The type species of the genus ARTERIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of an important equine respiratory disease causing abortion, pneumonia, or other infections.
Infections caused by viruses of the genus ARTERIVIRUS.
A chronic inflammatory process that affects the AORTA and its primary branches, such as the brachiocephalic artery (BRACHIOCEPHALIC TRUNK) and CAROTID ARTERIES. It results in progressive arterial stenosis, occlusion, and aneurysm formation. The pulse in the arm is hard to detect. Patients with aortitis syndrome often exhibit retinopathy.
INFLAMMATION of any ARTERIES.
Occurs in seeds of Brassica and Crucifera species. Thiouracil has been used as antithyroid, coronary vasodilator, and in congestive heart failure although its use has been largely supplanted by other drugs. It is known to cause blood dyscrasias and suspected of terato- and carcinogenesis.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
A genus of the family ARTERIVIRIDAE, in the order NIDOVIRALES. The type species is ARTERITIS VIRUS, EQUINE.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.
A family of RNA viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of two genera: ALPHAVIRUS (group A arboviruses), and RUBIVIRUS. Virions are spherical, 60-70 nm in diameter, with a lipoprotein envelope tightly applied to the icosahedral nucleocapsid.
A syndrome in the elderly characterized by proximal joint and muscle pain, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and a self-limiting course. Pain is usually accompanied by evidence of an inflammatory reaction. Women are affected twice as commonly as men and Caucasians more frequently than other groups. The condition is frequently associated with GIANT CELL ARTERITIS and some theories pose the possibility that the two diseases arise from a single etiology or even that they are the same entity.
Vaccines used in conjunction with diagnostic tests to differentiate vaccinated animals from carrier animals. Marker vaccines can be either a subunit or a gene-deleted vaccine.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A species ARTERIVIRUS, occurring in a number of transplantable mouse tumors. Infected mice have permanently elevated serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
A form of necrotizing non-granulomatous inflammation occurring primarily in medium-sized ARTERIES, often with microaneurysms. It is characterized by muscle, joint, and abdominal pain resulting from arterial infarction and scarring in affected organs. Polyarteritis nodosa with lung involvement is called CHURG-STRAUSS SYNDROME.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*52 allele family.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Conditions resulting from abnormalities in the arteries branching from the ASCENDING AORTA, the curved portion of the aorta. These syndromes are results of occlusion or abnormal blood flow to the head-neck or arm region leading to neurological defects and weakness in an arm. These syndromes are associated with vascular malformations; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; TRAUMA; and blood clots.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.

Genetic diversity of equine arteritis virus. (1/128)

Equine arteritis viruses (EAV) from Europe and America were compared by phylogenetic analysis of 43 isolates obtained over four decades. An additional 22 virus sequences were retrieved from GenBank. Fragments of the glycoprotein G(L) and the replicase genes were amplified by RT-PCR, prior to sequencing and construction of phylogenetic trees. The trees revealed many distinctive lineages, consistent with prolonged diversification within geographically separated host populations. Two large groups and five subgroups were distinguished. Group I consisted mainly of viruses from North America, whilst group II consisted mainly of European isolates. In most instances, where the geographic origin of the viruses appeared to be at variance with the phylogenetically predicted relationships, the horses from which the viruses were recovered had been transported between Europe and America or vice versa. Analysis of the replicase gene revealed similar phylogenetic relationships although not all of the groups were as clearly defined. Virus strains CH1 (Switzerland, 1964) and S1 (Sweden, 1989) represented separate 'outgroups' based on analysis of both genomic regions. The results of this study confirm the value of the G(L) gene of EAV for estimating virus genetic diversity and as a useful tool for tracing routes by which EAV is spread. In addition, computer-assisted predictions of antigenic sites on the G(L) protein revealed considerable variability among the isolates, especially with respect to regions associated with neutralization domains.  (+info)

Genetic divergence with emergence of novel phenotypic variants of equine arteritis virus during persistent infection of stallions. (2/128)

The persistently infected carrier stallion is the critical natural reservoir of equine arteritis virus (EAV), as venereal infection of mares frequently occurs after breeding to such stallions. Two Thoroughbred stallions that were infected during the 1984 outbreak of equine viral arteritis in central Kentucky subsequently became long-term EAV carriers. EAV genomes amplified from the semen of these two stallions were compared by sequence analysis of the six 3' open reading frames (ORFs 2 through 7), which encode the four known structural proteins and two uncharacterized glycoproteins. The major variants of the EAV population that sequentially arose within the reproductive tract of each carrier stallion varied by approximately 1% per year, and the heterogeneity of the viral quasispecies increased during the course of long-term persistent infection. The various ORFs of the dominant EAV variants evolved independently, and there was apparently strong selective pressure on the uncharacterized GP3 protein during persistent infection. Amino acid changes also occurred in the V1 variable region of the GL protein. This region has been previously identified as a crucial neutralization domain, and selective pressures exerted on the V1 region during persistent EAV infection led to the emergence of virus variants with distinct neutralization properties. Thus, evolution of the EAV quasispecies that occurs during persistent infection of the stallion clearly can influence viral phenotypic properties such as neutralization and perhaps virulence.  (+info)

Characterization of an equine arteritis virus replicase mutant defective in subgenomic mRNA synthesis. (3/128)

Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus that synthesizes a 5'- and 3'-coterminal nested set of six subgenomic mRNAs. These mRNAs all contain a common leader sequence which is derived from the 5' end of the genome. Subgenomic mRNA transcription and genome replication are directed by the viral replicase, which is expressed in the form of two polyproteins and subsequently processed into smaller nonstructural proteins (nsps). During the recent construction of an EAV infectious cDNA clone (pEAV030 [L. C. van Dinten, J. A. den Boon, A. L. M. Wassenaar, W. J. M. Spaan, and E. J. Snijder, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:991-996, 1997]), a mutant cDNA clone (pEAV030F) which carries a single replicase point mutation was obtained. This substitution (Ser-2429-->Pro) is located in the nsp10 subunit and renders the EAV030F virus deficient in subgenomic mRNA synthesis. To obtain more insight into the role of nsp10 in transcription and the nature of the transcriptional defect, we have now analyzed the EAV030F mutant in considerable detail. The Ser-2429-->Pro mutation does not affect the proteolytic processing of the replicase but apparently affects the function of nsp10 in transcription. Furthermore, our study showed that EAV030F still produces subgenomic positive and negative strands, albeit at a very low level. Both subgenomic positive-strand synthesis and negative-strand synthesis are equally affected by the Ser-2429-->Pro mutation, suggesting that nsp10 plays an important role in an early step of EAV mRNA transcription.  (+info)

Identification of a novel structural protein of arteriviruses. (4/128)

Arteriviruses are positive-stranded RNA viruses with an efficiently organized, polycistronic genome. A short region between the replicase gene and open reading frame (ORF) 2 of the equine arteritis virus (EAV) genome was previously assumed to be untranslated. However, here we report that this segment of the EAV genome contains the 5' part of a novel gene (ORF 2a) which is conserved in all arteriviruses. The 3' part of EAV ORF 2a overlaps with the 5' part of the former ORF 2 (now renamed ORF 2b), which encodes the GS glycoprotein. Both ORF 2a and ORF 2b appear to be expressed from mRNA 2, which thereby constitutes the first proven example of a bicistronic mRNA in arteriviruses. The 67-amino-acid protein encoded by EAV ORF 2a, which we have provisionally named the envelope (E) protein, is very hydrophobic and has a basic C terminus. An E protein-specific antiserum was raised and used to demonstrate the expression of the novel gene in EAV-infected cells. The EAV E protein proved to be very stable, did not form disulfide-linked oligomers, and was not N-glycosylated. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy studies showed that the E protein associates with intracellular membranes both in EAV-infected cells and upon independent expression. An analysis of purified EAV particles revealed that the E protein is a structural protein. By using reverse genetics, we demonstrated that both the EAV E and GS proteins are essential for the production of infectious progeny virus.  (+info)

Equine arteritis virus derived from an infectious cDNA clone is attenuated and genetically stable in infected stallions. (5/128)

Virus derived from an infectious cDNA clone of equine arteritis virus (EAV030H) was intranasally inoculated into two stallions, neither of which subsequently developed clinical manifestations of equine viral arteritis (EVA). Virus was isolated from nasal swabs and mononuclear cells collected from both stallions +info)

Genetic stability of equine arteritis virus during horizontal and vertical transmission in an outbreak of equine viral arteritis. (6/128)

An imported carrier stallion (A) from Europe was implicated in causing an extensive outbreak of equine viral arteritis (EVA) on a Warmblood breeding farm in Pennsylvania, USA. Strains of equine arteritis virus (EAV) present in the semen of two carrier stallions (A and G) on the farm were compared to those in tissues of foals born during the outbreak, as well as viruses present in the semen of two other stallions that became persistently infected carriers of EAV following infection during the outbreak. The 2822 bp segment encompassing ORFs 2-7 (nt 9807-12628; which encode the G(S), GP3, GP4, G(L), M and N proteins, respectively) was directly amplified by RT-PCR from semen samples and foal tissues. Nucleotide and phylogenetic analyses confirmed that virus present in the semen of stallion A initiated the outbreak. The genomes of viruses present in most foal tissues (10/11) and serum from an acutely infected mare collected during the outbreak were identical to that of virus present in the lung of the first foal that died of EVA. Virus in the placenta of one foal differed by one nucleotide (99.9% identity) from the predominant outbreak virus. The relative genetic stability of viruses that circulated during the outbreak contrasts markedly with the heterogeneous virus populations variously present in the semen of persistently infected stallions on the farm. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the carrier stallion can be a source of genetic diversity of EAV, and that outbreaks of EVA can be initiated by the horizontal aerosol transmission of specific viral variants that occur in the semen of particular carrier stallions.  (+info)

The open reading frame 3 of equine arteritis virus encodes an immunogenic glycosylated, integral membrane protein. (7/128)

Open reading frame 3 (ORF 3) of equine arteritis virus (EAV) is predicted to encode a glycosylated membrane protein (GP3) that is uncharacterized. ORF 3 of the American Type Culture Collection strain of EAV was in vitro transcribed and the encoded GP3 protein was in vitro translated with and without canine microsomal membranes. The GP3 protein was approximately 17 kDa after in vitro translation without canine microsomal membranes whereas the glycosylated form, after translation with microsomal membranes, was a diffuse band of 36-42 kDa, indicating that the GP3 protein is extensively glycosylated. Deglycosylation reduced the GP3 protein to approximately 17 kDa, the same size as that translated without microsomal membranes, indicating that the signal sequence was not cleaved. The EAV GP3 protein was membrane associated and not released as a soluble protein, in marked contrast to the ORF 3-encoded proteins of some other arteriviruses. The GP3 protein was protected from protease digestion in closed membrane vesicles, suggesting that the protein extends into the membrane vesicles and is anchored by the N-terminal signal sequence, a C-terminal hydrophobic domain, or both, but does not span the membrane three times. A GP3 protein lacking the C-terminal transmembrane domain remained membrane associated, indicating that this terminus is not a necessary membrane anchor. Sera from stallions persistently infected with EAV and horses immunized repeatedly with the modified live EAV vaccine contained antibodies specific for the GP3 protein. The data indicate that the GP3 protein is an extensively glycosylated membrane protein that is immunogenic during some EAV infections.  (+info)

Effects of chlorine, iodine, and quaternary ammonium compound disinfectants on several exotic disease viruses. (8/128)

