Takayasu Arteritis: A chronic inflammatory process that affects the AORTA and its primary branches, such as the brachiocephalic artery (BRACHIOCEPHALIC TRUNK) and CAROTID ARTERIES. It results in progressive arterial stenosis, occlusion, and aneurysm formation. The pulse in the arm is hard to detect. Patients with aortitis syndrome often exhibit retinopathy.Arteritis: INFLAMMATION of any ARTERIES.Giant Cell Arteritis: A systemic autoimmune disorder that typically affects medium and large ARTERIES, usually leading to occlusive granulomatous vasculitis with transmural infiltrate containing multinucleated GIANT CELLS. The TEMPORAL ARTERY is commonly involved. This disorder appears primarily in people over the age of 50. Symptoms include FEVER; FATIGUE; HEADACHE; visual impairment; pain in the jaw and tongue; and aggravation of pain by cold temperatures. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed)Arteritis Virus, Equine: The type species of the genus ARTERIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of an important equine respiratory disease causing abortion, pneumonia, or other infections.Temporal Arteries: Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.Polymyalgia Rheumatica: A syndrome in the elderly characterized by proximal joint and muscle pain, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and a self-limiting course. Pain is usually accompanied by evidence of an inflammatory reaction. Women are affected twice as commonly as men and Caucasians more frequently than other groups. The condition is frequently associated with GIANT CELL ARTERITIS and some theories pose the possibility that the two diseases arise from a single etiology or even that they are the same entity.Arterivirus Infections: Infections caused by viruses of the genus ARTERIVIRUS.Polyarteritis Nodosa: A form of necrotizing non-granulomatous inflammation occurring primarily in medium-sized ARTERIES, often with microaneurysms. It is characterized by muscle, joint, and abdominal pain resulting from arterial infarction and scarring in affected organs. Polyarteritis nodosa with lung involvement is called CHURG-STRAUSS SYNDROME.HLA-B52 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*52 allele family.Aortic Arch Syndromes: Conditions resulting from abnormalities in the arteries branching from the ASCENDING AORTA, the curved portion of the aorta. These syndromes are results of occlusion or abnormal blood flow to the head-neck or arm region leading to neurological defects and weakness in an arm. These syndromes are associated with vascular malformations; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; TRAUMA; and blood clots.Horse Diseases: Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.Blood Sedimentation: Measurement of rate of settling of erythrocytes in anticoagulated blood.Aortitis: Inflammation of the wall of the AORTA.Arterivirus: A genus of the family ARTERIVIRIDAE, in the order NIDOVIRALES. The type species is ARTERITIS VIRUS, EQUINE.Prednisolone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.Subclavian Artery: Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Subclavian Steal Syndrome: A clinically significant reduction in blood supply to the BRAIN STEM and CEREBELLUM (i.e., VERTEBROBASILAR INSUFFICIENCY) resulting from reversal of blood flow through the VERTEBRAL ARTERY from occlusion or stenosis of the proximal subclavian or brachiocephalic artery. Common symptoms include VERTIGO; SYNCOPE; and INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION of the involved upper extremity. Subclavian steal may also occur in asymptomatic individuals. (From J Cardiovasc Surg 1994;35(1):11-4; Acta Neurol Scand 1994;90(3):174-8)Axillary Artery: The continuation of the subclavian artery; it distributes over the upper limb, axilla, chest and shoulder.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Optic Neuropathy, Ischemic: Ischemic injury to the OPTIC NERVE which usually affects the OPTIC DISK (optic neuropathy, anterior ischemic) and less frequently the retrobulbar portion of the nerve (optic neuropathy, posterior ischemic). The injury results from occlusion of arterial blood supply which may result from TEMPORAL ARTERITIS; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; COLLAGEN DISEASES; EMBOLISM; DIABETES MELLITUS; and other conditions. The disease primarily occurs in the sixth decade or later and presents with the sudden onset of painless and usually severe monocular visual loss. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy also features optic disk edema with microhemorrhages. The optic disk appears normal in posterior ischemic optic neuropathy. (Glaser, Neuro-Ophthalmology, 2nd ed, p135)Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome: An acute, febrile, mucocutaneous condition accompanied by swelling of cervical lymph nodes in infants and young children. The principal symptoms are fever, congestion of the ocular conjunctivae, reddening of the lips and oral cavity, protuberance of tongue papillae, and edema or erythema of the extremities.Strongyle Infections, Equine: Infection of horses with parasitic nematodes of the superfamily STRONGYLOIDEA. Characteristics include the development of hemorrhagic nodules on the abdominal peritoneum.Brachiocephalic Trunk: The first and largest artery branching from the aortic arch. It distributes blood to the right side of the head and neck and to the right arm.Vasculitis: Inflammation of any one of the blood vessels, including the ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.Vasculitis, Central Nervous System: Inflammation of blood vessels within the central nervous system. Primary vasculitis is usually caused by autoimmune or idiopathic factors, while secondary vasculitis is caused by existing disease process. Clinical manifestations are highly variable but include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; behavioral alterations; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; and BRAIN INFARCTION. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp856-61)Adrenal Cortex HormonesMagnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Aortography: Radiographic visualization of the aorta and its branches by injection of contrast media, using percutaneous puncture or catheterization procedures.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Lactobacillus casei: A rod-shaped bacterium isolated from milk and cheese, dairy products and dairy environments, sour dough, cow dung, silage, and human mouth, human intestinal contents and stools, and the human vagina.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Aneurysm: Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.Arachnoiditis: Acute or chronic inflammation of the arachnoid membrane of the meninges most often involving the spinal cord or base of the brain. This term generally refers to a persistent inflammatory process characterized by thickening of the ARACHNOID membrane and dural adhesions. Associated conditions include prior surgery, infections, trauma, SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, and chemical irritation. Clinical features vary with the site of inflammation, but include cranial neuropathies, radiculopathies, and myelopathies. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch48, p25)AIDS Arteritis, Central Nervous System: Inflammation of ARTERIES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that occurs in patients with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME or AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS.Prednisone: A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.Methylprednisolone: A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.Infarction: Formation of an infarct, which is NECROSIS in tissue due to local ISCHEMIA resulting from obstruction of BLOOD CIRCULATION, most commonly by a THROMBUS or EMBOLUS.Retinal Artery Occlusion: Sudden ISCHEMIA in the RETINA due to blocked blood flow through the CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY or its branches leading to sudden complete or partial loss of vision, respectively, in the eye.Blindness: The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.Aortic Aneurysm: An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of AORTA.Adie Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by a TONIC PUPIL that occurs in combination with decreased lower extremity reflexes. The affected pupil will respond more briskly to accommodation than to light (light-near dissociation) and is supersensitive to dilute pilocarpine eye drops, which induce pupillary constriction. Pathologic features include degeneration of the ciliary ganglion and postganglionic parasympathetic fibers that innervate the pupillary constrictor muscle. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p279)Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Togaviridae: A family of RNA viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of two genera: ALPHAVIRUS (group A arboviruses), and RUBIVIRUS. Virions are spherical, 60-70 nm in diameter, with a lipoprotein envelope tightly applied to the icosahedral nucleocapsid.Aorta, Abdominal: The aorta from the DIAPHRAGM to the bifurcation into the right and left common iliac arteries.Vasa Vasorum: Nutrient blood vessels which supply the walls of large arteries or veins.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Amaurosis Fugax: Transient complete or partial monocular blindness due to retinal ischemia. This may be caused by emboli from the CAROTID ARTERY (usually in association with CAROTID STENOSIS) and other locations that enter the central RETINAL ARTERY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p245)Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Aortic Valve Insufficiency: Pathological condition characterized by the backflow of blood from the ASCENDING AORTA back into the LEFT VENTRICLE, leading to regurgitation. It is caused by diseases of the AORTIC VALVE or its surrounding tissue (aortic root).Vaccines, Marker: Vaccines used in conjunction with diagnostic tests to differentiate vaccinated animals from carrier animals. Marker vaccines can be either a subunit or a gene-deleted vaccine.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Scalp: The outer covering of the calvaria. It is composed of several layers: SKIN; subcutaneous connective tissue; the occipitofrontal muscle which includes the tendinous galea aponeurotica; loose connective tissue; and the pericranium (the PERIOSTEUM of the SKULL).

Adventitial delivery minimizes the proinflammatory effects of adenoviral vectors. (1/236)

PURPOSE: Adenovirus-mediated arterial gene transfer is a promising tool in the study of vascular biology and the development of vascular gene therapy. However, intraluminal delivery of adenoviral vectors causes vascular inflammation and neointimal formation. Whether these complications could be avoided and gene transfer efficiency maintained by means of delivering adenoviral vectors via the adventitia was studied. METHODS: Replication-defective adenoviral vectors encoding a beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) gene (AdRSVnLacZ) or without a recombinant gene (AdNull) were infused into the lumen or the adventitia of rabbit carotid arteries. Two days after infusion of either AdRSVnLacZ (n = 8 adventitial, n = 8 luminal) or AdNull (n = 4 luminal), recombinant gene expression was quantitated by histochemistry (performed on tissue sections) and with a beta-gal activity assay (performed on vessel extracts). Inflammation caused by adenovirus infusion was assessed 14 days after infusion of either AdNull (n = 6) or vehicle (n = 6) into the carotid adventitia. Inflammation was assessed by means of examination of histologic sections for the presence of neointimal formation and infiltrating T cells and for the expression of markers of vascular cell activation (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1). To measure the systemic immune response to adventitial infusion of adenovirus, plasma samples (n = 3) were drawn 14 days after infusion of AdNull and assayed for neutralizing antibodies. RESULTS: Two days after luminal infusion of AdRSVnLacZ, approximately 30% of luminal endothelial cells expressed beta-gal. Similarly, 2 days after infusion of AdRSVnLacZ to the adventitia, approximately 30% of adventitial cells expressed beta-gal. beta-gal expression was present in the carotid adventitia, the internal jugular vein adventitia, and the vagus nerve perineurium. Elevated beta-gal activity (50- to 80-fold more than background; P <.05) was detected in extracts made from all AdRSVnLacZ-transduced arteries. The amount of recombinant protein expression per vessel did not differ significantly between vessels transduced via the adventitia (17.1 mU/mg total protein [range, 8.1 to 71.5]) and those transduced via a luminal approach (10.0 mU/mg total protein [range, 3.9 to 42.6]). Notably, adventitial delivery of AdNull did not cause neointimal formation. In addition, vascular inflammation in arteries transduced via the adventitia (ie, T-cell infiltrates and ICAM-1 expression) was confined to the adventitia, sparing both the intima and media. Antiadenoviral neutralizing antibodies were present in all rabbits after adventitial delivery of AdNull. CONCLUSION: Infusion of adenoviral vectors into the carotid artery adventitia achieves recombinant gene expression at a level equivalent to that achieved by means of intraluminal vector infusion. Because adventitial gene transfer can be performed by means of direct application during open surgical procedures, this technically simple procedure may be more clinically applicable than intraluminal delivery. Moreover, despite the generation of a systemic immune response, adventitial infusion had no detectable pathologic effects on the vascular intima or media. For these reasons, adventitial gene delivery may be a particularly useful experimental and clinical tool.  (+info)

