Giant Cell Arteritis
Arteritis Virus, Equine
Aortic Arch Syndromes
Subclavian Steal Syndrome
Optic Neuropathy, Ischemic
Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome
Strongyle Infections, Equine
Vasculitis, Central Nervous System
Adrenal Cortex Hormones
Magnetic Resonance Angiography
AIDS Arteritis, Central Nervous System
Retinal Artery Occlusion
Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color
Arterial Occlusive Diseases
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Aortic Valve Insufficiency
Adventitial delivery minimizes the proinflammatory effects of adenoviral vectors. (1/236)PURPOSE: Adenovirus-mediated arterial gene transfer is a promising tool in the study of vascular biology and the development of vascular gene therapy. However, intraluminal delivery of adenoviral vectors causes vascular inflammation and neointimal formation. Whether these complications could be avoided and gene transfer efficiency maintained by means of delivering adenoviral vectors via the adventitia was studied. METHODS: Replication-defective adenoviral vectors encoding a beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) gene (AdRSVnLacZ) or without a recombinant gene (AdNull) were infused into the lumen or the adventitia of rabbit carotid arteries. Two days after infusion of either AdRSVnLacZ (n = 8 adventitial, n = 8 luminal) or AdNull (n = 4 luminal), recombinant gene expression was quantitated by histochemistry (performed on tissue sections) and with a beta-gal activity assay (performed on vessel extracts). Inflammation caused by adenovirus infusion was assessed 14 days after infusion of either AdNull (n = 6) or vehicle (n = 6) into the carotid adventitia. Inflammation was assessed by means of examination of histologic sections for the presence of neointimal formation and infiltrating T cells and for the expression of markers of vascular cell activation (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1). To measure the systemic immune response to adventitial infusion of adenovirus, plasma samples (n = 3) were drawn 14 days after infusion of AdNull and assayed for neutralizing antibodies. RESULTS: Two days after luminal infusion of AdRSVnLacZ, approximately 30% of luminal endothelial cells expressed beta-gal. Similarly, 2 days after infusion of AdRSVnLacZ to the adventitia, approximately 30% of adventitial cells expressed beta-gal. beta-gal expression was present in the carotid adventitia, the internal jugular vein adventitia, and the vagus nerve perineurium. Elevated beta-gal activity (50- to 80-fold more than background; P <.05) was detected in extracts made from all AdRSVnLacZ-transduced arteries. The amount of recombinant protein expression per vessel did not differ significantly between vessels transduced via the adventitia (17.1 mU/mg total protein [range, 8.1 to 71.5]) and those transduced via a luminal approach (10.0 mU/mg total protein [range, 3.9 to 42.6]). Notably, adventitial delivery of AdNull did not cause neointimal formation. In addition, vascular inflammation in arteries transduced via the adventitia (ie, T-cell infiltrates and ICAM-1 expression) was confined to the adventitia, sparing both the intima and media. Antiadenoviral neutralizing antibodies were present in all rabbits after adventitial delivery of AdNull. CONCLUSION: Infusion of adenoviral vectors into the carotid artery adventitia achieves recombinant gene expression at a level equivalent to that achieved by means of intraluminal vector infusion. Because adventitial gene transfer can be performed by means of direct application during open surgical procedures, this technically simple procedure may be more clinically applicable than intraluminal delivery. Moreover, despite the generation of a systemic immune response, adventitial infusion had no detectable pathologic effects on the vascular intima or media. For these reasons, adventitial gene delivery may be a particularly useful experimental and clinical tool. (+info)
Expression of interleukin-10 in advanced human atherosclerotic plaques: relation to inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and cell death. (2/236)Inflammation is a major feature of human atherosclerosis and is central to development and progression of the disease. A variety of proinflammatory cytokines are expressed in the atherosclerotic plaque and may modulate extracellular matrix remodeling, cell proliferation, and cell death. Little is known, however, about the expression and potential role of anti-inflammatory cytokines in human atherosclerosis. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a major anti-inflammatory cytokine whose expression and potential effects in advanced human atherosclerotic plaques have not been evaluated. We studied 21 advanced human atherosclerotic plaques. IL-10 expression was analyzed by use of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical techniques. Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression was assessed by using immunohistochemistry, and cell death was determined by use of the TUNEL method. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction identified IL-10 mRNA in 12 of 17 atherosclerotic plaques. Immunohistochemical staining of serial sections and double staining identified immunoreactive IL-10 mainly in macrophages, as well as in smooth muscle cells. Consistent with its anti-inflammatory properties, high levels of IL-10 expression were associated with significant decrease in inducible nitric oxide synthase expression (P<0.0001) and cell death (P<0. 0001). Hence, IL-10, a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine, is expressed in a substantial number of advanced human atherosclerotic plaques and might contribute to the modulation of the local inflammatory response and protect from excessive cell death in the plaque. (+info)
Cerebral arterial lesions resulting from inflammatory emboli. (3/236)In order to study the effects of septic embolism on the brain, silicone rubber emboli of various types were injected into the carotid arteries of 35 dogs. Pathologic and angiographic studies were performed to assess the resultant arterial and parenchymal lesions. Pure silicone rubber emboli (14 dogs) produced occasional intra-arterial thrombosis but no arteritis. Sterile and bacterially contaminated emboli containing a lead-chromate pigment (similar to those used in previous studies of septic embolism) (11 dogs) and pure silicone rubber emboli with transversely oriented canals (10 dogs), after brief placement in a bacterial suspension, were associated with intense inflammatory arteritis. This was accompanied by focal meningitis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, thrombosis, and cerebritis of the underlying cortex. The findings resembled those found in mycotic aneurysm. Aneurysmal dilatation was observed in one postmortem angiogram. In previous models of mycotic aneurysm, the inflammation attributed to bacterial contamination was probably due to the lead-chromate pigment used. (+info)
Systemic inflammatory parameters in patients with atherosclerosis of the coronary and peripheral arteries. (4/236)Plasma concentration of markers of inflammation are increased in patients with atherosclerosis. However, it is unclear whether the pattern and magnitude of this increase vary with the site and extent of disease. In 147 patients undergoing semiquantitative coronary angiography, we measured the acute-phase reactants C-reactive protein (CRP) or serum amyloid A (SAA); the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6); the active and total fractions of the anti-inflammatory cytokine transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta); the macrophage activation marker neopterin; and the infection marker procalcitonin. Compared with 62 patients without either coronary artery disease (CAD) or peripheral artery disease (PAD), 57 patients with CAD but no PAD showed greater median CRP (0. 4 versus 0.2 mg/dL, P=0.004) and IL-6 (3.8 versus 1.6 pg/mL, P=0. 007) levels and a lower level of active-TGF-beta (57 versus 100 ng/mL, P=0.038). Moreover, CRP, IL-6, and neopterin levels showed a positive and the active TGF-beta level a negative correlation with the extent of coronary atherosclerosis. Compared with these 57 patients with CAD alone, 15 patients with PAD and CAD had higher median levels of SAA (17 versus 7 mg/mL, P=0.008), IL-6 (12 versus 4 pg/mL, P=0.002), neopterin (14 versus 11 mg/dL, P=0.006), and total TGF-beta (11834 versus 6417 ng/L, P=0.001). However, these strong univariate associations of markers of inflammation and atherosclerosis were lost in multivariate analysis once age, sex, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol or fibrinogen were taken into account. Increased plasma levels of CRP, SAA, IL-6, TGF-beta, neopterin, and procalcitonin constitute an inflammatory signature of advanced atherosclerosis and are correlated with the extent of disease but do not provide discriminatory diagnostic power over and above established risk factors. (+info)
Clinical utility of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. (5/236)The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) determination is a commonly performed laboratory test with a time-honored role. However, the usefulness of this test has decreased as new methods of evaluating disease have been developed. The test remains helpful in the specific diagnosis of a few conditions, including temporal arteritis, polymyalgia rheumatica and, possibly, rheumatoid arthritis. It is useful in monitoring these conditions and may predict relapse in patients with Hodgkin's disease. Use of the ESR as a screening test to identify patients who have serious disease is not supported by the literature. Some studies suggest that the test may be useful as a "sickness index" in the elderly or as a screening tool for a few specific infections in certain settings. An extreme elevation of the ESR is strongly associated with serious underlying disease, most often infection, collagen vascular disease or metastatic malignancy. When an increased rate is encountered with no obvious clinical explanation, the physician should repeat the test after an appropriate interval rather than pursue an exhaustive search for occult disease. (+info)