The effects of three representative disinfectants, chlorine (sodium hypochlorite), iodine (potassium tetraglicine triiodide), and quaternary ammonium compound (didecyldimethylammonium chloride), on several exotic disease viruses were examined. The viruses used were four enveloped viruses (vesicular stomatitis virus, African swine fever virus, equine viral arteritis virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus) and two non-enveloped viruses (swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV)). Chlorine was effective against all viruses except SVDV at concentrations of 0.03% to 0.0075%, and a dose response was observed. Iodine was very effective against all viruses at concentrations of 0.015% to 0.0075%, but a dose response was not observed. Quaternary ammonium compound was very effective in low concentration of 0.003% against four enveloped viruses and AHSV, but it was only effective against SVDV with 0.05% NaOH. Electron microscopic observation revealed the probable mechanism of each disinfectant. Chlorine caused complete degeneration of the viral particles and also destroyed the nucleic acid of the viruses. Iodine destroyed mainly the inner components including nucleic acid of the viruses. Quaternary ammonium compound induced detachment of the envelope of the enveloped viruses and formation of micelle in non-enveloped viruses. According to these results, chlorine and iodine disinfectants were quite effective against most of the viruses used at adequately high concentration. The effective concentration of quaternary ammonium compound was the lowest among the disinfectants examined.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Amino acid substitutions in the structural or nonstructural proteins of a vaccine strain of equine arteritis virus are associated with its attenuation. AU - Zhang, Jianqiang. AU - Go, Yun Young. AU - Maclachlan, Nigel J. AU - Meade, Barry J.. AU - Timoney, Peter J.. AU - Balasuriya, Udeni B R. PY - 2008/9/1. Y1 - 2008/9/1. N2 - Comparative sequence analysis of a series of strains of equine arteritis virus (EAV) of defined virulence for horses, ranging from the horse-adapted virulent Bucyrus (VB) strain to a fully attenuated vaccine strain derived from it, identified 13 amino acid substitutions associated with attenuation. These include 4 substitutions in the replicase proteins and 9 in the structural proteins. Using reverse genetic techniques, these amino acid substitutions were introduced into a virulent infectious cDNA clone pEAVrVBS derived from the VB strain of EAV. Inoculation of horses with the recombinant viruses clearly demonstrated that changes in either the replicase ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection of equine arteritis virus by real-time TaqMan® reverse transcription-PCR assay. AU - Balasuriya, Udeni B R. AU - Leutenegger, Christian M.. AU - Topol, J. B.. AU - McCollum, William H.. AU - Timoney, Peter J.. AU - Maclachlan, Nigel J. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - A one-tube real-time TaqMan® reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed for the detection of equine arteritis virus (EAV). The test was validated using the seminal plasma and nasal secretions of infected horses that were proven to contain EAV by traditional virus isolation in rabbit kidney thirteen (RK-13) cells, as well as a variety of cell culture-propagated European and North American strains of EAV. The primers and a fluorogenic TaqMan® probe were designed to amplify and detect a highly conserved region of open reading frame 7 (ORF7) of EAV. The real-time TaqMan® PCR assay detected EAV RNA in all samples that were confirmed to contain infectious EAV by virus isolation. ...
cDNA copies of the M and N genes of equine arteritis virus (EAV) isolates were synthesized by reverse transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction amplification. The cDNA was subjected to a cycle sequencing strategy using Taq polymerase, and the nucleotide and derived amino acid sequences of 10 virus isolates were compared. The M and N genes of all isolates had the same initiation and termination sites as the prototype Bucyrus strain and the encoded proteins were conserved between viruses. Comparison of nucleotide sequence homologies and phylogenetic tree analysis implied the existence of three EAV variants originating from the U.S.A. (Bucyrus), Austria (Vienna) and Switzerland (Bibuna), and suggested that RNA recombination between EAV isolates may have occurred.
Previous studies in our laboratory have identified equine CXCL16 (EqCXCL16) to be a candidate molecule and possible cell entry receptor for equine arteritis virus (EAV). In horses, the CXCL16 gene is located on equine chromosome 11 (ECA11) and encodes a glycosylated, type I transmembrane protein with 247 amino acids. Stable transfection of HEK-293T cells with plasmid DNA carrying EqCXCL16 (HEK-EqCXCL16 cells) increased the proportion of the cell population permissive to EAV infection from | 3% to almost 100%. The increase in permissiveness was blocked either by transfection of HEK-EqCXCL16 cells with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) directed against EqCXCL16 or by pretreatment with guinea pig polyclonal antibody against EqCXCL16 protein (Gp anti-EqCXCL16 pAb). Furthermore, using a virus overlay protein-binding assay (VOPBA) in combination with far-Western blotting, gradient-purified EAV particles were shown to bind directly to the EqCXCL16 protein in vitro. The binding of biotinylated virulent EAV strain
Moyo, N, Westcott, D, Simmonds, R and Steinbach, F (2012) Equine arteritis virus replication in monocytic cells suppresses differentiation and function of dendritic cells In: European Congress of Immunology, 2012-09-05 - 2012-09-08, Glasgow, SCOTLAND. Full text not available from this repository ...
Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is a positive stranded RNA virus that infects horses worldwide. Sporadic respiratory disease and sudden death in foals, abortion in mares, and mild or subclinical infections in adult horses have been described resulting from this infection. Adult stallions may become chronically infected; they can become a reservoir and spread the virus via their semen. VetPCR EAV Detection Kit is the direct detection of Equine arteritis virus on the basis of a genetic database, so it can diagnose very fast and accurately. It can amplify only specific gene using the PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) method, and take only 3 hours for detection. Therefore, it is a very fast, accurate, reliable technique.
Serological analysis of blood samples submitted to the Animal Health Trust showed that during 1995, 185 of 9203 unvacdnated horses (2.0 per cent) tested positive for antibodies to equine arteritis virus (EAV), and that during 1996,46 of 8851 unvaccinated horses (0.52 per cent) tested positive. During both years thoroughbreds were the predominant breed tested and only a small proportion of these (<0.3 per cent), consisting predominantly of imported mares, were seropositive. In contrast, among standardbred horses, from which samples were actively solicited in 1995,84 of 454 (18.5 per cent) were seropositive. Among standardbreds there was a difference in prevalence between types of horses, with 3.7 per cent of racing horses, 25 per cent of non-radng horses and 41 per cent of stallions testing seropositive. Investigations of seropositive stallions identified during 1994 and 1995 demonstrated that clinically inapparent equine viral arteritis (EvA) had occurred previously in the uKC Of 50 ...
Udeni Balasuriya, a professor at the University of Kentucky Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center, recently received $2.9 million to identify the genetic factors responsible for establishment of the equine arteritis virus (EAV) carrier state in stallions. The five-year grant was awarded by the U. S. Department of Agriculture-Agriculture and Food Research Initiative.. According to Nancy Cox, associate dean for research in UKs College of Agriculture and administrative leader for UKs Ag Equine Programs, Balasuriyas grant was ranked the highest in its category, unusual for a USDA grant program that normally targets food animals.. This is one of the largest grants awarded in the College of Agriculture in the last year, she said, and is a special kind that includes funds for getting results out to the public in the fastest, most efficient way.. Outbreaks of equine viral arteritis (EVA) result in significant economic losses to the equine industry due to high rates of foal loss in pregnant mares, ...
The change of just four nucleotides in the CXCL16 gene is all that is necessary to determine whether or not stallions are likely to become long-term carriers of EAV. Sanjay Sarkar, Ernest Baily and Udeni Balasuriya of the University of Kentucky, Lexington, and colleagues report these findings Dec. 8, 2016 in PLOS Genetics.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Equine arteritis virus (EAV) and Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) are enveloped RNA viruses belonging to the family Arteriviridae. EAV infection leads to abortion and respiratory illness in horses. PRRSV causes persistent infections in pigs, which is one of the main reasons for the economic losses in the swine industry. The glycoprotein complex Gp2/3/4 and Gp5/M are essential for cell entry and budding, respectively. PRRSV and EAV Gp2/3/4 ectodomains were co-expressed to determine their complex formation in insect cells. The results revealed that PRRSV Gp2/3/4 proteins secreted into the cell culture supernatant as a disulphide linked complex. In contrast, Gp3 of EAV was expressed, but not associated with Gp2/4. The Gp2/3/4 proteins of both PRRSV and EAV are attached to the membrane through their C-terminal hydrophobic transmembrane region as they were secreted when it is removed. This result showed that all the proteins contain type I membrane topology except EAV Gp3 since
Summary Reasons for performing study:A serological study conducted in 1995 revealed that 7 stallions at the Lipizzaner Centre, Gauteng, South Africa, were seropositive for antibody to equine arteritis virus (EAV). A Lipizzaner stallion imported into South Africa from Yugoslavia in 1981 had previously (1988) been confirmed to be an EAV carrier. Despite being placed under life-long breeding quarantine, EAV had been transmitted between stallions at the Lipizzaner Centre. Objectives: To investigate the phylogenetic relationships between the strain of EAV shed in the semen of the original carrier stallion and strains recovered from the semen of 5 other stallions; and to investigate the means whereby lateral transmission of EAV occurred among 7 in-contact, nonbreeding stallions at the Centre. Methods: EAV was isolated from semen collected from the seropositive stallions using RK-13 cells. Viral RNA was reverse transcribed and amplified by polymerase chain reaction using ORF5-specific primers, ...
1MBM: Structure of Arterivirus nsp4: the smallest chymotrypsin-like proteinase with an alpha/beta C-terminal extension and alternate conformations of the oxyanion hole
4IUM: Deubiquitinase function of arterivirus papain-like protease 2 suppresses the innate immune response in infected host cells.
Lu Zǂ, Zhang Jǂ, Huang C, Go YY, Faaberg KS, Rowland RR, Timoney PJ, and Balasuriya UBR. (2012). Chimeric viruses containing the N-terminal ectodomains of GP5 and M proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus do not change the cellular tropism of equine arteritis virus. Virology. 432 (1), 99-109 [ǂ The first two authors should be acknowledged as joint first authors ...
Lu Zǂ, Zhang Jǂ, Huang C, Go YY, Faaberg KS, Rowland RR, Timoney PJ, and Balasuriya UBR. (2012). Chimeric viruses containing the N-terminal ectodomains of GP5 and M proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus do not change the cellular tropism of equine arteritis virus. Virology. 432 (1), 99-109 [ǂ The first two authors should be acknowledged as joint first authors ...
Genetic Testing at Gluck offers several disease mutation tests including JEB, OLWS, Myotonia, Dwarfism in Miniature Horses, Dwarfism in Friesian, and Hydrocephaly in Friesian. In 2016, the laboratory started offering a test to determine CXCL16 Haplotype, a genetic basis for the likelihood of a stallion becoming a long term shedder/carrier of the Equine Arteritis Virus (EAV). More information is available on each of these tests by following the links to the left. ...
Structure of the equine arteritis virus nucleocapsid protein reveals a dimer-dimer arrangement. Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography. 63:581-586. 2007 ...
One hallmark of the PRRS virus in swine is its extremely high genetic diversity. This phenomenon has important implications for disease diagnosis and prevention and is one of the major causes of the partial or complete lack of protection against re-infections.. The PRRS virus is an RNA virus that belongs to the genus Arterivirus, the only genus in the family Arteriviridae, in the order Nidovirales. The PRRS virus contains a non-segmented, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome. The RNA genome is composed of ten open reading frames (ORFs).. Since the first outbreaks of PRRS in swine in America and Europe, two PRRS virus genotypes have been designated: European or Type 1 (prototype Lelystad virus) and North-American or Type 2 (prototype VR-2332). Interestingly, similarity between both prototype nucleotide sequences is as low as 55%. More importantly, intratype pairwise nucleotide sequence variation exceeds 20% (up to 30% in type 1 and around 21% in type 2).. A significant number of subtypes ...
