Arterivirus: A genus of the family ARTERIVIRIDAE, in the order NIDOVIRALES. The type species is ARTERITIS VIRUS, EQUINE.Arteritis Virus, Equine: The type species of the genus ARTERIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of an important equine respiratory disease causing abortion, pneumonia, or other infections.Arterivirus Infections: Infections caused by viruses of the genus ARTERIVIRUS.Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus: A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.Nidovirales: An order comprising three families of eukaryotic viruses possessing linear, nonsegmented, positive sense RNA genomes. The families are CORONAVIRIDAE; ARTERIVIRIDAE; and RONIVIRIDAE.Arteriviridae: A family of viruses, of the order NIDOVIRALES, containing spherical virions. In contrast to CORONAVIRIDAE, no protruding spikes are obvious on the surface.Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus: A species ARTERIVIRUS, occurring in a number of transplantable mouse tumors. Infected mice have permanently elevated serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase.Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by outbreaks of late term abortions, high numbers of stillbirths and mummified or weak newborn piglets, and respiratory disease in young unweaned and weaned pigs. It is caused by PORCINE RESPIRATORY AND REPRODUCTIVE SYNDROME VIRUS. (Radostits et al., Veterinary Medicine, 8th ed, p1048)RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Nucleic Acids: High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Illusions: The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Wounds, Gunshot: Disruption of structural continuity of the body as a result of the discharge of firearms.Consumer Health Information: Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.Social Media: Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Indigo Carmine: Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.BooksClassification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.Red Cross: International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.Vanilla: A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that is the source of the familiar flavoring used in foods and medicines (FLAVORING AGENTS).Paeonia: A plant genus of the family Paeoniaceae, order Dilleniales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. These perennial herbs are up to 2 m (6') tall. Leaves are alternate and are divided into three lobes, each lobe being further divided into three smaller lobes. The large flowers are symmetrical, bisexual, have 5 sepals, 5 petals (sometimes 10), and many stamens.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Luciferases, Renilla: Luciferases from RENILLA that oxidizes certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to cause emission of PHOTONS.Renilla: A genus of bioluminescent marine invertebrates in the family Renillidae, order Pennatulacea, class ANTHOZOA. It contains Renilla LUCIFERASE which oxidizes coelenterazine resulting in LUMINESCENCE.Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: A viral disorder characterized by high FEVER, dry COUGH, shortness of breath (DYSPNEA) or breathing difficulties, and atypical PNEUMONIA. A virus in the genus CORONAVIRUS is the suspected agent.Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo: A species of NAIROVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. It is primarily transmitted by ticks and causes a severe, often fatal disease in humans.Polyproteins: Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.Hemorrhagic Fevers, Viral: A group of viral diseases of diverse etiology but having many similar clinical characteristics; increased capillary permeability, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia are common to all. Hemorrhagic fevers are characterized by sudden onset, fever, headache, generalized myalgia, backache, conjunctivitis, and severe prostration, followed by various hemorrhagic symptoms. Hemorrhagic fever with kidney involvement is HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME.Tombusvirus: A genus of plant viruses that infects ANGIOSPERMS. Transmission occurs mechanically and through soil, with one species transmitted via a fungal vector. The type species is Tomato bushy stunt virus.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Nidovirales Infections: Infections with viruses of the order NIDOVIRALES. The concept includes ARTERIVIRUS INFECTIONS and CORONAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Roniviridae: A family of rod-shaped viruses, in the order NIDOVIRALES. It includes one genus: Okavirus.Kv1.6 Potassium Channel: A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that has been described in NEURONS and ASTROCYTES.

Arterivirus discontinuous mRNA transcription is guided by base pairing between sense and antisense transcription-regulating sequences. (1/55)

To generate an extensive set of subgenomic (sg) mRNAs, nidoviruses (arteriviruses and coronaviruses) use a mechanism of discontinuous transcription. During this process, mRNAs are generated that represent the genomic 5' sequence, the so-called leader RNA, fused at specific positions to different 3' regions of the genome. The fusion of the leader to the mRNA bodies occurs at a short, conserved sequence element, the transcription-regulating sequence (TRS), which precedes every transcription unit in the genome and is also present at the 3' end of the leader sequence. Here, we have used site-directed mutagenesis of the infectious cDNA clone of the arterivirus equine arteritis virus to show that sg mRNA synthesis requires a base-pairing interaction between the leader TRS and the complement of a body TRS in the viral negative strand. Mutagenesis of the body TRS of equine arteritis virus RNA7 reduced sg RNA7 transcription severely or abolished it completely. Mutations in the leader TRS dramatically influenced the synthesis of all sg mRNAs. The construction of double mutants in which a mutant leader TRS was combined with the corresponding mutant RNA7 body TRS resulted in the specific restoration of mRNA7 synthesis. The analysis of the mRNA leader-body junctions of a number of mutants with partial transcriptional activity provided support for a mechanism of discontinuous minus-strand transcription that resembles similarity-assisted, copy-choice RNA recombination.  (+info)

Gill-associated virus of Penaeus monodon prawns: an invertebrate virus with ORF1a and ORF1b genes related to arteri- and coronaviruses. (2/55)

A 20089 nucleotide (nt) sequence was determined for the 5' end of the (+)-ssRNA genome of gill-associated virus (GAV), a yellow head-like virus infecting Penaeus monodon prawns. Clones were generated from a approximately 22 kb dsRNA purified from lymphoid organ total RNA of GAV-infected prawns. The region contains a single gene comprising two long overlapping open reading frames, ORF1a and ORF1b, of 4060 and 2646 amino acids, respectively. The ORFs are structurally related to the ORF1a and ORF1ab polyproteins of coronaviruses and arteriviruses. The 99 nt overlap between ORF1a and ORF1b contains a putative AAAUUUU 'slippery' sequence associated with -1 ribosomal frameshifting. A 131 nt stem-loop with the potential to form a complex pseudoknot resides 3 nt downstream of this sequence. Although different to the G/UUUAAAC frameshift sites and 'H-type' pseudoknots of nidoviruses, in vitro transcription/translation analysis demonstrated that the GAV element also facilitates read-through of the ORF1a/1b junction. As in coronaviruses, GAV ORF1a encodes a 3C-like cysteine protease domain located between two hydrophobic regions. However, its sequence suggests some structural relationship to the chymotrypsin-like serine proteases of arteriviruses. ORF1b encodes homologues of the 'SDD' polymerase, which among (+)-RNA viruses is unique to nidoviruses, as well as metal-ion-binding and helicase domains. The presence of a dsRNA replicative intermediate and ORF1a and ORF1ab polyproteins translated by a-1 frameshift suggests that GAV represents the first invertebrate member of the Order NIDOVIRALES:  (+info)

The arterivirus replicase is the only viral protein required for genome replication and subgenomic mRNA transcription. (3/55)