Unusual complications in an inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm. (6/236)An unusual case of an inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) associated with coronary aneurysms and pathological fracture of the adjacent lumbar vertebrae. The associated coronary lesions in cases of IAAA are usually occlusions. In the present case, it was concluded that a possible cause of the coronary aneurysm was coronary arteritis and the etiology of the pathological fracture of the lumbar vertebrae was occlusion of the lumbar penetrating arteries due to vasculitis resulting in aseptic necrosis. Inflammatory AAA can be associated with aneurysms in addition to occlusive disease in systemic arteries. The preoperative evaluation of systemic arterial lesions and the function of systemic organs is essential. (+info)
Arterial inflammation in mice lacking the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist gene. (7/236)Branch points and flexures in the high pressure arterial system have long been recognized as sites of unusually high turbulence and consequent stress in humans are foci for atherosclerotic lesions. We show that mice that are homozygous for a null mutation in the gene encoding an endogenous antiinflammatory cytokine, interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), develop lethal arterial inflammation involving branch points and flexures of the aorta and its primary and secondary branches. We observe massive transmural infiltration of neutrophils, macrophages, and CD4(+) T cells. Animals appear to die from vessel wall collapse, stenosis, and organ infarction or from hemorrhage from ruptured aneurysms. Heterozygotes do not die from arteritis within a year of birth but do develop small lesions, which suggests that a reduced level of IL-1ra is insufficient to fully control inflammation in arteries. Our results demonstrate a surprisingly specific role for IL-1ra in the control of spontaneous inflammation in constitutively stressed artery walls, suggesting that expression of IL-1 is likely to have a significant role in signaling artery wall damage. (+info)
Neointima formation in a restenosis model is suppressed in midkine-deficient mice. (8/236)Neointima formation is a common feature of atherosclerosis and restenosis after balloon angioplasty. To find a new target to suppress neointima formation, we investigated the possible role of midkine (MK), a heparin-binding growth factor with neurotrophic and chemotactic activities, in neointima formation. MK expression increased during neointima formation caused by intraluminal balloon injury of the rat carotid artery. Neointima formation in a restenosis model was strongly suppressed in MK-deficient mice. Continuous administration of MK protein to MK-deficient mice restored neointima formation. Leukocyte recruitment to the vascular walls after injury was markedly decreased in MK-deficient mice. Soluble MK as well as that bound to the substratum induced migration of macrophages in vitro. These results indicate that MK plays a critical role in neointima formation at least in part owing to its ability to mediate leukocyte recruitment. (+info)
Takayasu arteritis is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects the large blood vessels in the body, particularly the aorta and its branches. It is also known as pulseless disease or granulomatous aortitis. The disease is named after the Japanese physician who first described it in 1908. Takayasu arteritis typically affects young women between the ages of 15 and 40, and it is more common in people of Asian, Native American, and Hispanic descent. The exact cause of the disease is unknown, but it is believed to be triggered by an abnormal immune response that leads to inflammation and damage to the blood vessels. Symptoms of Takayasu arteritis can vary depending on which blood vessels are affected, but common signs and symptoms include: * Weak or absent pulse in the arms or legs * High blood pressure in the upper body and low blood pressure in the lower body * Fatigue * Headaches * Shortness of breath * Chest pain * Visual changes or blindness Takayasu arteritis can be a serious condition if left untreated, as it can lead to serious complications such as stroke, heart attack, and organ damage. Treatment typically involves the use of immunosuppressive medications to reduce inflammation and prevent further damage to the blood vessels. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged blood vessels.
Arteritis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the walls of arteries. It can affect any artery in the body, but it is most commonly seen in the aorta, the main artery that carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body. There are several types of arteritis, including: 1. Giant cell arteritis: This is a chronic inflammatory disorder that primarily affects the large arteries, particularly the aorta and its branches. It is more common in older adults and is associated with symptoms such as fever, headache, and jaw pain. 2. Takayasu arteritis: This is a rare form of arteritis that primarily affects the aorta and its branches in the chest and abdomen. It is more common in young adults and is associated with symptoms such as fever, fatigue, and chest pain. 3. Kawasaki disease: This is a rare form of arteritis that primarily affects children and is characterized by fever, rash, and inflammation of the coronary arteries. 4. Polyaeritis nodosa: This is a rare form of arteritis that affects multiple organs and is characterized by inflammation of the walls of small and medium-sized arteries. Treatment for arteritis depends on the type and severity of the condition. It may include medications to reduce inflammation, such as corticosteroids, and in some cases, surgery to repair or replace damaged arteries. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent complications such as stroke, heart attack, and organ damage.
Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA) is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the walls of large arteries, particularly those in the head and neck. It is also known as cranial arteritis or temporal arteritis. GCA is most commonly seen in people over the age of 50, and is more common in women than men. The main symptoms of GCA include severe headache, especially in the morning, jaw pain, and fever. Other symptoms may include fatigue, weight loss, and loss of vision. GCA can also cause inflammation in other parts of the body, such as the heart, lungs, and kidneys. GCA is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, blood tests, and imaging studies such as ultrasound or computed tomography (CT) scans. Treatment typically involves the use of corticosteroids, which help to reduce inflammation and prevent complications such as vision loss. In some cases, other medications may be used in combination with corticosteroids to manage symptoms and prevent relapses.
Arteritis Virus, Equine, also known as Equine Arteritis Virus (EAV), is a type of virus that primarily affects horses. It is a member of the family Arteriviridae and the genus Equine Arteritis Virus. EAV is primarily transmitted through sexual contact between horses, although it can also be transmitted through contaminated needles or other equipment. The virus can cause a range of clinical symptoms in horses, including fever, lethargy, loss of appetite, and reproductive problems such as infertility or abortion. In severe cases, EAV can lead to the development of arteritis, a condition characterized by inflammation of the blood vessels. This can result in damage to various organs and tissues throughout the body, including the heart, lungs, and kidneys. Treatment for EAV typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. There is currently no specific antiviral therapy available for EAV, although some horses may respond to corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive drugs. Vaccination is also available to prevent EAV infection in horses.
Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a chronic inflammatory disorder that primarily affects older adults, typically those over the age of 50. It is characterized by widespread muscle pain and stiffness, particularly in the neck, shoulders, and hips, that is often worse in the morning and improves with activity. Other common symptoms include fatigue, fever, and a general feeling of malaise. PMR is often associated with an increased risk of developing giant cell arteritis, a condition that involves inflammation of the blood vessels in the body. Treatment for PMR typically involves the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and relieve symptoms.
Arterivirus infections are a group of viral infections caused by viruses belonging to the family Arteriviridae. These viruses primarily infect animals, including humans, and can cause a range of diseases, including encephalitis, myocarditis, and respiratory infections. The most well-known arterivirus is the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes the disease COVID-19. Other arteriviruses include the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), which causes respiratory and reproductive problems in pigs, and the equine arteritis virus (EAV), which causes reproductive problems in horses. Arterivirus infections are typically transmitted through respiratory droplets, direct contact, or contaminated objects. Symptoms can vary depending on the specific virus and the affected individual, but may include fever, cough, fatigue, muscle aches, and respiratory distress. Diagnosis of arterivirus infections is typically made through laboratory testing, such as viral culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, or serological testing. Treatment may involve supportive care, antiviral medications, or vaccination, depending on the specific virus and the severity of the infection. Prevention measures include vaccination, good hygiene practices, and avoiding contact with infected animals or individuals.
Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a rare autoimmune disorder that involves inflammation of small and medium-sized blood vessels (arterioles) throughout the body. It is characterized by the formation of nodules or masses of inflamed tissue in the walls of the affected arteries, which can lead to damage to the blood vessels and the organs they supply. PAN can affect any part of the body, but it most commonly affects the kidneys, stomach, and nervous system. The symptoms of PAN can vary depending on which organs are affected, but they may include fever, fatigue, joint pain, abdominal pain, and skin rashes. PAN is usually diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, blood tests, imaging studies, and a biopsy of the affected tissue. Treatment for PAN typically involves the use of high-dose corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive medications to reduce inflammation and prevent further damage to the blood vessels and organs. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged blood vessels.
HLA-B52 is a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) protein that is expressed on the surface of cells in the immune system. HLA proteins play a crucial role in the immune system by helping to identify and target foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria, for destruction. HLA-B52 is a specific type of HLA-B protein, which is one of several different types of HLA proteins that are encoded by the HLA-B gene. The HLA-B52 protein is characterized by the presence of certain amino acid sequences in its structure, which determine its function and ability to bind to specific antigens. In the medical field, HLA-B52 is often tested as part of the process of determining a person's immune compatibility with potential donors for organ transplantation or stem cell transplantation. This is because the HLA system is involved in the immune response to transplanted tissues, and mismatches in HLA antigens between the donor and recipient can lead to rejection of the transplanted tissue. HLA-B52 has also been associated with an increased risk of certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis, as well as an increased risk of certain infections, such as tuberculosis and Epstein-Barr virus infection.
Aortic arch syndromes refer to a group of disorders that affect the aortic arch, which is the portion of the aorta that curves upward to form the arch of the chest. These disorders can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (developing later in life). The most common aortic arch syndrome is coarctation of the aorta, which is a narrowing of the aortic arch that can restrict blood flow to the lower half of the body. Other aortic arch syndromes include aortic arch aneurysm, which is an enlargement of the aortic arch, and aortic arch dissection, which is a tear in the inner lining of the aortic arch that can cause blood to leak into the space between the layers of the aortic wall. Aortic arch syndromes can cause a range of symptoms, depending on the specific disorder and the severity of the condition. These may include chest pain, shortness of breath, dizziness, fainting, and fatigue. Treatment for aortic arch syndromes typically involves surgery to repair or replace the affected portion of the aorta. In some cases, medications may also be used to manage symptoms or prevent complications.
Horse diseases refer to any illness or condition that affects horses. These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, genetics, nutrition, and environmental factors. Some common horse diseases include equine influenza, equine herpesvirus, equine colic, laminitis, founder, tetanus, botulism, and various types of worms and parasites. Horse diseases can range from mild to severe and can affect the horse's overall health, performance, and quality of life. Treatment for horse diseases may involve medications, surgery, and other medical interventions, as well as changes to the horse's diet and environment to promote healing and prevent recurrence.
Blood sedimentation, also known as blood sedimentation rate (ESR), is a laboratory test that measures how quickly red blood cells settle to the bottom of a test tube when it is left undisturbed. The test is used to diagnose a variety of medical conditions, including infections, autoimmune disorders, and certain types of cancer. During the blood sedimentation test, a small amount of blood is drawn from a patient and placed in a test tube. The tube is then left undisturbed for a specified amount of time, usually one hour. The distance that the red blood cells settle in the tube is measured, and the result is expressed in millimeters per hour (mm/h). A high ESR can indicate a variety of medical conditions, including inflammation, infection, and certain types of cancer. However, it is important to note that a high ESR can also be caused by other factors, such as age, sex, and certain medications. Therefore, the results of an ESR test must be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical information and diagnostic tests.
Aortitis is an inflammation of the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body that carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. Aortitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, autoimmune disorders, and certain medications. Symptoms of aortitis may include fever, fatigue, weight loss, and pain in the chest or back. Treatment for aortitis depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, or surgery.
Arterivirus is a genus of viruses that belong to the family Arteriviridae. These viruses are characterized by their ability to infect a wide range of hosts, including mammals, birds, and reptiles. The most well-known member of the Arterivirus genus is the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. Other members of the Arterivirus genus include the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), which causes respiratory and reproductive problems in pigs, and the equine arteritis virus (EAV), which causes abortion in horses. Arteriviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome. They have a unique replication strategy that involves the synthesis of a double-stranded RNA intermediate, which is then used to generate the viral genome. In the medical field, arteriviruses are important pathogens that can cause significant economic and health impacts in livestock and wildlife populations. They are also a potential source of zoonotic diseases, as seen with the emergence of SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, understanding the biology and pathogenesis of arteriviruses is crucial for developing effective strategies and vaccines.
Prednisolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid hormone that is used in the medical field to treat a variety of conditions. It is a potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agent that is commonly used to treat inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and psoriasis. It is also used to treat allergies, asthma, and other respiratory conditions, as well as to reduce swelling and inflammation in the body. In addition, prednisolone is used to treat certain types of cancer, such as lymphoma and leukemia, and to prevent rejection of transplanted organs. It is available in various forms, including tablets, injections, and eye drops, and is typically prescribed by a doctor or other healthcare professional.
Subclavian steal syndrome is a condition in which blood flow from the aorta to the upper extremities is blocked or reduced, causing blood to flow in the opposite direction through the subclavian artery. This can lead to symptoms such as weakness, numbness, and pain in the arm, as well as decreased blood flow to the brain, which can cause dizziness, fainting, and even stroke. Subclavian steal syndrome is typically caused by a blockage in the subclavian artery, which can be due to atherosclerosis, a buildup of plaque in the arteries, or a blood clot. Treatment may involve medications to dissolve the clot or surgery to open the blocked artery.
The axillary artery is a large blood vessel located in the axilla (armpit) region of the body. It is a continuation of the subclavian artery, which arises from the aortic arch, and supplies blood to the upper limb and the chest wall. The axillary artery is divided into three main branches: the subscapular artery, the thoracoacromial artery, and the lateral thoracic artery. The subscapular artery supplies blood to the muscles of the shoulder and upper back, while the thoracoacromial artery supplies blood to the pectoralis major muscle and the deltoid muscle. The lateral thoracic artery supplies blood to the skin and muscles of the lateral chest wall. The axillary artery is a critical blood vessel that plays a vital role in maintaining blood flow to the upper limb and chest wall. Any damage or blockage to the axillary artery can lead to serious health complications, including loss of blood flow to the affected area, tissue damage, and even amputation.
A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is removed from a person's body for examination under a microscope. The sample is usually taken from a lump, growth, or other abnormal area, and is used to help diagnose a medical condition or disease. There are several types of biopsy procedures, including: 1. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy: A sample of tissue is removed using a thin needle inserted into the abnormal area. 2. Core biopsy: A larger sample of tissue is removed using a hollow needle that takes multiple cores of tissue. 3. Excision biopsy: A larger piece of tissue is removed using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. 4. Endoscopic biopsy: A biopsy is performed using a flexible tube with a camera and light on the end, which is inserted into the body through a natural opening or a small incision. Biopsies are commonly used to diagnose cancer, but they can also be used to diagnose other medical conditions, such as infections, autoimmune diseases, and genetic disorders. The results of a biopsy can help guide treatment decisions and provide important information about a person's prognosis.
Optic neuropathy, ischemic refers to a type of damage to the optic nerve caused by a lack of blood flow to the nerve. This can be due to a variety of factors, including blockages in the blood vessels that supply blood to the optic nerve, high blood pressure, diabetes, and certain medications. Symptoms of ischemic optic neuropathy may include vision loss, pain in the eye, and sensitivity to light. Treatment may involve medications to lower blood pressure or blood sugar, as well as surgery to improve blood flow to the optic nerve. In some cases, vision loss may be permanent.
Angiography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the blood vessels in the body. It involves injecting a contrast dye into a blood vessel, usually through a small puncture in the skin, and then using an X-ray machine or other imaging device to capture images of the dye as it flows through the blood vessels. This allows doctors to see any blockages, narrowing, or other abnormalities in the blood vessels, which can help them diagnose and treat a variety of medical conditions, including heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Angiography is often used in conjunction with other imaging techniques, such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to provide a more complete picture of the patient's condition.
Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome (MLNS), also known as Kawasaki disease, is a rare but serious illness that primarily affects children under the age of five. It is characterized by a fever that lasts for at least five days, accompanied by symptoms such as redness and swelling of the hands and feet, a rash on the skin, and inflammation of the lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, and groin. MLNS can also cause inflammation of the coronary arteries, which can lead to serious complications such as heart failure or a heart attack. The exact cause of MLNS is not known, but it is thought to be triggered by an infection or an immune response to a virus or bacteria. Treatment for MLNS typically involves high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy, which can help reduce inflammation and prevent complications. In some cases, corticosteroids may also be used to reduce inflammation. Most children with MLNS recover fully, but some may experience long-term complications such as heart problems or joint stiffness.
Strongyle infections in equines refer to a group of parasitic infections caused by various species of strongyle worms, which are nematodes that live in the small intestine of horses. These worms can cause a range of clinical signs, including diarrhea, colic, weight loss, and anemia, and can be a significant source of morbidity and mortality in horses. Strongyle infections are commonly diagnosed through fecal egg counts or fecal flotation tests, and treatment typically involves the use of anthelmintic drugs to kill the worms. Prevention of strongyle infections involves regular deworming programs and good management practices to minimize exposure to infective larvae.
The brachiocephalic trunk is a large artery that arises from the right side of the aortic arch. It is responsible for supplying blood to the head and neck, including the brain, face, and upper extremities. The brachiocephalic trunk divides into three smaller arteries: the right subclavian artery, the right common carotid artery, and the right internal jugular vein. The right subclavian artery supplies blood to the right arm and shoulder, while the right common carotid artery supplies blood to the right side of the head and neck. The right internal jugular vein carries deoxygenated blood from the head and neck back to the heart.
Vasculitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the blood vessels. It can affect any type of blood vessel, including arteries, veins, and capillaries, and can occur in any part of the body. Vasculitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, autoimmune disorders, and certain medications. Symptoms of vasculitis can vary depending on the location and severity of the inflammation, but may include pain, swelling, redness, and skin ulcers. Treatment for vasculitis typically involves managing symptoms and addressing the underlying cause of the inflammation. In some cases, medications such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, or biologic agents may be used to reduce inflammation and prevent further damage to the blood vessels.
Vasculitis, Central Nervous System (CNS) is a rare autoimmune disorder that affects the blood vessels in the brain and spinal cord. It is characterized by inflammation of the blood vessels, which can lead to damage to the surrounding tissues and cause a range of neurological symptoms. The exact cause of vasculitis, CNS is not fully understood, but it is thought to be triggered by an abnormal immune response in which the body's immune system attacks its own blood vessels. This can lead to the formation of blood clots, which can obstruct blood flow and cause damage to the brain and spinal cord. Symptoms of vasculitis, CNS can vary widely depending on the location and severity of the inflammation. Common symptoms include headache, dizziness, confusion, memory loss, weakness, numbness, and tingling in the extremities. In severe cases, vasculitis, CNS can lead to stroke, seizures, and even death. Diagnosis of vasculitis, CNS typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans, and blood tests to look for signs of inflammation. Treatment typically involves the use of immunosuppressive medications to reduce inflammation and prevent further damage to the blood vessels. In some cases, corticosteroids may also be used to reduce inflammation and manage symptoms.
Adrenal cortex hormones are a group of hormones produced by the adrenal gland's outer layer, the cortex. These hormones play a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions, including metabolism, blood pressure, and the body's response to stress. The adrenal cortex hormones are divided into three main categories based on their chemical structure and function: 1. Glucocorticoids: These hormones, including cortisol, are responsible for regulating metabolism and the body's response to stress. They help the body break down stored carbohydrates and fats to provide energy, and they also suppress the immune system to reduce inflammation. 2. Mineralocorticoids: These hormones, including aldosterone, regulate the body's electrolyte balance and blood pressure. They help the kidneys retain sodium and excrete potassium, which helps maintain proper blood pressure. 3. Androgens: These hormones, including dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), are responsible for the development of male secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair and deepening of the voice. They also play a role in the body's response to stress. Adrenal cortex hormones are produced in response to signals from the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, and their levels can be affected by a variety of factors, including stress, illness, and medications. Imbalances in adrenal cortex hormone levels can lead to a range of health problems, including Cushing's syndrome, Addison's disease, and adrenal insufficiency.
Aortography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body. It involves injecting a contrast dye into the aorta through a small catheter that is inserted into a blood vessel in the groin or arm. The dye makes the aorta visible on X-ray images, allowing doctors to detect any abnormalities or blockages in the blood flow. Aortography is often used to diagnose conditions such as aneurysms, dissections, and stenosis (narrowing) of the aorta. It is a minimally invasive procedure that is generally considered safe, although there is a small risk of complications such as bleeding, infection, or damage to the blood vessels.
Anti-inflammatory agents are medications that are used to reduce inflammation in the body. Inflammation is a natural response of the immune system to injury or infection, but chronic inflammation can lead to a variety of health problems, including autoimmune diseases, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Anti-inflammatory agents work by blocking the production of inflammatory molecules, such as prostaglandins and cytokines, which are responsible for causing inflammation. They can also reduce the activity of immune cells that contribute to inflammation. There are several types of anti-inflammatory agents, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, and biologic agents. NSAIDs, such as aspirin and ibuprofen, are commonly used to relieve pain and reduce inflammation in conditions such as arthritis and headaches. Corticosteroids, such as prednisone, are powerful anti-inflammatory agents that are used to treat a wide range of conditions, including asthma, allergies, and autoimmune diseases. Biologic agents, such as TNF inhibitors, are a newer class of anti-inflammatory agents that are used to treat autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease. It is important to note that while anti-inflammatory agents can be effective in reducing inflammation, they can also have side effects and may not be appropriate for everyone. It is important to work with a healthcare provider to determine the best treatment plan for your individual needs.
Glucocorticoids are a class of hormones produced by the adrenal gland that regulate glucose metabolism and have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. They are commonly used in medicine to treat a variety of conditions, including: 1. Inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and asthma 2. Autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease 3. Allergies and anaphylaxis 4. Skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis 5. Cancer treatment to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system 6. Endocrine disorders such as Cushing's syndrome and Addison's disease Glucocorticoids work by binding to specific receptors in cells throughout the body, leading to changes in gene expression and protein synthesis. They can also increase blood sugar levels by stimulating the liver to produce glucose and decreasing the body's sensitivity to insulin. Long-term use of high doses of glucocorticoids can have serious side effects, including weight gain, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, and increased risk of infection.
An aneurysm is a bulge or dilation in the wall of a blood vessel, typically a artery. It occurs when the weakened wall of the vessel balloons out and becomes distended, creating a sac-like structure. Aneurysms can occur in any part of the body, but they are most commonly found in the brain, aorta, and legs. Aneurysms can be caused by a variety of factors, including high blood pressure, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), trauma, and genetic predisposition. They can also be caused by certain medical conditions, such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Aneurysms can be asymptomatic, meaning they do not cause any symptoms, or they can cause symptoms such as headache, neck pain, visual changes, or weakness or numbness in the extremities. If an aneurysm ruptures, it can cause a life-threatening bleeding episode. Treatment for aneurysms depends on the size, location, and risk of rupture. Small aneurysms may be monitored with regular imaging studies, while larger aneurysms or those at high risk of rupture may require surgical repair or endovascular coiling, a minimally invasive procedure in which a catheter is inserted into the aneurysm and a coil is placed to fill the sac and prevent further expansion.
Arachnoiditis is a condition characterized by inflammation of the arachnoid membrane, which is a thin layer of tissue that covers the spinal cord and brain. The inflammation can be caused by a variety of factors, including infection, injury, autoimmune disorders, or exposure to certain medications or toxins. Symptoms of arachnoiditis can vary depending on the location and severity of the inflammation, but may include back or neck pain, headache, numbness or tingling in the extremities, difficulty walking or standing, and changes in bowel or bladder function. In some cases, arachnoiditis can lead to more serious complications, such as spinal cord compression or hydrocephalus (buildup of fluid in the brain). Treatment for arachnoiditis typically involves managing symptoms and addressing any underlying causes of the inflammation. This may include medications to reduce pain and inflammation, physical therapy to improve mobility and strength, and in some cases, surgery to relieve pressure on the spinal cord or brain.