One hallmark of the PRRS virus in swine is its extremely high genetic diversity. This phenomenon has important implications for disease diagnosis and prevention and is one of the major causes of the partial or complete lack of protection against re-infections.. The PRRS virus is an RNA virus that belongs to the genus Arterivirus, the only genus in the family Arteriviridae, in the order Nidovirales. The PRRS virus contains a non-segmented, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome. The RNA genome is composed of ten open reading frames (ORFs).. Since the first outbreaks of PRRS in swine in America and Europe, two PRRS virus genotypes have been designated: European or Type 1 (prototype Lelystad virus) and North-American or Type 2 (prototype VR-2332). Interestingly, similarity between both prototype nucleotide sequences is as low as 55%. More importantly, intratype pairwise nucleotide sequence variation exceeds 20% (up to 30% in type 1 and around 21% in type 2).. A significant number of subtypes ...
Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world. The Merck Veterinary Manual was first published in 1955 as a service to the community. The legacy of this great resource continues as the Merck Veterinary Manual in the US and Canada and the MSD Manual outside of North America.. ...
Biological Sciences Shirley, Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is a disease of horses caused by an RNA virus of the genus Arterivirus. The virus which cau...
Diagnosing horse ailments requires a vet. (Click here for a list of Florida veterinarians by county). Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is a disease of horses caused by an RNA virus of the genus Arterivirus. The virus which causes EVA was first isolated from horses in Ohio in 1953 but the disease has afflicted equine animals worldwide for centuries. It has been more common in some breeds of horses in the United States, but there is no breed immunity. There is no known human hazard.. Arteriviruses are small, enveloped, animal viruses with an icosahedral core containing a positive-sense RNA genome. The family includes Equine arteritis virus (EAV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus (LDV) of mice and simian haemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV).. ...
Nodaviridae is a family of non-enveloped isometric viruses with bipartite positive-sense RNA genomes. The Nodaviridae family consists of two genera: alpha- and beta-nodavirus. Alphanodaviruses usually infect insect cells. Some commercially available insect cell lines have been latently infected by Alphanodaviruses. A non-enveloped small virus of approximately 30 nm in diameter was discovered co-existing with a recombinant Helicoverpa armigera single nucleopolyhedrovirus (Hear NPV) in Hz-AM1 cells. Genome sequencing and phylogenetic assays indicate that this novel virus belongs to the genus of alphanodavirus in the family Nodaviridae and was designated HzNV. HzNV possesses a RNA genome that contains two segments. RNA1 is 3038 nt long and encodes a 110 kDa viral protein termed protein A. The 1404 nt long RNA2 encodes a 44 kDa protein, which exhibits a high homology with coat protein precursors of other alphanodaviruses. HzNV virions were located in the cytoplasm, in association with cytoplasmic membrane
Dynon K , V A , Ficorilli N , et al. Identification of equine herpesvirus 3 (equine coital exanthema virus), equine gammaherpesviruses 2 and 5, equine adenoviruses 1 and 2, equine arteritis virus and equine rhinitis A virus by polymerase chain reaction. Aust Vet J 2001;19:695-701 ...
This chapter focuses on the arterivirus proteins that are involved in genome replication and subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) synthesis. These proteins, which are collectively referred to as
In this study, we attempted to induce mutations in the MN strain of HIV-1 by subjecting the virus to the immunological selective pressure associated with growth in the presence of human serum with high NA activity directed predominately against the V3 region neutralization determinant. We hypothesized that this selective pressure would result in a mutation(s) in the V3 neutralization determinant itself and that the mutation(s) would result in selective resistance to neutralization by the serum used for the selection process and other sera that reacted selectively with the MN V3 neutralization determinant. The four different NR viruses so derived were found to be broadly resistant to neutralization by all of the human sera that we tested, including some that had NA activity that could not be demonstrated to be directed against the V3 determinant by peptide blocking experiments. Sequencing of the PCR DNA spanning the V3 regions of the four different NR viruses derived by this procedure did not ...
About this Data. This app uses data from the U.S. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Fines are listed for the past three years if a home has made partial or full payment (fines under appeal are not included). Information on deficiencies come from a homes last three inspection cycles, or roughly three years in total. Special focus facilities, or homes flagged for having a history of serious quality issues, are marked with an sign. ...
Major envelope protein, Mep45, of 432 aas and 1 N-terminal TMS. Mep45 contains two distinct domains: an N-terminal S-layer homologous (SLH) domain that protrudes into the periplasm and binds to peptidoglycan, and the remaining C-terminal transmembrane domain that forms a non-selective pore able to transport molecules of ,600 Da (Kojima et al. 2016). The estimated pore radius is 0.58 nm; truncation of the SLH domain does not affect the channel ...
Transcription-regulating long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) possess the potential to regulate the site-specific expression of a large number of target genes. and address the obvious paradox of RNA-mediated stabilization of transcriptional activators at enhancers having a repressive result. The need for BRG1/RNA and BRG1/homeodomain relationships in neurodevelopmental disorders can be underscored from the discovering that mutations in Coffin-Siris symptoms a human being intellectual impairment disorder localize towards the BRG1 RNA-binding and DLX1-binding domains. and results. Research on (could have displays both and results (Feng et al. 2006 Relationship et al. 2009 Berghoff et al. 2013 Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) tests show that escalates the binding of transcriptional activators (DLX1/2; Zerucha et al. 2000 as well as the repressor methyl-CpG binding proteins 2 (MECP2; Nan et al. 1997 to crucial enhancers (Zerucha et al. 2000 having a repressive result (Relationship et al. 2009 ...
Shop Replicase polyprotein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Replicase polyprotein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
2014: New Zealand celebrated freedom from equine viral arteritis (EVA). EVA is a serious cause of abortion in horses and has significant trade implications for the horse breeding industry. Eradication of EVA was made possible by more than 20 years of work at Wallaceville, testing breeding horses and preventing further spread of the disease. 2013: The MPI laboratory at Wallaceville carried out more than 30,000 tests on a wide range of samples from farm animals to companion animals and other species. Results were used in 286 exotic disease investigation cases, surveillance work, and certifying animals as disease-free for trade. 2013: an epidemic of anaemia in Northland cattle was identified at Wallaceville as being caused by Theileria orientalis Ikeda. This led to a major disease control programme involving MPI and the beef and dairy industries. Wallaceville scientists developed new, faster and more accurate tests for the new strain. This test has now been distributed to commercial veterinary ...
24hr Helpline for drug abuse treatment in Bucyrus. Drug rehab center near Kansas. Call our helpline (888) 483-5340. We have caring, compassionate counselors standing by to help you now.
Morgan, SB, Graham, SP, Salguero, J, Steinbach, F and Frossard, JP (2012) Increased pathology during infection with an atypical European porcine Arterivirus correlates with an enhanced adaptive immune response In: European Congress of Immunology, 2012-09-05 - 2012-09-08, Glasgow, SCOTLAND. Full text not available from this repository ...
Coronaviruses constitute the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae, in the family Coronaviridae, order Nidovirales, and realm Riboviria. They are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genome size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 27 to 34 kilobases, the largest among known RNA viruses. The name coronavirus is derived from the Latin corona, meaning crown or halo, which refers to the characteristic appearance reminiscent of a crown or a solar corona around the virions (virus particles) when viewed under two-dimensional transmission electron microscopy, due to the surface being covered in club-shaped protein spikes.. ...
Our patient education library covers dental services, dentistry procedures, cosmetic dentistry, treatments, and important dental health care information.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
2] Velthuis, A. J., Sjoerd H. E. Van Den Worm, Sims, A. C., Baric, R. S., Snijder, E. J., & Hemert, M. J. (2010). Zn2 Inhibits Coronavirus and Arterivirus RNA Polymerase Activity In Vitro and Zinc Ionophores Block the Replication of These Viruses in Cell Culture. PLoS Pathogens, 6(11). doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1001176 ...
Viral respiratory infections are common in horses; the most notable are equine herpesvirus infection, equine influenza, and equine viral arteritis. The clinical manifestations are similar and include pyrexia, serous nasal discharge, submandibular lymphadenopathy, anorexia, and cough. In addition to respiratory disease, equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) can cause abortion and neurologic disease, and equine herpesvirus type 5 (EHV-5) is a newly recognized cause of multinodular pulmonary fibrosis. Equine viral arteritis produces respiratory disease, vasculitis, and abortion. Equine herpesvirus type 2 (EHV-2), equine rhinitis virus, and reovirus are ubiquitous viral respiratory pathogens, and infection results in minimal clinical disease. Adenovirus pneumonia is most often seen in association with severe combined immunodeficiency in Arabian foals. Hendra virus () is a zoonotic disease of horses identified in Australia; it is rapidly fatal in horses, and close contact is necessary for disease transmission.
Symptoms of Arteritis including 5 medical symptoms and signs of Arteritis, alternative diagnoses, misdiagnosis, and correct diagnosis for Arteritis signs or Arteritis symptoms.
The objective of this study was to comprehensively evaluate inclusive out-of-school time physical activity programs for children/youth with physical disabilities. A search of the published literature was conducted and augmented by international expertise. A quality appraisal was conducted; only studies with quality ratings ≥60% informed our best practice recommendations. Seventeen studies were included using qualitative (n = 9), quantitative (n = 5), or mixed (n = 3) designs. Programs had a diversity of age groups, group sizes, and durations. Most programs were recreational level, involving both genders. Rehabilitation staff were the most common leaders. Outcomes focused on social skills/relationships, physical skill development, and psychological well-being, with overall positive effects shown in these areas. The best practice recommendations are consistent with an abilities-based approach emphasizing common group goals and interests; cooperative activities; mastery-oriented, individualized ...
Ive pretty much managed my own PMR and GCA in the last 3 years. Im on 10mgs Pred and can just function at this dose with plenty of little niggles to remind me I have an active arteritis in the...
Little Kurt looks like any other baby horse as he frolics playfully in his pen. But the 2-month-old, dun-colored colt is actually a clone.
On average it takes 44 months from onset of symptoms to diagnose Takayasu arteritis. Because of its rarity and the often subtle physical findings, Takayasu arteritis frequently fails to enter the differential diagnosis for patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO). Thus it is critical to consider Takayasu arteritis in patients under 40 with FUO, aortic regurgitation, hypertension, or absent pulses. Rarely, patients older than 40 years of age meet the criteria for Takayasu arteritis because of a prolonged pre-diagnostic period or late onset of symptoms. In this case, giant cell arteritis may be indistinguishable from Takayasu arteritis; however, initial treatment for both is nearly identical ...
