enhanced adaptive immune ... Increased pathology during infection with an atypical European porcine Arterivirus correlates with an enhanced adaptive immune ...
... indicating a requirement for CD163 in productive infection. Interestingly, the preliminary experiments revealed that the ... Porcine arterivirus infection of alveolar macrophages is mediated by sialic acid on the virus.. *Peter Delputte, Hans Nauwynck ... Cellular cholesterol is required for porcine nidovirus infection. *Ji Hyun Jeon, Changhee Lee ... Developing a Triple Transgenic Cell Line for High-Efficiency Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infection. * ...
Porcine arterivirus infection of alveolar macrophages is mediated by sialic acid on the virus. J Virol78:8094-8101. doi:10.1128 ... For HP-PRRSV infection, precultured cells were inoculated with HP-PRRSV at the multiplicities of infection (MOI) indicated in ... did not restore β2M to mock-infection levels. We further showed that HP-PRRSV infection inhibited transcription of the B2M gene ... HP-PRRSV infection reduced the cellular levels of β2M and SLA-I HC proteins at 24 h with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (Fig. 2D), ...
Viral RNA load and histological changes in tissues following experimental infection with an arterivirus of possums (wobbly ...
IFN-alpha treatment enhances porcine Arterivirus infection of monocytes via upregulation of the porcine Arterivirus receptor ... Cytokine responses in gnotobiotic pigs after infection with virulent or attenuated human rotavirus. Authors: Azevedo MS, Yuan L ... Protective Role of Passively Transferred Maternal Cytokines against Bordetella pertussis Infection in Newborn Piglets Authors: ... Differential Effects of Escherichia coli Nissle and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strain GG on Human Rotavirus Binding, Infection, ...
Toll-like receptor 3 activation decreases porcine arterivirus infection  Sang, Yongming; Ross, Christopher R.; Rowland, ... The arteriviral infection caused by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a devastating ... ... Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an RNA virus that initiates infection in pulmonary alveolar ... Antimicrobial host defense peptides in an arteriviral infection: differential peptide expression and virus inactivation  ...
Fetal infection was associated with an increase in viral load coupled with a reduction in T cell signaling in the endometrium ... Little is known about immune responses to infection at the maternal-fetal interface and in the fetus itself, or the molecular ... This study identified major differences in the response to PRRSV infection in the uterine endometrium and fetus at the gene ... The immune response to infection in endometrium was mainly adaptive in nature, with the most upregulated genes functioning in ...
2004 Porcine arterivirus infection of alveolar macrophages is mediated by sialic acid on the virus. J Virol 78 8094 8101 ... 2007 Porcine arterivirus attachment to the macrophage-specific receptor sialoadhesin is dependent on the sialic acid-binding ... 2D). We found that PRRSV infection of alveolar macrophages could be partially blocked by pre-incubating the virus with pSn4D-Fc ... D) Evaluation of PRRSV-binding activity via infection-inhibition experiments. A 3-fold dilution series of pSn-Fc protein was ...
... spanning nsp2 and nsp3 results in membrane alterations and DMV formation similar to those observed during arterivirus infection ... 4. either prior to, during, or after infection with HCoV-229E. As shown in Figure 1D, K22 treatment prior to infection resulted ... The compound was incubated with cells for 2 h at 37uC either prior to, during or after a 2 h period of infection of cells with ... After 18 h of infection at 37uC, the culture medium was removed, the cells rinsed twice with Eagles medium, and a fresh ...
... α treatment enhances porcine arterivirus infection of monocytes via upregulation of the porcine arterivirus receptor ... C. Shi, Y. Liu, Y. Ding, Y. Zhang, and J. Zhang, "PRRSV receptors and their roles in virus infection," Archives of Microbiology ... The cytoplasmic tail is conserved among species but is not required for PRRSV infection [43]. In our study, the full-length of ... PRRSV has a restricted cell tropism for infection. In vivo, it replicates preferentially in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs ...
a member of the family Arteriviridae, genus Arterivirus, causes this acute, severe infection of the upper respiratory tract of ... Droplet infection is highly effective and the disease has the capacity to reach epidemic proportions quickly and disrupt racing ... The zoonotic infection originates from fruit-eating macrobats (Pteropus spp.) present in Eastern Australia. See equine ... a very common infection of horses, often asymptomatic but also associated with a variety of signs including pharyngitis, ...