Equine arteritis virus (EAV) (ARTERIVIRIDAE:) encodes several structural proteins. Whether any of these also function in viral RNA synthesis is unknown. For the related mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV), it has been suggested that the nucleocapsid protein (N) is involved in viral RNA synthesis. As described for MHV, we established that the EAV N protein colocalizes with the viral replication complex, suggesting a role in RNA synthesis. Using an infectious cDNA clone, point mutations and deletions were engineered in the EAV genome to disrupt the expression of each of the structural genes. All structural proteins, including N, were found to be dispensable for genome replication and subgenomic mRNA transcription. We also constructed a mutant in which translation of the intraleader ORF was disrupted. This mutant had a wild-type phenotype, indicating that, at least in cell culture, the product of this ORF does not play a role in the EAV replication cycle.  (+info)

Biochemical characterization of the equine arteritis virus helicase suggests a close functional relationship between arterivirus and coronavirus helicases. (4/55)

The arterivirus equine arteritis virus nonstructural protein 10 (nsp10) has previously been predicted to contain a Zn finger structure linked to a superfamily 1 (SF1) helicase domain. A recombinant form of nsp10, MBP-nsp10, was produced in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with the maltose-binding protein. The protein was partially purified by affinity chromatography and shown to have ATPase activity that was strongly stimulated by poly(dT), poly(U), and poly(dA) but not by poly(G). The protein also had both RNA and DNA duplex-unwinding activities that required the presence of 5' single-stranded regions on the partial-duplex substrates, indicating a 5'-to-3' polarity in the unwinding reaction. Results of this study suggest a close functional relationship between the arterivirus nsp10 and the coronavirus helicase, for which NTPase and duplex-unwinding activities were recently demonstrated. In a number of biochemical properties, both arterivirus and coronavirus SF1 helicases differ significantly from the previously characterized RNA virus SF1 and SF2 enzymes. Thus, the combined data strongly support the idea that nidovirus helicases may represent a separate group of RNA virus-encoded helicases with distinct properties.  (+info)

Structure of arterivirus nsp4. The smallest chymotrypsin-like proteinase with an alpha/beta C-terminal extension and alternate conformations of the oxyanion hole. (5/55)

Arteriviruses are enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses and include pathogens of major economic concern to the swine- and horse-breeding industries. The arterivirus replicase gene encodes two large precursor polyproteins that are processed by the viral main proteinase nonstructural protein 4 (nsp4). The three-dimensional structure of the 21-kDa nsp4 from the arterivirus prototype equine arteritis virus has been determined to 2.0 A resolution. Nsp4 adopts the smallest known chymotrypsin-like fold with a canonical catalytic triad of Ser-120, His-39, and Asp-65, as well as a novel alpha/beta C-terminal extension domain that may play a role in mediating protein-protein interactions. In different copies of nsp4 in the asymmetric unit, the oxyanion hole adopts either a collapsed inactive conformation or the standard active conformation, which may be a novel way of regulating proteolytic activity.  (+info)

Chimeric arteriviruses generated by swapping of the M protein ectodomain rule out a role of this domain in viral targeting. (6/55)

Arteriviruses are enveloped, positive-strand RNA viruses for which the two major envelope proteins GP(5) and M occur as disulfide-linked heterodimers. These were assumed to serve the viral targeting functions, but recent ectodomain swapping studies with equine arteritis virus (EAV) indicate that the GP(5) protein does not determine arteriviral tropism. Here, we focused on the short, 13- to 18-residue ectodomain of the M protein. Using an infectious cDNA clone of the Lelystad virus isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), we substituted the genomic sequence encoding the M ectodomain by that of murine lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus, EAV, and the US PRRSV-isolate, VR2332. Viable viruses with a chimeric M protein were obtained in all three cases, but for the latter two only after removal of the genomic overlap between the M and GP(5) genes. Characterization of the chimeric viruses revealed that they could be distinguished immunologically from wild-type virus, that they were genetically stable in vitro, but that they were impaired in their growth, reaching lower titers than the parental virus. The latter appeared to be due to an increased particle-to-infectivity ratio of the chimeric virus particles. Interestingly, the chimeric viruses had retained their ability to infect porcine cells and had not acquired tropism for cells susceptible to the viruses from which the foreign ectodomains were derived. We conclude that the surface structures composed by the arterivirus M and GP(5) ectodomains do not determine viral tropism.  (+info)

Quantitative assessment of the effect of uracil-DNA glycosylase on amplicon DNA degradation and RNA amplification in reverse transcription-PCR. (7/55)

Although PCR and RT-PCR provided a valuable approach for detection of pathogens, the high level of sensitivity of these assays also makes them prone to false positive results. In addition to cross-contamination with true positive samples, false positive results are also possible due to "carry-over" contamination of samples with amplicon DNA generated by previous reactions. To reduce this source of false positives, amplicon generated by reactions in which dUTP was substituted for dTTP can be degraded by uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG). UNG does not degrade RNA but will cleave contaminating uracil-containing DNA while leaving thymine-containing DNA intact. The availability of heat-labile UNG makes use of this approach feasible for RT-PCR. In this study, real-time RT-PCR was used to quantify UNG degradation of amplicon DNA and the effect of UNG on RNA detection. Using the manufacturers' recommended conditions, complete degradation of DNA was not observed for samples containing 250 copies of amplicon DNA. Doubling the UNG concentration resulted in degradation of the two lowest concentrations of DNA tested, but also resulted in an increase of 1.94 cycles in the CT for RNA detection. To improve DNA degradation while minimizing the effect on RNA detection, a series of time, temperature and enzyme concentrations were evaluated. Optimal conditions were found to be 0.25 U UNG per 25 microl reaction with a 20 min, 30 degrees C incubation prior to RT-PCR. Under these conditions, high concentrations of amplicon DNA could be degraded while the CT for RNA detection was increased by 1.2 cycles.  (+info)

An RNA pseudoknot in the 3' end of the arterivirus genome has a critical role in regulating viral RNA synthesis. (8/55)

In the life cycle of plus-strand RNA viruses, the genome initially serves as the template for both translation of the viral replicase gene and synthesis of minus-strand RNA and is ultimately packaged into progeny virions. These various processes must be properly balanced to ensure efficient viral proliferation. To achieve this, higher-order RNA structures near the termini of a variety of RNA virus genomes are thought to play a key role in regulating the specificity and efficiency of viral RNA synthesis. In this study, we have analyzed the signals for minus-strand RNA synthesis in the prototype of the arterivirus family, equine arteritis virus (EAV). Using site-directed mutagenesis and an EAV reverse genetics system, we have demonstrated that a stem-loop structure near the 3' terminus of the EAV genome is required for RNA synthesis. We have also obtained evidence for an essential pseudoknot interaction between the loop region of this stem-loop structure and an upstream hairpin residing in the gene encoding the nucleocapsid protein. We propose that the formation of this pseudoknot interaction may constitute a molecular switch that could regulate the specificity or timing of viral RNA synthesis. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that phylogenetic analysis predicted the formation of similar pseudoknot interactions near the 3' end of all known arterivirus genomes, suggesting that this interaction has been conserved in evolution.  (+info)

*Arterivirus

... at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ICTVdb Animal viruses Viralzone: Arterivirus ... Arterivirus is the only genus of viruses in the family Arteriviridae, which is within the order Nidovirales. Vertebrates serve ... These proposals would abolish the genus Arterivirus and create five new genera: Dipartevirus, Equartevirus, Nesartevirus, ... Viruses in Arterivirus are enveloped, with spherical, Round, and Isometric geometries. The diameter is around 45-60 nm. Genomes ...

