The type species of the genus ARTERIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of an important equine respiratory disease causing abortion, pneumonia, or other infections.
Infections caused by viruses of the genus ARTERIVIRUS.
A chronic inflammatory process that affects the AORTA and its primary branches, such as the brachiocephalic artery (BRACHIOCEPHALIC TRUNK) and CAROTID ARTERIES. It results in progressive arterial stenosis, occlusion, and aneurysm formation. The pulse in the arm is hard to detect. Patients with aortitis syndrome often exhibit retinopathy.
A systemic autoimmune disorder that typically affects medium and large ARTERIES, usually leading to occlusive granulomatous vasculitis with transmural infiltrate containing multinucleated GIANT CELLS. The TEMPORAL ARTERY is commonly involved. This disorder appears primarily in people over the age of 50. Symptoms include FEVER; FATIGUE; HEADACHE; visual impairment; pain in the jaw and tongue; and aggravation of pain by cold temperatures. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed)
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
A genus of the family ARTERIVIRIDAE, in the order NIDOVIRALES. The type species is ARTERITIS VIRUS, EQUINE.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.
A family of RNA viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of two genera: ALPHAVIRUS (group A arboviruses), and RUBIVIRUS. Virions are spherical, 60-70 nm in diameter, with a lipoprotein envelope tightly applied to the icosahedral nucleocapsid.
A syndrome in the elderly characterized by proximal joint and muscle pain, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and a self-limiting course. Pain is usually accompanied by evidence of an inflammatory reaction. Women are affected twice as commonly as men and Caucasians more frequently than other groups. The condition is frequently associated with GIANT CELL ARTERITIS and some theories pose the possibility that the two diseases arise from a single etiology or even that they are the same entity.
Vaccines used in conjunction with diagnostic tests to differentiate vaccinated animals from carrier animals. Marker vaccines can be either a subunit or a gene-deleted vaccine.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A species ARTERIVIRUS, occurring in a number of transplantable mouse tumors. Infected mice have permanently elevated serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
A form of necrotizing non-granulomatous inflammation occurring primarily in medium-sized ARTERIES, often with microaneurysms. It is characterized by muscle, joint, and abdominal pain resulting from arterial infarction and scarring in affected organs. Polyarteritis nodosa with lung involvement is called CHURG-STRAUSS SYNDROME.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*52 allele family.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Conditions resulting from abnormalities in the arteries branching from the ASCENDING AORTA, the curved portion of the aorta. These syndromes are results of occlusion or abnormal blood flow to the head-neck or arm region leading to neurological defects and weakness in an arm. These syndromes are associated with vascular malformations; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; TRAUMA; and blood clots.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.

Genetic diversity of equine arteritis virus. (1/128)

Equine arteritis viruses (EAV) from Europe and America were compared by phylogenetic analysis of 43 isolates obtained over four decades. An additional 22 virus sequences were retrieved from GenBank. Fragments of the glycoprotein G(L) and the replicase genes were amplified by RT-PCR, prior to sequencing and construction of phylogenetic trees. The trees revealed many distinctive lineages, consistent with prolonged diversification within geographically separated host populations. Two large groups and five subgroups were distinguished. Group I consisted mainly of viruses from North America, whilst group II consisted mainly of European isolates. In most instances, where the geographic origin of the viruses appeared to be at variance with the phylogenetically predicted relationships, the horses from which the viruses were recovered had been transported between Europe and America or vice versa. Analysis of the replicase gene revealed similar phylogenetic relationships although not all of the groups were as clearly defined. Virus strains CH1 (Switzerland, 1964) and S1 (Sweden, 1989) represented separate 'outgroups' based on analysis of both genomic regions. The results of this study confirm the value of the G(L) gene of EAV for estimating virus genetic diversity and as a useful tool for tracing routes by which EAV is spread. In addition, computer-assisted predictions of antigenic sites on the G(L) protein revealed considerable variability among the isolates, especially with respect to regions associated with neutralization domains.  (+info)

Genetic divergence with emergence of novel phenotypic variants of equine arteritis virus during persistent infection of stallions. (2/128)

The persistently infected carrier stallion is the critical natural reservoir of equine arteritis virus (EAV), as venereal infection of mares frequently occurs after breeding to such stallions. Two Thoroughbred stallions that were infected during the 1984 outbreak of equine viral arteritis in central Kentucky subsequently became long-term EAV carriers. EAV genomes amplified from the semen of these two stallions were compared by sequence analysis of the six 3' open reading frames (ORFs 2 through 7), which encode the four known structural proteins and two uncharacterized glycoproteins. The major variants of the EAV population that sequentially arose within the reproductive tract of each carrier stallion varied by approximately 1% per year, and the heterogeneity of the viral quasispecies increased during the course of long-term persistent infection. The various ORFs of the dominant EAV variants evolved independently, and there was apparently strong selective pressure on the uncharacterized GP3 protein during persistent infection. Amino acid changes also occurred in the V1 variable region of the GL protein. This region has been previously identified as a crucial neutralization domain, and selective pressures exerted on the V1 region during persistent EAV infection led to the emergence of virus variants with distinct neutralization properties. Thus, evolution of the EAV quasispecies that occurs during persistent infection of the stallion clearly can influence viral phenotypic properties such as neutralization and perhaps virulence.  (+info)

Characterization of an equine arteritis virus replicase mutant defective in subgenomic mRNA synthesis. (3/128)

Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus that synthesizes a 5'- and 3'-coterminal nested set of six subgenomic mRNAs. These mRNAs all contain a common leader sequence which is derived from the 5' end of the genome. Subgenomic mRNA transcription and genome replication are directed by the viral replicase, which is expressed in the form of two polyproteins and subsequently processed into smaller nonstructural proteins (nsps). During the recent construction of an EAV infectious cDNA clone (pEAV030 [L. C. van Dinten, J. A. den Boon, A. L. M. Wassenaar, W. J. M. Spaan, and E. J. Snijder, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:991-996, 1997]), a mutant cDNA clone (pEAV030F) which carries a single replicase point mutation was obtained. This substitution (Ser-2429-->Pro) is located in the nsp10 subunit and renders the EAV030F virus deficient in subgenomic mRNA synthesis. To obtain more insight into the role of nsp10 in transcription and the nature of the transcriptional defect, we have now analyzed the EAV030F mutant in considerable detail. The Ser-2429-->Pro mutation does not affect the proteolytic processing of the replicase but apparently affects the function of nsp10 in transcription. Furthermore, our study showed that EAV030F still produces subgenomic positive and negative strands, albeit at a very low level. Both subgenomic positive-strand synthesis and negative-strand synthesis are equally affected by the Ser-2429-->Pro mutation, suggesting that nsp10 plays an important role in an early step of EAV mRNA transcription.  (+info)