AIDS Arteritis, Central Nervous System (CNS) is a rare complication of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) that involves inflammation of the blood vessels in the brain and spinal cord. It is also known as HIV-related vasculopathy of the CNS or HIV-related central nervous system vasculitis. The condition is caused by the HIV virus attacking the blood vessels in the brain and spinal cord, leading to inflammation and damage. This can result in a range of symptoms, including headache, confusion, memory loss, seizures, and difficulty with movement or coordination. AIDS Arteritis, CNS is typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and imaging tests such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scans. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy to control the HIV virus and manage symptoms. In some cases, corticosteroids or other medications may be used to reduce inflammation and prevent further damage to the blood vessels in the brain and spinal cord.
Prednisone is a synthetic corticosteroid medication that is used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including allergies, autoimmune disorders, inflammatory diseases, and certain types of cancer. It works by reducing inflammation and suppressing the immune system, which can help to reduce symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. Prednisone is available in both oral and injectable forms, and it is typically prescribed in doses that are gradually increased or decreased over time, depending on the patient's response to the medication and the specific condition being treated. While prednisone can be effective in treating a wide range of medical conditions, it can also have side effects, including weight gain, mood changes, and increased risk of infections. Therefore, it is important for patients to work closely with their healthcare provider to monitor their response to the medication and adjust the dosage as needed.
Methylprednisolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid hormone that is used in the medical field to treat a variety of conditions. It is a potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agent that is commonly used to reduce inflammation and swelling, as well as to suppress the immune system. Methylprednisolone is often prescribed to treat conditions such as asthma, allergies, autoimmune disorders, and inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. It is also used to treat severe allergic reactions, as well as to reduce inflammation and swelling after surgery. Methylprednisolone is available in various forms, including tablets, injections, and inhalers, and is typically administered orally or by injection.
In the medical field, infarction refers to the death of tissue due to a lack of blood supply. This can occur in various organs, including the heart, brain, lungs, and kidneys. In the case of a heart infarction, also known as a heart attack, the lack of blood supply to the heart muscle can cause damage or death to the affected area. This is typically caused by a blockage in one of the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart. In the case of a brain infarction, also known as a stroke, the lack of blood supply to the brain can cause damage or death to brain tissue. This is typically caused by a blockage in a blood vessel that supplies blood to the brain. In the case of a lung infarction, the lack of blood supply to the lung tissue can cause damage or death to the affected area. This is typically caused by a blockage in a blood vessel that supplies blood to the lung. In the case of a kidney infarction, the lack of blood supply to the kidney tissue can cause damage or death to the affected area. This is typically caused by a blockage in a blood vessel that supplies blood to the kidney.
Retinal artery occlusion (RAO) is a medical condition in which there is a blockage of blood flow to the retina, the light-sensitive layer at the back of the eye. This can cause vision loss or even blindness if not treated promptly. RAO can be caused by a variety of factors, including high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol, smoking, and blood clots. There are two types of RAO: central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO). CRAO is a more severe condition that affects the main artery to the retina, while BRAO affects a smaller branch artery. Treatment for RAO may include medications to dissolve blood clots, surgery to remove blood clots, or laser therapy to help blood flow to the retina.
Blindness is a medical condition characterized by a severe loss of vision that affects a person's ability to see and navigate their environment. In medical terms, blindness is defined as visual acuity of less than 20/200 in the better eye, even with corrective lenses. This means that a person with blindness cannot see as well as a person with normal vision, and may have difficulty recognizing faces, reading, or performing other tasks that require good vision. Blindness can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic disorders, eye injuries, infections, diseases such as glaucoma or cataracts, and aging. It can also be caused by neurological conditions such as stroke or brain injury, or by certain medications or toxins. Treatment for blindness depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, corrective lenses or surgery may be able to improve vision. In other cases, rehabilitation and assistive technology such as braille, audio books, and guide dogs may be necessary to help individuals with blindness live independently and participate fully in society.
An aortic aneurysm is a bulge or dilation in the wall of the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body. It occurs when the wall of the aorta becomes weakened and begins to balloon outwards. Aneurysms can occur in any part of the aorta, but the most common location is in the abdominal aorta, just below the kidneys. Aneurysms can be caused by a variety of factors, including high blood pressure, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), smoking, and genetic conditions such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. They can also be caused by injury or infection. Aortic aneurysms can be asymptomatic, meaning that they do not cause any noticeable symptoms. However, if the aneurysm becomes large enough, it can cause pain in the abdomen or back, and in severe cases, it can rupture, leading to life-threatening internal bleeding. Treatment for aortic aneurysms depends on the size and location of the aneurysm, as well as the patient's overall health. Small aneurysms may be monitored with regular imaging tests, while larger aneurysms may require surgery to repair or replace the affected section of the aorta. In some cases, endovascular repair, a minimally invasive procedure, may be used to treat aneurysms.
Adie Syndrome, also known as Horner's Syndrome, is a rare neurological disorder that affects the autonomic nervous system. It is characterized by a partial or complete loss of sympathetic nerve function in one eye, which can cause symptoms such as drooping eyelid (ptosis), reduced pupil size (miosis), and decreased sweating on the affected side of the face. The condition is usually caused by damage to the sympathetic nerves in the neck or chest, which can be due to a variety of factors such as injury, infection, or a tumor. Adie Syndrome can be diagnosed through a physical examination and various tests, including eye exams and imaging studies. Treatment options may include medications to manage symptoms, physical therapy, or surgery in some cases.
The abdominal aorta is the largest artery in the human body, responsible for carrying oxygenated blood from the heart to the lower half of the body, including the abdominal organs, legs, and feet. It is located in the abdominal cavity, between the diaphragm and the pelvic floor, and is approximately 10-12 inches long. The abdominal aorta begins at the level of the aortic hiatus in the diaphragm, where it emerges from the thoracic aorta. It then passes through the abdominal cavity, where it is surrounded by a layer of connective tissue called the adventitia. The abdominal aorta branches into several smaller arteries, including the superior mesenteric artery, the renal arteries, and the common iliac arteries. Abnormalities of the abdominal aorta can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including aneurysms, dissections, and occlusions. These conditions can be serious and may require medical intervention, such as surgery or endovascular procedures.
Arterial occlusive diseases refer to a group of medical conditions in which the arteries become narrowed or blocked, leading to reduced blood flow to the affected area. This can result in a range of symptoms, depending on the location and severity of the blockage. The most common types of arterial occlusive diseases include: 1. Atherosclerosis: A condition in which plaque builds up inside the arteries, causing them to narrow and harden. 2. Peripheral artery disease (PAD): A condition that affects the arteries in the legs, causing pain, cramping, and weakness in the legs, especially during physical activity. 3. Coronary artery disease (CAD): A condition that affects the arteries that supply blood to the heart, leading to chest pain, shortness of breath, and other symptoms. 4. Carotid artery disease: A condition that affects the arteries in the neck, leading to a reduced blood flow to the brain, which can cause stroke. Treatment for arterial occlusive diseases may include lifestyle changes, such as quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet, and exercising regularly, as well as medications to manage symptoms and prevent further progression of the disease. In some cases, surgery or other medical procedures may be necessary to open or bypass blocked arteries.
Amaurosis fugax is a temporary loss of vision that occurs due to a brief interruption in the blood flow to the retina. It is also known as a "transient ischemic attack of the eye" or a "mini-stroke of the eye." The symptoms of amaurosis fugax typically last only a few minutes and may include a complete or partial loss of vision in one eye, a dark or gray cloud in front of the eye, or a tunnel vision effect. It is usually caused by a blood clot or a piece of plaque that has broken off from an artery in the brain or neck and traveled to the eye. Amaurosis fugax is a warning sign of a more serious condition, such as a stroke, and should be evaluated by a healthcare professional as soon as possible.
