A genus of the family ARTERIVIRIDAE, in the order NIDOVIRALES. The type species is ARTERITIS VIRUS, EQUINE.
The type species of the genus ARTERIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of an important equine respiratory disease causing abortion, pneumonia, or other infections.
Infections caused by viruses of the genus ARTERIVIRUS.
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
An order comprising three families of eukaryotic viruses possessing linear, nonsegmented, positive sense RNA genomes. The families are CORONAVIRIDAE; ARTERIVIRIDAE; and RONIVIRIDAE.
A family of viruses, of the order NIDOVIRALES, containing spherical virions. In contrast to CORONAVIRIDAE, no protruding spikes are obvious on the surface.
A species ARTERIVIRUS, occurring in a number of transplantable mouse tumors. Infected mice have permanently elevated serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase.
A syndrome characterized by outbreaks of late term abortions, high numbers of stillbirths and mummified or weak newborn piglets, and respiratory disease in young unweaned and weaned pigs. It is caused by PORCINE RESPIRATORY AND REPRODUCTIVE SYNDROME VIRUS. (Radostits et al., Veterinary Medicine, 8th ed, p1048)
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.

Arterivirus discontinuous mRNA transcription is guided by base pairing between sense and antisense transcription-regulating sequences. (1/55)

To generate an extensive set of subgenomic (sg) mRNAs, nidoviruses (arteriviruses and coronaviruses) use a mechanism of discontinuous transcription. During this process, mRNAs are generated that represent the genomic 5' sequence, the so-called leader RNA, fused at specific positions to different 3' regions of the genome. The fusion of the leader to the mRNA bodies occurs at a short, conserved sequence element, the transcription-regulating sequence (TRS), which precedes every transcription unit in the genome and is also present at the 3' end of the leader sequence. Here, we have used site-directed mutagenesis of the infectious cDNA clone of the arterivirus equine arteritis virus to show that sg mRNA synthesis requires a base-pairing interaction between the leader TRS and the complement of a body TRS in the viral negative strand. Mutagenesis of the body TRS of equine arteritis virus RNA7 reduced sg RNA7 transcription severely or abolished it completely. Mutations in the leader TRS dramatically influenced the synthesis of all sg mRNAs. The construction of double mutants in which a mutant leader TRS was combined with the corresponding mutant RNA7 body TRS resulted in the specific restoration of mRNA7 synthesis. The analysis of the mRNA leader-body junctions of a number of mutants with partial transcriptional activity provided support for a mechanism of discontinuous minus-strand transcription that resembles similarity-assisted, copy-choice RNA recombination.  (+info)

Gill-associated virus of Penaeus monodon prawns: an invertebrate virus with ORF1a and ORF1b genes related to arteri- and coronaviruses. (2/55)

A 20089 nucleotide (nt) sequence was determined for the 5' end of the (+)-ssRNA genome of gill-associated virus (GAV), a yellow head-like virus infecting Penaeus monodon prawns. Clones were generated from a approximately 22 kb dsRNA purified from lymphoid organ total RNA of GAV-infected prawns. The region contains a single gene comprising two long overlapping open reading frames, ORF1a and ORF1b, of 4060 and 2646 amino acids, respectively. The ORFs are structurally related to the ORF1a and ORF1ab polyproteins of coronaviruses and arteriviruses. The 99 nt overlap between ORF1a and ORF1b contains a putative AAAUUUU 'slippery' sequence associated with -1 ribosomal frameshifting. A 131 nt stem-loop with the potential to form a complex pseudoknot resides 3 nt downstream of this sequence. Although different to the G/UUUAAAC frameshift sites and 'H-type' pseudoknots of nidoviruses, in vitro transcription/translation analysis demonstrated that the GAV element also facilitates read-through of the ORF1a/1b junction. As in coronaviruses, GAV ORF1a encodes a 3C-like cysteine protease domain located between two hydrophobic regions. However, its sequence suggests some structural relationship to the chymotrypsin-like serine proteases of arteriviruses. ORF1b encodes homologues of the 'SDD' polymerase, which among (+)-RNA viruses is unique to nidoviruses, as well as metal-ion-binding and helicase domains. The presence of a dsRNA replicative intermediate and ORF1a and ORF1ab polyproteins translated by a-1 frameshift suggests that GAV represents the first invertebrate member of the Order NIDOVIRALES:  (+info)