Identification of a novel structural protein of arteriviruses. (4/128)

Arteriviruses are positive-stranded RNA viruses with an efficiently organized, polycistronic genome. A short region between the replicase gene and open reading frame (ORF) 2 of the equine arteritis virus (EAV) genome was previously assumed to be untranslated. However, here we report that this segment of the EAV genome contains the 5' part of a novel gene (ORF 2a) which is conserved in all arteriviruses. The 3' part of EAV ORF 2a overlaps with the 5' part of the former ORF 2 (now renamed ORF 2b), which encodes the GS glycoprotein. Both ORF 2a and ORF 2b appear to be expressed from mRNA 2, which thereby constitutes the first proven example of a bicistronic mRNA in arteriviruses. The 67-amino-acid protein encoded by EAV ORF 2a, which we have provisionally named the envelope (E) protein, is very hydrophobic and has a basic C terminus. An E protein-specific antiserum was raised and used to demonstrate the expression of the novel gene in EAV-infected cells. The EAV E protein proved to be very stable, did not form disulfide-linked oligomers, and was not N-glycosylated. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy studies showed that the E protein associates with intracellular membranes both in EAV-infected cells and upon independent expression. An analysis of purified EAV particles revealed that the E protein is a structural protein. By using reverse genetics, we demonstrated that both the EAV E and GS proteins are essential for the production of infectious progeny virus.  (+info)

Equine arteritis virus derived from an infectious cDNA clone is attenuated and genetically stable in infected stallions. (5/128)

Virus derived from an infectious cDNA clone of equine arteritis virus (EAV030H) was intranasally inoculated into two stallions, neither of which subsequently developed clinical manifestations of equine viral arteritis (EVA). Virus was isolated from nasal swabs and mononuclear cells collected from both stallions +info)

Genetic stability of equine arteritis virus during horizontal and vertical transmission in an outbreak of equine viral arteritis. (6/128)

An imported carrier stallion (A) from Europe was implicated in causing an extensive outbreak of equine viral arteritis (EVA) on a Warmblood breeding farm in Pennsylvania, USA. Strains of equine arteritis virus (EAV) present in the semen of two carrier stallions (A and G) on the farm were compared to those in tissues of foals born during the outbreak, as well as viruses present in the semen of two other stallions that became persistently infected carriers of EAV following infection during the outbreak. The 2822 bp segment encompassing ORFs 2-7 (nt 9807-12628; which encode the G(S), GP3, GP4, G(L), M and N proteins, respectively) was directly amplified by RT-PCR from semen samples and foal tissues. Nucleotide and phylogenetic analyses confirmed that virus present in the semen of stallion A initiated the outbreak. The genomes of viruses present in most foal tissues (10/11) and serum from an acutely infected mare collected during the outbreak were identical to that of virus present in the lung of the first foal that died of EVA. Virus in the placenta of one foal differed by one nucleotide (99.9% identity) from the predominant outbreak virus. The relative genetic stability of viruses that circulated during the outbreak contrasts markedly with the heterogeneous virus populations variously present in the semen of persistently infected stallions on the farm. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the carrier stallion can be a source of genetic diversity of EAV, and that outbreaks of EVA can be initiated by the horizontal aerosol transmission of specific viral variants that occur in the semen of particular carrier stallions.  (+info)

The open reading frame 3 of equine arteritis virus encodes an immunogenic glycosylated, integral membrane protein. (7/128)

Open reading frame 3 (ORF 3) of equine arteritis virus (EAV) is predicted to encode a glycosylated membrane protein (GP3) that is uncharacterized. ORF 3 of the American Type Culture Collection strain of EAV was in vitro transcribed and the encoded GP3 protein was in vitro translated with and without canine microsomal membranes. The GP3 protein was approximately 17 kDa after in vitro translation without canine microsomal membranes whereas the glycosylated form, after translation with microsomal membranes, was a diffuse band of 36-42 kDa, indicating that the GP3 protein is extensively glycosylated. Deglycosylation reduced the GP3 protein to approximately 17 kDa, the same size as that translated without microsomal membranes, indicating that the signal sequence was not cleaved. The EAV GP3 protein was membrane associated and not released as a soluble protein, in marked contrast to the ORF 3-encoded proteins of some other arteriviruses. The GP3 protein was protected from protease digestion in closed membrane vesicles, suggesting that the protein extends into the membrane vesicles and is anchored by the N-terminal signal sequence, a C-terminal hydrophobic domain, or both, but does not span the membrane three times. A GP3 protein lacking the C-terminal transmembrane domain remained membrane associated, indicating that this terminus is not a necessary membrane anchor. Sera from stallions persistently infected with EAV and horses immunized repeatedly with the modified live EAV vaccine contained antibodies specific for the GP3 protein. The data indicate that the GP3 protein is an extensively glycosylated membrane protein that is immunogenic during some EAV infections.  (+info)

Effects of chlorine, iodine, and quaternary ammonium compound disinfectants on several exotic disease viruses. (8/128)

The effects of three representative disinfectants, chlorine (sodium hypochlorite), iodine (potassium tetraglicine triiodide), and quaternary ammonium compound (didecyldimethylammonium chloride), on several exotic disease viruses were examined. The viruses used were four enveloped viruses (vesicular stomatitis virus, African swine fever virus, equine viral arteritis virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus) and two non-enveloped viruses (swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV)). Chlorine was effective against all viruses except SVDV at concentrations of 0.03% to 0.0075%, and a dose response was observed. Iodine was very effective against all viruses at concentrations of 0.015% to 0.0075%, but a dose response was not observed. Quaternary ammonium compound was very effective in low concentration of 0.003% against four enveloped viruses and AHSV, but it was only effective against SVDV with 0.05% NaOH. Electron microscopic observation revealed the probable mechanism of each disinfectant. Chlorine caused complete degeneration of the viral particles and also destroyed the nucleic acid of the viruses. Iodine destroyed mainly the inner components including nucleic acid of the viruses. Quaternary ammonium compound induced detachment of the envelope of the enveloped viruses and formation of micelle in non-enveloped viruses. According to these results, chlorine and iodine disinfectants were quite effective against most of the viruses used at adequately high concentration. The effective concentration of quaternary ammonium compound was the lowest among the disinfectants examined.  (+info)

Arteriviruses are characterized by their ability to infect cells in the blood vessels, particularly endothelial cells, which line the inside of blood vessels. This allows the virus to cause widespread damage to the cardiovascular system and can lead to severe illness and death.