Regulatory T Cells in Arterivirus and Coronavirus Infections: Do They Protect Against Disease or Enhance it?  Cecere, Thomas E ...
To elucidate both cellular and innate cytokine responses at very early stages of PRRSV infection, seven weeks old pigs ... At day 2 post-infection, approximately 50% of viremic pigs had greater than 50% reduction in NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and ... PRRSV-induced immunological changes observed simultaneously at both cellular and cytokine levels early post-infection appear to ... IFN-alpha treatment enhances porcine Arterivirus infection of monocytes via upregulation of the porcine Arterivirus receptor ...
Animal arterivirus infections. Archambault, D., Balasuriya, U. B. R., Rowland, R. R. R., Yang, H. & Yoo, D., 2014, In : BioMed ...
Cellular origin and ultrastructure of membranes induced during poliovirus infection ... and ER for equine arterivirus (42), brome mosaic virus (48), and tobacco mosaic virus (39). Previou... ... During viral infections, the host secretory pathway is crucial for both innate and acquired immune responses. For example, the ... During viral infections, the host secretory pathway is crucial for both innate and acquired immune responses. For example, the ...
In this article, we show that infection with lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus, a benign mouse arterivirus, exacerbates the ... Infection was done 1 d before mAb treatment, and platelets were counted 4 d after mAb treatment. (B) Effect of LDV infection on ... 0.0104 with and without infection, respectively) or L1C43 (p , 0.0002 both with and without infection) when compared with ... 1A). Similarly, infection with LDV alone led to a platelet count decline on day 4 as reported previously (29) (p , 0.0286). ...
Arterivirus molecular biology and pathogenesis. J. Gen. Virol. 94, 2141-2163 (2013).. ... A macaque monkey (Macaca spp.) model of HPgV infection has long been sought, in part because the infection of macaques with ... We detail the highly variable acute phase of SPgV infection, showing that the viral load trajectory early in infection is ... Several epidemiological studies suggest that HPgV co-infection may be beneficial in the context of other viral infections that ...
... as in treatment of a viral infection. The antisense antiviral compounds are substantially uncharged oligomers having a ... The family includes the genera Alphavirus, Rubivirus (rubella), Pestivirus (mucosal disease), Arterivirus (equine arteritis) ... Infection appears to be much like hepatitis A viral infection. The disease is an acute viral hepatitis which is apparent about ... There are no specific treatment regimes for many viral infections. The infection may be serotype specific and natural immunity ...
... and arterivirus infections. Lectures were given on the molecular biology, pathogenesis, immune responses, and development of ... Pathology of MHV-A59 Infection in ß2 Microglobulin Negative Mice Ehud Lavi, Qian Wang, James Gombold, Robyn Sutherland, Yvonne ... Demyelination Induced by Murine Coronavirus JHM Infection of Congenitally Immunodeficient Mice J. J. Houtman, H. C. Hinze, J. O ... Transcription and Translation of Proinflammatory Cytokines Following JHMV Infection Stephen A. Stohlman, Qin Yao, Cornelia C. ...
Animals , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Equartevirus/immunology , Arterivirus Infections/virology , Horse Diseases/virology , ... Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is a contagious viral disease that frequently causes mild or subclinical infections in adult ...
Arterivirus Infections/blood. *Arterivirus Infections/immunology*. *Cell Line. *DNA Primers. *Dogs. *Equartevirus/genetics* ... indicate that the GP3 protein is an extensively glycosylated membrane protein that is immunogenic during some EAV infections. ...