The arterivirus replicase is the only viral protein required for genome replication and subgenomic mRNA transcription. (3/55)

Equine arteritis virus (EAV) (ARTERIVIRIDAE:) encodes several structural proteins. Whether any of these also function in viral RNA synthesis is unknown. For the related mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV), it has been suggested that the nucleocapsid protein (N) is involved in viral RNA synthesis. As described for MHV, we established that the EAV N protein colocalizes with the viral replication complex, suggesting a role in RNA synthesis. Using an infectious cDNA clone, point mutations and deletions were engineered in the EAV genome to disrupt the expression of each of the structural genes. All structural proteins, including N, were found to be dispensable for genome replication and subgenomic mRNA transcription. We also constructed a mutant in which translation of the intraleader ORF was disrupted. This mutant had a wild-type phenotype, indicating that, at least in cell culture, the product of this ORF does not play a role in the EAV replication cycle.  (+info)

Biochemical characterization of the equine arteritis virus helicase suggests a close functional relationship between arterivirus and coronavirus helicases. (4/55)

The arterivirus equine arteritis virus nonstructural protein 10 (nsp10) has previously been predicted to contain a Zn finger structure linked to a superfamily 1 (SF1) helicase domain. A recombinant form of nsp10, MBP-nsp10, was produced in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with the maltose-binding protein. The protein was partially purified by affinity chromatography and shown to have ATPase activity that was strongly stimulated by poly(dT), poly(U), and poly(dA) but not by poly(G). The protein also had both RNA and DNA duplex-unwinding activities that required the presence of 5' single-stranded regions on the partial-duplex substrates, indicating a 5'-to-3' polarity in the unwinding reaction. Results of this study suggest a close functional relationship between the arterivirus nsp10 and the coronavirus helicase, for which NTPase and duplex-unwinding activities were recently demonstrated. In a number of biochemical properties, both arterivirus and coronavirus SF1 helicases differ significantly from the previously characterized RNA virus SF1 and SF2 enzymes. Thus, the combined data strongly support the idea that nidovirus helicases may represent a separate group of RNA virus-encoded helicases with distinct properties.  (+info)

Structure of arterivirus nsp4. The smallest chymotrypsin-like proteinase with an alpha/beta C-terminal extension and alternate conformations of the oxyanion hole. (5/55)

Arteriviruses are enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses and include pathogens of major economic concern to the swine- and horse-breeding industries. The arterivirus replicase gene encodes two large precursor polyproteins that are processed by the viral main proteinase nonstructural protein 4 (nsp4). The three-dimensional structure of the 21-kDa nsp4 from the arterivirus prototype equine arteritis virus has been determined to 2.0 A resolution. Nsp4 adopts the smallest known chymotrypsin-like fold with a canonical catalytic triad of Ser-120, His-39, and Asp-65, as well as a novel alpha/beta C-terminal extension domain that may play a role in mediating protein-protein interactions. In different copies of nsp4 in the asymmetric unit, the oxyanion hole adopts either a collapsed inactive conformation or the standard active conformation, which may be a novel way of regulating proteolytic activity.  (+info)

Chimeric arteriviruses generated by swapping of the M protein ectodomain rule out a role of this domain in viral targeting. (6/55)

Arteriviruses are enveloped, positive-strand RNA viruses for which the two major envelope proteins GP(5) and M occur as disulfide-linked heterodimers. These were assumed to serve the viral targeting functions, but recent ectodomain swapping studies with equine arteritis virus (EAV) indicate that the GP(5) protein does not determine arteriviral tropism. Here, we focused on the short, 13- to 18-residue ectodomain of the M protein. Using an infectious cDNA clone of the Lelystad virus isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), we substituted the genomic sequence encoding the M ectodomain by that of murine lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus, EAV, and the US PRRSV-isolate, VR2332. Viable viruses with a chimeric M protein were obtained in all three cases, but for the latter two only after removal of the genomic overlap between the M and GP(5) genes. Characterization of the chimeric viruses revealed that they could be distinguished immunologically from wild-type virus, that they were genetically stable in vitro, but that they were impaired in their growth, reaching lower titers than the parental virus. The latter appeared to be due to an increased particle-to-infectivity ratio of the chimeric virus particles. Interestingly, the chimeric viruses had retained their ability to infect porcine cells and had not acquired tropism for cells susceptible to the viruses from which the foreign ectodomains were derived. We conclude that the surface structures composed by the arterivirus M and GP(5) ectodomains do not determine viral tropism.  (+info)