Arterivirus infections are a significant concern for public health, as they have the potential to spread rapidly and cause large outbreaks. In addition, many arteriviruses are zoonotic, meaning that they can be transmitted between animals and humans, which can make it difficult to control outbreaks.

There is currently no specific treatment or vaccine available for arterivirus infections, although supportive care such as intravenous fluids and oxygen therapy may be provided to manage symptoms. Research is ongoing to develop effective treatments and vaccines against these viruses.

The exact cause of Takayasu arteritis is not known, but it is believed to be an autoimmune disorder, meaning the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in the body. The disease primarily affects women of childbearing age, although it can occur at any age.

The symptoms of Takayasu arteritis can vary depending on the location and severity of the inflammation. Common symptoms include:

* Fatigue
* Weakness
* Joint pain
* Fever
* Headaches
* Muscle wasting
* Decreased vision

If the disease affects the aorta, it can cause:

* Aortic regurgitation
* Aortic stenosis
* Aortic aneurysm

Diagnosis of Takayasu arteritis is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include:

* Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
* C-reactive protein (CRP)
* Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)
* Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA)

Imaging studies may include:

* Ultrasonography (US)
* Computed tomography (CT)
* Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)
* Positron emission tomography (PET)

Treatment for Takayasu arteritis typically involves a combination of medications and surgery. Medications may include:

* Glucocorticoids
* Immunosuppressive drugs
* Antibiotics

Surgical interventions may include:

* Aortic root replacement
* Aortic grafting
* Bypass surgery

The prognosis for Takayasu arteritis is generally good if the disease is diagnosed and treated early, with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 80%. However, if left untreated, the disease can progress to severe complications such as aortic dissection, myocardial infarction, or stroke, which can be fatal.

Prevention of Takayasu arteritis is not possible, as the exact cause of the disease is not fully understood. However, early diagnosis and treatment can help to prevent complications and improve outcomes.

Current research is focused on identifying specific biomarkers that can aid in the diagnosis of Takayasu arteritis, as well as developing new treatments that can more effectively target the underlying immune mechanisms of the disease.

Arteritis can lead to a range of symptoms including fever, fatigue, joint pain, skin rashes, and difficulty speaking or swallowing. In severe cases, it can also cause cardiovascular complications such as heart attack, stroke, or organ failure.

There are several types of arteritis, each with different causes and symptoms. Some common forms of arteritis include:

1. Giant cell arteritis (GCA): This is the most common form of arteritis and primarily affects older adults. It is caused by inflammation of the medium-sized arteries, particularly those in the head and neck. Symptoms may include headaches, vision loss, and pain in the face and jaw.
2. Takayasu arteritis (TA): This is a rare form of arteritis that affects the aorta and its branches. It is more common in women than men and typically affects young adults. Symptoms may include high blood pressure, chest pain, and weakness or numbness in the limbs.
3. Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN): This is a rare form of arteritis that affects multiple arteries throughout the body. It can cause symptoms such as fever, fatigue, joint pain, and skin rashes.
4. Kawasaki disease: This is a rare inflammatory disease that primarily affects children under the age of 5. It causes inflammation in the blood vessels, particularly those in the heart and can lead to cardiovascular complications if left untreated.

Arteritis can be diagnosed through various tests such as blood tests, imaging studies like CT or MRI scans, and biopsies. Treatment options vary depending on the type of arteritis and its severity but may include corticosteroids, immunosuppressive medications, and antibiotics. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes.

* Headache
* Weakness or numbness in the limbs
* Vision problems such as blurred vision or blind spots
* Pain in the jaw, shoulder, or tongue
* Fatigue
* Low-grade fever
* Loss of appetite

The exact cause of GCA is not known, but it is believed to be an autoimmune disorder. This means that the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissues in the blood vessels, leading to inflammation and damage. The condition can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scans.

Treatment for GCA usually involves high doses of corticosteroids, which can help reduce inflammation and prevent further damage to the blood vessels. In some cases, immunosuppressive medications may also be prescribed to suppress the immune system and prevent the condition from returning. If left untreated, GCA can lead to serious complications such as stroke or blindness, so it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Here are some of the key points of the definition of giant cell arteritis:

* A type of vasculitis that affects medium and large arteries
* Typically occurs in people over the age of 50
* More common in women than men
* Symptoms can include headache, vision problems, pain in the jaw or tongue, fatigue, and low-grade fever
* Autoimmune disorder
* Can lead to serious complications if left untreated
* Treatment typically involves corticosteroids and immunosuppressive medications.

Some common horse diseases include:

1. Equine Influenza (EI): A highly contagious respiratory disease caused by the equine influenza virus. It can cause fever, coughing, and nasal discharge.
2. Strangles: A bacterial infection of the lymph nodes, which can cause swelling of the neck and difficulty breathing.
3. West Nile Virus (WNV): A viral infection that can cause fever, weakness, and loss of coordination. It is transmitted by mosquitoes and can be fatal in some cases.
4. Tetanus: A bacterial infection caused by Clostridium tetani, which can cause muscle stiffness, spasms, and rigidity.
5. Rabies: A viral infection that affects the central nervous system and can be fatal if left untreated. It is transmitted through the saliva of infected animals, usually through a bite.
6. Cushing's Disease: A hormonal disorder caused by an overproduction of cortisol, which can cause weight gain, muscle wasting, and other health issues.
7. Laminitis: An inflammation of the laminae, the tissues that connect the hoof to the bone. It can be caused by obesity, overeating, or excessive exercise.
8. Navicular Syndrome: A condition that affects the navicular bone and surrounding tissue, causing pain and lameness in the foot.
9. Pneumonia: An inflammation of the lungs, which can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
10. Colic: A general term for abdominal pain, which can be caused by a variety of factors, including gas, impaction, or twisting of the intestines.

These are just a few examples of the many potential health issues that can affect horses. Regular veterinary care and proper management can help prevent many of these conditions, and early diagnosis and treatment can improve the chances of a successful outcome.

The exact cause of PMR is not known, but it is believed to be related to an abnormal immune response. The condition often occurs in conjunction with another inflammatory disorder called giant cell arteritis (GCA), which affects the blood vessels.

Symptoms of PMR include:

* Pain and stiffness in the shoulders, hips, and other joints
* Fatigue
* Fever
* Loss of appetite
* Sleep disturbances
* Weight loss

The diagnosis of PMR is based on a combination of symptoms, physical examination findings, and laboratory test results. Laboratory tests may include blood tests to check for inflammatory markers, such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP).