Expression of interleukin-10 in advanced human atherosclerotic plaques: relation to inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and cell death. (2/236)

Inflammation is a major feature of human atherosclerosis and is central to development and progression of the disease. A variety of proinflammatory cytokines are expressed in the atherosclerotic plaque and may modulate extracellular matrix remodeling, cell proliferation, and cell death. Little is known, however, about the expression and potential role of anti-inflammatory cytokines in human atherosclerosis. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a major anti-inflammatory cytokine whose expression and potential effects in advanced human atherosclerotic plaques have not been evaluated. We studied 21 advanced human atherosclerotic plaques. IL-10 expression was analyzed by use of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical techniques. Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression was assessed by using immunohistochemistry, and cell death was determined by use of the TUNEL method. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction identified IL-10 mRNA in 12 of 17 atherosclerotic plaques. Immunohistochemical staining of serial sections and double staining identified immunoreactive IL-10 mainly in macrophages, as well as in smooth muscle cells. Consistent with its anti-inflammatory properties, high levels of IL-10 expression were associated with significant decrease in inducible nitric oxide synthase expression (P<0.0001) and cell death (P<0. 0001). Hence, IL-10, a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine, is expressed in a substantial number of advanced human atherosclerotic plaques and might contribute to the modulation of the local inflammatory response and protect from excessive cell death in the plaque.  (+info)

Cerebral arterial lesions resulting from inflammatory emboli. (3/236)

In order to study the effects of septic embolism on the brain, silicone rubber emboli of various types were injected into the carotid arteries of 35 dogs. Pathologic and angiographic studies were performed to assess the resultant arterial and parenchymal lesions. Pure silicone rubber emboli (14 dogs) produced occasional intra-arterial thrombosis but no arteritis. Sterile and bacterially contaminated emboli containing a lead-chromate pigment (similar to those used in previous studies of septic embolism) (11 dogs) and pure silicone rubber emboli with transversely oriented canals (10 dogs), after brief placement in a bacterial suspension, were associated with intense inflammatory arteritis. This was accompanied by focal meningitis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, thrombosis, and cerebritis of the underlying cortex. The findings resembled those found in mycotic aneurysm. Aneurysmal dilatation was observed in one postmortem angiogram. In previous models of mycotic aneurysm, the inflammation attributed to bacterial contamination was probably due to the lead-chromate pigment used.  (+info)

Systemic inflammatory parameters in patients with atherosclerosis of the coronary and peripheral arteries. (4/236)

Plasma concentration of markers of inflammation are increased in patients with atherosclerosis. However, it is unclear whether the pattern and magnitude of this increase vary with the site and extent of disease. In 147 patients undergoing semiquantitative coronary angiography, we measured the acute-phase reactants C-reactive protein (CRP) or serum amyloid A (SAA); the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6); the active and total fractions of the anti-inflammatory cytokine transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta); the macrophage activation marker neopterin; and the infection marker procalcitonin. Compared with 62 patients without either coronary artery disease (CAD) or peripheral artery disease (PAD), 57 patients with CAD but no PAD showed greater median CRP (0. 4 versus 0.2 mg/dL, P=0.004) and IL-6 (3.8 versus 1.6 pg/mL, P=0. 007) levels and a lower level of active-TGF-beta (57 versus 100 ng/mL, P=0.038). Moreover, CRP, IL-6, and neopterin levels showed a positive and the active TGF-beta level a negative correlation with the extent of coronary atherosclerosis. Compared with these 57 patients with CAD alone, 15 patients with PAD and CAD had higher median levels of SAA (17 versus 7 mg/mL, P=0.008), IL-6 (12 versus 4 pg/mL, P=0.002), neopterin (14 versus 11 mg/dL, P=0.006), and total TGF-beta (11834 versus 6417 ng/L, P=0.001). However, these strong univariate associations of markers of inflammation and atherosclerosis were lost in multivariate analysis once age, sex, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol or fibrinogen were taken into account. Increased plasma levels of CRP, SAA, IL-6, TGF-beta, neopterin, and procalcitonin constitute an inflammatory signature of advanced atherosclerosis and are correlated with the extent of disease but do not provide discriminatory diagnostic power over and above established risk factors.  (+info)

Clinical utility of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. (5/236)

The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) determination is a commonly performed laboratory test with a time-honored role. However, the usefulness of this test has decreased as new methods of evaluating disease have been developed. The test remains helpful in the specific diagnosis of a few conditions, including temporal arteritis, polymyalgia rheumatica and, possibly, rheumatoid arthritis. It is useful in monitoring these conditions and may predict relapse in patients with Hodgkin's disease. Use of the ESR as a screening test to identify patients who have serious disease is not supported by the literature. Some studies suggest that the test may be useful as a "sickness index" in the elderly or as a screening tool for a few specific infections in certain settings. An extreme elevation of the ESR is strongly associated with serious underlying disease, most often infection, collagen vascular disease or metastatic malignancy. When an increased rate is encountered with no obvious clinical explanation, the physician should repeat the test after an appropriate interval rather than pursue an exhaustive search for occult disease.  (+info)

Unusual complications in an inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm. (6/236)

An unusual case of an inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) associated with coronary aneurysms and pathological fracture of the adjacent lumbar vertebrae. The associated coronary lesions in cases of IAAA are usually occlusions. In the present case, it was concluded that a possible cause of the coronary aneurysm was coronary arteritis and the etiology of the pathological fracture of the lumbar vertebrae was occlusion of the lumbar penetrating arteries due to vasculitis resulting in aseptic necrosis. Inflammatory AAA can be associated with aneurysms in addition to occlusive disease in systemic arteries. The preoperative evaluation of systemic arterial lesions and the function of systemic organs is essential.  (+info)

Arterial inflammation in mice lacking the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist gene. (7/236)

Branch points and flexures in the high pressure arterial system have long been recognized as sites of unusually high turbulence and consequent stress in humans are foci for atherosclerotic lesions. We show that mice that are homozygous for a null mutation in the gene encoding an endogenous antiinflammatory cytokine, interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), develop lethal arterial inflammation involving branch points and flexures of the aorta and its primary and secondary branches. We observe massive transmural infiltration of neutrophils, macrophages, and CD4(+) T cells. Animals appear to die from vessel wall collapse, stenosis, and organ infarction or from hemorrhage from ruptured aneurysms. Heterozygotes do not die from arteritis within a year of birth but do develop small lesions, which suggests that a reduced level of IL-1ra is insufficient to fully control inflammation in arteries. Our results demonstrate a surprisingly specific role for IL-1ra in the control of spontaneous inflammation in constitutively stressed artery walls, suggesting that expression of IL-1 is likely to have a significant role in signaling artery wall damage.  (+info)

Neointima formation in a restenosis model is suppressed in midkine-deficient mice. (8/236)

Neointima formation is a common feature of atherosclerosis and restenosis after balloon angioplasty. To find a new target to suppress neointima formation, we investigated the possible role of midkine (MK), a heparin-binding growth factor with neurotrophic and chemotactic activities, in neointima formation. MK expression increased during neointima formation caused by intraluminal balloon injury of the rat carotid artery. Neointima formation in a restenosis model was strongly suppressed in MK-deficient mice. Continuous administration of MK protein to MK-deficient mice restored neointima formation. Leukocyte recruitment to the vascular walls after injury was markedly decreased in MK-deficient mice. Soluble MK as well as that bound to the substratum induced migration of macrophages in vitro. These results indicate that MK plays a critical role in neointima formation at least in part owing to its ability to mediate leukocyte recruitment.  (+info)

*Arteritis

This type of arteritis is most common in females, with a median age of 25 years. Takayasu arteritis is more common in women of ... Arteritis may be primary or secondary to some other disease process. The primary types are: An example of a secondary arteritis ... Arteritis is the inflammation of the walls of arteries, usually as a result of infection or autoimmune response. Arteritis, a ... A complication of arteritis is thrombosis, which can be fatal. Arteritis and phlebitis are forms of vasculitis. Symptoms of ...

*Takayasu's arteritis

For example, Takaysu's arteritis has an age of onset of 60 years. Takayasu arteritis is not associated with ANCA, rheumatoid ... Takayasu's arteritis is similar to other forms of vasculitis, including giant cell arteritis which typically affects older ... Johns Hopkins Vasculitis Center Discusses Takayasu's Arteritis "Takayasu Arteritis or Pulseless Disease - Vasculitis UK". www. ... FDG PET can help in diagnosis of active inflammation not just in patients with active Takayasu arteritis prior to treatment but ...