*Equine arterivirus serine peptidase

... in arterivirus replicase translation products ORF1a and ORF1ab In the equine arterivirus (EAV), the replicase gene is ... Equine arterivirus serine peptidase (EC 3.4.21.114) is an enzyme. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction ... Equine arterivirus serine peptidase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and ... "The arterivirus nsp4 protease is the prototype of a novel group of chymotrypsin-like enzymes, the 3C-like serine proteases". J ...

*Positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus

All but the arterivirus family contain at least one human pathogen; arteriviruses are known only as animal pathogens. Many ...

*Virus

In 1957, equine arterivirus and the cause of Bovine virus diarrhoea (a pestivirus) were discovered. In 1963, the hepatitis B ...

*Nidovirales

Animal viruses RNA viruses Coronavirus Arterivirus Luis Enjuanes, Isabel Sola, Sonia Zúñiga and Fernando Almazán (2008). " ...

*History of virology

... equine arterivirus was discovered. In the 1950s, improvements in virus isolation and detection methods resulted in the ...

*Taxonomic list of viruses

Arterivirus Equine arteritis virus Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ...

*List of MeSH codes (B04)

... arterivirus MeSH B04.820.504.080.100.100 --- arteritis virus, equine MeSH B04.820.504.080.100.500 --- lactate dehydrogenase- ... arterivirus MeSH B04.909.777.500.080.500.100 --- arteritis virus, equine MeSH B04.909.777.500.080.500.500 --- lactate ...

*List of genera of viruses

Anulavirus Aparavirus Aphthovirus Apscaviroid Aquabirnavirus Aquamavirus Aquaparamyxovirus Aquareovirus Arterivirus Ascovirus ...

*List of MeSH codes (C02)

... arterivirus infections MeSH C02.782.600.100.700 --- porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome MeSH C02.782.600.550 --- ...

*List of EC numbers (EC 3)

... equine arterivirus serine peptidase EC 3.4.21.115: infectious pancreatic necrosis birnavirus Vp4 peptidase EC 3.4.21.116: ...