Quantitative assessment of the effect of uracil-DNA glycosylase on amplicon DNA degradation and RNA amplification in reverse transcription-PCR. (7/55)

Although PCR and RT-PCR provided a valuable approach for detection of pathogens, the high level of sensitivity of these assays also makes them prone to false positive results. In addition to cross-contamination with true positive samples, false positive results are also possible due to "carry-over" contamination of samples with amplicon DNA generated by previous reactions. To reduce this source of false positives, amplicon generated by reactions in which dUTP was substituted for dTTP can be degraded by uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG). UNG does not degrade RNA but will cleave contaminating uracil-containing DNA while leaving thymine-containing DNA intact. The availability of heat-labile UNG makes use of this approach feasible for RT-PCR. In this study, real-time RT-PCR was used to quantify UNG degradation of amplicon DNA and the effect of UNG on RNA detection. Using the manufacturers' recommended conditions, complete degradation of DNA was not observed for samples containing 250 copies of amplicon DNA. Doubling the UNG concentration resulted in degradation of the two lowest concentrations of DNA tested, but also resulted in an increase of 1.94 cycles in the CT for RNA detection. To improve DNA degradation while minimizing the effect on RNA detection, a series of time, temperature and enzyme concentrations were evaluated. Optimal conditions were found to be 0.25 U UNG per 25 microl reaction with a 20 min, 30 degrees C incubation prior to RT-PCR. Under these conditions, high concentrations of amplicon DNA could be degraded while the CT for RNA detection was increased by 1.2 cycles.  (+info)

An RNA pseudoknot in the 3' end of the arterivirus genome has a critical role in regulating viral RNA synthesis. (8/55)

In the life cycle of plus-strand RNA viruses, the genome initially serves as the template for both translation of the viral replicase gene and synthesis of minus-strand RNA and is ultimately packaged into progeny virions. These various processes must be properly balanced to ensure efficient viral proliferation. To achieve this, higher-order RNA structures near the termini of a variety of RNA virus genomes are thought to play a key role in regulating the specificity and efficiency of viral RNA synthesis. In this study, we have analyzed the signals for minus-strand RNA synthesis in the prototype of the arterivirus family, equine arteritis virus (EAV). Using site-directed mutagenesis and an EAV reverse genetics system, we have demonstrated that a stem-loop structure near the 3' terminus of the EAV genome is required for RNA synthesis. We have also obtained evidence for an essential pseudoknot interaction between the loop region of this stem-loop structure and an upstream hairpin residing in the gene encoding the nucleocapsid protein. We propose that the formation of this pseudoknot interaction may constitute a molecular switch that could regulate the specificity or timing of viral RNA synthesis. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that phylogenetic analysis predicted the formation of similar pseudoknot interactions near the 3' end of all known arterivirus genomes, suggesting that this interaction has been conserved in evolution.  (+info)

Arterivirus is a type of enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus that belongs to the family Arteriviridae. These viruses are named after their initial discovery in arteries and have since been found to infect a wide range of mammals, including pigs, horses, cats, and primates.

Arteriviruses can cause various diseases, such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) in pigs, equine arteritis virus (EAV) in horses, and simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) in non-human primates. In humans, Arterivirus infection is rare, but some cases of human infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus have been reported.

Arteriviruses are characterized by their unique viral structure, including a distinctive "coronavirus-like" appearance due to the presence of club-shaped projections on their surface called peplomers. However, they differ from coronaviruses in several ways, such as genome organization and replication strategy.