The most important viral respiratory diseases affecting horses are equine herpesvirus, equine influenza, and equine viral arteritis. Equine rhinitis virus and equine adenovirus-1 infection can be a cause of equine respiratory disease too.. The ISU VDL offers PCR assays for detecting all of these respiratory viruses. EHV-1, EHV-4 and EAV are also the most common viral causative agents for equine abortion. Equine herpes myeloencephalopathy (EHM) outbreaks have increased in recent years. The EHV1 neuropathotyping PCR is able to differentiate DNApol (ORF30) D/N752 strains; the D752 strains are strongly associated with EHM occurrence. EHV-3 is the etiologic agent of the reproductive disease - equine coital exanthema.. The ISU VDL also offers virus isolation for the above listed equine viruses.. See a listing of fees and days tested here.. For more information or questions related to testing, please contact ...
Horse serum is manufactured from blood collected from select donor horse herds maintained within the United States. Sterility tests are performed on each lot of horse serum using current USP methods.  ATCC checks each lot for its ability to support the growth of cells.  Specific testing for contaminants are listed below in the Specification Certificate. Origin Horse serum is manufactured from blood collected from select donor horse herds maintained within the United States. Test* Specification Sterility Testing (Current USP) Bacteria and Fungi No growth Virus Testing (9 CFR 113.53) Fluorescent antibody Equine Herpesvirus Equine Viral Arteritis Bovine Diarrhea Virus Rabies Reovirus Cytopathogenic Agents (e.g. IBR) Hemadsorbing Agents (e.g., PI3) Equine Infectious Anemia (Coggins) Not detected             Mycoplasma Testing Large volume, direct culture                       Hoechst DNA stain      
Takayasus arteritis is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects the aorta, the largest blood vessel in the body, and its branches. Inflammation causes segments of the vessels to become narrowed, blocked, or even stretched, possibly resulting in aneurysms. The disease is very rare but most commonly occurs in young Asian women. Symptoms may include arm pain with use, decreased or absent pulses, lightheadedness or dizziness, headaches, and visual disturbances. Many individuals with Takayasu arteritis, however, have no apparent symptoms despite disease activity. Additionally, current tests used to measure vessel inflammation are considered unreliable and inconsistent. It is therefore very difficult to determine the extent of disease activity in a person with Takayasus arteritis. This study will use novel scientific methods to establish new biomarkers that can be used to monitor disease activity in individuals with Takayasus arteritis. These biomarkers may be used to help direct clinical ...
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a gammaherpesvirus that causes infectious mononucleosis and is associated with B cell and epithelial cell cancers. EBV is an enveloped virus and therefore requires the fusion of the viral and cellular membrane to infect cells. The specificity of cell infection and membrane fusion triggered by the virus is for B cell entry is governed by four viral glycoproteins (gH, gL, gB and gp42), whereas EBV entry into epithelial cells requires three viral glycoproteins (gH, gL, and gB). The gB protein is thought to play the primary role in mediating membrane fusion, receiving activating signals from the other proteins after receptor binding to cells. The gH and gL proteins form a complex that also associates with gp42, and this three-way complex is necessary for binding receptors on B cells and triggering their infection. However, for epithelial cells, gHgL interacts directly with EphA2 triggering EBV membrane fusion and entry, presumably by activating gB. These triggering ...
Book list Geneticist Seymour Benzer is little known outside his specialty, but Weiner lifts him from obscurity in this exploration of Benzers study of the genetic contribution to behavior. The effort antedates Benzers entry onto the molecular biological stage in the late 1940s. Weiner narrates the discovery of the gene in the 1910s by T. H. Morgan. Morgans Fly Room became the generic label for the labs of geneticists, since that is where they studied their favorite organism, fruit flies. Following the discovery of DNAs double-helix structure, Benzer made a revolutionary impact by showing how genes could be split, and, further, how they could be mapped. But because Benzer was not a self-promoter and didnt write popular books, his achievements werent widely trumpeted, as were those of James Watson, an accomplished self-promoter. Content as a pure researcher, Benzer became interested in the nature-versus-nurture question, and he and the young researchers he mentored established the ...
Learn more about Arteritis Temporal at Portsmouth Regional Hospital DefiniciónCausasFactores de riesgoSíntomasDiagnósticoTratamientoPrevenció...
A stallion handler must be able to focus the stallions mind on him, as well as the mare, and make him wait for instructions. This cannot be achieved through fear or abusiveness, but through training basic cues and maneuvers to the stallion before he
methylprednisolonum, tableta, ATC H02AB04, SmPC (Sažetak opisa svojstava lijeka) Terapijske indikacije: Medrol tablete su indicirane u stanjima koja zahtijevaju terapiju glukokortikoidima kao što su: Endokrini poremećaji: primarna i sekundarna adrenalna insuficijencija kongenitalna adrenalna hiperplazija Reumatske bolesti: reumatoidni artritis juvenilni kronični artritis ankilozantni spondilitis Kolagene bolesti / arteritis: sistemski lupus eritematozus H A L M E D sistemski dermatomiozitis (...
Tijms MA, Snijder EJ (Sep 2003). "Equine arteritis virus non-structural protein 1, an essential factor for viral subgenomic ... Tong X, Drapkin R, Yalamanchili R, Mosialos G, Kieff E (Sep 1995). "The Epstein-Barr virus nuclear protein 2 acidic domain ...
... equine arteritis virus, simian hemorrhagic fever virus, wobbly possum disease virus, and lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus ... As the virus circulates in the new herd, more copies of the mutant virus are circulated. Further sampling continues to result ... Betaarterivirus suid 1, formerly Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), is a virus that causes a disease ... 2010). "The ever-expanding diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus". Virus Research. 154 (1-2): 18-30 ...
The family includes equine arteritis virus (EAV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), lactate ... Louis encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, Israel turkey meningoencephalomyelitis virus, Sitiawan virus, Wesselsbron virus, ... Flaviviruses include the West Nile virus, dengue virus, Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus, Yellow Fever Virus, and several other ... The family includes pathogens such as rabies virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and potato yellow dwarf virus that are of public ...
... equine arteritis virus, coronavirus, HCV, HSV, HCoV-229E, HIV, mengovirus, MERS-CoV, rhinovirus, SARS-CoV-1, Zika virus. ... Inhibits Zika Virus Infection in Different Cell Models". Viruses. 8 (12): 322. doi:10.3390/v8120322. PMC 5192383. PMID 27916837 ... "Inhibition of hepatitis C virus replication by chloroquine targeting virus-associated autophagy". Journal of Gastroenterology. ... TSAI, WEN-PO; NARA, PETER L.; KUNG, HSIANG-FU; OROSZLAN, STEPHEN (April 1990). "Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus ...
... an alternative medicine diagnostic device Equine arteritis virus, the causal agent of equine viral arteritis Entity-attribute- ...
... equine influenza virus QI05AA05 Equine rhinopneumonitis virus QI05AA06 Equine reovirus QI05AA07 Equine arteritis virus QI05AA08 ... QI05AA01 Equine influenza virus QI05AA03 Equine rhinopneumonitis virus + equine reovirus + equine influenza virus QI05AA04 ... Equine parapox virus QI05AA09 Equine rotavirus QI05AA10 West nile virus QI05AA11 Equine rhinopneumonitis virus + equine ... Equine rhinopneumonitis virus QI05AD02 Equine influenza virus Empty group Empty group Empty group Empty group QI05AI01 Equine ...
Equine arteritis virus leader TRS hairpin (LTH) Virology Ionophore "Equine Viral Arteritis: Introduction". The Merck Veterinary ... Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is a disease of horses caused by a virus of the species Alphaarterivirus equid, an RNA virus. It ... As well as equine arteritis virus the Arterivirus family includes porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), ... EVA is caused by an arterivirus called equine arteritis virus (EAV). Arteriviruses are small, enveloped, animal viruses with an ...
The equine arteritis virus leader transcription-regulating sequence hairpin (LTH) is as RNA element that is thought to be a key ... Page for Equine arteritis virus leader TRS hairpin (LTH) at Rfam v t e. ... proximal region of the equine arteritis virus RNA genome". RNA. 10 (3): 424-437. doi:10.1261/rna.5174804. PMC 1370938. PMID ... Liu Y, Wimmer E, Paul AV (2009). "Cis-acting RNA elements in human and animal plus-strand RNA viruses". Biochimica et ...
... arteritis virus, equine MeSH B04.909.777.500.080.500.500 - lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus MeSH B04.909.777.500.080.500. ... arteritis virus, equine MeSH B04.820.504.080.100.500 - lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus MeSH B04.820.504.080.100.700 - ... encephalitis virus, western equine MeSH B04.820.850.054.813 - ross river virus MeSH B04.820.850.054.840 - semliki forest virus ... la crosse virus MeSH B04.909.777.270.150 - encephalitis virus, eastern equine MeSH B04.909.777.270.369 - encephalitis virus, ...
... equine arterivirus was discovered.[62] In the 1950s, improvements in virus isolation and detection methods resulted in the ... Bryans JT, Crowe ME, Doll ER, McCollum WH (January 1957). "Isolation of a filterable agent causing arteritis of horses and ... The virus was later shown to be a previously unrecognised herpes virus, which is now called Epstein-Barr virus.[55] ... The importance of tobacco mosaic virus in the history of viruses cannot be overstated. It was the first virus to be discovered ...
... venezuelan equine MeSH C02.081.355.677 - encephalomyelitis, western equine MeSH C02.081.885.125 - african swine fever MeSH ... marburg virus disease MeSH C02.782.417.762 - rift valley fever MeSH C02.782.450.100 - hepatitis d, chronic MeSH C02.782.580.124 ... aids arteritis, central nervous system MeSH C02.800.801.400.050 - aids-associated nephropathy MeSH C02.800.801.400.070 - aids ... venezuelan equine MeSH C02.782.930.100.370.662 - encephalomyelitis, western equine MeSH C02.782.930.700 - rubivirus infections ...
... lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus), reovirus (Colorado tick virus), and henipaviruses.[10][11] The Powassan virus is a rare ... Herpes simplex, West Nile, Rabies, Eastern equine encephalitis, others[2]. Causes. Infection, autoimmune, certain medication, ... Causes of encephalitis include viruses such as herpes simplex virus and rabies as well as bacteria, fungi, or parasites.[1][2] ... Other causes of acute viral encephalitis are rabies virus, poliovirus, and measles virus.[9] ...
Following natural infection equine arteritis virus (EAV) establishes a long-term carrier state in the reproductive tract of ... IMAGE: Identification of CXCL16 as a determinant of equine arteritis virus persistent infection in the stallion. view more ... Sexual transmission of the virus can lead to outbreaks of equine viral arteritis characterized by abortion and respiratory ... Genetic Variant Determines if Stallions Become Carriers of Equine Arteritis Virus (IMAGE) view more ...
Equine arteritis virus EC#: 3.4.21 IUBMB Fragment: Residues 1071-1268 Gene Name(s): rep 1a-1b ...
1MBM: Structure of Arterivirus nsp4: the smallest chymotrypsin-like proteinase with an alpha/beta C-terminal extension and alternate conformations of the oxyanion hole
The equine arteritis virus leader transcription-regulating sequence hairpin (LTH) is as RNA element that is thought to be a key ... Page for Equine arteritis virus leader TRS hairpin (LTH) at Rfam v t e. ... proximal region of the equine arteritis virus RNA genome". RNA. 10 (3): 424-437. doi:10.1261/rna.5174804. PMC 1370938. PMID ... Liu Y, Wimmer E, Paul AV (2009). "Cis-acting RNA elements in human and animal plus-strand RNA viruses". Biochimica et ...
The open reading frame 3 of equine arteritis virus encodes an immunogenic glycosylated, integral membrane protein.. Hedges JF1 ... Open reading frame 3 (ORF 3) of equine arteritis virus (EAV) is predicted to encode a glycosylated membrane protein (GP3) that ...
Emergence of novel equine arteritis virus (EAV) variants during persistent infection in the stallion: origin of the 2007 French ... During the summer of 2007, an outbreak of equine viral arteritis (EVA) occurred in Normandy (France). After investigation, a ...
To establish a sensitive and rapid quantitative detection method for equine arteritis virus (EAV), an antigen-capture... ... Identification of a conserved B-cell epitope in the equine arteritis virus (EAV) N protein using the pepscan technique. Virus ... Balasuriya UB, Go YY, MacLachlan NJ (2013) Equine arteritis virus. Vet Microbiol 167:93-122CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Timoney PJ, McCollum WH (1993) Equine viral arteritis. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 9:295-309CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