*List of virus species

Flock House virus Florida wood cockroach cyclovirus Foot-and-mouth disease virus Forest pouched giant rat arterivirus Fort ... virus Datura leaf distortion virus Datura shoestring virus Datura yellow vein nucleorhabdovirus DeBrazza's monkey arterivirus ...
The replicase polyprotein 1ab is a multifunctional protein: it contains the activities necessary for the transcription of negative stranded RNA, leader RNA, subgenomic mRNAs and progeny virion RNA as well as proteinases responsible for the cleavage of the polyprotein into functional products.
Diagnosing horse ailments requires a vet. (Click here for a list of Florida veterinarians by county). Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is a disease of horses caused by an RNA virus of the genus Arterivirus. The virus which causes EVA was first isolated from horses in Ohio in 1953 but the disease has afflicted equine animals worldwide for centuries. It has been more common in some breeds of horses in the United States, but there is no breed "immunity." There is no known human hazard.. Arteriviruses are small, enveloped, animal viruses with an icosahedral core containing a positive-sense RNA genome. The family includes Equine arteritis virus (EAV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus (LDV) of mice and simian haemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV).. ...
This chapter focuses on the arterivirus proteins that are involved in genome replication and subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) synthesis. These proteins, which are collectively referred to as
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
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1MBM: Structure of Arterivirus nsp4: the smallest chymotrypsin-like proteinase with an alpha/beta C-terminal extension and alternate conformations of the oxyanion hole
One hallmark of the PRRS virus in swine is its extremely high genetic diversity. This phenomenon has important implications for disease diagnosis and prevention and is one of the major causes of the partial or complete lack of protection against re-infections.. The PRRS virus is an RNA virus that belongs to the genus Arterivirus, the only genus in the family Arteriviridae, in the order Nidovirales. The PRRS virus contains a non-segmented, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome. The RNA genome is composed of ten open reading frames (ORFs).. Since the first outbreaks of PRRS in swine in America and Europe, two PRRS virus genotypes have been designated: European or Type 1 (prototype Lelystad virus) and North-American or Type 2 (prototype VR-2332). Interestingly, similarity between both prototype nucleotide sequences is as low as 55%. More importantly, intratype pairwise nucleotide sequence variation exceeds 20% (up to 30% in type 1 and around 21% in type 2).. A significant number of subtypes ...
RUIZ, A et al. Excretion and transmission study of the Chilean porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolate by means of RT-nPCR and ELISA in experimentally inoculated animals and sentinels in contact. Arch. med. vet. [online]. 2009, vol.41, n.3, pp.221-228. ISSN 0301-732X. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0301-732X2009000300006.. The excretion and transmission of PRRSV was studied through RT-nPCR in nasal secretion and serum samples, together with detection of antibodies by ELISA. Thirty pigs, of 3 weeks age, were used and they were randomly assigned into 6 groups. One group of pigs (G1) was inoculated intranasally with 2 ml and intramuscularly with 1 ml with the 2402 isolate in a concentration of 105.7 TCID50 per ml, and they were kept for 35 days in an isolation unit. Four groups (G2, G3, G4, G5) were used as susceptible and they were in contact with the inoculated pigs (G1). Group 1 showed that the Chilean PRRSV isolated induces a condition of viremia beginning at 3 days post ...
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a disease produced by the (PRRS) virus, characterized by endemic evolution in the majority of countries, which remains in actuality being a permanent threat to health and economic free farms, as well as for those infected. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity of Romanian PRRSV isolates from the four most important pig farms in Romania by comparing the nucleotide sequences obtained for ORF5 and ORF7 with a wide range of sequences from GenBank belonging to the main types of PRRSV; the type 1. Eighteen different sequences were obtained for ORF5 gene and 10 for ORF7 gene. One Romanian isolate (Rom3) was found in three of the four different investigated farms. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Romanian PRRSV nucleotide sequences clustered in three groups within the subtype 1 of the virus. The analysis of amino acid sequences evidenced for GP5 and N-nucleocapsid proteins confirmed that the Romanian virus belonged to type
4IUM: Deubiquitinase function of arterivirus papain-like protease 2 suppresses the innate immune response in infected host cells.
One of the main limitations of the studies of PRRS virus infection in pigs at the cellular and molecular level, that partly explains the lack of basic knowledge of the immune response to PRRS virus, is the inability to establish a mouse model of infection, due to the fact that PRRS virus replication in common laboratory rodent species is inefficient1. On the other hand, infection with PRRS virus is widespread in the swine population, making it difficult to find uninfected animals with which to perform experiments aimed at investigating how the virus affects the immune system of the pig. Furthermore, pigs reared under conventional conditions are usually colonized by microorganisms that may eventually cause disease during an experimental infection as a result of the effect of PRRS virus on the immune system, thus invalidating the conclusions of the study.. Despite the above, some important aspects of the immune response developed by pigs to PRRS virus have been described, allowing an understanding ...
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can subvert early innate immunity, which leads to ineffective antimicrobial responses. Overcoming immune subversion is critical for developing vaccines and other measures to control this devastating swine virus. The overall goal of this work was to enhance innate and adaptive immunity following vaccination through the expression of interferon (IFN) genes by the PRRSV genome. We have constructed a series of recombinant PRRS viruses using an infectious PRRSV cDNA clone (pCMV-P129). Coding regions of exogenous genes, which included Renilla luciferase (Rluc), green and red fluorescent proteins (GFP and DsRed, respectively) and several interferons (IFNs), were constructed and expressed through a unique subgenomic mRNA placed between ORF1b and ORF2 of the PRRSV infectious clone. The constructs, which expressed Rluc, GFP, DsRed, efficiently produced progeny viruses and mimicked the parental virus in both MARC-145 cells and porcine macrophages. In
Biological Sciences Shirley, Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is a disease of horses caused by an RNA virus of the genus Arterivirus. The virus which cau...
Biochemical properties and processing of the three major structural proteins of PRRS virus expressed by recombinant adenoviruses. Structural, functional and community aspects
Alternative codon usage of PRRS virus ORF5 gene increases eucaryotic expression of GP5 glycoprotein and improves immune response in challenged pigs
Alternative codon usage of PRRS virus ORF5 gene increases eucaryotic expression of GP5 glycoprotein and improves immune response in challenged pigs
Within the research in Molecular Biology, one important field along the years has been the analyses on how prokaryotes regulate the expression of their genes and what the consequences of these activities are. Prokaryotes have attracted the interests of researchers not only because the processes taking place in their world are important to cells, but also because many of the effects often can be readily measured, both at the single cell level and in large populations. Contributing to the interest of the present topic is the fact that modulation of gene activity involves the sensing of intra- and inter-cellular conditions, DNA binding and DNA dynamics, and interaction with the replication/transcription machinery of the cell. All of these processes are fundamental to the operation of a biological entity and they condition its lifestyle. Further, the discoveries achieved in the bacterial world have been of ample use in eukaryotes. In addition to the fundamental interest of understanding modulation ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Amino acid substitutions in the structural or nonstructural proteins of a vaccine strain of equine arteritis virus are associated with its attenuation. AU - Zhang, Jianqiang. AU - Go, Yun Young. AU - Maclachlan, Nigel J. AU - Meade, Barry J.. AU - Timoney, Peter J.. AU - Balasuriya, Udeni B R. PY - 2008/9/1. Y1 - 2008/9/1. N2 - Comparative sequence analysis of a series of strains of equine arteritis virus (EAV) of defined virulence for horses, ranging from the horse-adapted virulent Bucyrus (VB) strain to a fully attenuated vaccine strain derived from it, identified 13 amino acid substitutions associated with attenuation. These include 4 substitutions in the replicase proteins and 9 in the structural proteins. Using reverse genetic techniques, these amino acid substitutions were introduced into a virulent infectious cDNA clone pEAVrVBS derived from the VB strain of EAV. Inoculation of horses with the recombinant viruses clearly demonstrated that changes in either the replicase ...
cDNA copies of the M and N genes of equine arteritis virus (EAV) isolates were synthesized by reverse transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction amplification. The cDNA was subjected to a cycle sequencing strategy using Taq polymerase, and the nucleotide and derived amino acid sequences of 10 virus isolates were compared. The M and N genes of all isolates had the same initiation and termination sites as the prototype Bucyrus strain and the encoded proteins were conserved between viruses. Comparison of nucleotide sequence homologies and phylogenetic tree analysis implied the existence of three EAV variants originating from the U.S.A. (Bucyrus), Austria (Vienna) and Switzerland (Bibuna), and suggested that RNA recombination between EAV isolates may have occurred.
Moyo, N, Westcott, D, Simmonds, R and Steinbach, F (2012) Equine arteritis virus replication in monocytic cells suppresses differentiation and function of dendritic cells In: European Congress of Immunology, 2012-09-05 - 2012-09-08, Glasgow, SCOTLAND. Full text not available from this repository ...
Zitterkopf NL, McNeal DW, Eyster KM, Bradley DS, Cafruny WA. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus induces apoptosis in cultured macrophages and in spinal cords of C58 mice coincident with onset of murine amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ...