Overall, Arterivirus is an important group of viruses that can cause significant economic losses in the livestock industry and pose a potential threat to human health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but there seems to be a mistake in your question. "Arteritis Virus, Equine" is not a recognized medical term or virus in humans or animals. There is a condition called "Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA)," which is a viral disease that affects horses and other equine species. However, it does not affect humans.

Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA) is caused by the Equine Arteritis Virus (EAV). This virus primarily affects the respiratory system and can cause symptoms such as fever, lethargy, loss of appetite, and a runny nose in infected horses. In some cases, it may also lead to inflammation of the lining of blood vessels (vasculitis), which can result in abortion in pregnant mares or infertility in stallions.

It's essential to maintain proper biosecurity measures when dealing with horses, especially those that have been exposed to EVA, to prevent its spread and protect the health of other equine populations.

Arterivirus infections are viral diseases caused by members of the Arteriviridae family, which includes several species that can infect a variety of animals. The most well-known arterivirus is the equine arteritis virus (EAV), which causes equine arteritis in horses. Other examples include the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in pigs, and simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) in non-human primates.

Arterivirus infections typically cause respiratory or reproductive symptoms, depending on the specific virus and host species. For example, EAV can cause respiratory disease, abortion, and infertility in horses, while PRRSV primarily affects the reproductive system of pigs, causing abortions, stillbirths, and weak piglets.

Transmission of arteriviruses typically occurs through direct contact with infected animals or their bodily fluids, such as respiratory droplets or semen. Some arteriviruses can also be transmitted vertically, from mother to offspring, during pregnancy or birth.

There are currently no specific treatments for arterivirus infections, and prevention efforts focus on biosecurity measures, such as quarantine and vaccination of susceptible animals.

Porcine Respiratory and Reproductive Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) is an enveloped, positive-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Arteriviridae family. It is the causative agent of Porcine Respiratory and Reproductive Syndrome (PRRS), also known as "blue ear disease" or "porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome."

The virus primarily affects pigs, causing a wide range of clinical signs including respiratory distress in young animals and reproductive failure in pregnant sows. The infection can lead to late-term abortions, stillbirths, premature deliveries, and weak or mummified fetuses. In growing pigs, PRRSV can cause pneumonia, which is often accompanied by secondary bacterial infections.

PRRSV has a tropism for cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage, and it replicates within these cells, leading to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the development of the clinical signs associated with the disease. The virus is highly infectious and can spread rapidly in susceptible pig populations, making it a significant concern for the swine industry worldwide.

It's important to note that PRRSV has two distinct genotypes: Type 1 (European) and Type 2 (North American). Both types have a high degree of genetic diversity, which can make controlling the virus challenging. Vaccination is available for PRRSV, but it may not provide complete protection against all strains of the virus, and it may not prevent infection or shedding. Therefore, biosecurity measures, such as strict sanitation and animal movement controls, are critical to preventing the spread of this virus in pig populations.

Nidovirales is an order of viruses that includes important pathogens such as coronaviruses and arteriviruses. These viruses are characterized by their large, complex genomes and the production of nested sets of subgenomic mRNAs during replication. They have a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome and are enveloped. The name "Nidovirales" is derived from the Latin word "nidus," meaning "nest," which refers to the nested set of subgenomic mRNAs produced during replication.

Coronaviruses, which include well-known human pathogens such as SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 (which causes COVID-19), primarily infect the respiratory tract and can cause a range of symptoms from mild cold-like illness to severe pneumonia.

Arteriviruses, on the other hand, mainly infect animals and are associated with diseases such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) in pigs and simian hemorrhagic fever in non-human primates.

It's important to note that Nidovirales have a high potential for cross-species transmission, which can lead to the emergence of new viruses with the ability to infect humans and cause disease.

Arteriviridae is a family of enveloped, positive-strand RNA viruses that infect a variety of animal hosts, including mammals and birds. The name "Arteriviridae" comes from the fact that some members of this family were initially identified as causes of diseases affecting arteries and the vascular system.

The genome of Arteriviridae viruses is around 12-16 kilobases in length and contains several open reading frames (ORFs) that encode various structural and non-structural proteins. The replication of these viruses occurs in the cytoplasm of infected cells, and they are known to have a complex transcription strategy involving discontinuous transcription and production of subgenomic mRNAs.