*Giant-cell arteritis

... is also known as "cranial arteritis" and "Horton's disease." The name (giant-cell arteritis) reflects the ... Giant-cell arteritis (GCA), also called temporal arteritis, is an inflammatory disease of blood vessels. Symptoms may include ... The terms "giant-cell arteritis" and "temporal arteritis" are sometimes used interchangeably, because of the frequent ... Giant-cell arteritis may present with atypical or overlapping features. Early and accurate diagnosis is important to prevent ...

*Equine arteritis virus leader TRS hairpin (LTH)

The equine arteritis virus leader transcription-regulating sequence hairpin (LTH) is as RNA element that is thought to be a key ... Page for Equine arteritis virus leader TRS hairpin (LTH) at Rfam. ... proximal region of the equine arteritis virus RNA genome". RNA. 10 (3): 424-437. doi:10.1261/rna.5174804. PMC 1370938 . PMID ...

*Amaurosis fugax

Giant cell arteritis: Giant cell arteritis can result in granulomatous inflammation within the central retinal artery and ... Commonly, amaurosis fugax caused by giant cell arteritis may be associated with jaw claudication and headache. However, it is ... Restated, "because of the brief interval between the transient event and a stroke or blindness from temporal arteritis, the ... Hayreh SS, Podhajsky PA, Zimmerman B (April 1998). "Occult giant cell arteritis: ocular manifestations". Am. J. Ophthalmol. 125 ...

*Necrotizing vasculitis

Giant-cell arteritis and Takayasu's arteritis have much in common, but usually affect patients of different ages, with ... However, in Takayasu's arteritis, where the aorta may be involved, it is unlikely a biopsy will be successful and angiography ... Takayasu arteritis. Primarily affects the aorta and its main branches. At least 3 out of 6 criteria yields sensitivity and ... Takayasu's arteritis affecting younger people, and giant-cell arteritis having a later age of onset. Aortitis can also be ...

*Penicillamine

Jaffe, I. A. (1964). "Rheumatoid Arthritis with Arteritis; Report of a Case Treated with Penicillamine". Annals of Internal ...

*Aleutian disease

3. Immune complex arteritis". Am J Pathol. 71: 331-344. Jepsen, Jørgen R.; d'Amore, Francesco; Baandrup, Ulrik; Clausen, ...

*Polymyalgia rheumatica

Shiel Jr WC (2008-03-13). "Polymyalgia Rheumatica (PMR) & Giant Cell Arteritis (Temporal Arteritis)". MedicineNet. Retrieved ... of people with temporal arteritis have polymyalgia rheumatica. Some symptoms of temporal arteritis include headaches, scalp ... Polymyalgia rheumatica is often seen in association with temporal arteritis. It is thought to be brought on by a viral or ... People who have polymyalgia rheumatica may also have temporal arteritis, an inflammation of blood vessels in the face which can ...

*Posterior ischemic optic neuropathy

A-PION is caused by an inflammatory disease called giant cell arteritis (GCA). GCA is an inflammatory disease of blood vessels ... To prevent impending blindness, it is urgent to rule out giant cell arteritis when a patient over 50 presents with sudden ... Delecoeuillerie G, Joly P, Cohen de Lara A, Paolaggi JB (September 1988). "Polymyalgia rheumatica and temporal arteritis: a ... 1987). "Polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis: a 5-year epidemiologic and clinical study in Reggio Emilia, Italy". ...

*Vasa vasorum

T cells found near vasa vasorum are implicated in pathogenic process of giant cell arteritis. Inflammation and subsequent ... ISBN 978-0-19-263263-0. Weyand, CM; Goronzy, JJ (Aug 31, 2000). "Pathogenic principles in giant cell arteritis". International ...

*Vasculitis

The major types are given in the table below: Takayasu's arteritis, polyarteritis nodosa and giant cell arteritis mainly ... Takayasu's arteritis, Temporal arteritis Medium vessel: Buerger's disease, Kawasaki disease, Polyarteritis nodosa Small vessel ... Apart from the arteritis/phlebitis distinction mentioned above, vasculitis is often classified by the caliber of the vessel ... Although both occur in vasculitis, inflammation of veins (phlebitis) or arteries (arteritis) are their own are separate ...

*Neuromuscular disease

"Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Giant Cell Arteritis". www.niams.nih.gov. Retrieved 2016-04-24. "Polymyositis: Background, Etiology ... it is associated with giant-cell arteritis(It often responds to prednisolone). Polymyositis is an autoimmune condition in which ...

*Halo sign

The halo sign of temporal arteritis should not be confused with Deuel's halo sign, which is a sign of fetal death. The halo ... The standard diagnostic test for temporal arteritis is biopsy; however, ultrasound and MRI show promise for replacing it. ... Bley TA, Brink I, Reinhard M (April 2006). "[Imaging procedures for giant cell arteritis (Horton's disease)]". Ophthalmologe ( ... "Color duplex ultrasonography in the diagnosis of temporal arteritis". N Engl J Med. 337 (19): 1336-42. doi:10.1056/ ...

*Ocular ischemic syndrome

Other causes include: Takayasu's arteritis Giant cell arteritis Severe ophthalmic artery occlusion, due to thromboembolism. ... Hamed LM, Guy JR, Moster ML, Bosley T (June 1992). "Giant cell arteritis in the ocular ischemic syndrome". American Journal of ... An ESR should be drawn to detect possible giant cell arteritis. Improvement can be determined by visual acuity, visual field ... for possible arteritis). Additional measures include paracentesis of aqueous humor to decrease IOP acutely. ...

*Skip lesion

Rarely, it is a characteristic of temporal arteritis. "The importance of skip lesions in temporal arteritis". Journal of ...

*Fibrin ring granuloma

"Hepatic fibrin-ring granulomas in giant cell arteritis". Gastroenterology. 105 (1): 272-3. PMID 8514044. ...

*HLA-DQ1

Dong RP, Kimura A, Numano F, Nishimura Y, Sasazuki T (1992). "HLA-linked susceptibility and resistance to Takayasu arteritis". ... linked to Takayasu arteritis in Japanese. Another haplotype, DR8-DQ1 which contains this haplotype may be associated with ...

*Trismus

Giant cell arteritis Illegal Stimulant drugs, such as MDMA. Infection Local anesthesia (dental injections into the ...

*HLA-B39

Takayasu's arteritis appears to have a link to B39. The association with B*3902 increases risk of pulmonary infarction, ... Yoshida M, Kimura A, Katsuragi K, Numano F, Sasazuki T (August 1993). "DNA typing of HLA-B gene in Takayasu's arteritis". ... October 1998). "Intron 2 and exon 3 sequences may be involved in the susceptibility to develop Takayasu arteritis". Int. J. ... B39 is suggested as a factor in Takayasu's arteritis and gallstones in Mexico. Osteoarticular complications of brucellosis ...

*Fibromuscular dysplasia

It most often presents with ischemic symptoms, and frequently mistaken for Takayasu arteritis. (previously known as intimal) ... 15 (6). Tullus K (2013). "Renovascular hypertension-is it fibromuscular dysplasia or Takayasu arteritis". Pediatric Nephrology ... and Takayasu's arteritis. Poloskey, S.; Olin, J.; Mace, P. & Gronik, H. (2012). "Fibromuscular dysplasia". Circulation. ...

*HLA-B52

This form of disease is frequently found with Takayasu's arteritis. Takayasu's arteritis appears to have an independent link to ... Yoshida M, Kimura A, Katsuragi K, Numano F, Sasazuki T (August 1993). "DNA typing of HLA-B gene in Takayasu's arteritis". ... "Comprehensive analysis of HLA genes in Takayasu arteritis in Japan". Int. J. Cardiol. 54 Suppl: S61-9. doi:10.1016/s0167-5273( ... "Association of clinical manifestations with HLA-B alleles in Takayasu arteritis". Int. J. Cardiol. 66 Suppl 1: S121-6. doi: ...

*Florencio (horse)

In 2005, Florencio came back EVA (Equine Viral Arteritis) positive. The sexually transmitted disease can cause abortion in ...

*Sohan Hayreh

Hayreh, SS; Podhajsky, PA; Raman, R; Zimmerman, B (1997). "Giant cell arteritis: Validity and reliability of various diagnostic ...