Arterivirus Infections/epidemiology. *Arterivirus Infections/veterinary*. *Arterivirus Infections/virology. *Base Sequence. * ... Emergence of novel equine arteritis virus (EAV) variants during persistent infection in the stallion: origin of the 2007 French ...
PRRSV infection induces miR-24-3p expression.To determine whether PRRSV infection affects the expression level of miR-24-3p, ... Arterivirus molecular biology and pathogenesis. J Gen Virol 94:2141-2163. doi:10.1099/vir.0.056341-0. ... Department of Infection Biology, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom ... PRRSV infection induces miR-24-3p expression. MARC-145 cells were infected with PRRSV strain SD16 (MOI of 1.0), and then miR-24 ...
It is the prototype virus of the family Arteriviridae (genus Arterivirus, order Nidovirales) [4, 5]. EAV infection of horses ... This will be helpful in distinguishing the distinct regional EAV infection. This finding indicates that the N epitope of EAV ... Our result will provide important information for developing serological diagnosis of EAV infection and understanding the ... The mAb and identified epitope may be useful diagnostic tools for EAV infection. ...
We used next-generation sequencing to identify a novel arterivirus with a genome coding sequence of only 43% similarity to ... However, arteriviruses are known to cause persistent/asymptomatic infections (e.g., equine arteritis virus, simian hemorrhagic ... Vanmechelen B, Vergote V, Laenen L, Koundouno FR, Bore JA, Wada J, et al. Expanding the arterivirus host spectrum: Oliviers ... Arterivirus molecular biology and pathogenesis. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:2141-63. DOIPubMed ...
Arterivirus Infections. Tumor Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Horse Diseases. Intraepithelial Neoplasia. Swine Diseases. ... Papillomavirus Infections. Malignant Neoplasms. Carcinoma. Viremia. Uterine Cervical Neoplasm. Neoplasms. Malignant Tumor Of ...
Animals, Arterivirus, Arterivirus Infections, Blotting, Western, Cercopithecus aethiops, Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay, ... Zn(2+) inhibits coronavirus and arterivirus RNA polymerase activity in vitro and zinc ionophores block the replication of these ... Zn(2+) inhibits coronavirus and arterivirus RNA polymerase activity in vitro and zinc ionophores block the replication of these ...
This chapter focuses on the arterivirus proteins that are involved in genome replication and subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) synthesis. ... Shown is immunofluorescence staining of EAV-infected BHK-21 cells, 8 h after infection. Nuclei were stained with Hoechst 33528 ... Comparison of arterivirus replicase gene features. Citation: van Hemert M, Snijder E. 2008. The Arterivirus Replicase, p 83-101 ... Molenkamp, R.,, H. van Tol,, B. C. Rozier,, Y. van der Meer,, W. J. Spaan, and, E. J. Snijder. 2000. The arterivirus replicase ...
Blocking of DNA gyrase leads to bacteria death and prevents worsening of infection. ... Porcine arterivirus infection of alveolar macrophages is mediated by sialic acid on the virus. ... HIV infection appears to increase the risk of TB following recent re-infection in patients with latent M. ... including three with acute infection and 13 with recent infection (identified using a multi-assay algorithm), and for 21 men ...