Arteriviridae includes several important veterinary pathogens, such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), equine arteritis virus (EAV), and lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV) of mice. These viruses can cause a range of clinical symptoms in their respective hosts, including respiratory distress, reproductive failure, and immunosuppression.

Human pathogens belonging to Arteriviridae are not yet known, although some members of this family have been found to infect human cells in vitro. Further research is needed to determine the potential impact of Arteriviridae viruses on human health.

Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV) is an RNA virus that primarily infects mice. It is a member of the family Arteriviridae and is unique to murine species. LDV infection results in a persistent, chronic viremia without causing any overt signs of disease in the host. However, it is associated with a significant increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity due to virus-induced damage to infected cells.

The virus infects various tissues and cell types, including macrophages and hepatocytes, and establishes a persistent infection by evading the host's immune response. LDV has been widely used as a model system for studying viral pathogenesis, persistence, and immunosuppression in mice.

It is important to note that Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus is not known to infect humans or other primates, and it is primarily studied in the context of basic research on viral infections and the immune response.

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) is a viral disease that affects pigs, causing reproductive failure in breeding herds and respiratory illness in young pigs. The disease is caused by the PRRS virus, which belongs to the family Arteriviridae.

In pregnant sows, PRRS can cause abortions, stillbirths, mummified fetuses, and weak or infertile offspring. In growing pigs, it can lead to pneumonia, reduced growth rates, and increased susceptibility to other infections. The virus is highly contagious and can spread rapidly within a herd through direct contact with infected pigs, aerosols, or contaminated fomites.

PRRS is a significant disease of global importance, causing substantial economic losses to the swine industry. Control measures include biosecurity practices, vaccination, and testing to detect and eliminate the virus from affected herds. However, there is no specific treatment for PRRS, and eradication of the virus from the pig population is unlikely due to its widespread distribution and ability to persist in infected animals and the environment.

RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, also known as RNA replicase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the production of RNA from an RNA template. It plays a crucial role in the replication of certain viruses, such as positive-strand RNA viruses and retroviruses, which use RNA as their genetic material. The enzyme uses the existing RNA strand as a template to create a new complementary RNA strand, effectively replicating the viral genome. This process is essential for the propagation of these viruses within host cells and is a target for antiviral therapies.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

An open reading frame (ORF) is a continuous stretch of DNA or RNA sequence that has the potential to be translated into a protein. It begins with a start codon (usually "ATG" in DNA, which corresponds to "AUG" in RNA) and ends with a stop codon ("TAA", "TAG", or "TGA" in DNA; "UAA", "UAG", or "UGA" in RNA). The sequence between these two points is called a coding sequence (CDS), which, when transcribed into mRNA and translated into amino acids, forms a polypeptide chain.

In eukaryotic cells, ORFs can be located in either protein-coding genes or non-coding regions of the genome. In prokaryotic cells, multiple ORFs may be present on a single strand of DNA, often organized into operons that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that not all ORFs necessarily represent functional proteins; some may be pseudogenes or result from errors in genome annotation. Therefore, additional experimental evidence is typically required to confirm the expression and functionality of a given ORF.

Viral nonstructural proteins (NS) are viral proteins that are not part of the virion structure. They play various roles in the viral life cycle, such as replication of the viral genome, transcription, translation regulation, and modulation of the host cell environment to favor virus replication. These proteins are often produced in large quantities during infection and can manipulate or disrupt various cellular pathways to benefit the virus. They may also be involved in evasion of the host's immune response. The specific functions of viral nonstructural proteins vary depending on the type of virus.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

A viral genome is the genetic material (DNA or RNA) that is present in a virus. It contains all the genetic information that a virus needs to replicate itself and infect its host. The size and complexity of viral genomes can vary greatly, ranging from a few thousand bases to hundreds of thousands of bases. Some viruses have linear genomes, while others have circular genomes. The genome of a virus also contains the information necessary for the virus to hijack the host cell's machinery and use it to produce new copies of the virus. Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is important for developing vaccines and antiviral treatments.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "horses" is not a medical term. It is the common name given to the species *Equus ferus caballus*, which are large domesticated mammals used for transportation, work, and recreation. If you have any questions about horses or a related topic that you would like a medical perspective on, please let me know and I'd be happy to help!

Cricetinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes hamsters, gerbils, and relatives. These small mammals are characterized by having short limbs, compact bodies, and cheek pouches for storing food. They are native to various parts of the world, particularly in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Some species are popular pets due to their small size, easy care, and friendly nature. In a medical context, understanding the biology and behavior of Cricetinae species can be important for individuals who keep them as pets or for researchers studying their physiology.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

... in arterivirus replicase translation products ORF1a and ORF1ab In the equine arterivirus (EAV), the replicase gene is ... Equine+arterivirus+serine+peptidase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology v ... Equine arterivirus serine peptidase (EC 3.4.21.114) is an enzyme. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction ... "The arterivirus nsp4 protease is the prototype of a novel group of chymotrypsin-like enzymes, the 3C-like serine proteases". ...
This prediction was later confirmed by in vitro experiments for a number of coronavirus and arterivirus PLP domains, including ... In addition to deubiquitinating activity, coronavirus and arterivirus PLP domains have been identified as deISGylase enzymes, ... Snijder, Eric J.; Kikkert, Marjolein; Fang, Ying (1 October 2013). "Arterivirus molecular biology and pathogenesis". Journal of ... "Arterivirus Subgenomic mRNA Synthesis and Virion Biogenesis Depend on the Multifunctional nsp1 Autoprotease". Journal of ...
EVA is caused by an arterivirus called equine arteritis virus (EAV). Arteriviruses are small, enveloped, animal viruses with an ... As well as equine arteritis virus the Arterivirus family includes porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), ... "Zn2+ Inhibits Coronavirus and Arterivirus RNA Polymerase Activity In Vitro and Zinc Ionophores Block the Replication of These ...
The recent molecular analysis of the virus revealed its similarities with Arterivirus and coronaviruses, which led to the ... inclusion of the Torovirus along with the Arterivirus in the previously monogeneric Coronaviridae. At present, toroviruses are ... Torovirus and Arterivirus genera. Archives of virology, 135(1-2), 227-237. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01309782 Ivanov K.A., ...
"Novel Arterivirus Associated with Outbreak of Fatal Encephalitis in European Hedgehogs, England, 2019". Emerg Infect Dis. 27 (2 ...
In 1957 equine arterivirus and the cause of bovine virus diarrhoea (a pestivirus) were discovered. In 1963 the hepatitis B ...
10 November 2015). "In the family Arteriviridae create 10 species (1 unassigned, 9 in the genus Arterivirus) and rename one ...
"Zn2+ Inhibits Coronavirus and Arterivirus RNA Polymerase Activity In Vitro and Zinc Ionophores Block the Replication of These ...
"Zn2+ Inhibits Coronavirus and Arterivirus RNA Polymerase Activity In Vitro and Zinc Ionophores Block the Replication of These ...
... inhibits coronavirus and arterivirus RNA polymerase activity in vitro and zinc ionophores block the replication of these ...
... equine arterivirus was discovered. In the 1950s, improvements in virus isolation and detection methods resulted in the ...
... arterivirus MeSH B04.909.777.500.080.500.100 - arteritis virus, equine MeSH B04.909.777.500.080.500.500 - lactate dehydrogenase ... arterivirus MeSH B04.820.504.080.100.100 - arteritis virus, equine MeSH B04.820.504.080.100.500 - lactate dehydrogenase- ...
... arterivirus infections MeSH C02.782.600.100.700 - porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome MeSH C02.782.600.550 - ...
... equine arterivirus serine peptidase EC 3.4.21.115: infectious pancreatic necrosis birnavirus Vp4 peptidase EC 3.4.21.116: ...
... in arterivirus replicase translation products ORF1a and ORF1ab In the equine arterivirus (EAV), the replicase gene is ... Equine+arterivirus+serine+peptidase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology v ... Equine arterivirus serine peptidase (EC 3.4.21.114) is an enzyme. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction ... "The arterivirus nsp4 protease is the prototype of a novel group of chymotrypsin-like enzymes, the 3C-like serine proteases". ...