Aortic Valve Insufficiency (AVI) is a medical condition in which the aortic valve fails to close properly, allowing blood to flow back into the left ventricle of the heart. This can lead to a decrease in the amount of blood that is pumped out of the heart with each beat, which can cause symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and chest pain. AVI can be caused by a variety of factors, including damage to the valve from infection, high blood pressure, or aging. It can also be caused by certain medical conditions, such as rheumatic fever or Marfan syndrome. Treatment for AVI may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgery, depending on the severity of the condition.
In the medical field, "Vaccines, Marker" refers to a type of vaccine that uses a specific marker or antigen to stimulate an immune response in the body. A marker is a substance that is unique to a particular disease or condition, and it can be used to identify or track the presence of that disease or condition. In the context of vaccines, a marker is used to identify a specific antigen or protein that is associated with a particular disease or condition. When a vaccine containing a specific marker is administered to a person, the immune system recognizes the marker as foreign and mounts an immune response against it. This immune response can help to protect the person from developing the disease or condition that the marker is associated with. For example, the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine contains markers that are specific to certain strains of HPV. When the vaccine is administered, the immune system recognizes the HPV markers and mounts an immune response against them, which can help to protect the person from developing HPV-related diseases such as cervical cancer. Overall, vaccines that use markers are an important tool in preventing and controlling the spread of infectious diseases.
The aorta is the largest artery in the human body, responsible for carrying oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. It is located in the chest and abdomen and is divided into three main sections: the ascending aorta, the aortic arch, and the descending aorta. The ascending aorta begins at the base of the heart and travels upward to the aortic arch. The aortic arch is a curved section of the aorta that arches over the top of the heart and connects to the descending aorta. The descending aorta continues downward from the aortic arch and eventually branches into smaller arteries that supply blood to the lower body. The aorta is an essential part of the circulatory system and plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and wellbeing. Any damage or disease affecting the aorta can have serious consequences, including heart attack, stroke, and even death.
The thoracic aorta is the largest artery in the human body, located in the chest region. It is responsible for carrying oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body, specifically to the head, neck, arms, and upper torso. The thoracic aorta begins at the base of the heart and extends up to the diaphragm, where it becomes the abdominal aorta. The thoracic aorta is divided into three main sections: the ascending aorta, the aortic arch, and the descending aorta. The ascending aorta is the portion of the aorta that ascends from the heart to the aortic arch. The aortic arch is the curved portion of the aorta that arches over the top of the heart and connects the ascending aorta to the descending aorta. The descending aorta is the portion of the aorta that descends from the aortic arch to the diaphragm. The thoracic aorta is surrounded by a layer of connective tissue called the adventitia, which provides support and protection to the aorta. The aorta is also surrounded by the pericardium, a sac-like structure that surrounds the heart and helps to protect it from injury. The thoracic aorta is an important part of the circulatory system and plays a critical role in maintaining blood flow to the body's vital organs.
In the medical field, arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the rest of the body. They are typically thick-walled and muscular, and their walls are lined with smooth muscle and elastic tissue that helps to maintain their shape and elasticity. There are three main types of arteries: 1. Ascending aorta: This is the largest artery in the body, and it carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. 2. Descending aorta: This artery carries oxygenated blood from the ascending aorta to the abdomen and lower extremities. 3. Coronary arteries: These arteries supply oxygenated blood to the heart muscle. Arteries are an essential part of the circulatory system, and any damage or blockage to them can lead to serious health problems, including heart attack and stroke.
Equine viral arteritis
Giant cell arteritis
Equine arteritis virus leader TRS hairpin (LTH)
James William Brown
Acute visual loss
Posterior ischemic optic neuropathy
Ocular ischemic syndrome
Fibrin ring granuloma
Internal elastic lamina
Bayard Taylor Horton
Takayasu arteritis: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Temporal Arteritis Pathology: Definition, Epidemiology, Etiology
Longterm therapy in polymyalgia rheumatica: effect of coexistent temporal arteritis
Temporal arteritis x ray - wikidoc
Taking a Practical Approach to Giant Cell Arteritis
Videos: Giant Cell Arteritis - Vasculitis Foundation
An approach to giant cell arteritis (GCA) | HSTalks
The transcriptional profile of coronary arteritis in Kawasaki disease
Takayasu Arteritis - Bone, Joint, and Muscle Disorders - Merck Manuals Consumer Version
The clinical and laboratory course of polymyalgia rheumatica/giant cell arteritis after the first two months of treatment. |...
Temporal arteritis presenting with facial swelling and a negative temporal artery biopsy | BMJ Case Reports
Does preoperative steroid treatment affect the histology in giant cell (cranial) arteritis? | Journal of Clinical Pathology
Steroid Responsive Meningitis Arteritis (Call for DNA) - Petit Basset Griffon Vendéen Club of America
Lower Frequency of Comorbidities Prior to Onset of Giant Cell Arteritis: A Population-Based Study | The Journal of Rheumatology
Therapeutics Education Collaboration | 11.3 Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Giant-Cell Arteritis
"Severe intracranial involvement in giant cell arteritis: 5 cases and l" by Roaa S. Alsolaimani, Sankalp V. Bhavsar et al.
Takayasu Arteritis - Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders - MSD Manual Professional Edition
Clinical Trials : Arteritis
Temporal Arteritis | STROKE MANUAL
Giant Cell Arteritis - Rheumatology Advisor
Temporal Arteritis : Wheeless' Textbook of Orthopaedics
Temporal Arteritis Pathology: Definition, Epidemiology, Etiology
Viral Arteritis in Horses - Veterinary Partner - VIN
Diseases and Conditions - familydoctor.org
From Washington, an Update on Arthritis and Arteritis
Steroid Responsive Meningitis-Arteritis SRMA - Mid Western Uganda Mission
Image: Equine viral arteritis, scrotal edema - MSD Veterinary Manual
Giant Cell Arteritis Archives - REBEL EM - Emergency Medicine Blog
What is Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA)? - Sick Not Dead
- Takayasu arteritis is an inflammation of large arteries such as the aorta and its major branches . (medlineplus.gov)
- The cause of Takayasu arteritis is not known. (medlineplus.gov)
- Takayasu arteritis appears to be an autoimmune condition. (medlineplus.gov)
- Treatment of Takayasu arteritis is difficult. (medlineplus.gov)
- Alomari I, Patel PM. Takayasu arteritis. (medlineplus.gov)
- Takayasu arteritis causes chronic blood vessel inflammation, mainly of the aorta (the artery that connects directly with the heart), the arteries that branch off from it, and the pulmonary arteries. (merckmanuals.com)
- Takayasu arteritis is rare. (merckmanuals.com)
- Takayasu arteritis is a chronic disorder with symptoms that fluctuate in severity. (merckmanuals.com)
- Takayasu arteritis is an inflammatory disease affecting the aorta, its branches, and pulmonary arteries. (msdmanuals.com)
- Takayasu arteritis affects primarily large elastic arteries. (msdmanuals.com)
- This condition has many features that are similar to giant cell arteritis or temporal arteritis in older people. (medlineplus.gov)
- Giant cell arteritis, polymyalgia rheumatica, and takayasu's arteritis. (medlineplus.gov)
- Temporal arteritis , also known as giant cell arteritis and cranial arteritis, is a systemic vasculitis of medium-sized and large-sized arteries. (medscape.com)
- The access of monocytes and T cells to the vascular wall is controlled by matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), a type IV collagenase that is produced in the vasculitic lesions of giant cell arteritis. (medscape.com)
- Laboratory findings, diagnostic methods, and best treatments for giant cell arteritis, a major cause of vision loss and other health problems. (hcplive.com)
- ABSTRACT: Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a major cause of vision loss and other health problems. (hcplive.com)
- Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is the most common form of primary systemic vasculitis. (hcplive.com)
- The clinical and laboratory course of polymyalgia rheumatica/giant cell arteritis after the first two months of treatment. (bmj.com)
- OBJECTIVES--To examine the clinical course of polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) and giant cell arteritis (GCA) in a prospective study, after the initial two months. (bmj.com)
- Does preoperative steroid treatment affect the histology in giant cell (cranial) arteritis? (bmj.com)
- Objective To assess the frequency of comorbidities and metabolic risk factors at and prior to giant cell arteritis (GCA) diagnosis. (jrheum.org)
- Severe intracranial involvement in giant cell arteritis: 5 cases and l" by Roaa S. Alsolaimani, Sankalp V. Bhavsar et al. (uwo.ca)
- Involvement of intracranial arteries in giant cell arteritis (GCA) is rare. (uwo.ca)
- Giant Cell Arteritis Giant cell arteritis involves predominantly the thoracic aorta, large arteries emerging from the aorta in the neck, and extracranial branches of the carotid arteries. (msdmanuals.com)
- Upon successful completion of this activity, participants should be better able to implement evidence-based, glucocorticoid-sparing treatment strategies for patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA) who may benefit. (healio.com)
- Giant cell arteritis (GCA), also known as temporal arteritis, is a granulomatous vasculitis that mostly affects large- and medium-sized arteries, particularly the branches of the proximal aorta. (rheumatologyadvisor.com)
- In adults, giant cell arteritis is the most frequent kind of vasculitis, especially in Western countries. (rheumatologyadvisor.com)
- 3 In 1932, Bayard T. Horton, MD, and colleagues characterized giant cell arteritis as a unique entity. (rheumatologyadvisor.com)
- In 2012, giant cell arteritis was categorized as a large vessel vasculitis by the Revised Chapel Hill Consensus Conference nomenclature, 4 encouraging the adoption of the equivalent term, large vessel GCA . (rheumatologyadvisor.com)
- The American College of Rheumatology developed classification criteria for giant cell arteritis in 1990, which are listed below. (rheumatologyadvisor.com)
- 5 With a sensitivity of 93.5% and a specificity of 91.2%, the presence of 3 or more of the 5 criteria is regarded as sufficient to make a clinical diagnosis of giant cell arteritis. (rheumatologyadvisor.com)
- Giant cell arteritis is the most frequent systemic vasculitis involving large and medium vessels, with advanced age being the most significant risk factor. (rheumatologyadvisor.com)
- 3 Women are 2.5 times more likely than men to develop giant cell arteritis, with a lifetime risk of 1% for women and 0.5% for men. (rheumatologyadvisor.com)
- The estimated incidence of giant cell arteritis is approximately 20 per 100,000 population per year, and the condition is more prevalent in North American and Western European populations. (rheumatologyadvisor.com)
- Another study investigating time trends in the incidence and survival of GCA over a 50-year period in Olmsted County, Minnesota, found the age- and sex-adjusted annual incidence rate of giant cell arteritis was 18.8 (95% CI, 15.9-21.6) per 100,000 persons aged 50 years and older. (rheumatologyadvisor.com)
- 11 Southern European countries and the Mediterranean region have recorded a substantially lower annual occurrence of giant cell arteritis. (rheumatologyadvisor.com)
- 12 Other risk factors for giant cell arteritis are smoking history and increased diastolic blood pressure. (rheumatologyadvisor.com)
- What is Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA)? (sicknotdead.com)
- Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA), also known as Temporal Arteritis, is an autoimmune disease that affects the blood vessels, particularly the large and medium-sized arteries in the head, neck, and upper body. (sicknotdead.com)
- In this article, we will discuss the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options for GCA, including potential medications and natural remedies, and diets that are suitable for those who have Giant Cell Arteritis. (sicknotdead.com)
- Today I would like to cover just a few of the many highlights from this year's meeting, starting with the new phase 3 clinical trial of tocilizumab , an interleukin (IL)-6 receptor inhibitor in giant cell arteritis . (medscape.com)
- [ 1 ] This study was an efficacy and safety study looking at tocilizumab in patients with documented giant cell arteritis to see whether tocilizumab improved the remission of patients after tapering from glucocorticoid therapy. (medscape.com)
- The patients were studied for 52 weeks, and patients who were at least 50 years of age who had giant cell arteritis confirmed by temporal artery biopsy or cross-sectional imaging with elevation of acute-phase reactants that was attributable to giant cell arteritis were randomly assigned 1:1:2:1 into four groups. (medscape.com)
- From this study, it looks as if tocilizumab will be an effective adjunct to prednisone in the treatment of giant cell arteritis, sparing prednisone and also leading to a larger proportion of patients achieving remission without flares and with normalization of their acute-phase reactants. (medscape.com)
- The potential adverse outcomes of inadequately treated giant cell arteritis, however, certainly justify the use of an effective medication regardless of its cost. (medscape.com)
- Isolated Area Postrema Syndrome Preceding the Diagnosis of Giant Cell Arteritis: A Case Report. (bvsalud.org)
- We report a case of biopsy -proven giant cell arteritis after an initial presentation of area postrema syndrome . (bvsalud.org)
- He was diagnosed with giant cell arteritis after ultrasonography and biopsy were performed. (bvsalud.org)
- Temporal artery biopsy is the criterion standard for establishing the diagnosis of temporal arteritis. (medscape.com)
- This case illustrates that facial swelling may be an under-recognised presenting feature of temporal arteritis, and that a negative temporal artery biopsy does not always rule out a diagnosis of temporal arteritis, and should not delay treatment. (bmj.com)
- [ 3 ] Temporal arteritis is the most common systemic vasculitis of adults in Western countries. (medscape.com)
- Temporal arteritis may also involve the aorta and may be associated with aneurysm, dissection, and aortic rupture. (medscape.com)
- He was immediately treated for temporal arteritis by commencing systemic corticosteroids. (bmj.com)
- Temporal arteritis shows a predilection for the vertebral arteries, the subclavian arteries, and the extracranial branches of the carotid arteries (ie, the superficial temporal, ophthalmic, occipital, and posterior ciliary arteries). (medscape.com)
- In one sequential histopathologic review of temporal arteries taken from consecutive autopsies in Sweden, the true prevalence of histopathologic temporal arteritis is appeared to be closer to one percent. (hstalks.com)
- Arteritis involved the following vessels: intracranial internal carotid (n = 1), vertebrobasilar arteries (n = 1), or both (n = 3). (uwo.ca)
- Actinic arteritis is the lesion produced in the arteries by exposure to ionizing radiation previously used for radiotherapy treatment by diagnosis of a malignant neoplasm and occurs after years of exposure. (bvsalud.org)
- To assess the effects of the coexistence of temporal arteritis (TA) on outcome in PMR, patients were grouped according to the absence or presence of arteritis. (nih.gov)
- Patients with simultaneous arteritis tended to have a longer duration of therapy, but no increased risk of relapse. (nih.gov)
- These results provide new insights into the pathogenesis of KD arteritis that can guide selection of new immunomodulatory therapies for high-risk KD patients, and provide direction for future etiologic studies. (figshare.com)
- Steroid responsive meningitis arteritis, also known as neck pain or aseptic meningitis, is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. (pbgv.org)
- The net effect of these events is an arteritis with local vascular destruction and intimal hyperplasia leading to luminal stenosis and occlusion. (medscape.com)
- Swollen, inflamed artery that supplies blood to part of the head, temple, and neck area ( temporal arteritis ). (medlineplus.gov)
- There are no diagnostic x-ray findings associated with temporal arteritis. (wikidoc.org)
- Vision loss in temporal arteritis constitutes a medical emergency. (medscape.com)
- This condition has many features that are similar to giant cell arteritis or temporal arteritis in older people. (medlineplus.gov)
- Case reports describe patients who meet the diagnostic criteria for both Takayasu arteritis and giant cell (temporal) arteritis, although subtle differences exist in the distribution of arterial involvement in the two diseases. (medscape.com)
- What is the maximum recommended delay for obtaining a temporal artery biopsy after initiation of corticosteroids in patients with suspected giant cell arteritis? (aafp.org)
- Corticosteroid therapy in patients with suspected giant cell arteritis should not degrade the accuracy of temporal artery biopsy if the biopsy is performed within four weeks of corticosteroid initiation. (aafp.org)