Design and procedure: Ten swine herds were selected based on the inability to control postweaning PRRS problems using nursery depopulation or piglet vaccination. No vaccines had been used in breeding animals. The existence of subpopulations at a point in time and over time was assessed. Cross-sectional serologic profiles of randomly selected sows were collected and samples were analyzed for IgM and IgG indirect-fluorescent antibodies (IFA), and serum neutralization (SN) antibodies at a point in time. Based on the results, sows were classified into one of two subpopulations: not infected (negative on all three tests) or acutely infected (IgM or IgG positive at ,;1:64 and SN negative). The ability of subpopulations to persist over time was also assessed. In conjunction with the previously described subpopulations, another subpopulation, antibody decay, was assessed. This classification was based on evidence of a previous infection, with subsequent antibody decay over time. Two herds from the ...
Sμ-Sα junction sequences. (A) Percentage of switch junctions with the indicated length of microhomology (excluding nucleotide additions). (B and C) Alignmen
For the safe and simultaneous identification of RNA from the North American (NA) and European (EU) genotypes of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV).
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection of equine arteritis virus by real-time TaqMan® reverse transcription-PCR assay. AU - Balasuriya, Udeni B R. AU - Leutenegger, Christian M.. AU - Topol, J. B.. AU - McCollum, William H.. AU - Timoney, Peter J.. AU - Maclachlan, Nigel J. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - A one-tube real-time TaqMan® reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed for the detection of equine arteritis virus (EAV). The test was validated using the seminal plasma and nasal secretions of infected horses that were proven to contain EAV by traditional virus isolation in rabbit kidney thirteen (RK-13) cells, as well as a variety of cell culture-propagated European and North American strains of EAV. The primers and a fluorogenic TaqMan® probe were designed to amplify and detect a highly conserved region of open reading frame 7 (ORF7) of EAV. The real-time TaqMan® PCR assay detected EAV RNA in all samples that were confirmed to contain infectious EAV by virus isolation. ...
Alphaviruses have a positive-stranded RNA genome that can serve as the mRNA for translation of the polyprotein precursor that is autocatalytically processed to the four non-structural viral proteins by the virus-encoded protease in nsP2. The non-structural proteins form the transcription/replication complex. The nsP1 protein is implicated in capping of viral RNAs. The nsP2 gene encodes a putative helicase and a protease , which presents a unique fold distantly related to that of known cysteine proteases. This protease domain is linked to the downstream domain of degenerated O-methyltransferase fold that may regulate transcription/replication through RNA binding. The nsP3 protein is required for RNA replication. Its N-terminal sequence reveals a macro domain, the crystal structures of which have recently been determined (Malet et al., 2009). The nsP4 protein carries the viral RNA dependant RNA Polymerase (RdRP), the key activity for the viral replication/transcription. Unlike the RdRP of ...
Methods: Objective 1 (Control of PRRSV) Sub objective 1.1) PRRSV Immunity and Vaccinology: understanding correlates of immunity and mechanisms to broaden protection(UMd, Ohio, UNL, VTech, UConn , UMN, UIUC, SDSU,BARC/ARS,NADC/ARS, ISU, KSU) This objective addresses PRRSV vaccinology research related to development of new generation vaccine formulations, and their evaluation in pigs based on understanding the immune correlates. Identifying the strategies by which the efficacy of modified live (PRRSV-MLV) and inactivated PRRS virus vaccine induced immune response could be improved, and in design of alternate approaches to effectively control PRRS and reduce its transmission in swine herds. (i) Identification of ideal PRRSV strains to use in new generation vaccines: Since the 1991 strain VR2332 is commonly used in the production of PRRSV-MLV vaccine, further research is warranted to evaluate other available PRRSV strains to use in design of better vaccine candidates. An ideal strategy appears to be ...
This report describes the clinical and pathological effects of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus infection in three pig herds, showing that PRRSv infection increased the incidence of other common diseases in each case.
台灣豬隻疾病在 1975 年前較為單純,常見疾病,在病毒性疾病方面不外乎為豬瘟、日本腦炎、豬傳染性胃腸炎、假性狂犬病、豬水泡病和豬痘等;而細菌性疾病主要有豬萎縮性鼻炎、豬赤痢、豬白痢、豬水腫病和沙氏桿菌症等〔1〕。在診斷上相對亦較為容易,甚至只要有經驗的獸醫經由臨床症狀和肉眼解剖就能診斷出疾病來,而經由防治所獸醫送至行政院農業委員會家畜衛生試驗所豬隻檢體病材確診結果往往亦不謀而合。然而,今日台灣豬隻疾病種類繁多,疾病一旦侵入台灣,往往就根留台灣。在病毒性疾病除上述疾病外尚有豬流行性下痢、豬輪狀病毒感染症、豬小病毒症、豬流行性感冒、豬血球凝集性腦脊髓炎等〔2〕。而近十年來更新增不少豬隻病毒性疾病,例如 1992 年的豬生殖與呼吸綜合症(porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus; PRRSV)〔7, ...
Image courtesy of Sreejithk2000, a Wikimedia Commons user The hemorrhagic fever viruses are a genetically diverse group and include Ebola, Marburg, Lassa, Hantavirus and others. They all have the same gross, even horrifying, symptoms - most notably, blood vessel damage leading to bleeding in internal organs and, in some cases, out of orifices. An article recently published in the journal Molecular & Cellular Proteomics reports molecular events throughout the course of infection in a model of hemorrhagic fever virus infection in hamsters. Understanding how cell-signaling networks change over the course of infection in this rodent virus, says Jason Kindrachuk, a staff scientist at the National Institutes of Health and corresponding author of the study, says could be a vital first step in the development of therapies for related viruses.. But, you might be wondering, what do hamsters have to do with Ebola and other hemorrhagic fever viruses? Pichinde virus is endemic to Colombian rice rats and ...
The change of just four nucleotides in the CXCL16 gene is all that is necessary to determine whether or not stallions are likely to become long-term carriers of EAV. Sanjay Sarkar, Ernest Baily and Udeni Balasuriya of the University of Kentucky, Lexington, and colleagues report these findings Dec. 8, 2016 in PLOS Genetics.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Lu Zǂ, Zhang Jǂ, Huang C, Go YY, Faaberg KS, Rowland RR, Timoney PJ, and Balasuriya UBR. (2012). Chimeric viruses containing the N-terminal ectodomains of GP5 and M proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus do not change the cellular tropism of equine arteritis virus. Virology. 432 (1), 99-109 [ǂ The first two authors should be acknowledged as joint first authors ...
Lu Zǂ, Zhang Jǂ, Huang C, Go YY, Faaberg KS, Rowland RR, Timoney PJ, and Balasuriya UBR. (2012). Chimeric viruses containing the N-terminal ectodomains of GP5 and M proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus do not change the cellular tropism of equine arteritis virus. Virology. 432 (1), 99-109 [ǂ The first two authors should be acknowledged as joint first authors ...
Some HFVs are considered to be a significant threat for use as biological weapons due to their potential for causing widespread illness and death.
Understanding the threat that pig farming operations face from the virulent PRRS virus and pathogens that can have a significant impact on your herd, production levels, and operating costs.
It price between $25 and $30 in January 2010, depending about to bought it. Click Agree with the fact to sign your arrangement to the Tos. Simply click Retain My Package if you experience convince you and no much longer wish to disconnect your no cost or paid out AMERICA ONLINE accounts. With free of charge web email services just like Gmail coming over to the front of the Net, AMERICA ONLINE has become a thing of the past. Click Apply and then click OK to utilize the adjustments and close the world wide web Alternatives eyeport. aol mail login screen name (aol.loginfriend.org) is known as a global Internet platform that gives a widely-used free email and instant-messaging provider.. That didnt do the job, so theyre trying once again with Google+ (launched 2011). The moment the program uninstalls, restart your web browser. AOL Well liked Places can even be backed up for the hard drive. In the event that a person or even more AMERICA ONLINE applications are open, save any kind of operate progress ...
Equine arteritis virus (EAV) and Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are enveloped RNA viruses belonging to the family Arteriviridae. EAV infection leads to abortion and respiratory illness in horses. PRRSV causes persistent infections in pigs, which is one of the main reasons for the economic losses in the swine industry. The glycoprotein complex Gp2/3/4 and Gp5/M are essential for cell entry and budding, respectively. PRRSV and EAV Gp2/3/4 ectodomains were co-expressed to determine their complex formation in insect cells. The results revealed that PRRSV Gp2/3/4 proteins secreted into the cell culture supernatant as a disulphide linked complex. In contrast, Gp3 of EAV was expressed, but not associated with Gp2/4. The Gp2/3/4 proteins of both PRRSV and EAV are attached to the membrane through their C-terminal hydrophobic transmembrane region as they were secreted when it is removed. This result showed that all the proteins contain type I membrane topology except EAV Gp3 since
PDF version is available online.. Objectives: To construct models evaluating statistically significant associations between porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and co-infectious agents, and to assess effects of changes in age and management system on co-infection status, serological profiles, lung lesions, and histopathological lesions in PRRSV-positive pigs. Materials and methods: Pigs 3, 9, 16, and 24 weeks of age from 41 sow sources representing one-, two-, and three-site production systems were necropsied on the basis of acute, subacute, and chronic disease stages (n = 5 animals per age group per farm). Logistic regression models were used to assess co-infection with other pathogens, serological profiles, and histopathological lesions in pigs PRRSV-positive by polymerase chain reaction and with lung lesions consistent with PRRSV infection, and in PRRSV-negative pigs. Additional models were stratified by age and type of production system.. Results: In the overall ...
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can subvert early innate immunity, which leads to ineffective antimicrobial responses. Overcoming immune subversion is critical for developing vaccines and other measures to control this devastating swine virus. The overall goal of this work was to enhance innate and adaptive immunity following vaccination through the expression of interferon (IFN) genes by the PRRSV genome. We have constructed a series of recombinant PRRS viruses using an infectious PRRSV cDNA clone (pCMV-P129). Coding regions of exogenous genes, which included Renilla luciferase (Rluc), green and red fluorescent proteins (GFP and DsRed, respectively) and several interferons (IFNs), were constructed and expressed through a unique subgenomic mRNA placed between ORF1b and ORF2 of the PRRSV infectious clone. The constructs, which expressed Rluc, GFP, DsRed, efficiently produced progeny viruses and mimicked the parental virus in both MARC-145 cells and porcine macrophages. ...