*Pythiosis

In humans, it can cause arteritis, keratitis, and periorbital cellulitis. This has previously been thought to be a rare disease ...
We tested the hypothesis that regular aerobic exercise reverses arterial inflammation with aging. Compared with young controls (6.3 ± 0.4 mo, n=7), old (31.3 ± 0.5 mo, n=11), male B6D2F1 cage-restricted mice demonstrated increased arterial activation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor, nuclear factor κB (NFκB), as indicated by greater aortic phosphorylation of both the inhibitor of NFκB kinase (IKK) and the p65 subunit of NFκB (both P,0.05). Similarly, aortic expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 and -6, interferon γ and tumor necrosis factor α were greater in the old mice (all P,0.05). Macrophage and T lymphocyte abundance was unchanged with age in the aortic intima and media, but was markedly increased in the adventitia and perivascular fat tissue of old mice (all P,0.05). This pro-inflammatory arterial phenotype with aging was associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction, as reflected by impaired nitric oxide-mediated endothelium-dependent dilation ...
The nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway is involved in arterial inflammation. Although the signaling pathways that regulate transcriptional activation of NF-κB are defined, the mechanisms that regulate the expression levels of NF-κB transcription factors are uncertain.We studied the signaling mechanisms that regulate RelA NF-κB subunit expression in endothelial cells (ECs) and their role in arterial inflammation.Gene silencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that RelA expression was positively regulated by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and the downstream transcription factor ATF2 in ECs. We concluded that this pathway promotes focal arterial inflammation as genetic deletion of JNK1 reduced NF-κB expression and macrophage accumulation at an atherosusceptible site. We hypothesized that JNK signaling to NF-κB may be controlled by mechanical forces because atherosusceptibility is associated with exposure to disturbed blood flow. This was assessed by positron emission tomography imaging of
Despite advances in treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) over the past several decades, its burden remains high (1). Appropriately, contemporary investigations have focused on the identification of patients at greatest risk for CVD. Although the central role of inflammation within the atherosclerotic plaque in the pathogenesis of CVD events has been recognized (2), serologic biomarkers such as C-reactive protein have not necessarily improved CVD risk prediction (3). Alternatively, noninvasive imaging may provide direct characterization and quantitation of inflammation within the atherosclerotic plaque, suggesting a role for an imaging biomarker to improve CVD risk prediction incrementally over standard risk factors.. To this end, the investigation by Figueroa et al. (4) in this issue of iJACC delivers great promise of the power of positron emission tomography (PET) to identify vascular inflammation. In this study of patients referred for evaluation of suspected malignancy, the investigators ...
Severity of biopsy-confirmed acute rejection by Banff 97 Criteria (updated 2007) at 1 year. The acute form of T-cell mediated rejection is furthermore subclassified as follows. Since this is the most common form of rejection, it is useful to know:. As with humoral rejection, there are both acute & chronic forms:. The acute form of T-cell mediated rejection is furthermore subclassified as follows. Since this is the most common form of rejection, it is useful to know:. Class IA: there is at least 25% of parenchymal showing interstitial infiltration and foci of moderate tubulitis (defined as a certain number of immune cells present in tubular cross-sections).. Class IB: just like Class IA except there is more severe tubulitis.. Class IIA: there is mild-to-moderate intimal arteritis.. Class IIB: there is severe intimal arteritis comprising at least 25% of the lumenal area.. Class III: there is transmural (e.g. the full vessel wall thickness) arteritis. ...
We conducted an experimental study to assess the effect of a novel anti-inflammatory agent on vascular inflammation, over 3 months, in stable atherosclerotic patients receiving statin therapy. Despite a negative primary endpoint, we demonstrated that losmapimod reduced arterial inflammation, as measured by FDG-PET/CT imaging in the most active discrete segments (pre-defined as a TBR of ≥1.6) of selected arteries, suggesting influence predominantly in the most inflamed areas. Complementing this finding, there was a shift in the distribution of active segments using our frequency analysis. The modest vascular effects were accompanied by significant reductions in circulating inflammatory biomarkers, in line with previous results using this compound (8), and in visceral fat FDG uptake.. A linear correlation in a previous small study between TBR vessel average (which ranged from approximately 1.0 to 4.0) and the tissue level of macrophage marker CD68 (11) drove the decision on our primary endpoint. ...
The present study provides evidence for the first time that circulating levels of the metalloproteinase PAPP-A are associated not only with the echogenicity of atherosclerotic carotid lesions but also with an enhanced inflammatory state in asymptomatic hyperlipidemic subjects.. The progression of atheromatous plaques involves major changes in the structure of the arterial wall. The occurrence of a local inflammatory state is well established, as revealed by inflammatory markers such as CRP.3 MMPs are also potential indicators of arterial inflammation, and by degrading extracellular matrix, they contribute to the fragility of the lipid-rich, atherosclerotic plaque and finally to its rupture. As previously described for several other metalloproteinases (MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-12, or MMP-13),10,11⇓ PAPP-A was recently found to be abundantly expressed in both eroded and ruptured plaques but in contrast, is only moderately expressed in stable plaques.9 Our results are consistent with this observation, ...
We report the effect of kinin agonist and antagonist peptides on experimental aortic aneurysm. In vivo and in vitro data are presented to support a contributing role for B2R signaling in aortic wall weakening.. Medical treatment for aortic aneurysm aims to limit the main complication of aneurysm rupture. Aneurysm diameter is an important clinical indicator of rupture risk for AAA and is routinely used in the selection of patients for surgical intervention.25 We used the AngII-infused ApoE−/− mouse model of aortic aneurysm in which arterial inflammation and breaks in medial elastic lamellae lead to acute aortic rupture in ≈30% of mice.26 This model allowed the assessment of both survival free from aortic rupture and maximum aortic diameter. The main findings of this study were that administration of a B2R agonist enhanced the response to AngII and increased aortic rupture in our mouse model, whereas a B2R antagonist reduced aortic dilatation and rupture.. The findings of our study align ...
Statins reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) through inhibition of β-Hydroxy β-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA (HMG CoA)reductase and have been proven in landmark clinical trials to dramatically reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events in a range of individuals,22 with greater benefit seen for intensive versus moderate or low-dose therapy in patients with stable angina or previous MI.23 24 In fact, patients treated with statins who achieve LDL-c lowering of 2-3 mmol/L are expected to have a 40%-50% reduction in cardiovascular risk regardless of their baseline lipid profile.25 While the clinical benefits of statins have long been proven, contemporary imaging studies have nonetheless contributed important mechanistic insights revealing the multiple effects of statins on the arterial wall and atherosclerotic plaques. Collectively, these studies have demonstrated that treatment with statins can result in reduction of arterial inflammation, IMT, plaque volume and lipid content of the ...
If you have been visiting Health Impact News, you may have noticed the notion that arterial inflammation is whats behind heart disease, not cholesterol from saturated fats. A clinical human trial recently published in The New England Journal of Medicine in August of 2017 may tip a few more in the medical field into accepting the current awareness that inflammatory damage is a major cause of heart and cardiovascular disease, and cholesterol is trying to patch up the damage before the vessel begins to leak or rupture. Cholesterol is actually a vitally useful "waxy" compound for many parts of our bodies, especially the brain. Lowering cholesterol is misguided, and usually causes terrible side effects. Upon releasing the study and after its publication, the lead researcher Dr. Paul Ridker, MD, asserted: "These findings represent the end game of more than two decades of research, stemming from a critical observation: Half of heart attacks occur in people who do not have high cholesterol. For the ...
They also eat more saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium than recommended, he said.. What a load of misinformation. Litle wonder the public is in such poor health. (And, the recommended nutrient requirements are NOT for designed robust health, but are only assumed amounts that will prevent a defciency disease, on an average person)!. The 3 main causes of arterial calcification are:. 1. Inflammation in the arteries. This is caused by insuffcient anti-oxidants in the diet from food, or from supplements. It IS this inflammation that causes calcification. LDL,. the bad cholesterol, (Low Density Lipo-Protein), is merely the marker for the amount of ongoing inflammation. 2 egg yolks daily, (preferrably eaten raw, the shells well washed first, the whites cooked), contain sufficient anti-oxidants such as vitamins, selenium, the amino acids l-cysteine, l-tyrosene etc. to prevent arterial inflammation, thus.. normalising LDL and.. stopping calcification. Statin drugs artificially change the LDL marker ...
Obesity is strongly associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Data increasingly suggest that visceral adipose tissue (VAT) accumulation -- or increased abdominal fat -- is particularly deleterious to cardiovascular health, but further study is needed to test this idea. Increased abdominal fat may also be associated with lower secretion of a hormone called growth hormone (GH), which helps the body burn fat. The current study aims to carefully characterize relationships between abdominal fat and CVD. In addition, by using a medication called growth hormone releasing hormone, which is a strategy to reduce abdominal fat, the investigators will test the hypothesis that abdominal fat contributes uniquely to increased arterial inflammation.. In the first part of this study, the investigators will investigate both lean (healthy weight) individuals and individuals with increased abdominal fat. The investigators will study their body composition, cardiovascular risk measures, insulin ...
Cholesterol, Dunn asserts, is not the main culprit for heart disease. So what is? According to Dunn, its inflammation, and the following methods - in addition to regular exercise - can reduce your risk for arterial inflammation, and as a side benefit, can increase HDL levels, or whats commonly called in the mainstream medical realm as good cholesterol ...
Prednisone, an anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive medication similar to cortisone, is the usual treatment of choice. Patients tend to show rapid improvement in just a few days, but even so, relapses often occur when the medication is discontinued. Continuing treatment for a longer period of time, like six months, will sometimes result in permanent resolution. At the outset of therapy, steroid treatment should be administered at a level that will produce a remission of the symptoms, and then your veterinarian can recommend a regimen of oral therapy. Over the course of treatment, the amount will be reduced slowly to the lowest possible dose needed to control symptoms. If symptoms return, steroid treatment will need to begin again.. ...
Free, official coding info for 2018 ICD-10-CM I67.7 - includes detailed rules, notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index and annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
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We have got a strong paper example, on the subject of central nervous system, written from scratch. Use the following sample to write a good essay.
To the Editor:. Previous reports have demonstrated that lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), an enzymatic inflammatory biomarker, is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events (1). Lp-PLA2 mediates formation of bioactive mediators (lysophosphatidyl choline and oxidized nonesterified fatty acids) known to elicit several deleterious inflammatory responses involved in the pathobiology of atherosclerosis. Lysophosphatidyl choline serves as a potent chemoattractant for monocytes, resulting in foam cell accumulation within the arterial wall. Additionally, Lp-PLA2 has been detected in rupture-prone and ruptured atherosclerotic plaques. Taken together, the data suggests that inhibition of Lp-PLA2 may attenuate intimal macrophage accumulation and consequently stabilize atherosclerotic plaque.. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is a validated imaging technique widely used to quantify vascular inflammation within atheroma. In vivo ...