- A retrospective case-control study in 2012 evaluated 335 patients with suspected giant cell arteritis, 81 of whom had a positive temporal artery biopsy. (aafp.org)
- We sought to distinguish a silent form, defined by a prolonged inflammatory syndrome or fever of unknown origin with the absence of cephalic signs, polymyalgia rheumatica, or large artery involvement, from an overt "classic" cranial temporal arteritis. (nih.gov)
- It's sometimes called temporal arteritis because it very often affects an artery on your temple (the side of your head). (msdmanuals.com)
- 1. Giant cell arteritis, also called temporal arteritis, is a disease that causes your arteries -- blood vessels that carry oxygen from your heart to the rest of your body -- to become inflamed. (nervegarden.com)
- Giant cell arteritis is also known as temporal arteritis. (nervegarden.com)
- Efficacy of unilateral versus bilateral temporal artery biopsies for the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis. (nervegarden.com)
- PURPOSE: To determine the utility of unilateral versus bilateral temporal artery biopsies in detecting the pathologic changes of giant cell arteritis. (nervegarden.com)
- Giant cell arteritis (GCA), or temporal arteritis, is a systemic inflammatory vasculitis of unknown etiology that occurs in older persons and can result in a wide variety of systemic, neurologic, and ophthalmologic complications. (nervegarden.com)
- Giant Cell (Temporal) Arteritis with Persistent Bilateral Sensorineural Hearing Loss - A Likely Consequence of Delayed Institution of Glucocorticoid Therapy. (nervegarden.com)
- [ 3 ] but typically also involves medium and small arteries, particularly the superficial temporal arteries-hence the term temporal arteritis. (medscape.com)
- Untreated temporal arteritis can cause strokes and even death. (nih.gov)
- Arteritic is caused by a condition called temporal arteritis (also called giant-cell arteritis - GCA). (allaboutvision.com)
- Efficacy and safety of mavrilimumab in giant cell arteritis: a phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (nih.gov)
- Giant cell arteritis, polymyalgia rheumatica, and takayasu's arteritis. (medlineplus.gov)
- A 2002 prospective randomized controlled trial enrolled patients with at least three of the four American College of Rheumatology clinical criteria for giant cell arteritis who had not started corticosteroid therapy. (aafp.org)
- 2 Data from 535 consecutive patients who underwent biopsy for suspected giant cell arteritis were reexamined by experienced pathologists blinded to clinical data, previous corticosteroid therapy, and original pathologic diagnosis. (aafp.org)
- 3 Giant cell arteritis was diagnosed by positive biopsy or the presence of all four clinical criteria. (aafp.org)
- 5 Neither the American College of Rheumatology nor the American Academy of Ophthalmology has endorsed practice recommendations for the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis. (aafp.org)
- Silent versus cranial giant cell arteritis. (nih.gov)
- BACKGROUND: The objective of the present study was to compare the silent form of giant cell arteritis (GCA) to the classic cephalic form of the disease. (nih.gov)
- Necrotizing arteritis with giant cells, involving the aorta, pulmonary and coronary arteries, and coronary, splenic, and renal arterioles was found at necropsy in a 74-year-old male who had died with severe haemolytic anaemia associated with cold haemagglutinins. (bmj.com)
- The clinical and pathological features of this case are shared by well-recognized forms of necrotizing angiitis, in particular giant cell arteritis, but do not conform satisfactorily with any of these disorders. (bmj.com)
- Deflazacort versus prednisone in patients with giant cell arteritis: effects on bone mass loss. (jrheum.org)
- OBJECTIVE: To compare bone mass loss due to deflazacort versus prednisone in longterm treatment of patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA) in a randomized double blind comparative trial. (jrheum.org)
- This resource contains general information about polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis. (nih.gov)
- It describes symptoms and causes, as well as information about diagnosis, treatment, and other strategies for living with polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis. (nih.gov)
- Cranial ischaemic events constitute a significant component in the clinical spectrum of giant cell arteritis (GCA). (clinexprheumatol.org)
- What are the symptoms of giant cell arteritis? (msdmanuals.com)
- Symptoms of giant cell arteritis may start suddenly or come on slowly over several weeks. (msdmanuals.com)
- Rarely, giant cell arteritis affects your aorta, the main artery coming out of your heart. (msdmanuals.com)
- How can doctors tell if I have giant cell arteritis? (msdmanuals.com)
- How do doctors treat giant cell arteritis? (msdmanuals.com)
- Giant cell arteritis is the most common primary systemic vasculitis in adults aged ≥50 years and peaks in the eighth decade of life. (nervegarden.com)
- Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is the most common of all the vas-culitides. (nervegarden.com)
- Giant cell arteritis is vasculitis of unknown cause that affects the elderly and is characterized by panarteritis of medium- to large-sized arteries, especially in the extracranial branches of the carotid artery. (nervegarden.com)
- Giant cell arteritis also can affect extracranial and intracranial blood vessels and produce homonymous loss of the visual field (i.e. (nervegarden.com)
- Bilateral simultaneous PION does not exclusively occur in a post surgical setting, emphasizing the importance of decreasing the threshold of suspicion of similar cases to avoid further neurological complica … Simultaneous bilateral posterior ischemic optic neuropathy secondary to giant cell arteritis: a case presentation and review of the literature BMC Ophthalmol. (nervegarden.com)
- Case Report: A 62-year-old female patient presented with bilateral progressive vision loss was diagnosed with bilateral posterior scleritis.According to clinical signs and symptoms and laboratory testing, Giant cell arteritis was also diagnosed. (nervegarden.com)
- Patients with extracranial giant cell arteritis present with occlusive arterial lesions that may be detected with several imaging modalities: angiography, CT scanning or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). (nervegarden.com)
- Giant cell arteritis is a large vessel vasculitis of the arteries in the head and neck. (medscape.com)
- Therefore, when tocilizumab was approved for up to 1 year for cases of relapsing or refractory giant cell arteritis by the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in April 2018, this offered an opportunity to benefit from new funding and to reduce steroid burden. (medscape.com)
- This case series describes the impact of the establishment of a new hub and spoke referral pathway for the use of tocilizumab in refractory or relapsing giant cell arteritis, with case examples from consecutive patients who accessed the funding between August 2018 and April 2021. (medscape.com)
- Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is primarily a disease of cell-mediated immunity, which is thought to arise as a maladaptive response to endothelial injury. (medscape.com)
- The purpose of this study is to find out if advanced ultrasound studies can be used to make a diagnosis of giant cell arteritis. (mayoclinic.org)
- Ultimately, we hope to be able to offer non-invasive diagnostic options as an alternative to biopsy to future patients who are being evaluated for giant cell arteritis. (mayoclinic.org)
- Giant cell arteritis affects the aorta, which brings blood to every branch of the body, including the arms, legs, and head. (nih.gov)
- Giant cell arteritis typically occurs in people age 50 years and older. (nih.gov)
- Aggarwal A, Chag M, Sinha N, Naik S. Takayasu's arteritis: role of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its 65 kDa heat shock protein. (medscape.com)
- Kumar Chauhan S, Kumar Tripathy N, Sinha N, Singh M, Nityanand S. Cellular and humoral immune responses to mycobacterial heat shock protein-65 and its human homologue in Takayasu's arteritis. (medscape.com)
- Arteritis is inflammation of your arteries. (msdmanuals.com)
- Electroencephalograph (EEG) demonstrated examination showed chronic granulomatous meningitis intermittent irregular slow delta waves in the right frontal and arteritis. (cdc.gov)
- Coronary arteritis in Wegener's granulomatosis causing fatal myocardial infarction. (ox.ac.uk)
- A logistic regression model controlling for clinical features suggestive of arteritis showed no difference in the rate of positive biopsies based on treatment delay. (aafp.org)
- This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Arteritis" by people in this website by year, and whether "Arteritis" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (jefferson.edu)
- Below are the most recent publications written about "Arteritis" by people in Profiles. (jefferson.edu)