  • Emergence of novel equine arteritis virus (EAV) variants during persistent infection in the stallion: origin of the 2007 French EAV outbreak was li. (nih.gov)
  • Emergence of novel equine arteritis virus (EAV) variants during persistent infection in the stallion: origin of the 2007 French EAV outbreak was linked to an EAV strain present in the semen of a persistently infected carrier stallion. (nih.gov)
  • Equine Viral Arteritis is caused by an RNA-containing Arterivirus known as equine viral arteritis virus (EAV) . (critterology.com)
  • Kiley MP and Lloyd G (1998) In Virology, vol. 1 of Topley & Wilson's Microbiology and Microbial Infections, Ninth edition, edited by BWJ Mahy and L Collier. (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • prion diseases, pestivirus, arterivirus, etc). (2) The Foundations of Virology link leads to the main (combined) PowerPoint slide set, Foundations of Virology, and to the same set broken into six smaller files. (xaviermontes.com)
  • Interestingly, both IgM-mediated anemias ( 1 ) and thrombocytopenias ( 6 , 7 ) have been reported in patients after viral infections. (jimmunol.org)
  • Research Interests: Our research project is focused on the host immune response to viral infections. (unl.edu)
  • Hence, T CD8+ play an essential role in the clearance of many primary viral infections. (prolekare.cz)
  • The main reason for this ongoing discussion is a dearth of direct data supporting DP or CP as the main mechanism of T CD8+ priming in viral infections [15] . (prolekare.cz)
  • This novel class of proteins is termed viral RNA entry proteins and a novel class of compounds named anti-RNA Entry Proteins can be used to block the entry of viral RNA, thereby preventing viral infections. (patents.com)
  • Although Louis Pasteur and Edward Jenner developed the first vaccines to protect against viral infections, they did not know that viruses existed. (be-goody.com)
  • Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is a contagious viral disease that frequently causes mild or subclinical infections in adult horses. (bvsalud.org)
  • Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA) is caused by arterivirus. (usda.gov)
  • Our results support the hypothesis of an immune-mediated pathogenesis in hantavirus infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The 6th overseas Symposium used to be held in Quebec urban from August 27 to September I, 1994, and supplied extra realizing of the molecular biology, immunology, and pathogenesis of corona-, toro-, and arterivirus infections. (kilicbalkon.com)
  • stories at the pathogenesis of coronavirus infections were centred frequently on murine coronavirus, and mouse hepatitis virus. (kilicbalkon.com)
  • Small is well known about web host susceptibility to and the pathogenesis of virulent an infection initiated through the gastrointestinal system. (buyresearchchemicalss.net)
  • II: Pathogenesis and Control (S.J. We experience countless infections throughout their lives, with particularly high frequency in early childhood. (be-goody.com)
  • Zn(2+) inhibits coronavirus and arterivirus RNA polymerase activity in vitro and zinc ionophores block the replication of these viruses in cell culture. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This chapter focuses on the arterivirus proteins that are involved in genome replication and subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) synthesis. (asmscience.org)
  • The chapter also talks about the properties of replicase subunits, and the arterivirus replication/transcription complex. (asmscience.org)
  • Accumulating data show that miRNAs are involved in the process of coronavirus infection such as replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). (ijbs.com)
  • In the present study, the localization and kinetics of virus replication were investigated in various tissues after experimental intravenous infection of pigs. (jove.com)
  • 13V117 infection resulted in the lowest virus replication in lymphoid tissues. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Up-regulation of Mcl-1 and Bak by coronavirus infection of human, avian and animal cells modulates apoptosis and viral replication. (bio-protocol.org)
  • ZAP may regulate DNA and RNA virus replication that ZAP inhibits Retroviral RNA production and HIV-1(Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus Type 1) infection by promoting the degradation of specific viral mRNAs. (edelweisspublications.com)
  • Because of its critical role in initiating an immune response to virus infection, the SLA-I antigen presentation pathway is targeted by viruses at all essential stages. (asm.org)
  • The invention provides antisense antiviral compounds and methods of their use in inhibition of growth of viruses of the picornavirus, calicivirus, togavirus and flavivirus families, as in treatment of a viral infection. (google.com)
  • Both viruses compromise host defenses, resulting in increased susceptibility to infections by primary and secondary pathogens that can affect growth performance as well as increased morbidity and mortality. (osti.gov)