Treatment for PMR typically involves a combination of medications, including:

* Corticosteroids to reduce inflammation
* Pain relievers, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or narcotics
* Anti-inflammatory medications, such as disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) or biologic response modifiers

In addition to medication, physical therapy and exercise may be helpful in managing the symptoms of PMR. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair joint damage.

The prognosis for PMR is generally good, with most people experiencing significant improvement within a few months of starting treatment. However, the condition can be challenging to diagnose and treat, and it is important to work closely with a healthcare provider to find the most effective treatment plan.

The symptoms of PAN can vary depending on the location and severity of the inflammation, but may include:

* Fever
* Headache
* Joint pain and swelling
* Skin rash or lesions
* Abdominal pain
* Weight loss
* Fatigue
* Numbness or weakness in the limbs

The exact cause of PAN is not known, but it is believed to be an autoimmune disorder, meaning that the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissues. It can occur at any age, but is more common in adults between the ages of 40 and 60.

There is no cure for PAN, but treatment options include:

* Corticosteroids to reduce inflammation
* Immunosuppressive drugs to suppress the immune system
* Plasmapheresis to remove harmful antibodies from the blood
* Biologics to target specific proteins involved in the disease process

The prognosis for PAN varies depending on the severity and location of the inflammation, as well as the promptness and effectiveness of treatment. In general, the condition can be challenging to diagnose and treat, and the long-term outcome is often uncertain.

1. Common cold: A viral infection that affects the upper respiratory tract and causes symptoms such as sneezing, running nose, coughing, and mild fever.
2. Influenza (flu): A viral infection that can cause severe respiratory illness, including pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinus and ear infections.
3. Measles: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, rashes, coughing, and redness of the eyes.
4. Rubella (German measles): A mild viral infection that can cause fever, rashes, headache, and swollen lymph nodes.
5. Chickenpox: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, itching, and a characteristic rash of small blisters on the skin.
6. Herpes simplex virus (HSV): A viral infection that can cause genital herpes, cold sores, or other skin lesions.
7. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): A viral infection that attacks the immune system and can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
8. Hepatitis B: A viral infection that affects the liver, causing inflammation and damage to liver cells.
9. Hepatitis C: Another viral infection that affects the liver, often leading to chronic liver disease and liver cancer.
10. Ebola: A deadly viral infection that causes fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and internal bleeding.
11. SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome): A viral infection that can cause severe respiratory illness, including pneumonia and respiratory failure.
12. West Nile virus: A viral infection that can cause fever, headache, and muscle pain, as well as more severe symptoms such as meningitis or encephalitis.

Viral infections can be spread through contact with an infected person or contaminated surfaces, objects, or insects such as mosquitoes. Prevention strategies include:

1. Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and thoroughly.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
3. Covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing.
4. Avoiding sharing personal items such as towels or utensils.
5. Using condoms or other barrier methods during sexual activity.
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viral infections, such as HPV and hepatitis B.
7. Using insect repellents to prevent mosquito bites.
8. Screening blood products and organs for certain viruses before transfusion or transplantation.

Treatment for viral infections depends on the specific virus and the severity of the illness. Antiviral medications may be used to reduce the replication of the virus and alleviate symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide supportive care such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, or mechanical ventilation.

Prevention is key in avoiding viral infections, so taking the necessary precautions and practicing good hygiene can go a long way in protecting oneself and others from these common and potentially debilitating illnesses.

Types of Aortic Arch Syndromes:

1. Turner Syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects females and is caused by a missing X chromosome. This condition can result in short stature, infertility, and heart defects, including aortic arch syndrome.
2. Down Syndrome: A genetic disorder that occurs when there is an extra copy of chromosome 21. This condition can cause a range of symptoms, including heart defects such as aortic arch syndrome.
3. Williams Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder caused by a deletion of genetic material from chromosome 7. This condition is characterized by cardiovascular problems, including aortic arch syndrome.
4. Marfan Syndrome: An inherited disorder that affects the body's connective tissue, including the heart and blood vessels. This condition can cause aortic arch syndrome and other cardiovascular problems.
5. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: A group of inherited disorders that affect the body's connective tissue, including the heart and blood vessels. This condition can cause aortic arch syndrome and other cardiovascular problems.

Symptoms of Aortic Arch Syndromes:

1. Chest pain or pressure
2. Shortness of breath
3. Dizziness or fainting
4. Pulse deficiency in the arms or legs
5. Blue discoloration of the skin (cyanosis)
6. Heart murmurs
7. Abnormal heart rhythms

Diagnosis of Aortic Arch Syndromes:

1. Physical examination and medical history
2. Electrocardiogram (ECG)
3. Echocardiography
4. Cardiac catheterization
5. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scans

Treatment of Aortic Arch Syndromes:

1. Medications to control symptoms such as high blood pressure, heart failure, or abnormal heart rhythms
2. Surgery to repair or replace the aortic arch, including open-heart surgery or minimally invasive procedures
3. Monitoring and follow-up care to manage the condition and prevent complications.

Prognosis for Aortic Arch Syndromes:

The prognosis for aortic arch syndromes varies depending on the underlying cause of the condition, the severity of the symptoms, and the effectiveness of treatment. In general, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can improve the outlook for individuals with these conditions. However, without proper care, the condition can be life-threatening.