... positive-stranded RNA virus. The glycoproteins gp2b, gp3 and gp4 form a heterotrimer in the viral envelope, which is required ... Keywords: equine arteritis virus; glycoproteins; gp2b; gp3; gp4; protein folding, oligomerization equine arteritis virus; ... Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is a small, positive-stranded RNA virus. The glycoproteins gp2b, gp3 and gp4 form a heterotrimer ... Kabatek A, Veit M. Folding and Oligomerization of the gp2b/gp3/gp4 Spike Proteins of Equine Arteritis Virus in Vitro. Viruses. ...
Equine arteritis virus is not a togavirus but belongs to the coronaviruslike superfamily.. J A den Boon, E J Snijder, E D ... The nucleotide sequence of the genome of equine arteritis virus (EAV) was determined from a set of overlapping cDNA clones and ... Equine arteritis virus is not a togavirus but belongs to the coronaviruslike superfamily. ... Equine arteritis virus is not a togavirus but belongs to the coronaviruslike superfamily. ...
Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is an enveloped, positive-strand RNA virus belonging to the family Arteriviridae of the order ... Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is an enveloped, positive-strand RNA virus which belongs to the genus Arterivirus. Other members ... Antigenic comparison of equine arteritis virus (EAV) and lactic dehydrogenase virus (LDV); binding of staphylococcal protein A ... Analysis of equine arteritis, rubella, bovine viral diarrhea, and hog cholera viruses. Arch. Gesamte Virusforsch.33:306-318. ...
Host factors that contribute to equine arteritis virus persistence in the stallion: an update. J Equine Vet Sci 43:S11-S17. doi ... Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is a small, enveloped virus with a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome (+ssRNA; the genome ... Genetic stability of equine arteritis virus during horizontal and vertical transmission in an outbreak of equine viral ... Characterization of equine humoral antibody response to the nonstructural proteins of equine arteritis virus. Clin Vaccine ...
The genetic variation in equine arteritis virus (EAV) GSprotein encoding gene was investigated. Nucleic and deduced amino acid ... Comparison of nucleic and amino acid sequences and phylogenetic analysis of the GS protein of various equine arteritis virus ... The genetic variation in equine arteritis virus (EAV) GS protein encoding gene was investigated. Nucleic and deduced amino acid ... TimoneyP.J. and McCollumW.H., Vet Clinics North Amer: Equine Practice9, 295-309, 1993.Google Scholar ...
title = "Equine arteritis virus",. abstract = "Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is the causative agent of equine viral arteritis ( ... Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is the causative agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA), a respiratory and reproductive disease of ... N2 - Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is the causative agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA), a respiratory and reproductive ... AB - Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is the causative agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA), a respiratory and reproductive ...
Moyo, N, Westcott, D, Simmonds, R and Steinbach, F (2012) Equine arteritis virus replication in monocytic cells suppresses ... Equine arteritis virus replication in monocytic cells suppresses differentiation and function of dendritic cells ...
Detection of equine arteritis virus by real-time TaqMan® reverse transcription-PCR assay. In: Journal of Virological Methods. ... Detection of equine arteritis virus by real-time TaqMan® reverse transcription-PCR assay. Journal of Virological Methods. 2002; ... Detection of equine arteritis virus by real-time TaqMan® reverse transcription-PCR assay. / Balasuriya, Udeni B R; Leutenegger ... title = "Detection of equine arteritis virus by real-time TaqMan{\textregistered} reverse transcription-PCR assay", ...
Effect of the South African asinine-94 strain of equine arteritis virus (EAV) in pregnant donkey mares and duration of maternal ... Effect of the South African asinine-94 strain of equine arteritis virus (EAV) in pregnant donkey mares and duration of maternal ... in five pregnant donkey mares after experimental exposure to the South African asinine-94 strain of equine arteritis virus (EAV ... and showed mild clinical signs of equine viral arteritis similar to those observed in the inoculated mares. Seroconversion to ...
This study shows that an unbiased amplification method applied to equine arteritis virus RNA significantly improves the ... This study shows that an unbiased amplification method applied to equine arteritis virus RNA significantly improves the ... of an unbiased amplification method and a resequencing microarray for detecting and genotyping equine arteritis virus. ... Virus influenza purifié, agent de la grippe. Ce virus enveloppé possède un génome fragmenté : 8 segments dARN négatif protégés ...
It is now widely accepted that the carrier stallion is the principal reservoir of equine arteritis virus in various equine ... In view of the significance of the carrier stallion in the epidemiology of equine arteritis virus and the economic consequences ... Earlier studies in this department confirmed that establishment and persistence of equine arteritis virus in the horse is ... There have been authenticated instances where global spread of equine arteritis virus has resulted from the international ...
Frederick Van Lennep Chair in Equine Veterinary Science, developed the test to determine the genetic ... The University of Kentucky Gluck Equine Research Center has developed a novel test to determine the likelihood of a long-term ... equine arteritis virus carrier state in stallions.Gluck Center faculty members Professor Udeni Balasuriya, Professor Ernie ... Outbreaks of equine viral arteritis, which is caused by the virus, may result in significant economic losses to the equine ...
... the N-terminal subunit of the replicase polyprotein of the arterivirus Equine arteritis virus (EAV), is essential for viral ... a transcription co-activator that also interacts with regulatory proteins of other viruses, was confirmed by mutual co- ... 1992; The 5′ end of the equine arteritis virus replicase gene encodes a papainlike cysteine protease. J Virol66:7040-7048 ... Equine arteritis virus non-structural protein 1, an essential factor for viral subgenomic mRNA synthesis, interacts with the ...
... Formato de cita APA. ISO 690-2. ... A novel equine arteritis virus (EAV) was isolated and sequenced from feral donkeys in Chile. Phylogenetic analysis indicates ... Identification of a divergent genotype of equine arteritis virus from South American donkeys. Artículo ... Identification-of-a-divergent-genotype-of-equine-arteritis-virus.pdf (666.5Kb) ...
In a coimmunoprecipitation assay with monospecific antisera, the two major envelope proteins GL and M of equine arteritis virus ... The two major envelope proteins of equine arteritis virus associate into disulfide-linked heterodimers. DSpace/Manakin ... The M protein also formed covalently linked homodimers, but only the heterodimers were incorporated into virus particles. show ...
Equine Morbillivirus Pneumonia (Hendra Virus Infection) * For More Information * Equine Viral Arteritis * For More Information ...
... and the nucleotide and derived amino acid sequences of 10 virus isolates were compared. The M and N genes of all isolates had ... cDNA copies of the M and N genes of equine arteritis virus (EAV) isolates were synthesized by reverse transcription followed by ... same initiation and termination sites as the prototype Bucyrus strain and the encoded proteins were conserved between viruses. ... Comparison of M and N gene sequences distinguishes variation amongst equine arteritis virus isolates * Ewan D. Chirnside, ...
Equine arteritis virus, Western blotting, antigen detection, antigens, complementary DNA, cross reaction, detection limit, ... Development of an antigen-capture ELISA for the quantitation of equine arteritis virus in culture supernatant. Author:. Qi, ... To establish a sensitive and rapid quantitative detection method for equine arteritis virus (EAV), an antigen-capture enzyme- ... The AC-ELISA could specifically detect the Bucyrus EAV strain and had no cross-reaction with other equine viruses. The ...
... to be a candidate molecule and possible cell entry receptor for equine arteritis virus (EAV). In horses, the CXCL16 gene is ... using a virus overlay protein-binding assay (VOPBA) in combination with far-Western blotting, gradient-purified EAV particles ... possibly acting as a primary receptor molecule for this virus. ... located on equine chromosome 11 (ECA11) and encodes a ... Previous studies in our laboratory have identified equine CXCL16 (EqCXCL16) ...
Equine influenza (virus type A). Equine piroplasmosis. Equine rhinopneumonitis. Glanders. Horse pox. Infectious arteritis of ... Contagious equine metritis. Dourine. Epizootic lymphangitis. Equine encephalomyelitis. Equine infectious anaemia. ... Duck virus hepatitis. Duck virus enteritis (duck plague). Fowl cholera Fowl pox Fowl typhoid (S. gallinarum). Infectious bursar ...
Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is a contagious disease of horses caused by equine arteritis virus (EAV), an RNA virus that is ... equine supplements & medications, equine performance products, equine vaccines, and much more at highly affordable prices. ... West Nile Virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne virus, was detected for the first time in the United States in August 1999. When a ... This disease has been referred to in the past as equine monocytic ehrlichiosis, or equine ehrlichial colitis. Cases of the ...
Sequence analysis of minor protein genes of equine arteritis virus during persistent infection. Rola, Jerzy / Socha, Wojciech ... Sequence analysis of minor protein genes of equine arteritis virus during persistent infection ... Sequence analysis of minor protein genes of equine arteritis virus during persistent infection ... Occurrence of Aujeszkys disease virus single-reactor pigs in Poland. *Occurrence and characterisation of MRSA and extended- ...
... add Equine Arteritis Virus (EAV) SN on serum. If stallion is known EVA positive, may want to consider Equine Arteritis Virus ( ... Equine Arteritis Virus PCR. Included at a reduced price in the Equine Fever of Unknown Origin PCR Panel EAR * Nasal swab or ... This PCR panel tests for equine herpesvirus 1 and 4, equine adenoviruses 1 and 2, equine rhinitis viruses A and B, influenza A ... This PCR panel tests for equine herpesvirus 1 and 4, equine adenoviruses 1 and 2, equine rhinitis viruses A and B, influenza A ...
  • Sexual transmission of the virus can lead to outbreaks of equine viral arteritis characterized by abortion and respiratory disease in horses. (eurekalert.org)
  • The test was validated using the seminal plasma and nasal secretions of infected horses that were proven to contain EAV by traditional virus isolation in rabbit kidney thirteen (RK-13) cells, as well as a variety of cell culture-propagated European and North American strains of EAV. (elsevier.com)
  • Stallions possessing the susceptible haplotype, consisting of four specific nucleotide changes in the CXCL16 gene, are more likely to remain long-term carriers of the virus in their reproductive tract than horses that possess the resistant haplotype. (uky.edu)
  • Since surgical castration can be resorted to in stallions that are confirmed carriers of EAV, this test can help identify those horses that may spontaneously clear themselves of the virus, thus avoiding the loss of a valuable breeding animal," said Kathryn Graves, director of the Genetic Testing at Gluck laboratory. (uky.edu)
  • The mission of the Gluck Center, a UK Ag Equine program in the College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, is scientific discovery, education and dissemination of knowledge for the benefit of the health and well-being of horses. (uky.edu)
  • In horses, the CXCL16 gene is located on equine chromosome 11 (ECA11) and encodes a glycosylated, type I transmembrane protein with 247 amino acids. (uky.edu)
  • E quine viral arteritis (EVA) is a contagious disease of horses caused by equine arteritis virus (EAV) , an RNA virus that is found in horse populations in many countries. (allivet.com)
  • Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is a disease of horses caused by a virus of the species Alphaarterivirus equid, an RNA virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Equine viral arteritis ( EVA ) is a contagious viral disease that frequently causes mild or subclinical infections in adult horses . (bvsalud.org)
  • Contagious Equine Metritis - A transmissible, exotic, venereal disease of horses caused by the bacterium Taylorella equigenitalis. (usda.gov)
  • Equine Piroplasmosis is a disease of Equidae (horses, donkeys, mules, and zebras), and is caused by two parasitic organisms, Babesia equi and Babesia caballi . (usda.gov)
  • Although, Equine Piroplasmosis is primarily transmitted to horses by ticks, this bloodborne disease has been spread mechanically from animal to animal by contaminated needles. (usda.gov)