Vanmechelen B, Vergote V, Laenen L, Koundouno FR, Bore JA, Wada J, et al. Expanding the arterivirus host spectrum: Oliviers ... Arterivirus molecular biology and pathogenesis. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:2141-63. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Novel Arterivirus Associated with Outbreak of Fatal Encephalitis in European Hedgehogs, England, 2019 On This Page ... Novel Arterivirus Associated with Outbreak of Fatal Encephalitis in European Hedgehogs, England, 2019. Emerging Infectious ...
High antiviral activity of mercaptoethane sulfonate functionalized Te/BSA nanostars against arterivirus and coronavirus. ...
Zn(2+) inhibits coronavirus and arterivirus RNA polymerase activity in vitro and zinc ionophores block the replication of these ...
Arterivirus/genética , Arterivirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arterivirus/metabolismo , Carpas , Linhagem Celular , ... A murine arterivirus, lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV), was first described in 1960 and quickly became a promising ... Arterivirus/genética , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Ribonucleico/genética ... Antivirais/farmacologia , Arterivirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Coronaviridae/efeitos dos fármacos , ...
Arterivirus B4.820.504.80.100 B4.820.504.80.500 B4.909.777.500.80.500 Arthralgia C23.888.646.130 C10.597.617.133 C23.888. ...
Arterivirus B4.820.504.80.100 B4.820.504.80.500 B4.909.777.500.80.500 Arthralgia C23.888.646.130 C10.597.617.133 C23.888. ...
Arterivirus B4.820.504.80.100 B4.820.504.80.500 B4.909.777.500.80.500 Arthralgia C23.888.646.130 C10.597.617.133 C23.888. ...
Arterivirus B4.820.504.80.100 B4.820.504.80.500 B4.909.777.500.80.500 Arthralgia C23.888.646.130 C10.597.617.133 C23.888. ...
Arterivirus B4.820.504.80.100 B4.820.504.80.500 B4.909.777.500.80.500 Arthralgia C23.888.646.130 C10.597.617.133 C23.888. ...
Arterivirus molecular biology and pathogenesis Eric J Snijder 1 , Marjolein Kikkert 1 , Ying Fang 2 3 ... Arterivirus molecular biology and pathogenesis Eric J Snijder et al. J Gen Virol. 2013 Oct. ... Structural Biology of the Arterivirus nsp11 Endoribonucleases. Zhang M, Li X, Deng Z, Chen Z, Liu Y, Gao Y, Wu W, Chen Z. Zhang ... Biogenesis and architecture of arterivirus replication organelles. van der Hoeven B, Oudshoorn D, Koster AJ, Snijder EJ, ...
Novel Arterivirus Associated with Outbreak of Fatal Encephalitis in European Hedgehogs, England, 2019 Akbar Dastjerdi. , Nadia ... Novel Arterivirus Associated with Outbreak of Fatal Encephalitis in European Hedgehogs, England, 2019. ... Genomic organization of hedgehog arterivirus-1. The genome arrangement resembles those of classical arteriviruses with open ...
4. Efficient -2 frameshifting by mammalian ribosomes to synthesize an additional arterivirus protein.. Fang Y; Treffers EE; Li ...
The mechanism of arterivirus cell entry has not been fully elucidated, although these viruses are thought to enter cells ... Fully Automated Cell Culture System Increases the Efficiency and Consistency of Arterivirus Plaque Assays. Thursday, November ...
Arterivirus B04.820.504.080.500.100 Equartevirus B04.820.504.080.500.500 Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus B04.820.504.080. ...
Biogenesis and architecture of arterivirus replication organelles. van der Hoeven B, Oudshoorn D, Koster AJ, Snijder EJ, ... Ultrastructural characterization of arterivirus replication structures: reshaping the endoplasmic reticulum to accommodate ...
Arterivirus (organism) {370583003 , SNOMED-CT } Parent/Child (Relationship Type) Equine arteritis virus (organism) {20225009 , ...