Page for Equine arteritis virus leader TRS hairpin (LTH) at Rfam v t e (Cis-regulatory RNA elements, Arteriviridae, All stub ... The equine arteritis virus leader transcription-regulating sequence hairpin (LTH) is as RNA element that is thought to be a key ... proximal region of the equine arteritis virus RNA genome". RNA. 10 (3): 424-437. doi:10.1261/rna.5174804. PMC 1370938. PMID ... Liu Y, Wimmer E, Paul AV (2009). "Cis-acting RNA elements in human and animal plus-strand RNA viruses". Biochimica et ...
Equine arteritis virus leader TRS hairpin (LTH) Virology Ionophore "Equine Viral Arteritis: Introduction". The Merck Veterinary ... Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is a disease of horses caused by a virus of the species Alphaarterivirus equid, an RNA virus. It ... As well as equine arteritis virus the Arterivirus family includes porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), ... EVA is caused by an arterivirus called equine arteritis virus (EAV). Arteriviruses are small, enveloped, animal viruses with an ...
Tijms MA, Snijder EJ (Sep 2003). "Equine arteritis virus non-structural protein 1, an essential factor for viral subgenomic ... Tong X, Drapkin R, Yalamanchili R, Mosialos G, Kieff E (Sep 1995). "The Epstein-Barr virus nuclear protein 2 acidic domain ...
... equine arteritis virus (EAV), simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV), wobbly possum disease virus, and lactate dehydrogenase ... virus isolate and the virus dose. It was shown that pigs could be infected with PRRS virus by several routes of exposure: ... Betaarterivirus suid 1, formerly Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), is a virus that causes a disease ... Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 2 Porcine epidemic diarrhoea Animal viruses Virology "2017.012-015S" (XLSX ...
The family includes equine arteritis virus (EAV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), lactate ... Louis encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, Israel turkey meningoencephalomyelitis virus, Sitiawan virus, Wesselsbron virus, ... Flaviviruses include the West Nile virus, dengue virus, Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus, Yellow Fever Virus, and several other ... The family includes pathogens such as rabies virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and potato yellow dwarf virus that are of public ...
The family includes, for example, equine arteritis virus in horses which causes mild-to-severe respiratory disease and ... lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus which affects mice, and wobbly possum disease virus. Member viruses are enveloped, ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2018b Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2019. Retrieved 23 September 2019 ... Arteriviridae is a family of enveloped, positive-strand RNA viruses in the order Nidovirales which infect vertebrates. Host ...
... equine arteritis virus, coronavirus, HCV, HSV, HCoV-229E, HIV, mengovirus, MERS-CoV, rhinovirus, SARS-CoV-1, Zika virus. ... Inhibits Zika Virus Infection in Different Cell Models". Viruses. 8 (12): 322. doi:10.3390/v8120322. PMC 5192383. PMID 27916837 ... "Inhibition of hepatitis C virus replication by chloroquine targeting virus-associated autophagy". Journal of Gastroenterology. ... TSAI, WEN-PO; NARA, PETER L.; KUNG, HSIANG-FU; OROSZLAN, STEPHEN (April 1990). "Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus ...
... an alternative medicine diagnostic device Equine arteritis virus, the causal agent of equine viral arteritis Entity-attribute- ...
... equine influenza virus QI05AA05 Equine rhinopneumonitis virus QI05AA06 Equine reovirus QI05AA07 Equine arteritis virus QI05AA08 ... QI05AA01 Equine influenza virus QI05AA03 Equine rhinopneumonitis virus + equine reovirus + equine influenza virus QI05AA04 ... Equine parapox virus QI05AA09 Equine rotavirus QI05AA10 West nile virus QI05AA11 Equine rhinopneumonitis virus + equine ... Equine rhinopneumonitis virus QI05AD02 Equine influenza virus Empty group Empty group Empty group Empty group QI05AI01 Equine ...
... arteritis virus, equine MeSH B04.909.777.500.080.500.500 - lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus MeSH B04.909.777.500.080.500. ... arteritis virus, equine MeSH B04.820.504.080.100.500 - lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus MeSH B04.820.504.080.100.700 - ... encephalitis virus, western equine MeSH B04.820.850.054.813 - ross river virus MeSH B04.820.850.054.840 - semliki forest virus ... la crosse virus MeSH B04.909.777.270.150 - encephalitis virus, eastern equine MeSH B04.909.777.270.369 - encephalitis virus, ...
... equine arterivirus was discovered. In the 1950s, improvements in virus isolation and detection methods resulted in the ... Bryans JT, Crowe ME, Doll ER, McCollum WH (January 1957). "Isolation of a filterable agent causing arteritis of horses and ... Epstein-Barr virus is important in the history of viruses for being the first virus shown to cause cancer in humans. The second ... The virus was later shown to be a previously unrecognised herpes virus, which is now called Epstein-Barr virus. Surprisingly, ...
... venezuelan equine MeSH C02.081.355.677 - encephalomyelitis, western equine MeSH C02.081.885.125 - african swine fever MeSH ... marburg virus disease MeSH C02.782.417.762 - rift valley fever MeSH C02.782.450.100 - hepatitis d, chronic MeSH C02.782.580.124 ... aids arteritis, central nervous system MeSH C02.800.801.400.050 - aids-associated nephropathy MeSH C02.800.801.400.070 - aids ... venezuelan equine MeSH C02.782.930.100.370.662 - encephalomyelitis, western equine MeSH C02.782.930.700 - rubivirus infections ...
Equine arteritis virus, complete genome Equine arteritis virus, complete genome. gi,14583260,ref,NC_002532.2,,gnl,NC NOMES, ...
To establish a sensitive and rapid quantitative detection method for equine arteritis virus (EAV), an antigen-capture enzyme- ... Development of an antigen-capture ELISA for the quantitation of equine arteritis virus in culture supernatant. ... Development of an antigen-capture ELISA for the quantitation of equine arteritis virus in ... The AC-ELISA could specifically detect the Bucyrus EAV strain and had no cross-reaction with other equine viruses. The ...
Arteritis Virus, Equine Equartevirus. Astragalus membranaceus Astragalus propinquus. Atorvastatin Calcium Atorvastatin. ATP ...
Replication of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus in macrophages. 2. Mechanism of persistent infection in mice and cell ... Equine arteritis virus. Balasuriya UB, Go YY, MacLachlan NJ. Balasuriya UB, et al. Vet Microbiol. 2013 Nov 29;167(1-2):93-122. ... Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus. Rowson KE, Mahy BW. Rowson KE, et al. J Gen Virol. 1985 Nov;66 ( Pt 11):2297-312. doi: ... Recent Advances in PRRS Virus Receptors and the Targeting of Receptor-Ligand for Control. Su CM, Rowland RRR, Yoo D. Su CM, et ...