  • These viruses produce only subclinical infections when inoculated into gnotobiotic or conventional pigs and replicate exclusively in the upper respiratory tract21 , 25. (kilicbalkon.com)
  • According to Harrison's principles of internal medicine, "Infection of tissue culture cells by viruses such as Semliki Forest virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and certain strains of influenza virus can be prevented by chloroquine, an agent that blocks the function of lysosomes. (medicowesome.com)
  • Viruses that require acid pH to fuse with cell membranes can no longer do so in the presence of chloroquine, and the cells are protected from infection. (medicowesome.com)
  • Other diseases are caused by viruses that ectodomain heterodimer seems critical for the infection of seem to have adapted to new hosts after accidental macrophages, the primary host cell of all arteriviruses, per- transspecies transmission. (cdc.gov)
  • SIV is a highly contagious viral infection in pigs caused by a variety of closely related influenza A viruses. (thermofisher.com)
  • Furthermore, the enormous variety of positive-stranded RNA viruses found in animals, and their evolutionary potential, continues to pose a threat of novel (zoonotic) infections emerging in human populations as illustrated by the emergence of the SARS coronavirus. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • The acquired immune response plays a major role in the re-infection with viruses. (cohohealth.com)
  • Importantly, K22 inhibitsa broad range of coronaviruses, including Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus(MERS CoV), and efficient inhibition wasachieved in primary human epithelia cultures representing the entry port of human coronavirus infection. (slideshare.net)
  • Falsey AR, Walsh EE, Hayden FG (2002) Rhinovirus and coronavirus infection-associated hospitalizations among older adults. (springer.com)
  • This effect of the infection is mediated by an increased phagocytosis activity of macrophages ( 18 , 19 ), resulting from IFN-γ secretion by NK cells ( 21 - 23 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The ability of Siglec-7 to bind gp120 Env in a sialic acid-dependent manner facilitates the infection of both T cells and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The present study demonstrates that, following its binding with HIV-1 Env gp120, Siglec-7 contributes to viral entry and infection of both CD4 pos T cells and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Two important chemokines are interleukin 8 (IL8 or CXCL8), a potent recruiter of neutrophils to sites of infection, and chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), which induces the migration of monocytes from blood to become tissue macrophages [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Following infection by the respiratory route the virus replicates in pulmonary macrophages and then in bronchial lymph nodes. (ivis.org)
  • The virus productively infects macrophages and causes a life-long infection with permanent viremia but no disease. (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • The virus causes fatal illness in horses and humans following 'natural' infection, and of guinea pigs and cats following experimental inoculation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • At day 2 post-infection, approximately 50% of viremic pigs had greater than 50% reduction in NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and nearly a 1-fold increase in IFN-α production was detected in blood of a few pigs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • At 70 days post-infection (dpi), 20 representative pigs were selected as having the best or worst clinical outcome based on average daily gain (ADG) and the presence of clinical disease. (osti.gov)
  • From 8 to 15 days post-infection (dpi), monocytes increased both in BALF and blood from Lena-infected pigs. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Pubmed ID: 26911997 Pigs are considered to be the main amplifying host for Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and their infection can correlate with human cases of disease. (jove.com)
  • Pigs in close proximity with possible contact and infection risk were also slaughtered. (up.ac.za)
  • The probable source of infection is suspected to be uncooked swill originating from the Cape Town Harbour or the Cape Town International Airport, which was fed to pigs. (up.ac.za)
  • However, field observation suggests that most infected pigs eventually become immune, then cease to shed virus by 60 days post-infection. (iastate.edu)
  • We used next-generation sequencing to identify a novel arterivirus with a genome coding sequence of only 43% similarity to existing GenBank arterivirus sequences. (cdc.gov)
  • The arterivirus genome is composed of a single, 12-16 kb, polyadenylated, RNA strand that contains 2 major genomic regions. (cdc.gov)
  • We describe the disease history, histopathology, and the near complete genome sequence of a novel arterivirus, hedgehog arterivirus 1 (HhAV-1). (cdc.gov)
  • These proteins, which are collectively referred to as "replicase/transcriptase" or-for simplicity-just "replicase," are encoded by open reading frames 1a and 1b (ORF1a and ORF1b) of the arterivirus genome. (asmscience.org)