IJMS, Vol. 18, Pages 1613: Porcine Interferon Stimulated Gene 12a Restricts Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Replication in MARC-145 Cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms18081613. Authors: Likai Ji Xiang Zhou Wan Liang Jianjian Liu Bang Liu. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes severe losses in the global pig industry. In the present study, we investigated the molecular characterization of porcine interferon stimulated gene 12a (ISG12A) and confirmed its anti-PRRSV ability for the first time. We found that porcine ISG12A was localized in mitochondria and significantly decreased the number of cells in G2/S phase. Porcine ISG12A mRNA was up-regulated in cells/tissues of Tongcheng (TC) pigs and Large White (LW) pigs after PRRSV challenge. More importantly, the ectopic overexpression of ISG12A could significantly suppress PRRSV replication at 24, 36 and 48 h post challenge (hpc), which was confirmed by detecting PRRSV ...
Merck Animal Health announced the introduction of Prime Pac PRRS+, a vaccine for reducing clinical signs of reproductive disease in female breeding-age swine and respiratory disease in pigs 3 to 4 weeks of age and older due to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv).
ANALYSIS - Innovative research to help stop the spread of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRS) and tools to identify outbreaks of PRRS and other emerging diseases were the focus of the North American PPRS symposium held in Chicago December 5-6, 2015, reports Sarah Mikesell live from event.
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Citation: Miller, L.C., Lager, K.M., Kehrli, Jr., M.E. 2009. Role of Toll-Like Receptors in Activation of Porcine Alveolar Macrophages by Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 16(3):360-365. Interpretive Summary: The pig respiratory virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), causes highly significant losses to the swine industry worldwide. The ability of the virus to persist in its host shows that it has mechanisms to evade host immune response. The type I interferon system is an essential component of the host antiviral response. In this study, we investigated whether PRRSV suppressed the ability of a certain type of the pigs immune cells to activate important aspects of the host immune response. We found that PRRSV infection appears to suppress important aspects of host immunity which suggests that may contribute to the ability of PRRSV to establish persistent infections in pigs. Technical Abstract: Control of virus ...
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) emerged in the late 1980s and rapidly became one of the most significant viral pathogens in the swine industry. In vivo, the virus shows a very narrow cell ...
Evaluation of the transmission and infectious capacity by direct contact with pigs experimentally inoculated with the Chilean isolate of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus ...
Cells, Cell, Cancer, Gene, Virus, Human, Role, Association, Patients, Treatment, Proteins, Infection, Genes, Genome, Prrsv, Syndrome, Production, Time, Disease, Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome
We talked to dog psychology expert and author Dr. Stanley Coren to decode the practical to the downright disgusting aspects of a dogs sense of smell.
Nodaviridae is a family of non-enveloped isometric viruses with bipartite positive-sense RNA genomes. The Nodaviridae family consists of two genera: alpha- and beta-nodavirus. Alphanodaviruses usually infect insect cells. Some commercially available insect cell lines have been latently infected by Alphanodaviruses. A non-enveloped small virus of approximately 30 nm in diameter was discovered co-existing with a recombinant Helicoverpa armigera single nucleopolyhedrovirus (Hear NPV) in Hz-AM1 cells. Genome sequencing and phylogenetic assays indicate that this novel virus belongs to the genus of alphanodavirus in the family Nodaviridae and was designated HzNV. HzNV possesses a RNA genome that contains two segments. RNA1 is 3038 nt long and encodes a 110 kDa viral protein termed protein A. The 1404 nt long RNA2 encodes a 44 kDa protein, which exhibits a high homology with coat protein precursors of other alphanodaviruses. HzNV virions were located in the cytoplasm, in association with cytoplasmic membrane
The ability of the PRRS (porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome) virus to spread via aerosol depends on the dose level for the individual strain of the virus, according to an Iowa State University (ISU) research project
Summary Reasons for performing study:A serological study conducted in 1995 revealed that 7 stallions at the Lipizzaner Centre, Gauteng, South Africa, were seropositive for antibody to equine arteritis virus (EAV). A Lipizzaner stallion imported into South Africa from Yugoslavia in 1981 had previously (1988) been confirmed to be an EAV carrier. Despite being placed under life-long breeding quarantine, EAV had been transmitted between stallions at the Lipizzaner Centre. Objectives: To investigate the phylogenetic relationships between the strain of EAV shed in the semen of the original carrier stallion and strains recovered from the semen of 5 other stallions; and to investigate the means whereby lateral transmission of EAV occurred among 7 in-contact, nonbreeding stallions at the Centre. Methods: EAV was isolated from semen collected from the seropositive stallions using RK-13 cells. Viral RNA was reverse transcribed and amplified by polymerase chain reaction using ORF5-specific primers, ...
ufo (93) russia (87) us (71) war (63) USA (62) alien (53) cia (47) Banksters (45) ET (44) EU (44) Obama (38) china (38) MessageToEagle.com (37) NASA (35) Ukraine (35) conspiracy (35) europa (33) Putin (32) amerika (32) Syria (31) rusland (31) NSA (29) illuminati (29) nederland (29) false flag (23) Ancient (21) Edward Snowden (21) GMO (21) oorlog (21) elite (20) mars (20) nazi (20) egypt (19) EBE (18) FBI (18) Monsanto (18) VS (18) military (18) Israel (17) FED (15) History (15) earth (15) europe (15) ISIS (14) snowden (14) technology (14) America (13) Germany (13) IMF (13) Mysterious (13) Rothschild (13) atlantis (13) mystery (13) pyramids (13) Financial Tyranny (12) Health (12) Oekraïne (12) cancer (12) disclosure (12) financial tiranny (12) geld (12) moon (12) OOPArts (11) giants (11) media (11) wikileaks (11) ww3 (11) 9/11 (10) Anonymous (10) Assad (10) Benjamin Fulford (10) Clinton (10) Discovered (10) MH17 (10) United States (10) World (10) gold (10) money (10) new world order (10) ...
IF: 4.606] GENOME REPLICATION AND REGULATION OF VIRAL GENE EXPRESSION: Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Interacts with Nsp9 and Cellular DHX9 To Regulate Viral RNA ...
Genetic Testing at Gluck offers several disease mutation tests including JEB, OLWS, Myotonia, Dwarfism in Miniature Horses, Dwarfism in Friesian, and Hydrocephaly in Friesian. In 2016, the laboratory started offering a test to determine CXCL16 Haplotype, a genetic basis for the likelihood of a stallion becoming a long term shedder/carrier of the Equine Arteritis Virus (EAV). More information is available on each of these tests by following the links to the left. ...
Dynon K , V A , Ficorilli N , et al. Identification of equine herpesvirus 3 (equine coital exanthema virus), equine gammaherpesviruses 2 and 5, equine adenoviruses 1 and 2, equine arteritis virus and equine rhinitis A virus by polymerase chain reaction. Aust Vet J 2001;19:695-701 ...
Comtet, L. (IDvet), Feliziani, F. (CEREL - IZS Umbria e Marche, Italy), Lesceu, S. (IDvet). Validation of the ID Screen® Maedi Visna Indirect ELISA: specificity on BTV-8 vaccinated sheep and detection of seroconversion. Poster presented at the 2010 EAVLD meeting, Lelystad, Holland ...
The Schiphol Group is an airport operator and developer of Airport Cities. In the Netherlands, the Group operates four airports: Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, Rotterdam The Hague Airport, Lelystad Airport and Eindhoven Airport.
Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is epidemiologically associated with hepatocellular-carcinoma (HCC) but its role in HCC remains poorly understood due to technological limitations. Here, we systematically characterize HBV in HCC patients. HBV sequences were enriched from 48 HCC patients using an oligo-bead-based strategy, pooled together and sequenced using the FLX-Genome-Sequencer. In the tumors, preferential integration of HBV into promoters of genes (P,0.001) and significant enrichment of integration into chromosome 10 (P,0.01) was observed. Integration into chromosome 10 was significantly associated with poorly differentiated tumors (P,0.05). Notably, in the tumors, recurrent integration into the promoter of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene was found to correlate with increased TERT expression. The preferred region within the HBV genome involved in integration as well as viral structural alteration is at the 3¿-end of HBx where viral replication/transcription ...
Serological analysis of blood samples submitted to the Animal Health Trust showed that during 1995, 185 of 9203 unvacdnated horses (2.0 per cent) tested positive for antibodies to equine arteritis virus (EAV), and that during 1996,46 of 8851 unvaccinated horses (0.52 per cent) tested positive. During both years thoroughbreds were the predominant breed tested and only a small proportion of these (<0.3 per cent), consisting predominantly of imported mares, were seropositive. In contrast, among standardbred horses, from which samples were actively solicited in 1995,84 of 454 (18.5 per cent) were seropositive. Among standardbreds there was a difference in prevalence between types of horses, with 3.7 per cent of racing horses, 25 per cent of non-radng horses and 41 per cent of stallions testing seropositive. Investigations of seropositive stallions identified during 1994 and 1995 demonstrated that clinically inapparent equine viral arteritis (EvA) had occurred previously in the uKC Of 50 ...
Citation: N/A Interpretive Summary: n/a Technical Abstract: Understanding the role of host genetics in resistance to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection, and the effects of PRRS on pig health and related growth, are goals of the PRRS Host Genetics Consortium (PHGC). The project uses a nursery pig model to assess pig resistance/susceptibility to primary PRRSV infection. To date, 6 groups of 200 crossbred pigs from high health farms were donated by commercial sources. After acclimation, the pigs were infected with PRRSV in a biosecure facility and followed for 42 days post infection (dpi). Blood samples were collected at 0, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 dpi, and weekly weights recorded. All data have been entered into the PHGC relational database. Genomic DNA from all PHGC1-4 pigs were prepared and genotyped with the Porcine SNP60 SNPchip. Results have affirmed that all pigs become PRRSV infected with peak viremia from 4-21 dpi. Multivariate statistical analyses ...