... equine arteritis virus, simian hemorrhagic fever virus, lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus) and to be highly species ... For example, equine arteritis virus causes mild-to-severe respiratory disease, typically in foals, or abortion in pregnant ... Pebjah virus, simian hemorrhagic encephalitis virus, and simian hemorrhagic fever virus) cause highly lethal hemorrhagic fever ... Isolation of a filterable agent causing arteritis of horses and abortion by mares; its differentiation from the equine abortion ...
... or to the Bucyrus strain of equine arteritis virus [2] . Originally, this agent was compared by CF with at least 150 ... Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Two-way cross relationships between Ibaraki virus and EHD virus, serotypes 1 and 2, demonstrated by agar-gel precipitin and ... Immunological cross-reaction documented between virus-specified tubules of BLU and EHD viruses [21] . ...
Equine arteritis virus-induced polypeptide synthesis.. van Berlo MF; Rottier PJ; Spaan WJ; Horzinek MC. J Gen Virol; 1986 Aug; ... 4. Characterization of influenza virus NS1 protein by using a novel helper-virus-free reverse genetic system.. Enami M; Enami K ... Regulation of synthesis of virus-specific RNA in cells infected with influenza virus].. Varich NL; Gubareva LV; Kaverin NV. Mol ... 2. Replication of H1N1 influenza viruses in cultured mouse embryo brain cells: virus strain and cell differentiation affect ...
EAV entity-attribute-value [data organization]; equine abortion virus; equine arteritis virus *EAVC enhanced atrioventricular ... ECE equine conjugated estrogen; extracapsular extension *ECEO enteric cytopathogenic equine orphan [virus] *ECETOC European ... EBV effective blood volume; Egypt bee virus; Epstein-Barr virus; estimated blood volume *EBv Epstein-Barr virus *EBVS Epstein- ... EAAV equine adeno-associated virus *EAB elective abortion; Ethics Advisory Board *EABV effective arterial blood volume *EAC ...
Virulent and avirulent strains of equine arteritis virus induce different quantities of TNF-alpha and other proinflammatory ... Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. The Veterinary clinics of North America. Equine practice. 30(3):659-75 [DOI] 10.1016/j.cveq ... Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis. The Veterinary clinics of North America. Equine practice. 38(2):249-268 [DOI] 10.1016/j. ... West Nile virus encephalomyelitis in horses: 46 cases (2001). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 222(9): ...
Arteritis Virus, Equine Equine Arteritis Virus Equine Infectious Arteritis Virus Infectious Arteritis Virus of Horses ... use ARTERITIS VIRUS, EQUINE to search INFECTIOUS ARTERITIS VIRUS, EQUINE 1981-93 & INFECTIOUS ARTERITIS VIRUS OF HORSES 1975-80 ... 2019; see ARTERITIS VIRUS, EQUINE 1994-2018; INFECTIOUS ARTERITIS VIRUS, EQUINE 1981-1993 (see under RNA VIRUSES 1981-1990); ... for INFECTIOUS ARTERITIS VIRUS, EQUINE use RNA VIRUSES 1981-1990; for INFECTIOUS ARTERITIS VIRUS OF HORSES use RNA VIRUSES 1975 ...
... equine herpes virus type 4 (EHV-4) infection, strangles, rabies, equine viral arteritis (EVA), Potomac horse fever (PHF), Type ... equine herpes virus type 1 (EHV-1), equine herpes virus type 4 (EHV-4), Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE), Western equine ... Equine Herpes Virus Type-1 and Equine Herpes Virus Type-4 Infection. EHV-1 and EHV-4 infect the host through the respiratory ... Venezuelean equine encephalomyelitis [VEE]), West Nile virus (WNV) infection, influenza, equine herpes virus type 1 (EHV-1) ...
Arteritis C14.907.184 Arteritis Virus, Equine B4.820.504.80.100.100 B4.820.504.80.500.100 B4.909.777.500.80.500.100 ... Encephalitis Virus, Eastern Equine B4.909.777.270.150 B4.820.230.150 B4.909.777.923.54.320 Encephalitis Virus, Japanese B4.909. ... Venezuelan Equine B4.909.777.270.369 B4.820.230.369 B4.909.777.923.54.340 Encephalitis Virus, Western Equine B4.909.777.270.440 ... Equine B4.909.777.731.589.520.400 Infectious bronchitis virus B4.909.777.500.540.150.500 Infectious bursal disease virus B4.909 ...
... viral disease of equids caused by equine arteritis virus. It is characterized by fever, depression, dependent edema (especially ... The virus which causes EVA was first isolated from horses in Ohio in 1953 but the disease has afflicted equine animals ... Stallions that have Viral Equine Arteritis must be gelded. The disease can be transmitted through the air or during breeding.. ... According to the Merck Veterinary Manual Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is an acute, contagious, ...
equine arteritis virus, EAV Art rite Virale Equine. EB. East Bulgarian. Bulgare de lEst ? ... Equine Canada ? F d ration Fran aise dEquitation Qu bec : FEQ (F d ration Equestre du Qu bec) Suisse : F d ration Suisse des ...
B04 - Viruses Arteritis Virus, Equine. Equartevirus. Classical swine fever virus. Classical Swine Fever Virus. ...
B04 - Viruses Arteritis Virus, Equine. Equartevirus. Classical swine fever virus. Classical Swine Fever Virus. ...
Arteritis Virus, Equine Equine Arteritis Virus Equine Infectious Arteritis Virus Infectious Arteritis Virus of Horses ... use ARTERITIS VIRUS, EQUINE to search INFECTIOUS ARTERITIS VIRUS, EQUINE 1981-93 & INFECTIOUS ARTERITIS VIRUS OF HORSES 1975-80 ... 2019; see ARTERITIS VIRUS, EQUINE 1994-2018; INFECTIOUS ARTERITIS VIRUS, EQUINE 1981-1993 (see under RNA VIRUSES 1981-1990); ... for INFECTIOUS ARTERITIS VIRUS, EQUINE use RNA VIRUSES 1981-1990; for INFECTIOUS ARTERITIS VIRUS OF HORSES use RNA VIRUSES 1975 ...
Peptidase_S32; Equine arteritis virus serine endopeptidase S32 (PF05579; HMM-score: 18.6) ...
In a study evaluating the growth of equine arteritis virus (EAV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV ... The mechanism of arterivirus cell entry has not been fully elucidated, although these viruses are thought to enter cells ... To study cell entry and infectivity of arteriviruses, high quality virus stocks are necessary. The Integrated Research Facility ...
Review of two viral agents of economic importance to the equine industry (equine herpesvirus‐1, and equine arteritis virus). * ... Subjects: *HORSE industry; *ARTERITIS; *NEONATAL deathUNITED States. * Source: Equine Veterinary Education. Feb2023, Vol. 35 ... The immune response to equine ascending placentitis: A narrative review * Authors : Fedorka, Carleigh E.; Troedsson, Mats H.T. ...
Effective Removal of Equine Arteritis Virus From Stallion Semen. Geraghty, R.M.. Equine Veterinary Journal, Volume 38, Number 3 ... Home » Nidacon Products » Nidacon products for animal ART » EquiPure Equine Gradients » EquiPure Articles & References ... "Results: Virus-free sperm preparations were obtained using the double sperm processing technique. The swim-up step is ... Effect of Density-Gradient Centrifugation on Quality and Recovery Rate of Equine Spermatozoa. A.J Edmont, DD Varner et al.. ...