  • The arterivirus replicase gene covers approximately 75% of the genome. (asmscience.org)
  • During infection, predominant variants would be those variants that possess changes in their genome which represent an advantage compared to the parental strain, such as the ability to escape from the immune response. (hipra.com)
  • Our results show that Siglec-7 binds HIV-1 and contributes to enhance the susceptibility to infection of CD4 pos T cells and MDMs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Indeed, our results demonstrate that the treatment with soluble Siglec-7-Fc fusion protein increases the susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in Siglec-7 neg /CD4 pos T cells, while blockade of Siglec-7 with a specific Ab reduces the degree of infection in Siglec-7 pos MDMs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Characterization of cellular furin content as a potential factor determining the susceptibility of cultured human and animal cells to coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus infection. (bio-protocol.org)
  • PRRS is caused by an arterivirus. (pigprogress.net)
  • Clinical signs of PRRS are most severe when infection enters a non-immune conventional health herd, but may cause no obvious disease. (pigprogress.net)
  • Respiratory disease which is difficult to control and a consequent increase in medication and mortality in weaners or growers may also be associated with PRRS infection. (pigprogress.net)
  • As the severity of PRRS virus infection vary widely, from the lack of clinical signs to devastating outbreaks, a PRRS diagnosis based solely on a clinical suspicion can be extremely complicated or lead us to error. (prrscontrol.com)
  • When herd production record data is analysed, some changes in specific reproductive parameters may suggest reproductive failure due to PRRS virus infection. (prrscontrol.com)
  • It is important to keep in mind that the presence of concurrent infections in the respiratory form of PRRS is very common. (prrscontrol.com)
  • The clinical history can be useful to predict or anticipate the consequences of PRRS virus infection on a given farm. (prrscontrol.com)
  • If there is an introduction of a new strain in a PRRS virus-positive farm, the final outcome of the infection will be unpredictable, but usually a less severe outbreak would be expected. (prrscontrol.com)
  • PRRS is a highly contagious disease caused by a virus belonging to the Arterivirus family. (thermofisher.com)
  • The immune response to infection in endometrium was mainly adaptive in nature, with the most upregulated genes functioning in either humoral or cell-mediated immunity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast, the expression profile of infected fetal thymus revealed a predominantly innate immune response to infection, featuring the upregulation of genes regulated by type I interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • During TGEV infection, protein 7 attenuates host antiviral response by interacting with protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit (PP1c), a key regulator of host antiviral defense [ 13 ], and reduces apoptosis, immune response, interferon response, and inflammation [ 14 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • It is convenient, although clearly arbitrary, to consider the immune response to nidovirus infections in three categories: the innate response, the humoral response, and the cell-mediated response. (asmscience.org)
  • Comparative sequence analysis of the various prototypic arterivirus genomes, and comparison with more distantly related nidoviruses, led to the identification of a number of conserved domains within the replicase. (asmscience.org)
  • Little is known about immune responses to infection at the maternal-fetal interface and in the fetus itself, or the molecular events behind virus transmission and disease progression in the fetus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Regulatory T Cells in Arterivirus and Coronavirus Infections: Do They Protect Against Disease or Enhance it? (vt.edu)
  • High serum CRP and low serum TGF-β in the early phase of hantavirus infection is associated with a severe course of disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human infections may go unnoticed or may cause various signs and symptoms depending on the patient's immune status and general health status (i.e., immunocompetent state, eye disease, congenital toxoplasmosis) [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Reactivation of disease and infection to the central nervous system (CNS) occurs in immunosuppressed patients resulting in severe encephalitis [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The toxoplasmic chorioretinitis in humans can be congenitally or postnatally acquired as a result of an acute infection or reactivation of the disease [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Large serosurveys in Midwestern US states indicated that there may be 1000 infections per reported case, so very few result in overt disease. (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • Comparison of Asian porcine high fever disease isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus to United States isolates for their ability to cause disease and secondary bacterial infection in swine. (usda.gov)