  • Horse Transport - The Slaughter Horse Transport Program is responsible for regulating the commercial transportation of equines going to slaughter outside the U.S. borders to ensure these horses are handled and transported in a humane way. (usda.gov)
  • The most important viral respiratory diseases affecting horses are equine herpesvirus, equine influenza, and equine viral arteritis. (iastate.edu)
  • At least two horses at Northville Downs Standardbred racetrack in Northville, Mich., contracted equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) and were euthanatized in December. (thehorse.com)
  • The case fatality rate in horses and people is high, with reports of 81 horses and 4 people succumbing to Hendra virus infection, including an equine veterinarian investigating an outbreak. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Very close contact is required to transmit the virus among horses and from horses to people, and the virus is not considered highly contagious. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Of 49 febrile horses tested by reverse transcription PCR, 25 were positive for Getah virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Outbreaks of Getah virus infection have occurred among horses in 1978, 1979, and 1983 in Japan ( 2 ) and in 1990 in India ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • we identified Getah virus infection among these horses. (cdc.gov)
  • This thesis aims to build understanding of disease epidemiology and begin to unravel the causes of respiratory disease in the working horses of Ethiopia, contributing new research to help inform disease reduction strategies in the future, for the benefit of equine health and human wellbeing. (bl.uk)
  • Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is the etiologic agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA) which is a respiratory and reproductive disease of horses [1-3]. (ukessays.com)
  • Two forms that most commonly affect horses are eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) and western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE). (equisearch.com)
  • The virus mutates easily and immunity is short-lived, making horses susceptible to influenza even after they?ve had the disease. (equisearch.com)
  • Equine viral arteritis (EVA): a highly contagious disease that causes mild respiratory signs in most horses. (equisearch.com)
  • Transmission most frequently occurs through direct contact with virus-infective respiratory secretions, leading to widespread dissemination of the virus among susceptible horses that are close to each other. (aaep.org)
  • Acutely infected horses shed the virus through their respiratory tracts. (k-state.edu)
  • Finally, we'll look several special topics in equine welfare including disaster planning and the international welfare efforts now in place to protect working horses and other equids in key industries such as racing, international competition, tourism and even mining. (coursera.org)
  • Virus-specific antibody in serum of horses can be demonstrated by complement fixation (CF) and virus neutralization (VN) tests. (expertsmind.com)
  • Serum samples for EVA testing should be collected from all horses before breeding and virus isolation should be performed on imported semen before use. (expertsmind.com)
  • It is a virus that causes a mild to severe respiratory disease in horses. (thewholehorse.com)
  • Horses can contract the virus by inhalation, such as nose to nose contact. (thewholehorse.com)
  • Significant disease outbreaks occur in environments where horses are very mobile," says Dr. Keene, an equine professional services veterinarian for Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc. of St. Joseph, Mo. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
  • Flu, for example, is spread from horse to horse via aerosolized virus particles and direct nose-to-nose contact with infected horses or virus-contaminated people or fomites," Dr. Knutson says. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
  • The AAEP recommends that all horses be vaccinated against equine influenza unless they live in a closed, isolated facility. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
  • Performance or show horses in high-risk areas may require more frequent vaccinations for equine herpes virus or rhinopneumonitis. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
  • Potomac Horse Fever, or equine monocytic ehrlichiosis, originally was considered a sporadic disease affecting horses in the Eastern U.S. near the Potomac River. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
  • Firth AE, Zevenhoven-Dobbe JC, Wills NM, Go YY, Balasuriya UB, Atkins JF, Snijder EJ, Posthuma CC (2011) Discovery of a small arterivirus gene that overlaps the GP5 coding sequence and is important for virus production. (springer.com)
  • Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is an enveloped, positive-strand RNA virus which belongs to the genus Arterivirus . (asm.org)
  • Non-structural protein 1 (nsp1), the N-terminal subunit of the replicase polyprotein of the arterivirus Equine arteritis virus (EAV), is essential for viral subgenomic mRNA synthesis, but fully dispensable for genome replication. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • EVA is caused by an arterivirus called equine arteritis virus (EAV). (wikipedia.org)
  • As well as equine arteritis virus the Arterivirus family includes porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus (LDV) of mice and simian haemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV). (wikipedia.org)
  • It has only one genus, Arterivirus , whose virus species are antigenically distinct from each other. (ivis.org)
  • Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA) is caused by arterivirus. (usda.gov)
  • It is the prototype virus of the family Arteriviridae (genus Arterivirus, order Nidovirales) [4, 5]. (ukessays.com)
  • Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is a highly contagious disease of equines and is caused by equine arteritis virus (EAV), a RNA virus belonging to the genus Arterivirus in the family Arteriviridae. (expertsmind.com)
  • Equine arterivirus serine peptidase. (expasy.org)
  • In the equine arterivirus (EAV), the replicase gene is translated into open reading frame 1a (ORF1a) and ORF1ab polyproteins. (expasy.org)
  • Identification of CXCL16 as a determinant of equine arteritis virus persistent infection in the stallion. (eurekalert.org)
  • Following natural infection equine arteritis virus (EAV) establishes a long-term carrier state in the reproductive tract of stallions without any evidence of clinical signs. (eurekalert.org)
  • EAV infection is a serious problem for horse breeders because it can result in 10-70% of infected stallions becoming long-term carriers that can spread the virus in their semen for months or many years. (eurekalert.org)
  • 2016) Allelic Variation in CXCL16 Determines CD3+ T Lymphocyte Susceptibility to Equine Arteritis Virus Infection and Establishment of Long-Term Carrier State in the Stallion. (eurekalert.org)
  • Emergence of novel equine arteritis virus (EAV) variants during persistent infection in the stallion: origin of the 2007 French EAV outbreak was li. (nih.gov)
  • Emergence of novel equine arteritis virus (EAV) variants during persistent infection in the stallion: origin of the 2007 French EAV outbreak was linked to an EAV strain present in the semen of a persistently infected carrier stallion. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, the AC-ELISA assay could be successfully used in quantification of viral content in an in vitro infection assay, such as a one-step growth curve of EAV, as well as in a transfection assay, such as virus rescue from an infectious cDNA clone of EAV. (springer.com)
  • Equine arteritis virus (EAV) has the ability to establish persistent infection in the reproductive tract of the stallion (carrier) and is continuously shed in its semen. (asm.org)
  • This is the first report characterizing the immunoglobulin isotypes in equine serum and seminal plasma in response to EAV infection. (asm.org)
  • In view of the significance of the carrier stallion in the epidemiology of equine arteritis virus and the economic consequences arising therefrom, there is an obvious need to expand upon earlier studies of the carrier state, notwithstanding the availability of a safe and effective vaccine with which to protect against the infection. (stablemade.com)
  • It is gratifying to see how Drs. Balasuriya and Bailey's work has led not only to a better understanding of the nature of persistence of this important disease, but also to a test that can help identify those animals at risk for persistent infection," said David Horohov, chair of the Department of Veterinary Science, director of the Gluck Equine Research Center and Jes E. and Clementine M. Schlaikjer Endowed Chair. (uky.edu)
  • Stallions that are resistant initially shed the virus in their semen following infection butin most cases cleared the virus from the reproductive tract within months following infection. (uky.edu)
  • A vaccine is available in the UK and Europe, however in laboratory tests it is not possible to distinguish between antibodies produced as a result of vaccination and those produced in response to infection with the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following infection by the respiratory route the virus replicates in pulmonary macrophages and then in bronchial lymph nodes. (ivis.org)
  • There is a viremia with infection of endothelial cells leading to a general necrotic arteritis. (ivis.org)
  • Equine rhinitis virus and equine adenovirus-1 infection can be a cause of equine respiratory disease too. (iastate.edu)
  • 1) Equine infectious anemia (EIA) is an infection by the equine infectious anemia lentivirus that affects both sexes, all ages, all breeds, and all species of equine. (wa.gov)
  • Infected equine remain carriers for life, constituting a potential source for spread of the infection. (wa.gov)
  • An outbreak of Getah virus infection occurred among racehorses in Japan during September and October 2014. (cdc.gov)
  • An inactivated whole-virus vaccine (Nisseiken Co., Ltd, Tokyo, Japan) is available to prevent Getah virus infection and is mainly administered to thoroughbred racehorses registered by the Japan Racing Association. (cdc.gov)
  • The outbreak of Getah virus infection in 1978 occurred at this facility. (cdc.gov)
  • Quantifying the effect of lactogenic antibody on porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection in neonatal piglets. (iastate.edu)
  • Recent studies have indicated that the E protein has functions during infection beyond assembly, including in virus egress and in the host stress response. (mdpi.com)
  • Nam is studying equine arteritis virus evolution during persistent infection of stallions' reproductive tracts. (thehorse.com)
  • The invention provides antisense antiviral compounds and methods of their use in inhibition of growth of viruses of the picornavirus, calicivirus, togavirus and flavivirus families, as in treatment of a viral infection. (google.com)
  • Equine influenza: a common, acute viral infection involving the respiratory tract. (equisearch.com)
  • The virus can persist in the accessary sex glands (particularly the ampulllae) of the reproductive tract of stallions for many years and may result in lifelong infection. (aaep.org)
  • Primary vaccination provides clinical protection against EVA but does not prevent re-infection and limited replication of challenge virus. (aaep.org)
  • Evaluation of a p21e-spiked western blot (immunoblot) in confirming human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I or II infection in volunteer blood donors. (asm.org)
  • The virus is generally first introduced into a farm by a mare that has recently been bred or inseminated with infected semen, or by an asymptomatic animal that has acquired the infection via respiratory route in a show or sale. (k-state.edu)
  • Abortion due to EVA infection occurs late in the acute phase or early in the recovery phase of the infection, not months after the virus exposure has taken place. (expertsmind.com)
  • Comparison of Asian porcine high fever disease isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus to United States isolates for their ability to cause disease and secondary bacterial infection in swine. (usda.gov)
  • France Equine Herpes Virus-4 (EHV-4) Respiratory Infection On 15 November 2018, RESPE reported two separate cases of EHV-4 respiratory infection. (aht.org.uk)
  • France Equine Herpes Virus-4 (EHV-4) Respiratory Infection On 2 November 2018, RESPE reported a case of EHV-4 respiratory infection on a premises in Calvados. (aht.org.uk)
  • When 4th-instar silkworm larvae were infected with 1.0 x 10 5 TCID 50 of ts-S1 per larva and reared at 33 C, the titre of budded virus (BV) and number of occlusion bodies (OBs) in the haemolymph of the infected larvae were very low in the early stage but markedly increased in the late stage of infection. (sav.sk)
  • However, when small virus inocula were used, the appearance of abortive infection due to the non-permissive temperature became more evident. (sav.sk)