Arterivirus GP4 envelope glycoprotein (IPR003412) | InterPro | EMBL-EBIArterivirus GP4 envelope glycoprotein (IPR003412) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR003412

Arterivirus - WikipediaArterivirus - Wikipedia

Arterivirus at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ICTVdb Animal viruses Viralzone: Arterivirus ... Arterivirus is the only genus of viruses in the family Arteriviridae, which is within the order Nidovirales. Vertebrates serve ... These proposals would abolish the genus Arterivirus and create five new genera: Dipartevirus, Equartevirus, Nesartevirus, ... Viruses in Arterivirus are enveloped, with spherical, Round, and Isometric geometries. The diameter is around 45-60 nm. Genomes ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arterivirus

Equine arterivirus serine peptidase - WikipediaEquine arterivirus serine peptidase - Wikipedia

... in arterivirus replicase translation products ORF1a and ORF1ab In the equine arterivirus (EAV), the replicase gene is ... Equine arterivirus serine peptidase (EC 3.4.21.114) is an enzyme. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction ... Equine arterivirus serine peptidase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and ... "The arterivirus nsp4 protease is the prototype of a novel group of chymotrypsin-like enzymes, the 3C-like serine proteases". J ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equine_arterivirus_serine_peptidase

ASMscience | The Arterivirus ReplicasASMscience | The Arterivirus Replicas

This chapter focuses on the arterivirus proteins that are involved in genome replication and subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) synthesis. ... Comparison of arterivirus replicase gene features. Citation: van Hemert M, Snijder E. 2008. The Arterivirus Replicase, p 83-101 ... Molenkamp, R.,, H. van Tol,, B. C. Rozier,, Y. van der Meer,, W. J. Spaan, and, E. J. Snijder. 2000. The arterivirus replicase ... Snijder, E. J.,, A. L. Wassenaar,, L. C. van Dinten,, W. J. Spaan, and, A. E. Gorbalenya. 1996. The arterivirus nsp4 protease ...
more infohttp://www.asmscience.org/content/book/10.1128/9781555815790.ch06

Zn(2+) inhibits coronavirus and arterivirus RNA polymerase activity in vitro and zinc ionophores block the replication of these...Zn(2+) inhibits coronavirus and arterivirus RNA polymerase activity in vitro and zinc ionophores block the replication of these...

Animals, Arterivirus, Arterivirus Infections, Blotting, Western, Cercopithecus aethiops, Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay, ... Zn(2+) inhibits coronavirus and arterivirus RNA polymerase activity in vitro and zinc ionophores block the replication of these ... Zn(2+) inhibits coronavirus and arterivirus RNA polymerase activity in vitro and zinc ionophores block the replication of these ...
more infohttps://www.neuroscience.ox.ac.uk/publications/375225

Add your annotation to InterPro | InterPro | EMBL-EBIAdd your annotation to InterPro | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

Arterivirus GP4 envelope glycoprotein (IPR003412). Add your Annotation. Your annotation. You may suggest updates to the ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR003412/add-annotation

Publikationen • Institut für Virologie • Fachbereich VeterinärmedizinPublikationen • Institut für Virologie • Fachbereich Veterinärmedizin

Recent Publications on the Arterivirus. Thaa B, Sinhadri BC, Tielesch C, Krause E, Veit M (2013) Signal Peptide Cleavage from ...
more infohttp://www.vetmed.fu-berlin.de/einrichtungen/institute/we05/03_arbeitsgruppen/AG-Veit/publikationen/index.html

Patent US20030152942 - Nucleic acid detection in pooled samples - Google PatentsPatent US20030152942 - Nucleic acid detection in pooled samples - Google Patents

"Arterivirus". (a floating genus). nonenveloped. Astroviridae. Caliciviridae. Picornaviridae. Potyviridae. DNA step in ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US20030152942?dq=6101531

Related changes - WikipediaRelated changes - Wikipedia

m Arterivirus‎; 13:12 . . (+13)‎ . . ‎. Tom.Reding. (talk , contribs)‎ (Add from=Q707854 to {{Taxonbar}}; WP:GenFixes on, using ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:RecentChangesLinked/Narnaviridae

Viruses | Free Full-Text | Replication-Competent Recombinant Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) Viruses...Viruses | Free Full-Text | Replication-Competent Recombinant Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) Viruses...