Adaptive Mutations in Replicase Transmembrane Subunits Can Counteract Inhibition of Equine Arteritis Virus RNA Synthesis by ... Influenza virus damages the alveolar barrier by disrupting epithelial cell tight junctions ... Optimisations and Challenges Involved in the Creation of Various Bioluminescent and Fluorescent Influenza A Virus Strains for ... A Bacterially-Expressed Recombinant Envelope Protein from Usutu Virus Induces Neutralizing Antibodies in Rabbits ...
Equine viral arteritis (EVA)‐associated uveitis 239. West Nile‐associated avian uveitis 239 ... Canine distemper virus‐associated uveitis 239. Bovine malignant catarrhal fever (MCF)‐associated uveitis 239 ... Equine heterochromic iridocyclitis with secondary keratitis 233. Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada‐like or uveodermatologic syndrome in dogs ...
Equine Arteritis Virus (rtPCR). Detection of equine arteritis virus, the causative agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA), by ... Equine Arteritis Virus (VN). Detection of antibodies to equine arteritis virus (EAV), the causative agent of equine viral ... Equine Arteritis Virus (Cell Culture). Isolation and identification of equine arteritis virus (EAV), the causative agent of ... Western Equine Encephalitis Virus (VN). Detection of antibodies to Western equine encephalitis (WEE) virus by virus ...
Equine viral arteritis Contagious equine metritis Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA) Equine viral arteritis is a contagious sexually- ... Category: Equine, Pet Health, Diseases and Viruses Equine recurrent uveitis (also known as Moon Blindness or periodic ...
Equine viral arteritis Equine influenza Rabies titer (RFFIT: non export) West Nile virus antibody titer Strangles Lyme disease ... For instance, a recent equine study comparing killed and MLV equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) vaccines found the MLV vaccine ... Over the years, researchers have developed two types of vaccines - modified live virus (MLV) and killed or inactivated virus ... Equine herpes III (rhino) Potomac horse fever Equine encephalitis (EEE, WEE, VEE) ...
An additional 5 μL of equine herpesvirus 1 and equine arteritis virus isolates were included in the nucleic acid extraction as ... RSV: Respiratory syncytial virus; PIV: Parainfluenza viruses; Flu: Influenza viruses; AdV: Adenoviruses; hRV: Human ... Virus detection. Overall, in 70.6% of samples, one or more viruses were confirmed with the combined results of RT-PCR and DFA. ... and four viruses were detected simultaneously in one infection (2.5%). The viruses most frequently detected with HCoV were hRV ...
Arteritis Virus, Equine [P] MH NEW = Equartevirus MH OLD = Astragalus membranaceus [P] MH NEW = Astragalus propinquus MH OLD = ... Classical swine fever virus [] MH NEW = Classical Swine Fever Virus MH OLD = Cognitive Therapy [P] MH NEW = Cognitive ...
  • 6. Recombinant equine arteritis virus as an expression vector. (
  • The cloning treatment used an anti-equine Compact disc3 mAb (38,39) and human being recombinant IL-2 (rhuIL-2), which stimulates equine lymphocytes (15,19,22,40), in a way that autologous APC and particular antigen weren't required during enlargement in tradition. (
  • Initial findings of the virus' virulence and potential for transmission between equids and artiodactyls were alarming and provided the impetus for experimental studies, which showed that disease could be induced in members of an additional 8 mammalian taxa: dogs, cats, horses, mice, hamsters, pigs, goats, and marmosets ( 4 - 6 ). (
  • Horses have traditionally been immunized with killed vaccines, although MLV equine vaccines have more recently become available. (
  • Intro Cytotoxic T lymphocytes get excited about the control of a number of important intracellular pathogens of horses, including equine herpes disease-1 (1-7), equine arteritis disease (8), and (9,10). (
  • In horses contaminated with equine infectious anemia disease (EIAV), a lentivirus having a world-wide distribution, CTL are essential in the control of viral replication and medical disease (11-22). (
  • Prior to the efforts of epitope specificity, MHC course I presentation, practical avidity, and TCR affinity to CTL-mediated safety against intracellular pathogens of horses could be rigorously dissected, a trusted solution to clone epitope-specific equine CTL is necessary. (
  • Classical examples of this latter situation occur with retroviral infection such as human AIDS or the animal equivalents (e.g. equine infectious anemia). (
  • Antigenic relationship not observed between Ibaraki virus and four serotypes of bluetongue found in USA. (
  • Antigenic and genetic similarities of EHV-9 with other equine herpesviruses are, likewise, consistent with the theory that equids are primary hosts. (
  • 19. Tacaribe virus gene expression in cytopathic and non-cytopathic infections. (
  • The type species of the genus ALPHAARTERIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of an important equine respiratory disease causing abortion, pneumonia, or other infections. (
  • By neutralization tests, Ibaraki virus was more closely related to EHD virus, serotype 2 (Alberta strain). (
  • Cloned CTL will be beneficial for identical research in the equine similarly, but solutions to clone equine CTL never have been described. (
  • 14. Efficient expression of small RNA polymerase III genes from a novel simian virus 40 vector and their effect on viral gene expression. (
  • Postmortem examination showed nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis with neuronal and glial intranuclear inclusion bodies ( Figure 1 , panel A ). PCR targeting of conserved regions of herpesvirus DNA polymerase genes identified a virus in the brain with 98% homology to EHV-1 in a 165-bp segment of DNA ( 2 , 7 ). (
  • Subsequently, 2 other PCRs targeting an additional 742 bp of the DNA polymerase gene (sense primer 5′-GCATYWTCCCCCCGTTKATRAC-3′ and antisense primer 5′-ATAGYSAARRCCACGCCTTY-3′) and 1,181 bp of the glycoprotein B (gB) gene (sense primer 5′-CTTGTGAGATCTAACCGCAC-3′ and antisense primer 5′-GGGTATAGAGCTTTCATGGGG-3′) identified the virus as EHV-9 and enabled more precise strain determination ( 2 ). (
  • 1. Regulation of viral transcription in cells infected with iododeoxyuridine-substituted simian virus 40 as a model for the activation by iododeoxyuridine of latent viral genomes. (
  • 4. DNA sequences outside the simian virus 40 early region cause downregulation of T-antigen production in permissive simian cells. (
  • 9. Host range analysis of simian virus 40, BK virus and chimaeric SV40/BKV: relative expression of large T-antigen and Vp1 in infected and transformed cells. (
  • 12. [Localization of virus sequences in heavy nuclear RNA of mouse cells transformed by SV40]. (
  • The mechanism of arterivirus cell entry has not been fully elucidated, although these viruses are thought to enter cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis. (