Fleuret C, Kupfer-Bessaguet I, Prigent S, Hutin P, Staroz F, Plantin P. Source Service de dermatologie, CHIC de Cornouaille, 29000 Quimper, France. [email protected] Abstract INTRODUCTION: Periarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a form of vasculitis affecting the small and medium-sized arteries. Below, we report a case of cutaneous PAN relapsing in streptococcal infections over a period of 30 years and progressing towards systemic vasculitis. CASE REPORT: A 35-year-old man was hospitalised for a retro-pharyngeal access associated with fever, arthralgia, myalgia and inflammatory subcutaneous nodules. Peripheral neurological signs were also seen with deficiency of the elevator muscles in the right foot. Examination of a biopsy from a nodule showed a characteristic image of PAN. Following drainage of the abscess, a favourable outcome was obtained with antibiotics and systemic corticosteroids. History taking showed that the patient had presented similar episodes since the age of 5 years involving ...
Background: Adenomyosis is a gynecological disorder with symptoms most presenting as dysmenorrhea and heavy menstrual bleeding. However, the presence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) among women with adenomyosis remains unclear. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of LUTS and factors related to the severity of these symptoms in this population. Methods: From July 2016 to November 2016, a total of 298 untreated symptomatic adenomyosis patients and 280 age-matched controls were enrolled. Demographics, LUTS, pain symptoms, ultrasonographic uterine size, and serum CA125 level were recorded. LUTS were evaluated using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire. Factors related to the severity of LUTS were detected using the logistic regression analysis presented as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: Compared with the control group, patients with adenomyosis had a greater IPSS total (4 [2-8] vs. 2 [0-3], Z = -8.159, P < 0.001), IPSS ...
Symptoms of Arteritis including 5 medical symptoms and signs of Arteritis, alternative diagnoses, misdiagnosis, and correct diagnosis for Arteritis signs or Arteritis symptoms.
A 20 year old girl had uncontrolled hypertension and absent lower limb pulses. Transoesophageal echocardiography was done. Cross section of the descending aorta at T8 and T9 vertebral level showed an irregular shaped lumen (below left, panel A, arrows; AO, aorta). There was intimal thickening. Long axis imaging showed long segment tight stenosis with the typical rat tail deformity (panel B, arrows) of the lumen. The narrowest diameter was 2 mm while the normal segment above was 11 mm. Non-specific aortoarteritis was diagnosed. Descending aortic injection confirmed the above findings (below right). There was irregular luminal narrowing with rat tail deformity.. ...
Numbness of the limbs, with or Hypercholesterolemia, High blood cholesterol, Bad cholesterol, CholesterolaemiaCirrhosis of liver, Hepatic cirrhosis, Liver cirrhosis, Cirrhosis of the liverDryness of the tongue, Tonge dryness, , Contusion, Ecchymosis, Bruise, Inflammation of an artery, Artery inflammation, Inflammation of arteries, numbness of the limbs, with or
People usually arent born with aneurysms. Most develop after age 40. Aneurysms usually develop at branching points of arteries and are caused by constant pressure from blood flow. They often enlarge slowly and become weaker as they grow, just as a balloon becomes weaker as it stretches. Aneurysms may be associated with other types of blood vessel disorders, such as fibromuscular dysplasia, cerebral arteritis or arterial dissection, but these are very unusual. They may run in families, but people are rarely born with a predisposition for aneurysms. Some aneurysms are due to infections, drugs such as amphetamines and cocaine that damage the brains blood vessels, or direct brain trauma from an accident. ...
Learn more about Arteritis Temporal at Portsmouth Regional Hospital DefiniciónCausasFactores de riesgoSíntomasDiagnósticoTratamientoPrevenció...
The present invention is directed to methods and apparatus for cutting filaments percutaneously. The methods and systems may be used in conjunction with sealing a puncture percutaneously in tissue separating two internal portions of the body of a living being with an anchor, a sealing plug and a filament connecting the anchor and sealing plug. The present invention provides for safe filament cutting below the skin and may reduce the risk of cutting the filament distal of any knots.
The running percutaneous suturing technique is a nice technique to help you speed up lengthy wound closures. Simple interrupted suturing is still a preferred technique when you want the most meticulous repair, but when dealing with less cosmetic areas, I like this technique as it is involves less knot tying and gets the job done…
methylprednisolonum, tableta, ATC H02AB04, SmPC (Sažetak opisa svojstava lijeka) Terapijske indikacije: Medrol tablete su indicirane u stanjima koja zahtijevaju terapiju glukokortikoidima kao što su: Endokrini poremećaji: primarna i sekundarna adrenalna insuficijencija kongenitalna adrenalna hiperplazija Reumatske bolesti: reumatoidni artritis juvenilni kronični artritis ankilozantni spondilitis Kolagene bolesti / arteritis: sistemski lupus eritematozus H A L M E D sistemski dermatomiozitis (...
Movie 3 Movie 4. Conclusion:This case demonstrates the range of cardiac involvement in Churg-Strauss syndrome is beyond that of cardiac hypereosinophilia characterised by myocarditis, endomyocardial fibrosis, intracardiac thrombus and heart failure. Coronary arteritis and acute infarction is increasingly reported in these patients1,2. Churg-Strauss syndrome is primarily characterised by vasculitis affecting both small and medium-sized blood vessels. Cardiac findings are present in about 50% of cases and are responsible for almost half of all deaths3. Cardiac involvement is reported to be more frequent in the ANCA- negative phenotype4. It has also been shown that the cardiac involvement is common even when their vasculitis is in clinical remission as was seen in this highlighted case5. CMR scanning this patient helped differentiate eosinophilic myocarditis from myocardial infarction by using tissue characterisation and the coronary pattern of late enhancement. The patients therapy was changed to ...
Irreversible Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Complicating Interferon Alpha and Ribaverin Therapy. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis that typically affects medium-sized muscular arteries, with occasional involvement of small muscular arteries. Unlike some other vasculitides (eg, microscopic polyarteritis, granulomatos
Disappointment in the long-term treatment of rheumatic diseases with cortisone and allied steroids has stimulated a search for newer compounds. Two of these compounds are metacortandracin and metacortandralone, which were recently reported as being of value in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis by Bunim et al.1 They recently made preliminary observations on the antirheumatic and anti-inflammatory potency of these synthetic steroids. The structural formula of metacortandracin and metacortandralone and their close relationship to cortisone and hydrocortisone are noted in the figures below. Studies2 indicated that these compounds possessed three times the activity of cortisone and twice the activity of hydrocortisone, ...
Introduction: Takayasus arteritis (TA) is a rare systemic, chronic inflam-matory, progressive, idiopathic disease of aorta and its main branches. Taka-yasus arteritis causes narrowing, occlusion and aneurysm of arteries. The eti-ology of TA is still unknown. It may be autoimmune or genetic in origin or infective diseases. It is commonly found in Asia and oriental countries. Worldwide annual incidence is 1.2 - 2.6 cases/million. Women are affected in 80% - 90% of cases with age of onset below 40 years. TA does not worsen or improve with pregnancy but has adverse effect on pregnancy in the form of abortion, Intrauterine fetal death, superimposed preeclampsia, Intrauterine growth restriction, abruption and congestive heart failure. Because the disease is common in women of childbearing age, management of pregnancy in these patients becomes important; however optimal management for pregnant pa-tients with this disease has not yet been established. Due to the manifold car-diovascular complications that can
BACKGROUND: The present paper reports the preliminary experience with surgical treatment of 49 cases of cerebral ischaemia caused by cervical arterial lesions due to Takayasus arteritis (TA). METHODS: Six men and 43 women were treated between June 1
Polyarteritis nodosa in a kidney. Section through a kidney, showing a blood vessel affected by polyarteritis nodosa (PAN). PAN is an uncommon condition that causes vasculitis (blood vessel swelling) of medium & small-sized arteries, which become swollen and damaged from attack by rogue immune cells. The cause of PAN is not well understood but may be associated with hepatitis B virus. - Stock Image C023/5612
Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a rare immune system disorder that causes swelling and damage to small- and medium-sized blood vessels in the body. In order to properly treat this disease, it is critical that the level of disease activity can be determined over the course of the disease. The purpose of this study is to determine new biological markers, or biomarkers, that may be used to assess the severity of disease in people with PAN.. ...
... , also known as PAN, is a rare disorder described in the database for rare diseases of the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare.
Learn more about Polyarteritis Nodosa at Palms West Hospital DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Learn more about Polyarteritis Nodosa at Portsmouth Regional Hospital DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Learn more about Polyarteritis Nodosa at Doctors Hospital of Augusta DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Learn more about Polyarteritis Nodosa at Reston Hospital Center DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
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Full Papers; Authors: C. Arslan>, C. Tel>, B. Arapi>, S. Esatoglu>, K. Besirli>, A. Bozkurt>, V. Hamuryudan>, H. Tuzun>, E. Seyahi>
By application of new effective therapy for patients with anterior ischemic optic neuropathy a stabile improvement of eyesight is expected
Free, official coding info for 2018 ICD-10-CM I77.6 - includes detailed rules, notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index and annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
Ive pretty much managed my own PMR and GCA in the last 3 years. Im on 10mgs Pred and can just function at this dose with plenty of little niggles to remind me I have an active arteritis in the...
Giant Cell Arteritis - MedHelps Giant Cell Arteritis Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for Giant Cell Arteritis. Find Giant Cell Arteritis information, treatments for Giant Cell Arteritis and Giant Cell Arteritis symptoms.
Synonyms for giant cell arteritis in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for giant cell arteritis. 1 word related to temporal arteritis: arteritis. What are synonyms for giant cell arteritis?
On average it takes 44 months from onset of symptoms to diagnose Takayasu arteritis. Because of its rarity and the often subtle physical findings, Takayasu arteritis frequently fails to enter the differential diagnosis for patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO). Thus it is critical to consider Takayasu arteritis in patients under 40 with FUO, aortic regurgitation, hypertension, or absent pulses. Rarely, patients older than 40 years of age meet the criteria for Takayasu arteritis because of a prolonged pre-diagnostic period or late onset of symptoms. In this case, giant cell arteritis may be indistinguishable from Takayasu arteritis; however, initial treatment for both is nearly identical ...
Synonym: temporal arteritis, cranial arteritis Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a systemic immune-mediated vasculitis affecting medium-sized and large-sized...
The symptomology of Giant Cell Arteritis is primarily a result of stenosis or obliteration of the involved vessels and thus downstream hypoperfusion. In addition, patients frequently display constitutional symptoms. Headache is usually a prominent feature especially due to involvement of the temporal artery which can display tenderness and nodularity. A feared complication is visual impairment or blindness which can occur due to involvement of the opthalmic artery. Roughly half of patients with Giant Cell Arteritis display polymyalgia rheumatica, a potentially related disease characterized by muscular neck pain, back pain, and pain in the shoulders and hips ...
Performing a temporal artery biopsy is still the easiest way to diagnose giant cell arteritis. However, this biopsy is not always positive, even not in patients with prominent cranial symptoms. In these cases, positron emission tomography with 18-fluorodeoxyglucose as a tracer is a valid alternative. This nuclear technique has demonstrated that involvement of large arteries such as the aorta or the subclavian arteries occurs in 50 to 80% of patients. Ultrasonographic examination of an inflamed temporal artery can demonstrate a halo, corresponding to edema of the intimal layer of the artery. Only in very experienced hands, this non-invasive technique can replace a surgical biopsy. Magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomographic scanning are not used in the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis, but these techniques can visualize the extent of the disease, e.g. to the aorta with possible aortitis or to a partical artery ...
Definition of Giant cell arteritis with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
... (GCA) - also known as temporal arteritis - is a condition where your medium and large sized blood vessels become inflamed, most commonly the vessels in your temples. This is one of the most common forms of vasculitis (inflammation of blood vessels), affecting one or two people out of 10,000 in the UK. It is very rare to diagnose this condition in people under the age of 50.. The symptoms of GCA include fatigue, loss of appetite, weight loss, fever and headache. This is often accompanied by tenderness over the temples, due to inflammation of the underlying blood vessels. GCA is related to polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) - a condition which causes weakness, pain and stiffness in the muscles and joints, typically affecting the upper arms and legs.. Other effects of GCA include jaw or tongue pain when eating, and blurred vision. It is important to remember that any sudden change in vision should be assessed urgently by a medical practitioner.. ...
Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a condition which causes inflammation on the inside of some blood vessels (arteries). It is called giant cell because abnormal large cells develop in the wall of the inflamed arteries. The arteries commonly affected are those around the head and neck area. One of the arteries that is commonly affected is the temporal artery. (You have a temporal artery on each side of the head. They are under the skin to the sides of the forehead - the temple area.) Therefore, the condition is sometimes called temporal arteritis. Several arteries may be affected at the same time.. GCA is uncommon and mainly affects people over the age of 60 years. It rarely affects people aged under 50 years. Women are more commonly affected than men. The cause is not known.. ...
Temporal arteritis, light micrograph of a section of an affected vessel. Temporal arteritis (Hortons disease) is a condition in which medium and large arteries, usually in the head and neck, become inflammed. The condition is one of the most common types of vasculitis, which is the general term for the inflammation of arteries and veins. The most serious complication of temporal ateritis is permanent blindness, though this can be prevented by prompt treatment with corticosteroids. The cause of the condition is unknown. It is believed to be due in part to a faulty immune response. The disorder has been linked to severe infections and the use of high doses of antibiotics. Inflammatory cell infiltrate includes macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells and often giant cells. The lumen is severely narrowed. Magnification: x 80 when printed at 10 centimetres wide. Human tissue. - Stock Image C021/0331
Question - Blood work and CT scan done. Pain in neck, shoulders and arms. Will temporal arteritis lead to blindness?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Temporal arteritis, Ask a Radiologist
Building an illness script for temporal arteritis with key comparisons to diagnoses on your differential! Please like and subscribe if you like this video as I plan to regularly upload more ...
Temporal arteritis is a disorder in which giant cell arteritis or temporal arteries which is the blood supplier for the brain and head, becomes damaged or inflamed.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Renal manifestations in toddlers with Takayasus arteritis and malignant hypertension. AU - Hijazi, Rana. AU - Chandar, Jayanthi. AU - Nwobi, Obioma. AU - Muneeruddin, Samina. AU - Zilleruelo, Gastón. AU - Abitbol, Carolyn L.. PY - 2009/1/1. Y1 - 2009/1/1. N2 - Three children under the age of 3 years presented with malignant hypertension, proteinuria, and acute kidney injury. Takayasus arteritis was diagnosed on the basis of clinical symptoms of weight loss and low grade fever in conjunction with elevated sedimentation rate and radiographic evidence of aortic and renal artery stenosis. One patient had a renal biopsy which showed arteriolar sclerosis and focal glomerulosclerosis. All three patients required multiple antihypertensive agents, ultimately including angiotensin receptor blockers and/or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. The vasculitis was treated with pulse corticosteroids followed by cyclophosphamide in one patient and mycophenolate mofetil as maintenance ...
Polyarteritis nodosa is a type of vasculitis that affects small to medium arteries and leads to significant narrowing of the vasculature. Patients with polyarteritis nodosa can have symptoms like bloody diarrhea, skin lesions, and impaired motor function caused by neuropathy. Learn how health care professionals diagnose and treat polyarteritis nodosa by examining arteriograms and prescribing steroids.
Treatment for giant cell arteritis consists of high doses of a corticosteroid drug such as prednisone. Because immediate treatment is necessary to prevent vision loss, your doctor is likely to start medication even before confirming the diagnosis with a biopsy.. Youll likely begin to feel better within just a few days of beginning treatment. Unless you have complete vision loss, your visual symptoms will likely clear up within three months.. You may need to continue taking medication for one to two years or longer. After the first month, your doctor may gradually begin to lower the dosage until you reach the lowest dose of corticosteroids needed to control inflammation.. Some symptoms, particularly headache, may return during this tapering period. This is also the point at which many people also develop symptoms of polymyalgia rheumatica. Such flares can usually be treated with slight increases in the corticosteroid dose. Your doctor may also suggest a drug called methotrexate, which may help ...
Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a common inflammation disease of medium- to large-sized arteries. These arteries can become narrowed, restricting blood flow to affected parts of the body. Giant cells are immune cells found in high concentrations inside affected arteries.
Tabbarah, A., & Voltaggio, L. (2017). Giant Cell Arteritis of the Breast.. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, 141 (9). http://dx.doi.org/10.5858/arpa.2016-0285-RS ...
On September 24, 2017, Posted by Birgit Rogell , In Press Releases, With Kommentare deaktiviert für Roche: Roche receives European approval for Actemra /RoActemra in giant cell arteritis ...
Recent papers have stated that giant-cell arteritis occurs only in white patients (1, 2). We wish to report a case of documented giant-cell arteritis in a black patient.. A 79-year-old Mississippi-born black woman with adult-onset diabetes and mild atherosclerotic heart disease developed morning stiffness of the shoulder girdle in March 1973. She was treated with aspirin with good results. Six months later she began to experience moderately severe headaches that occurred daily over the temporal and midparietal areas and were only partially relieved by aspirin. She also complained of weakness and loss of appetite; over the next 2 months, she ...
Im writing on behalf of my mother who has temporal arteritis, she has been through a real roller coaster ride for the last year and is starting to become very depressed, so Im hoping that an expert w...
Introduction to Temporal arteritis as a medical condition including symptoms, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, treatment, prevention, and prognosis.
Compare risks and benefits of common medications used for Temporal Arteritis. Find the most popular drugs, view ratings, user reviews, and more...
Learn more about Temporal Arteritis at Doctors Hospital of Augusta DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Giant Cell Arteritis is a condition which affects the arteries. If left untreated it can cause serious sight loss.How the eye worksWe need light to see what is around us and to see colour. Light bounces off the objects we look at. These reflect different amounts of light which we see as different colours.Front of the eyeLight rays enter the front of our eye through the clear cornea and lens. It is very important that both the cornea and lens are clear as this allows the light to pass directly through the front of the eye to the retina.
Takayasus arteritis is a chronic granulomatous vasculitis of unknown cause characterized by stenosis, occlusion, and aneurysm of large elastic arteries, mainly the aorta and its branches. It mainly affects young women, predominantly in Asian, Middle Eastern, and South American countries.Clinical presentation-symptoms in the acute stage are nonspecific, such as general fatigue and fever, which can persist for months to years. Symptoms in the chronic stage depend on the anatomical location of the vascular lesions, with typical complaints relating to ischaemia of the brain, eyes, or arms. The commonest finding on physical examination is a weak or absent pulse in one or both brachial, radial, and/or ulnar arteries. Bruits can often be heard over affected arteries. Hypertension and aortic insufficiency are strongly associated with poor prognosis.Diagnosis-comprehensive angiographic imaging is required for diagnosis, evaluation of the extent of disease, and to guide therapy. American College of Rheumatology
Rag2-/- mice lack functional B and T cells. Splenocytes of MPO-/- mice immunized with purified MPO were transferred to Rag2-/- recipients and developed MPO-ANCA. 80% of Rag2-/- mice receiving 1x108 or 5x107 splenocytes from MPO-immunized mice developed a pauci-immune glomerulonephritis with increased serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), proteinuria, an active urinary sediment, and fibrinoid necrosis and crescents in their glomeruli. One third of the animals developed hemorrhagic pulmonary capillaritis, 2/16 developed necrotizing arteritis, and in one animal necrotizing granulomatous inflammation was found in the spleen. Mice receiving 1x108 splenocytes from BSA-immunized or non-immunized animals developed mild glomerular lesions with moderate glomerular hypercellularity. Purified IgG derived from mice immunized with MPO, but not from control animals immunized with BSA, induced pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis both in Rag2-/- and in wildtype B6 mice. 2/6 wildtype B6 mice ...
Temporal, or giant cell, arteritis is associated with significant morbidity, including permanent vision loss and stroke, if it is not promptly treated. González-Gay and colleagues performed a retrospective study of patients with giant cell arteritis to identify clinical features that would serve as predictors of vision loss and stroke.. A total of 239 patients were included in the study. Giant cell arteritis was confirmed by biopsy in each patient. Clinical features of the disease included thickening, swelling or tenderness of at least one temporal artery, recent onset of headache that was atypical for the patient, jaw claudication, vision changes, fever and weight loss. Cerebrovascular involvement was characterized by a transient ischemic attack or stroke. All of the patients received treatment with oral corticosteroids (prednisone at dosages ranging from 45 to 80 mg daily or the equivalent [60 mg in the majority of patients]) after the diagnosis was established.. Ocular symptoms occurred in ...
Takayasu arteritis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the aorta and its major branches. The disorder is a large vessel vasculitis of unknown origin that most often affects young women in the second and third decades of life (see the image below).
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cutaneous arteritis associated with peripheral neuropathy. T2 - Two case reports. AU - Riku, Yuichi. AU - Ikenaka, Kensuke. AU - Koike, Haruki. AU - Niimi, Yoshiki. AU - Senda, Jo. AU - Hashimoto, Rina. AU - Kawagashira, Yuichi. AU - Tomita, Minoru. AU - Iijima, Masahiro. AU - Sobue, Gen. PY - 2014/3. Y1 - 2014/3. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84896403260&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84896403260&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1111/1346-8138.12416. DO - 10.1111/1346-8138.12416. M3 - Letter. C2 - 24506150. AN - SCOPUS:84896403260. VL - 41. SP - 266. EP - 267. JO - Journal of Dermatology. JF - Journal of Dermatology. SN - 0385-2407. IS - 3. ER - ...
Although a newcomer to American medical literature, this strange vascular disease of young adult women has been recognized abroad for many years. The etiology is obscure, but the pathologic findings are fairly well documented and the clinical picture is unusually consistent. An obliterative arteritis of the branches of the aortic arch results in severe ocular and cerebral damage. The disease process is relentlessly progressive and the prognosis for sight and life is poor. The present case was treated with corticosteroids and anticoagulants with apparent benefit. This disease should be considered when cataracts are encountered in young people and when arterial pressures and pulses in the upper extremities are absent.. ...
Patient with polyarteritis nodosa may present with segmental lesion which become bifurcated. The lesions are characterized by inflammation of the subcutaneous portion of our body which later develop into bright red to bluish nodules based on the course of
... seizures abdominal pain loss of appetite fever fatigue joint aches muscle aches weight loss numbness pain High Sensitive CRP ESR - Sed Rate Hemoglobin Hematocrit Platelet Count RBC WBC Creatinine Creatine Kinase Eosinophil %
Genentech, a member of the Roche Group (SIX: RO, ROG; OTCQX: RHHBY), announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted Brea
"Arteritis" . Natural Rx: Pain Management and Alternative Medicine. Vessels is considered migraines, headaches or temporal arteritis. This is defined as pulsing, throbbing intense pain and localized to the area of inflamed blood vessels. 4. Insufficient Blood Flow
This study is the first double-blind, randomised controlled trial of anti-cytokine therapy for the treatment of patients with TAK. It was designed to investigate whether tocilizumab treatment enables GC tapering. Investigating the efficacy of therapeutic agents in TAK is challenging because no efficacy endpoint has been validated. Kerrs definition of active disease3 has been used in case reports and cohort studies,11 16 21 23 28-30 but the requirement for imaging studies such as CT, MRI and/or positron emission tomography places a greater burden on patients in terms of exposure and risk from contrast dyes, and it may not be possible to perform imaging for every suspected relapse. Therefore, this study adopted a definition of relapse that was based on the signs and symptoms of TAK without imaging evaluations.. The current study was designed to evaluate time to relapse of TAK with mandatory GC tapering. To induce remission, patients who experienced relapse received GCs at a dose at least twice ...