  • A 2005 study found that a mere 11.7% of breeding operations are vaccinating for this highly contagious , reportable, viral disease that causes sporadic outbreaks of respiratory infection and abortion in horses. (critterology.com)
  • Infected horses may never show any physically apparent clinical signs of disease, a situation termed subclinical infection . (critterology.com)
  • The incubation period is 2 to 13 days following infection with the average being 7 days before the onset of clinical signs of disease. (critterology.com)
  • Colostrum from immune mares may attenuate (lessen the disease) or prevent infection in foals not exposed to the virus in utero (during pregnancy). (critterology.com)
  • This phenomenon has important implications for disease diagnosis and prevention and is one of the major causes of the partial or complete lack of protection against re-infections. (hipra.com)
  • 13V091 infection resulted in the highest respiratory disease scores and longest period of fever. (beds.ac.uk)
  • First, nidovirus infections are often associated with severe disease. (asmscience.org)
  • We review evidence from early observational studies and the existing literature on both outcomes and mechanisms of disease, to inform a phased approach to support the patient at risk for infection, with infection, with escalating inflammation during infection, and at risk of negative sequelae as they move into recovery. (athmjournal.com)
  • In some cases, infection is manifested as an epidemic of respiratory disease or reproductive failure but in other outbreaks, infection may spread slowly. (iastate.edu)
  • The 14-3-3 proteins play a role in virus infection and are considered to be potential biomarkers for HIV-related neurodegeneration [ 19 , 20 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Differences in the viral nucleic acid sequence affect diagnosis by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), and the viral proteins are sufficiently different so that monoclonal antibody to one strain cannot always be used to diagnose infections with the other. (pigprogress.net)
  • Zinc status play an important role in antiviral immunity, mainly during the early stage of the infection that the most effective antiviral antibodies are neutralizing antibodies which bind to the viral envelope or capsid proteins and regulate the virus entering into host cell [3]. (edelweisspublications.com)
  • Furthermore, the AC-ELISA assay could be successfully used in quantification of viral content in an in vitro infection assay, such as a one-step growth curve of EAV, as well as in a transfection assay, such as virus rescue from an infectious cDNA clone of EAV. (springer.com)
  • Consequently, there is substantial interest in characterizing the host response to infection at the transcriptomic and genomic level, to help design a new generation of more immunogenic vaccines, and to identify potential natural resistance mechanisms in swine populations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Swine plays an important role in the transmission of infection to humans [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Song X, Zhao X, Huang Y, Xiang H, Zhang W, Tong D. Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus (TGEV) Infection Alters the Expression of Cellular MicroRNA Species That Affect Transcription of TGEV Gene 7. (ijbs.com)
  • In conclusion, differentially expressed miR-4331 that is caused by TGEV infection can suppress transcription of TGEV gene 7 via targeting cellular CDCA7. (ijbs.com)
  • For example, previous work by us and others has shown that (M)SIINFEKL expressed as a mini-gene during VACV infection is not a substrate for CP [16] , [17] and further earlier work by Restifo et al. (prolekare.cz)
  • Firth AE, Zevenhoven-Dobbe JC, Wills NM, Go YY, Balasuriya UB, Atkins JF, Snijder EJ, Posthuma CC (2011) Discovery of a small arterivirus gene that overlaps the GP5 coding sequence and is important for virus production. (springer.com)
  • In this organ, even 11 days post infection, the latest time point of the experiment, no apparent decrease in viral RNA loads and live virus was found despite the presence of a neutralizing antibody response. (jove.com)
  • TGEV infection has emerged as a major cause of severe gastroenteritis and leads to alterations of many cellular processes. (ijbs.com)
  • 2004. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection inhibition using spike protein heptad repeat-derived peptides. (asmscience.org)
  • Zinc deficiency accounts currently for approximately 16% of lower respiratory tract infections, 18% of malaria and 10% of diarrheal diseases, while severe zinc deficiency is rare, mild to moderate deficiency is more common worldwide [4]. (edelweisspublications.com)
  • Underlying this phased approach is recognition of emerging evidence for two different components of pathophysiology, early infection and late stage severe complications. (athmjournal.com)