  • Cells had been tagged indirectly with anti-equine Compact disc3 mAb F6G (IgG1) (38,39) (from Dr. Jeffery Stott, College or university of California, Davis) and anti-equine Compact disc8 mAb ETC91A (IgG3) (42). (
  • The potential vulnerability of diverse species to EHV-9 has raised concern about the virus as an anthropozoonotic pathogen ( 2 - 6 ). (
  • The residual virulence (infectivity) and environmental contamination resulting from the shedding of vaccine virus is of concern not only for domestic animal populations but also for wildlife. (
  • To study cell entry and infectivity of arteriviruses, high quality virus stocks are necessary. (
  • In a study evaluating the growth of equine arteritis virus (EAV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), we compared the robotic plating technique with the standard manual plating technique in the MA-104 cell line and evaluated the consistency of the robot performance over 2 months in the MARC-145 cell line. (
  • We thought we would clone CTL particular for the conserved EIAV Rev-QW11 epitope, which can be identified by high avidity CTL (20), and it is shown from the equine leukocyte antigen (ELA)-A1 haplotype-associated MHC course I substances 7-6 and Vanoxerine 2HCl Vanoxerine 2HCl 141 (17,25). (
  • 17. Defective and wild-type human T-cell leukemia virus type I proviruses: characterization of gene products and trans-interactions between proviruses. (
  • Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. (
  • The virus was also found in an aborted Persian onager. (
  • Nemoto M , Yamanaka T , Bannai H , Tsujimura K , Kondo T , Matsumura T . Development and evaluation of a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for H3N8 equine influenza virus. (
  • Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification was used to detect equine influenza virus in the nasal swab samples ( 7 ). (
  • Comparison of two real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays for the detection of Equine arteritis virus nucleic acid in equine semen and tissue culture fluid. (
  • Rapid, single-step differentiation of equid herpesviruses 1 and 4 from clinical material using the polymerase chain reaction and virus-specific primers. (
  • The isolated virus was propagated in cell cultures and confirmed as EAV by indirect immunofluorescence and virus neutralisation, using a serum specific for the reference Bucyrus strain of EAV. (
  • Tajima S , Kotaki A , Yagasaki K , Taniwaki T , Moi ML , Nakayama E , Identification and amplification of Japanese encephalitis virus and Getah virus propagated from a single porcine serum sample: a case of coinfection. (
  • In a study evaluating the growth of equine arteritis virus (EAV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), we compared the robotic plating technique with the standard manual plating technique in the MA-104 cell line and evaluated the consistency of the robot performance over 2 months in the MARC-145 cell line. (
  • This paper describes the first isolation of equine arteritis virus (EAV) in Argentina. (
  • The virus was isolated from the semen of an imported seropositive stallion held in isolation at a breeding farm in Tandil in the Buenos Aires Province. (
  • Yago K , Hagiwara S , Kawamura H , Narita M . A fatal case in newborn piglets with Getah virus infection: isolation of the virus. (
  • Li XD , Qiu FX , Yang H , Rao YN , Calisher CH . Isolation of Getah virus from mosquitos collected on Hainan Island, China, and results of a serosurvey. (
  • Kamada M , Ando Y , Fukunaga Y , Kumanomido T , Imagawa H , Wada R , Equine Getah virus infection: isolation of the virus from racehorses during an enzootic in Japan. (
  • Detection of equine arteritis virus by real-time TaqMan reverse transcription-PCR assay. (
  • The equine industry is very important for Argentina and international movement of horses is very intensive. (
  • Getah virus infection of Indian horses. (
  • Imagawa H , Ando Y , Kamada M , Sugiura T , Kumanomido T , Fukunaga Y , Sero-epizootiological survey on Getah virus infection in light horses in Japan. (
  • Of 49 febrile horses tested by reverse transcription PCR, 25 were positive for Getah virus. (
  • Outbreaks of Getah virus infection have occurred among horses in 1978, 1979, and 1983 in Japan ( 2 ) and in 1990 in India ( 6 ). (
  • we identified Getah virus infection among these horses. (
  • An outbreak of Getah virus infection occurred among racehorses in Japan during September and October 2014. (
  • An inactivated whole-virus vaccine (Nisseiken Co., Ltd, Tokyo, Japan) is available to prevent Getah virus infection and is mainly administered to thoroughbred racehorses registered by the Japan Racing Association. (
  • The outbreak of Getah virus infection in 1978 occurred at this facility. (
  • the virus is also pathogenic to pig fetuses and newborn piglets ( 3 , 4 ) and can cause fever in humans ( 5 ). (
  • The type species of the genus ARTERIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of an important equine respiratory disease causing abortion, pneumonia, or other infections. (
  • Getah virus (genus Alphavirus , family Togaviridae ) is a mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated in Malaysia in 1955 from Culex spp. (
  • Izumida A , Takuma H , Inagaki S , Kubota M , Hirahara T , Kodama K , Experimental infection of Getah virus in swine. (
  • Herpes simplex virus (HSV) meningitis is associated with primary genital HSV infection and HIV infection. (
  • Exposure to rodents suggests infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCM) virus and Leptospira infection. (
  • Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was conducted using a primer pair targeting nonstructural protein 1 (NSP1) of Getah virus (OneStep RT-PCR Kit, QIAGEN, Hilden, Germany) by using the RNA extracted from the blood samples ( 8 ). (
  • By neutralization tests, Ibaraki virus was more closely related to EHD virus, serotype 2 (Alberta strain). (
  • A virus neutralization test for Getah virus was conducted on Vero cells using the MI-110 strain, which was isolated in 1978 ( 11 ) and is the current vaccine strain, as described previously ( 12 ) with slight modification. (
  • Serologic evidence suggests that Getah virus is widespread from Eurasia to Australasia ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • To study cell entry and infectivity of arteriviruses, high quality virus stocks are necessary. (
  • Patients with meningitis caused by the mumps virus usually present with the triad of fever, vomiting, and headache. (
  • Phylogenetic analyses of the nucleotide sequences of the (A) nonstructural protein 1 (NSP1) gene (nt 218-598) and (B) capsid gene (nt 7645-8196) of Getah virus isolated in Japan, 2014. (
  • Viruses detected in 2014 were phylogenetically different from the virus isolated in Japan in 1978. (