  • EAV is the causative agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA), a respiratory and reproductive disease of equids ( 1 , 5 , 9 - 11 ). (asm.org)
  • Since my appointment to the Frederick L. Van Lennep Chair in Equine Veterinary Science in 1988, my primary research interest has focused on aspects of the biology and epidemiology of equine arteritis virus, the causal agent of equine viral arteritis, with particular reference to occurrence of the carrier state. (stablemade.com)
  • its differentiation from the equine abortion (influenza) virus. (springer.com)
  • Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification was used to detect equine influenza virus in the nasal swab samples ( 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Equine influenza virus, arteritis virus or Mycoplasma spp were not detected. (bl.uk)
  • Gorbalenya AE, Enjuanes L, Ziebuhr J, Snijder EJ (2006) Nidovirales: evolving the largest RNA virus genome. (springer.com)
  • The nucleotide sequence of the genome of equine arteritis virus (EAV) was determined from a set of overlapping cDNA clones and was found to contain eight open reading frames (ORFs). (asm.org)
  • Arteriviruses are small, enveloped, animal viruses with an icosahedral core containing a positive-sense RNA genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is a list of representative viruses (grouped by genome structure) compiled from: 'Virus Taxonomy', the Sixth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) 1995. (virology.net)
  • Arteriviruses are enveloped, spherical viruses with a positive-sense, single-stranded, linear RNA genome ( 1 ), and they are assigned to the order Nidovirales, family Arteriviridae . (cdc.gov)
  • High-throughput whole genome sequencing of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus from cell culture materials and clinical specimens using next-generation sequencing technology. (iastate.edu)
  • 2000. Engineering the largest RNA virus genome as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome. (asmscience.org)
  • These carrier stallions maintain and perpetuate the virus in the equine population between breeding seasons. (eurekalert.org)
  • Gilbert SA, Timoney PJ, McCollum WH, Deregt D (1997) Detection of equine arteritis virus in the semen of carrier stallions by using a sensitive nested PCR assay. (springer.com)
  • Earlier studies in this department confirmed that establishment and persistence of equine arteritis virus in the horse is testosterone-dependent, which explains why the carrier state has only been recorded in intact, sexually mature colts or stallions. (stablemade.com)
  • There have been authenticated instances where global spread of equine arteritis virus has resulted from the international movement of persistently infected stallions or the shipment of infective semen. (stablemade.com)
  • Aside from the significant economic repercussions that can result from restrictions on the international trade in carrier stallions or infective semen, most stallions suffer a major decline in commercial marketability and value domestically if they are confirmed virus carriers. (stablemade.com)
  • Through increasing our understanding of the carrier state, hopefully, it will be possible to develop safe and reliable strategies for eliminating the virus without the risk of compromising the future fertility of these stallions. (stablemade.com)
  • Successful treatment of stallions persistently infected with equine arteritis virus would have the major economic advantage of enhancing the commercial value and marketability of such animals and eliminating any impediment to their export to most countries in the world. (stablemade.com)
  • The University of Kentucky Gluck Equine Research Center has developed a novel test to determine the likelihood of a long-term equine arteritis virus carrier state in stallions. (uky.edu)
  • Outbreaks of equine viral arteritis, which is caused by the virus, may result in significant economic losses to the equine industry due to pregnancy loss in mares, death in young foals and establishment of the carrier state in stallions. (uky.edu)
  • The virus is shed in the semen of carrier stallions and is thus perpetuated in horse populations. (ivis.org)
  • In addition many SBS laboratories also require that stallions be tested with negative results for vesicular stomatitis (VS) and contagious equine metritis (CEM). (selectbreeders.com)
  • Venereal transmission by infected stallions has a significant role in virus spread on or between breeding farms, and experience has shown that carrier stallions and EAV infective semen are principally responsible for the international spread of EVA. (aaep.org)
  • In addition, chronically infected carrier stallions also shed the virus in their semen. (k-state.edu)
  • Virus is also sheded in semen of acutely infected stallions, some of which become long term carriers and constant semen shedder. (expertsmind.com)
  • Some stallions that are infected with the virus will become carriers, shedding the virus in their semen. (thewholehorse.com)
  • Most affected mares, geldings, and sexually immature stallions will eliminate the virus after a brief period of illness. (thewholehorse.com)
  • Stallions, mares and foals are at risk of disease from a wide variety of infectious organisms (viruses, bacteria, parasites). (aaep.org)
  • Examples include testing for Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) and procurement of a health certificate from an accredited and licensed veterinarian prior to transport, as well as prebreeding testing and vaccination of serologically-negative stallions against Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA), or testing for Taylorella equigenitalis (CEMO) where required (e.g., following initial importation, or upon return from breeding in a different hemisphere). (aaep.org)
  • cDNA copies of the M and N genes of equine arteritis virus (EAV) isolates were synthesized by reverse transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction amplification. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Equine Herpes Virus or Equine Rhinopneumonitis virus or EHV is a highly infectious viral disease. (usda.gov)
  • Rhinopneumonitis (equine herpesvirus): a contagious disease caused by two forms of the same virus, EHV-1 or EHV-4. (equisearch.com)
  • A novel equine arteritis virus (EAV) was isolated and sequenced from feral donkeys in Chile. (uchile.cl)
  • Very high-risk diseases, including rabies and ebola virus, are not held in the lab. (mpi.govt.nz)
  • It also adds to our general understanding of host-virus interactions and the evolution of resistance to infectious diseases. (eurekalert.org)
  • The Gluck Center faculty conducts equine research in seven targeted areas: genetics and genomics, infectious diseases, immunology, musculoskeletal science, parasitology, pharmacology/toxicology and reproductive health. (uky.edu)
  • Equine infectious diseases (2nd ed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brief information on reported equine diseases is published on the Swedish Trotting Association's website. (lansstyrelsen.se)
  • It is often difficult to differentiate from other fever-producing diseases, including anthrax, influenza, and equine encephalitis. (usda.gov)
  • In fact, many of the equine diseases we vaccinate against are deadly and treatment after the disease is present may often be unsuccessful. (useventing.com)
  • With highly contagious diseases such as equine herpesvirus, influenza and strangles, vaccination alone will not prevent disease transmission. (useventing.com)
  • The state Department of Agriculture is working with the equine industry and veterinarians to contain the diseases. (thehorse.com)
  • Today, vaccines are available for 12 equine diseases. (equisearch.com)
  • EVA cannot be diagnosed on clinical signs alone, as case presentation is similar to various other infectious and non-infectious equine diseases. (aaep.org)
  • Positive diagnosis was confirmed by PCR on a semen sample by Dozulé laboratory for equine diseases. (aht.org.uk)
  • Infectious diseases that are important in the equine breeding industry are not limited strictly to agents transmitted during coitus or insemination. (aaep.org)
  • Equine veterinarian Rob Keene, DVM, believes that controlling travel is paramount in limiting diseases that spread from horse to horse. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
  • In some cases scientists may test for very high-risk diseases using low-risk molecular tests, which don't need a live virus. (mpi.govt.nz)
  • de Vries AA, Chirnside ED, Horzinek MC, Rottier PJ (1992) Structural proteins of equine arteritis virus. (springer.com)
  • Structural proteins of equine arteritis virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is an important contagious disease occurring worldwide. (ivis.org)
  • Equine herpes myeloencephalopathy (EHM) outbreaks have increased in recent years. (iastate.edu)
  • Application of PCR to detect Norwalk virus in fecal specimens from outbreaks of gastroenteritis. (asm.org)
  • Studies performed in cell culture suggest that the susceptible form of the protein acts as an entry receptor for the virus and is more effective at seeking out and binding the virus compared to the resistant form. (eurekalert.org)
  • The open reading frame 3 of equine arteritis virus encodes an immunogenic glycosylated, integral membrane protein. (nih.gov)
  • Open reading frame 3 (ORF 3) of equine arteritis virus (EAV) is predicted to encode a glycosylated membrane protein (GP3) that is uncharacterized. (nih.gov)
  • The unglycosylated small hydrophobic envelope protein E is present in virus particles in intermediate molar amounts compared to the other transmembrane proteins. (asm.org)
  • The genetic variation in equine arteritis virus (EAV) G S protein encoding gene was investigated. (springer.com)
  • The M protein also formed covalently linked homodimers, but only the heterodimers were incorporated into virus particles. (uu.nl)
  • Furthermore, using a virus overlay protein-binding assay (VOPBA) in combination with far-Western blotting, gradient-purified EAV particles were shown to bind directly to the EqCXCL16 protein in vitro . (uky.edu)
  • Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was conducted using a primer pair targeting nonstructural protein 1 (NSP1) of Getah virus (OneStep RT-PCR Kit, QIAGEN, Hilden, Germany) by using the RNA extracted from the blood samples ( 8 ). (cdc.gov)
  • To identify the minimal epitope of N protein of the equine arteritis virus (EAV). (ukessays.com)
  • Equine viral encephalomyelitis (EEE/WEE): brain and spinal cord inflammation caused by several species of alphaviruses that are usually trans-mitted by mosquitoes. (equisearch.com)
  • Other members of this single genus in the family Arteriviridae are Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV), Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and Simian hemorrhagic fever virus . (asm.org)
  • Simian hemorrhagic fever virus: Causes hemorrhagic fever in several species of African monkeys. (ivis.org)
  • Several other arteriviruses (Pebjah virus, simian hemorrhagic encephalitis virus, and simian hemorrhagic fever virus) cause highly lethal hemorrhagic fever in captive Asian macaques ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Advantageously, transfection of CD 151 into non-simian cell lines can confer susceptibility to PRRSV and these recombinant cell lines can be used for preparation of biologics that will avoid simian cell lines which could be a source of primate viruses in xenotransplanted organs from pigs. (patents.com)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) along with Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus, Equine arteritis virus, and Simian hemorrhagic fever virus belongs to the family Arteriviridae of order Nidovirales . (hindawi.com)
  • Moyo, N , Westcott, D , Simmonds, R and Steinbach, F (2012) Equine arteritis virus replication in monocytic cells suppresses differentiation and function of dendritic cells In: European Congress of Immunology, 2012-09-05 - 2012-09-08, Glasgow, SCOTLAND. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • This disease has been referred to in the past as equine monocytic ehrlichiosis, or equine ehrlichial colitis. (allivet.com)
  • Clinical, virological and serological responses were investigated in five pregnant donkey mares after experimental exposure to the South African asinine-94 strain of equine arteritis virus (EAV), and the duration of maternal immunity to EAV was studied in their foals. (up.ac.za)
  • The virus was recovered from the nasopharynx and from buffy-coat samples of all the mares 3-10 d, and 2-16 d post inoculation (p.i.), respectively. (up.ac.za)
  • The in-contact (p.c.) control mare developed fever on days 15-19 post exposure, and showed mild clinical signs of equine viral arteritis similar to those observed in the inoculated mares. (up.ac.za)
  • The results suggest that certain mares have latent EHV-1, experience reactivation of the virus, and pass it on to their foals, allowing viral spread around the farm. (thehorse.com)
  • For example, equine arteritis virus causes mild-to-severe respiratory disease, typically in foals, or abortion in pregnant mares ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Abortion due to EAV only occurs in mares that are already pregnant at time of exposure to the virus. (aaep.org)