Keywords: porcine arterivirus; virus cDNA infectious clone; indicator proteins; type I interferon; host factors; tumor ... susceptibility gene 101 porcine arterivirus; virus cDNA infectious clone; indicator proteins; type I interferon; host factors; ...
more infohttp://mdpi.com/1999-4915/4/1/102

The Big Picture Book of Viruses - Baltimore ListingThe Big Picture Book of Viruses - Baltimore Listing

Arterivirus:. equine arteritis virus. Vertebrates. Barnaviridae:. Barnavirus. mushroom bacilliform virus. Fungi. Bromoviridae: ...
more infohttp://www.virology.net/Big_Virology/BVFamilyGroup.html

Kay Faaberg : USDA ARSKay Faaberg : USDA ARS

Arterivirus structural proteins and assembly - Faaberg, K.S. 2007. Arterivirus structural proteins and assembly. In: Perlman, S ... Arterivirus: 03.004.0.01.002. Simian hemorrhagic fever virus. In: A.J. Davison, et al. (chair), Vertebrate Virus Subcommittee. ... Arterivirus: 03.004.0.01.003. Lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus. In: A.J. Davison, et al. (chair), Vertebrate Virus ...
more infohttps://www.ars.usda.gov/people-locations/person/?person-id=44811

rep - Replicase polyprotein 1ab - Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) - rep gene & proteinrep - Replicase polyprotein 1ab - Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) - rep gene & protein

IPR008743. Arterivirus_Nsp2_C33. IPR023338. Arterivirus_NSP4_peptidase. IPR008741. AV_PCPalpha. IPR025773. AV_PCPbeta. ... IPR008743. Arterivirus_Nsp2_C33. IPR023338. Arterivirus_NSP4_peptidase. IPR008741. AV_PCPalpha. IPR025773. AV_PCPbeta. ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q68772

RNA structures regulating nidovirus RNA synthesisRNA structures regulating nidovirus RNA synthesis

Arterivirus. Transcription. Hairpin. Inhibitor. SARS. Morpholino. Replication. Coronavirus. Abstract: Viruses depend on their ... The obtained knowledge of arterivirus RNA synthesis, formed the basis for an virus inhibitor study in which regulatory RNA ...
more infohttps://openaccess.leidenuniv.nl/handle/1887/4285

Deciphering the olfactory repertoire of the tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus | BMC Genomics | Full TextDeciphering the olfactory repertoire of the tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus | BMC Genomics | Full Text

The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is a highly invasive species and competent vector of several arboviruses (e.g. dengue, chikungunya, Zika) and parasites (e.g. dirofilaria) of public health importance. Compared to other mosquito species, Ae. albopictus females exhibit a generalist host seeking as well as a very aggressive biting behaviour that are responsible for its high degree of nuisance. Several complex mosquito behaviours such as host seeking, feeding, mating or oviposition rely on olfactory stimuli that target a range of sensory neurons localized mainly on specialized head appendages such as antennae, maxillary palps and the mouthparts. With the aim to describe the Ae. albopictus olfactory repertoire we have used RNA-seq to reveal the transcriptome profiles of female antennae and maxillary palps. Male heads and whole female bodies were employed as reference for differential expression analysis. The relative transcript abundance within each tissue (TPM, transcripts per kilobase per million)
more infohttps://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12864-017-4144-1

USDA APHIS | Horse Disease InformationUSDA APHIS | Horse Disease Information

Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA) is caused by arterivirus. Clinical signs include fever, respiratory problems, severe coughing and ...
more infohttps://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/ourfocus/animalhealth/animal-disease-information/horse-disease-information/ct_horses_index/

VirologyVirology

Viral RNA load and histological changes in tissues following experimental infection with an arterivirus of possums (wobbly ...
more infohttps://www.journals.elsevier.com/virology

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Comparison: Divergent Evolution on Two Continents | Journal of VirologyPorcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Comparison: Divergent Evolution on Two Continents | Journal of Virology

1995) The arterivirus Nsp2 protease. An unusual cysteine protease with primary structure similarities to both papain-like and ... PRRSV is a member of the family Arteriviridae in the orderNidovirales (7). The arterivirus family consists of PRRSV, lactate ... Comparison of VR-2332 with other arterivirus leader sequences.The VR-2332 leader sequence is intermediate in length among the ... Multiple species of mRNA 7 were not previously described for any arterivirus. Multiple species of mRNA 3 were reported for EAV ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/73/1/270?ijkey=992fa89999b860bef354b575f0342d0fdc708d4d&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

MicroRNA miR-24-3p Promotes Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Replication through Suppression of Heme...MicroRNA miR-24-3p Promotes Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Replication through Suppression of Heme...

Arterivirus molecular biology and pathogenesis. J Gen Virol 94:2141-2163. doi:10.1099/vir.0.056341-0. ... This work lends credibility to the hypothesis that an arterivirus can manipulate cellular miRNAs to enhance virus replication ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/89/8/4494

Viruses  | Free Full-Text | Mechanisms of Coronavirus Cell Entry Mediated by the Viral Spike Protein | NotesViruses | Free Full-Text | Mechanisms of Coronavirus Cell Entry Mediated by the Viral Spike Protein | Notes

Recent Progress in Studies of Arterivirus- and Coronavirus-Host Interactions. Choose your preferred view mode. Please select ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/4/6/1011/notes

Keystone Symposia | Scientific Conferences on Biomedical and Life Science TopicsKeystone Symposia | Scientific Conferences on Biomedical and Life Science Topics

Arterivirus NSP2: Versatility at the RNA and Protein Level. Núria Verdaguer, Institut de Biologia Molecular de Barcelona (CSIC ...
more infohttps://www.keystonesymposia.org/index.cfm?e=Web.Meeting.Program&MeetingID=1230&pTime=ampm

Replication-competent recombinant porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) viruses expressing indicator proteins...Replication-competent recombinant porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) viruses expressing indicator proteins...

Keywords: Porcine arterivirus; Virus cDNA infectious clone; Indicator proteins; Type I interferon; Host factors; Tumor ...
more infohttp://krex.k-state.edu/dspace/handle/2097/15844
  • These proteins, which are collectively referred to as "replicase/transcriptase" or-for simplicity-just "replicase," are encoded by open reading frames 1a and 1b (ORF1a and ORF1b) of the arterivirus genome. (asmscience.org)
  • These proposals would abolish the genus Arterivirus and create five new genera: Dipartevirus, Equartevirus, Nesartevirus, Rodartevirus and Simartevirus. (wikipedia.org)