Arterivirus Preferred Term Term UI T053868. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1994). ... Arterivirus Preferred Concept UI. M0027204. Related Numbers. txid38143. Scope Note. A genus of the family ARTERIVIRIDAE, in the ... Arterivirus [B04.820.578.500.080.500] * Equartevirus [B04.820.578.500.080.500.100] * Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus [ ... infection = ARTERIVIRUS INFECTIONS. Scope Note. A genus of the family ARTERIVIRIDAE, in the order NIDOVIRALES. The type species ...
Arterivirus Preferred Term Term UI T053868. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1994). ... Arterivirus Preferred Concept UI. M0027204. Related Numbers. txid38143. Scope Note. A genus of the family ARTERIVIRIDAE, in the ... Arterivirus [B04.820.578.500.080.500] * Equartevirus [B04.820.578.500.080.500.100] * Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus [ ... infection = ARTERIVIRUS INFECTIONS. Scope Note. A genus of the family ARTERIVIRIDAE, in the order NIDOVIRALES. The type species ...
The concept includes ARTERIVIRUS INFECTIONS and CORONAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.. Annotation:. general or unspecified; prefer ... El concepto incluye las INFECCIONES POR ARTERIVIRUS y las INFECCIONES POR CORONAVIRIDAE.. ...
Deubiquitinase function of arterivirus papain-like protease 2 suppresses the innate immune response in infected host cells. van ... Arterivirus molecular biology and pathogenesis. Snijder, Eric J; Kikkert, Marjolein; Fang, Ying. ... Arterivirus and nairovirus ovarian tumor domain-containing Deubiquitinases target activated RIG-I to control innate immune ...
The concept includes ARTERIVIRUS INFECTIONS and CORONAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS. AN - GEN; prefer specifics HN - 2002 MH - Nitrergic ...
We find that CD163 acts as an intracellular receptor for simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV; a simian arterivirus), a rare ...
Arterivirus B4.820.504.80.100 B4.820.504.80.500 B4.909.777.500.80.500 Arthralgia C23.888.646.130 C10.597.617.133 C23.888. ...
Arterivirus B4.820.504.80.100 B4.820.504.80.500 B4.909.777.500.80.500 Arthralgia C23.888.646.130 C10.597.617.133 C23.888. ...
Arterivirus B4.820.504.80.100 B4.820.504.80.500 B4.909.777.500.80.500 Arthralgia C23.888.646.130 C10.597.617.133 C23.888. ...
Arterivirus B4.820.504.80.100 B4.820.504.80.500 B4.909.777.500.80.500 Arthralgia C23.888.646.130 C10.597.617.133 C23.888. ...
Arterivirus Arterivirus Infections Arthralgia Arthritis Arthritis, Experimental Arthritis, Gouty Arthritis, Infectious ...
  • Examples of nidoviruses with high economic and societal impact are the arterivirus porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and the zoonotic coronaviruses (CoVs) causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and Covid-19 (SARS-CoV-2) in humans. (expasy.org)
  • The article presents the results of a study of the sensitivity of porcine alveolar macrophages to the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (genus Arterivirus, family Arteriviridae), depending on the age of donors. (journalveterinariya.ru)
  • 2013). Deubiquitinase function of arterivirus papain-like protease 2 suppresses the innate immune response in infected host cells . (lightsource.ca)
  • Arterivirus Nsp11 contains two conserved compact domains: the N-terminal domain (NTD) and C-terminal domain (NendoU), whereas coronavirus Nsp15 folds into three domains: N-terminal, middle domain, and C-terminal catalytic NendoU domain. (expasy.org)
  • No counterpart corresponding to the NTD of coronavirus Nsp15 exists in arterivirus Nsp11 and the NTD of arterivirus Nsp11 is small and related to the central domain. (expasy.org)
  • We describe the disease history, histopathology, and the near complete genome sequence of a novel arterivirus, hedgehog arterivirus 1 (HhAV-1). (cdc.gov)
  • Genomic organization of hedgehog arterivirus-1. (cdc.gov)
  • The concept includes ARTERIVIRUS INFECTIONS and CORONAVIRIDAE INFECTIONS . (bvsalud.org)
  • We used next-generation sequencing to identify a novel arterivirus with a genome coding sequence of only 43% similarity to existing GenBank arterivirus sequences. (cdc.gov)
  • The arterivirus genome is composed of a single, 12-16 kb, polyadenylated, RNA strand that contains 2 major genomic regions. (cdc.gov)