We believe there is a lot more to learn regarding OCT-Angiography and its images and the finding might be useful as a non-invasive investigation to diagnose cases of Giant Cell Arteritis. We found no significant difference so far as per imaging had shown, however we would keep observing as the imaging might come out with different outcome when we have a larger sample size and significant number of cases with ocular symptoms.. Back to previous ...
Changes in biomarkers after therapeutic intervention in temporal arteries cultured in Matrigel: a new model for preclinical studies in giant-cell arteritis ...
sehingga menyebabkab kematian sel-sel jantung tersebut. Beberapa hal yang menimbulkan gangguan oksigenasi tersebut diantaranya: 1. Berkurangnya suplai oksigen ke miokard. Menurunya suplai oksigen disebabkan oleh tiga factor, antara lain: a. Faktor pembuluh darah Hal ini berkaitan dengan kepatenan pembuluh darah sebagai jalan darah mencapai sel-sel jantung. Beberapa hal yang bisa mengganggu kepatenan pembuluh darah diantaranya: atherosclerosis, spasme, dan arteritis. Spasme pembuluh darah bisa juga terjadi pada orang yang tidak memiliki riwayat penyakit jantung sebelumnya, dan biasanya dihubungkan dengan beberapa hal antara lain: (a) mengkonsumsi obat-obatan tertentu; (b) stress emosional atau nyeri; (c) terpapar suhu dingin yang ekstrim, (d) merokok. b. Faktor Sirkulasi Sirkulasi berkaitan dengan kelancaran peredaran darah dari jantung keseluruh tubuh sampai kembali lagi ke jantung. Sehingga hal ini tidak akan lepas dari factor pemompaan dan volume darah yang dipompakan. Kondisi yang menyebabkan ...
Partially I have overcome my ischemic optic neuropathy, because therapeutic electrical stimulation by Dr Anton Fedorov has made my Life much easier
MANAGING SUSPECTED TEMPORAL ARTERITIS WITHOUT A TEMPORAL ARTERY BIOPSY Keith Ong, Ophthalmologist, University of Sydney, RNSH, Ryde Hospital, Dalcross Adventist Hospital. Lawrence Tsng Chze Ong, Immunology Registrar, Westmead Hospital. Lillian Beatrice Ong, JMO, Prince of Wales Hospital. We would like to report 2 cases of suspected temporal arteritis which were managed without routine temporal artery biopsy.. The gold standard diagnostic test for temporal arteritis, the temporal artery biopsy (TAB), is highly specific for a diagnosis of temporal arteritis, but is only positive in up to 82% of temporal arteritis cases (with sensitivities reported as low as 20%). This figure has been shown to decrease even further (12%) following corticosteroid therapy.. Although it is a relatively minor procedure, the risks of TAB are not trivial and include facial nerve injury, infection, haemorrhage, incisional alopecia, scar widening and foreign body reaction to entrapped hairs. Furthermore, the need for ...
Vasculitic lesions in giant cell arteritis samples were characterized by in situ production of interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6, and transforming growth factor-beta 1 mRNA (indicative of macrophage activation) and by interferon-gamma and interleukin-2 mRNA (indicative of selective T-cell activation). However, macrophage- and T-cell-derived cytokines were also detected in temporal artery biopsy specimens from patients with polymyalgia rheumatica. Tissue-infiltrating T cells in giant cell arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica samples each had distinctive lymphokine profiles. Although interferon-gamma was found in 67% of giant cell arteritis samples, polymyalgia rheumatica samples had only interleukin-2 ...
Non-arteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy (NAION or NAAION) is a condition that occurs when blood flow to the optic nerve is blocked. Non-arteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy, sometimes called eye stroke, is characterized by rapid vision loss or blindness that may occur over minutes, hours, or sometimes days.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today expanded the approved use of subcutaneous Actemra (tocilizumab) to treat adults with giant cell arteritis. This new indication provides the first FDA-approved therapy, specific to this type of vasculitis.. "We expedited the development and review of this application because this drug fulfills a critical need for patients with this serious disease who had limited treatment options," said Badrul Chowdhury, M.D., Ph.D., director of the Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Rheumatology Products in the FDAs Center for Drug Evaluation and Research.. Giant cell arteritis is a form of vasculitis, a group of disorders that results in inflammation of blood vessels. This inflammation causes the arteries to narrow or become irregular, impeding adequate blood flow. In giant cell arteritis, the vessels most involved are those of the head, especially the temporal arteries (located on each side of the head). For this reason, the disorder is sometimes called temporal ...
Purpose : Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) and optic neuritis are the two most common acute optic neuropathies. OCT angiography is a new tool that can evaluate the density of the radial peripapillary capillary network, which has been shown to be decreased in various chronic optic neuropathies. The goal of this study was to evaluate OCT and OCT angiographys ability to differentiate optic neuritis and NAION, and predict visual outcomes. Methods : We performed a cross-sectional, observational study of patients with unilateral optic neuritis or NAION who presented between 2015 and 2016. Patients were included if they had unilateral optic neuritis or NAION and had OCT (Cirrus) and OCT angiography (Optovue) done at least 3 months after onset. Because a normative database for OCT angiography has not been established, we used the inter-eye difference as an approximation of change. The retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and peripapillary vessel density were compared between optic ...
Giant cell arteritis causes inflammation and narrowing of the arteries in the head. It often occurs with the disease polymyalgia rheumatica. Learn more.
If the diagnosis is suspected, lab work should be completed to support the diagnosis. Standard lab work includes a CRP, ESR, CBC, and CMP.. The inflammatory markers are key to diagnosis. An ESR greater than 50 mm/hr can be suggestive of the disease, but may be elevated for other reasons. It is important to note that the ESR and CRP can be normal in acute temporal arteritis, but this is very unlikely.. The lab tests should not be used to rule in or rule out the disease, but rather should be used to support the history and physical. A C-reactive protein greater than 2.45 in the setting of symptoms and compatible exam has a 97% sensitivity for the disease.. The gold standard test for temporal arteritis is the temporal artery biopsy. In the setting of time, a color Doppler ultrasound may be used to look for inflammation and edema in the artery, but is operator dependent.. A better alternative is histologic analysis of the temporal artery. The temporal artery is usually chosen because it is easy to ...
Diagnosis and management of polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis, including American College of Rheumatology criteria for a diagnosis, recommended corticosteroid therapy and potential side-effects of treatment.
AbeBooks.com: Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Giant Cell Arteritis (Oxford Rheumatology Library) (9780198729204) and a great selection of similar New, Used and Collectible Books available now at great prices.
Objective. The etiology of temporal arteritis TA and polymyalgia rheumatica PMR is unknown, but the sudden onset and the wide variation in incidence reported from various parts of the world suggest the existence of environmental and/or genetic factors. We studied the incidence of TA and PMR during a 12 year period in different regions of...
Background/Purpose: It has is been demonstrated the safety and efficacy of Methotrexate (MTX) in the treatment of Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA) in clinical trials, but it is important to know the long-term survival of the drug in real life conditions. The purpose of our study was to analyze, in clinical practice conditions, the long-term survival of MTX in patients with GCA. Factors associated to its discontinuation rate were also investigated.. Methods: This is an observational longitudinal study with a maximum follow-up of 20 years. We included GCA patients treated with MTX and followed in outpatient clinic at Hospital Clínico San Carlos, in Madrid from January 1991 until September 2014. Primary outcome: discontinuation of MTX due to: a) adverse drug reaction (ADR), (classified as moderate when the drug was suspended regardless of the impact, and severe when ADR required hospitalization or death); b) inefficacy; c) improvement or remission; and d) patient decision. Covariables analized were: ...
The authors report a case of giant cell arteritis presenting with bilateral loss of vision and jaw pain. Increased awareness of this condition should lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment and avoidance of devastating consequences.
Giant cell arteritis is a serious condition that cannot always be immediately diagnosed, with potential medico-legal repercussions. Consultant ophthalmologist Mr Paul Riordan-Eva reviews the risks
PET was first utilized for imaging aortitis in the late 1990s to help establish a diagnosis in patients with fever of unknown origin. Giant cell arteritis with atypical (extracranial) features and Takayasu arteritis in the early "pre-pulseless" phase was often diagnosed in these patients (14,15). Numerous studies have since demonstrated the utility of PET in giant cell arteritis patients (16) given that temporal artery biopsy is negative in about 15% of typical giant cell arteritis patients and approximately 40% of those with predominantly large vessel involvement (17). Giant cell arteritis has now been established as the most common form of aortitis (18). Furthermore, about 30% of polymyalgia rheumatica (often coexistent with giant cell arteritis) patients have demonstrated large vessel arteritis, including aortitis (19). The sensitivity and specificity of PET in diagnosing giant cell arteritis or polymyalgia rheumatica are reported as 80% and 89%, respectively, in a recent meta-analysis; ...
The incidence and characteristics of pulmonary haemorrhage in a series of 89 patients with systemic vasculitis were analysed. Pulmonary haemorrhage occurred in 32 of these patients and was associated with haemoptysis in all 32, alveolar shadowing in the chest radiograph in 28, and a significantly raised transfer coefficient in 30. Pulmonary haemorrhage usually resolved with treatment by immunosuppressive drugs but was the cause of death in 11 patients. In contrast with patients with antibasement membrane antibodies there was no correlation between pulmonary haemorrhage and cigarette smoking. Pulmonary haemorrhage is a cause of serious morbidity in patients with systemic vasculitis.
We analyzed the demographic, clinical, laboratory and histologic features of 13 patients who were diagnosed as having polyarteritis nodosa associated with hepatitis B virus infection over a 12-year period, 1974 to 1985. All 13 patients were Yupik Eskimos and resided in southwest Alaska, an area hyperendemic for hepatitis B virus infection. The annual incidence of hepatitis B virus-associated polyarteritis nodosa for this population is 7.7 cases per 100,000 population. All patients presented with multisystem disease, and all had biopsy or angiographic findings consistent with polyarteritis nodosa. All 13 were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B e antigen at diagnosis. Two untreated patients and two of five patients who received corticosteroids died, vs. none of six who received corticosteroids plus cyclophosphamide. None of the patients who survived the initial bout of polyarteritis nodosa has relapsed after a mean follow-up of 55 months, but all have become chronic HBsAg ...
Part 1: Vascular disease. 1. Stroke: An overview.. 2. Transient ischemic attacks.. 3. Atherothrombotic disease.. 4. Occlusive disease of small penetrating arteries.. 5. Binswangers disease.. 6. Brain embolism.. 7. Borderzone cerebral infarction.. 8. Dissection of the Cervicocerebral Arteries.. 9. Coagulation disorders in stroke.. 10. Hemorrhagic strokes.. 11. Strokes in children and young adults.. 12. Other cerebrovascular syndromes.. 13. Diseases of the cerebral venous system.. 14. Spinal cord stroke.. Inflammatory vasculopathies.. 15. Extracranial granulomatous arteritis (giant cell arteritis).. 16. Intracranial granulomatous arteritis (primary angiitis of the CNS)/ Idiopathic CNS vasculitis.. 17. Takayasus arteritis.. 18. Polyarteritis nodosa, Churg Strauss syndrome, overlap and related syndromes.. 19. Wegeners granulomatosis.. 20. Vasculopathy associated with antiphospholipid antibodies.. 21. Thromboangiitis obliterans - Beurgers disease.. Part 2: Autoimmune and Inflammatory ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection of equine arteritis virus by real-time TaqMan® reverse transcription-PCR assay. AU - Balasuriya, Udeni B R. AU - Leutenegger, Christian M.. AU - Topol, J. B.. AU - McCollum, William H.. AU - Timoney, Peter J.. AU - Maclachlan, Nigel J. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - A one-tube real-time TaqMan® reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed for the detection of equine arteritis virus (EAV). The test was validated using the seminal plasma and nasal secretions of infected horses that were proven to contain EAV by traditional virus isolation in rabbit kidney thirteen (RK-13) cells, as well as a variety of cell culture-propagated European and North American strains of EAV. The primers and a fluorogenic TaqMan® probe were designed to amplify and detect a highly conserved region of open reading frame 7 (ORF7) of EAV. The real-time TaqMan® PCR assay detected EAV RNA in all samples that were confirmed to contain infectious EAV by virus isolation. ...