  • We expect this mode of action to serve as a paradigm for the development of potent antiviral drugs to combat many animal and human virus infections. (slideshare.net)
  • Primarily, we use mouse models of influenza infection to understand how CD4 T cells are activated during infection and the mechanisms employed by these cells to help clear infectious virus. (unl.edu)
  • There is a viremia with infection of endothelial cells leading to a general necrotic arteritis. (ivis.org)
  • Mares infected by a venereal route may, in turn, develop a viremia (the presence of virus in the blood) resulting in a respiratory infection that is capable of transmitting virus to other susceptible horses through respiratory secretions. (critterology.com)
  • Upon initial virus infection, viremia lasts for a few weeks, after which it resolves. (asm.org)
  • Abortion due to EVA infection occurs late in the acute phase or early in the recovery phase of the infection, not months after the virus exposure has taken place. (expertsmind.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of TGF-β expression in acute hantavirus infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We retrospectively studied 77 patients hospitalised with acute Puumala infection during a hantavirus epidemic in Germany in 2012. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For example, SARS-CoV infection up-regulates miR-17*, -574-5p, and -214, and down-regulates miR-98 and miR-223. (ijbs.com)
  • Complex ZBD regulates replicative arterivirus helicase and controls mRNA decay helicase. (edelweisspublications.com)
  • In one fatal human case the clinical syndrome resembled in general that observed in horses while in a second case death occurred after a prolonged clinical course including signs of central nervous system dysfunction one year after infection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • EAV infection of horses has been reported in many countries including New Zealand, Australia, and South Africa [6-10]. (ukessays.com)
  • It is transmitted by direct contact between horses by droplet infection. (expertsmind.com)
  • Infected saliva and nasal discharge contaminates drinking water, mangers and straw, which are the sources of infection to other healthy horses. (expertsmind.com)
  • These same horses may then spread the infection to other susceptible individuals. (critterology.com)
  • Although no clinical signs were listed on the submission form, the submitting veterinarian mentioned clinical signs were consistent with Streptococcus infection. (tamu.edu)
  • Also, it can be essential to interpret the clinical signs and the changes in the production record observed during an infection. (prrscontrol.com)
  • Increasing evidence indicates that viral infection results in the changes of cellular miRNAs species. (ijbs.com)
  • Interference with macrophage function leaves the host's immune system less able to fend off secondary bacterial infections. (critterology.com)
  • Moreover, mice intradermally immunized with the live vaccine stress of showed small survival benefit over naive mice after oral problem with type A is an efficient oral pathogen that may trigger fatal systemic Actinomycin D tyrosianse inhibitor an infection and may pose a open public health concern, especially to immunocompromised people, if ingested in contaminated food and water. (buyresearchchemicalss.net)
  • Experimentally, oral administration of 1010 CFU of virulent type A an infection has been produced from research of mice contaminated with either the attenuated live vaccine stress (LVS) or virulent strains of by the intradermal (i.d.) or respiratory route (9, 12, 14, 26, 33, 38). (buyresearchchemicalss.net)
  • Upregulation of CHOP/GADD153 during coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus infection modulates apoptosis by restricting activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway. (bio-protocol.org)
  • A combination of ELISA tests (for antibodies detection) and real-time PCR tests (for pathogen detection), when used at the right time in the disease's progression, can give veterinarians and farmers a more complete picture of the infection. (thermofisher.com)
  • 11. The method of claim 1 wherein the agent is co-administered with at least one additional therapy used to treat a bacterial infection. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 12. A method of treating a bacterial infection in a subject in need thereof, the method comprising administering an agent that increases the activity of RNase-L, wherein said agent is a nucleic acid comprising cathepsinE mRNA or a 2',5'-linked oligoadenylate (2-5A) mRNA. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Clearly, there is a need for a more rational approach to the control of many nidovirus infections, and research in the area of nidovirus antivirals and vaccines is a current focus for many laboratories. (asmscience.org)
  • Our result will provide important information for developing serological diagnosis of EAV infection and understanding the antigenic structure of EAV N protein and vaccine design. (ukessays.com)