  • This virus can also cause mares to abort their foals. (thewholehorse.com)
  • Reactivity of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus structural proteins to antibodies against porcine enteric coronaviruses: diagnostic implications. (iastate.edu)
  • Diagnostic evaluation of assays for detection of antibodies against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) in pigs exposed to different PEDV strains. (iastate.edu)
  • Evaluation of serological cross-reactivity and cross-neutralization between the United States porcine epidemic diarrhea virus prototype and S-INDEL-variant strains. (iastate.edu)
  • 2016). Evaluation of two singleplex reverse transcription-insulated isothermal PCR tests and a duplex real-time RT-PCR test for the detection of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and porcine deltacoronavirus. (iastate.edu)
  • Does Circulating antibody play a role in the protection of piglets against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus? (iastate.edu)
  • Status of vaccines for porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in the United States and Canada. (usda.gov)
  • The virus causing EVA was first identified following an outbreak of respiratory disease and spontaneous abortion on a horse farm in Ohio in 1953. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ISU VDL offers PCR assays for detection of equine viruses associated with respiratory disease, abortion and equine herpes myeloencephalopathy. (iastate.edu)
  • EHV-1, EHV-4 and EAV are also the most common viral causative agents for equine abortion. (iastate.edu)
  • Equine arteritis virus causes subclinical infections characterized by respiratory disease, abortion or pneumonia. (unlp.edu.ar)
  • Diagnosis of abortion due to EAV is largely dependent on virus isolation from placenta or foetal tissues in RK13, horse kidney, Vero and BHK-21 cell lines. (expertsmind.com)
  • France Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA) Abortion On 16 November 2018, RESPE reported a case of EVA abortion in Orne. (aht.org.uk)
  • It is now widely accepted that the carrier stallion is the principal reservoir of equine arteritis virus in various equine populations worldwide. (stablemade.com)
  • The virus is maintained in the equine population between breeding seasons by persisting in the carrier stallion. (uky.edu)
  • The stallion that tested positive for equine viral arteritis (EVA) has been returned to its country of origin and restrictions on the quarantine premises where it was being kept have now been lifted. (thehorse.com)
  • Britain's Department of Environment, Farming and Rural Affairs (Defra) has announced that its recent case of equine viral arteritis (EVA) occurred in a non-Thoroughbred stallion which was passing through the country from Holland to New. (thehorse.com)
  • The carrier stallion is widely accepted as the natural reservoir of EAV and the source of diversity among naturally occurring strains of the virus. (aaep.org)
  • An infected stallion can shed the virus in his semen, even if it is extended and cooled. (thewholehorse.com)
  • The big problem is created when a breeding stallion is infected with the virus. (thewholehorse.com)
  • Seroconversion to EAV was detected in the p.c. mare on day 20 post exposure, and virus was isolated from nasal swabs and blood samples collected at the time of the febrile response and 1-3 d afterwards. (up.ac.za)
  • Blood samples, nasal swabs and semen can be used for isolation of the virus, detection of the viral RNA by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and detection of antibodies by ELISA tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus causes coughing, nasal discharge and lethargy, with cases anywhere from mild to severe. (equisearch.com)
  • Virus detection is accomplished by virus isolation in cell culture and/or RT-PCR testing of whole blood (EDTA or citrate but not heparin), nasal, nasopharyngeal swabs/washings, fetal and placental tissues/fluids. (aaep.org)
  • A horse infected with African horse sickness virus (acute, pulmonary form): excessive nasal discharge, which will be followed by death from anoxia. (cabi.org)
  • The AC-ELISA could specifically detect the Bucyrus EAV strain and had no cross-reaction with other equine viruses. (springer.com)
  • The M and N genes of all isolates had the same initiation and termination sites as the prototype Bucyrus strain and the encoded proteins were conserved between viruses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The signs shown depend on the horse's age, the strain of the infecting virus, the condition of the horse and the route by which it was infected. (wikipedia.org)
  • A virus neutralization test for Getah virus was conducted on Vero cells using the MI-110 strain, which was isolated in 1978 ( 11 ) and is the current vaccine strain, as described previously ( 12 ) with slight modification. (cdc.gov)
  • By neutralization tests, Ibaraki virus was more closely related to EHD virus, serotype 2 (Alberta strain). (cdc.gov)
  • The homology analysis showed that the identified epitope is conserved among all EAV isolated strains, with the exception of the ARVAC which is a modified live virus vaccine strain. (ukessays.com)
  • Balasuriya UB, Leutenegger CM, Topol JB, McCollum WH, Timoney PJ, MacLachlan NJ (2002) Detection of equine arteritis virus by real-time TaqMan reverse transcription-PCR assay. (springer.com)
  • A one-tube real-time TaqMan® reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed for the detection of equine arteritis virus (EAV). (elsevier.com)
  • Detection of equine arteritis virus following amplification of structural and nonstructural viral genes by reverse transcription-PCR. (asm.org)
  • 2003. Detection of equine arteritis virus (EAV)-specific cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocyte precursors from EAV-infected ponies. (asmscience.org)
  • Michigan Department of Agriculture (MDA) director Dan Wyant today announced the confirmation of a fourth case of equine herpesvirus type-1 (EHV-1) at Northville Downs in Northville, Mich., and the subsequent cancellation of live racing cards. (thehorse.com)
  • Michigan Department of Agriculture Director Dan Wyant announced the confirmation of a third case of equine herpes virus type-1 (EHV-1) at Northville Downs in Northville, Mich., on Jan. 20. (thehorse.com)
  • A recent equine study compared killed and MLV equine herpes virus type 1 (EHV-1) vaccines, and found the MLV vaccine offered superior protection when tested by aerosol challenge. (equinewellnessmagazine.com)
  • Some EU Affiliate locations also require testing for Glanders, Dourine and Equine Herpes Virus. (selectbreeders.com)
  • S equi, equine herpesvirus 4 and equine picornaviruses in the lower respiratory tract were detected occasionally, but showed little association with clinical signs. (bl.uk)
  • During the summer of 2007, an outbreak of equine viral arteritis (EVA) occurred in Normandy (France). (nih.gov)
  • Last year, the equine industry was shocked by the report of an Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA) outbreak. (k-state.edu)
  • The United States and Mexico notified the World Health Organization of an outbreak of a new influenza A H1N1 virus. (mpi.govt.nz)
  • The American Association of Equine Practitioners divides these into ?core? (equisearch.com)
  • Keene, who has served on committees of the American Association of Equine Practitioners, says the most important tools are sometimes the simplest. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
  • La arteritis viral equina ( AVE ) ocasiona infecciones , en su mayoría subclínicas, pero puede causar abortos y enfermedad respiratoria . (bvsalud.org)
  • En este estudio evaluamos los fenotipos neutralizantes de las 5 únicas cepas de arteritis viral equina aisladas en Argentina y los comparamos con los de la cepa de referencia EAV-UCD por virus neutralización cruzada y análisis de secuencias aminoacídicas de las proteínas M y GP5. (bvsalud.org)
  • The real-time TaqMan® PCR assay detected EAV RNA in all samples that were confirmed to contain infectious EAV by virus isolation. (elsevier.com)
  • The ISU VDL also offers virus isolation for the above listed equine viruses. (iastate.edu)
  • This is based on virus isolation, RT-PCR testing, and/or serological examination of paired sera. (aaep.org)
  • Allivet.com supplies everything from prescription, non-prescription medication for farm and companion animals, pet medication, pet flea control, pet vitamins, veterinarian diagnostic devices, equine supplements & medications, equine performance products, equine vaccines, and much more at highly affordable prices. (allivet.com)
  • This article summarizes the current issues about equine vaccines - and the alternative of titer testing. (equinewellnessmagazine.com)
  • Safe and effective MLV (modifi ed live) equine vaccines have more recently become available. (equinewellnessmagazine.com)
  • But another recent study comparing killed, MLV, and live-chimera West Nile Virus (WNV) vaccines found 100% protection with all three types following challenge with virulent WNV. (equinewellnessmagazine.com)
  • The public believes these vaccines, aside from their specified virus(es), are sterile solutions, free from undesirable contaminants not listed on the manufacturer's package inserts. (globalresearch.ca)
  • Conversations focused primarily on the influenza, MMR and yellow fever vaccines, which rely on fertilized chicken eggs for their culturing viruses. (globalresearch.ca)
  • Fertilized chicken eggs, while ideally suited for culturing certain viruses for vaccines, such as the influenza and MMR vaccines, are also living incubators for large numbers of known and unknown viruses in the animal kingdom. (globalresearch.ca)
  • Validated assays for detection of adventitious viruses and neutralizing antibodies in bovine serum and other bovine materials. (vmrd.com)
  • and Balasuriya, Udeni B. R., "Equine Arteritis Virus Uses Equine CXCL16 as an Entry Receptor" (2016). (uky.edu)
  • In 2016 Washington had 27 confirmed equine WNV cases, seven of which died or were euthanized. (thehorse.com)
  • Diagnostics, molecular epidemiology, pathogenesis and vaccine development of viruses of veterinary significance. (iastate.edu)
  • The current licensed vaccine in North America is a highly attenuated, modified live virus (MLV) product. (aaep.org)
  • Modified live virus vaccine is available that gives strong immunity. (expertsmind.com)
  • An inactivated vaccine developed in Japan has been reported to induce neutralizing antibodies and preventive to virus shedding through semen. (expertsmind.com)
  • A vaccine is available for equine viral arteritis. (thewholehorse.com)
  • These recommendations are based on the American Association of Equine Practitioner's (AAEP) core and risk-based vaccination guidelines. (useventing.com)
  • Hendra virus (HeV) is the prototype species of a new genus Henipavirus within the subfamily Paramyxovirinae and was first identified in Australia in 1994. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Getah virus (genus Alphavirus , family Togaviridae ) is a mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated in Malaysia in 1955 from Culex spp. (cdc.gov)
  • AHS is caused by African horse sickness virus (AHSV), a member of the family Reoviridae of the genus Orbivirus. (cabi.org)
  • In this review, we will evaluate the contribution of innate immunity evasion by DENV to the pathogenesis and host tropism of this virus. (mdpi.com)
  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a serious threat to the pork industry, and its pathogenesis needs further investigations. (hindawi.com)
  • This virus was detected in association with fatal encephalitis in European hedgehogs ( Erinaceus europaeus ) from England. (cdc.gov)
  • The USDA Center for Veterinary Biologics recently approved a name change for the kit from, "Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus Antibody Test Kit, cELISA," to, "Small Ruminant Lentivirus Antibody Test Kit, cELISA. (linscottsdirectory.com)
  • Balasuriya UB, Go YY, MacLachlan NJ (2013) Equine arteritis virus. (springer.com)
  • Gluck Center faculty members Professor Udeni Balasuriya, Professor Ernie Bailey and Peter Timoney, Frederick Van Lennep Chair in Equine Veterinary Science, developed the test to determine the genetic basis of a specific haplotype, a group of genes inherited from one parent. (uky.edu)
  • Peak serum-virus- neutralizing antibody titres of log₁₀1,8-2,4, and lgG ELISA OD values of 0,85-2,15 were recorded 2-3 weeks p.i. (up.ac.za)
  • Also, no virus-serum- neutralizing or lgG ELISA antibody to EAV was detected in sera collected immediately after birth before the foals started nursing. (up.ac.za)
  • As a Small Ruminant Lentivirus (SRLV) kit, it is now USDA-approved not only for detection of antibody to CAEV in goats, but also for detection of antibody to Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Virus (OPPV) in sheep. (linscottsdirectory.com)
  • These tests include serological tests for the detection of Brucella canis , Leptospira canicola, Erhlichia canis and Equine infectious anaemia, as well as molecular tests for the detection of the Koi herpesvirus (KHV) and red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV). (nparks.gov.sg)