Takayasu arteritisTakayasu arteritis

... Subscriber Sign In VisualDx Mobile Feedback Select Language Share Enter a Symptom, Medication, or Diagnosis ... In this case, giant cell arteritis may be indistinguishable from Takayasu arteritis; however, initial treatment for both is ... Takayasu arteritis - Skin. Print Images (5) Contributors: Michael Horwich MD, PhD, Nikki Levin MD, Lowell A. Goldsmith MD, MPH ... Takayasu arteritis, also referred to as pulseless disease and aortic arch syndrome, is a rare chronic inflammatory vasculitis ...
more infohttps://www.visualdx.com/visualdx/diagnosis/takayasu+arteritis?diagnosisId=52373&moduleId=10

Polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis | GPonlinePolymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis | GPonline

Diagnosis and management of polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis, including American College of Rheumatology ... and temporal arteritis are clinical syndromes that form part of the spectrum of giant cell arteritis (GCA), so are different ... Temporal arteritis can lead to blindness through the development of ocular ischaemia (Photograph: SPL). 0.5 CPD Credits Click ... Polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis. By Professor Rodger Charlton on the 19 April 2017 Be the First to Comment ...
more infohttps://www.gponline.com/polymyalgia-rheumatica-giant-cell-arteritis/rheumatology/article/1136068

Giant Cell Arteritis - Symptoms, Treatments and Resources for Giant Cell ArteritisGiant Cell Arteritis - Symptoms, Treatments and Resources for Giant Cell Arteritis

Find Giant Cell Arteritis information, treatments for Giant Cell Arteritis and Giant Cell Arteritis symptoms. ... MedHelps Giant Cell Arteritis Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for Giant Cell Arteritis. ... Posts on Giant Cell Arteritis (233). CRP, temporal arteritis, edema, vascular inflammation - Cardiovascular Disease Prevention ...
more infohttps://www.medhelp.org/tags/show/26250/Giant-Cell-Arteritis

9780198729204: Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Giant Cell Arteritis (Oxford Rheumatology Library) - AbeBooks: 01987292009780198729204: Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Giant Cell Arteritis (Oxford Rheumatology Library) - AbeBooks: 0198729200

Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Giant Cell Arteritis (Oxford Rheumatology Library) (9780198729204) and a great selection of similar ... 1. Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Giant Cell Arteritis (Paperback) Published by Oxford University Press, United Kingdom (2016) ... 2. Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Giant Cell Arteritis (Paperback) Published by Oxford University Press, United Kingdom (2016) ... Giant cell arteritis, an inflammatory form of vasculitis, may present with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations and can ...
more infohttps://www.abebooks.com/9780198729204/Polymyalgia-Rheumatica-Giant-Cell-Arteritis-0198729200/plp

Tissue cytokine patterns in patients with polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritisTissue cytokine patterns in patients with polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis

Deals with giant cell arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica. Typical symptoms of giant cell arteritis; Laboratory tests that are ... Focuses on cytokines in polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis. Association of giant cell arteritis with polymyalgia ... Giant cell arteritis (GCA) and polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) are both more common among people of North European decent than ... Giant-cell arteritis is an immune-mediated disease characterized by granulomatous infiltrates in the wall of medium-size and ...
more infohttp://connection.ebscohost.com/c/journal-articles/6976564/tissue-cytokine-patterns-patients-polymyalgia-rheumatica-giant-cell-arteritis

Blood dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) levels in polymyalgia rheumatica/giant cell arteritis & primary fibromyalgia (FM)Blood dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) levels in polymyalgia rheumatica/giant cell arteritis & primary fibromyalgia (FM)

polymyalgia rheumatica/giant cell arteritis (PMR:TA; N = 25), with and without cortisone derivative treatment (N = 10 and N = ...
more infohttp://www.prohealth.com/library/showarticle.cfm?libid=7216

Lirias: Diagnosis and extension of giant cell arteritis. Contribution of imaging techniquesLirias: Diagnosis and extension of giant cell arteritis. Contribution of imaging techniques

Performing a temporal artery biopsy is still the easiest way to diagnose giant cell arteritis. However, this biopsy is not ... Magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomographic scanning are not used in the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis, but ...
more infohttps://lirias.kuleuven.be/handle/123456789/363274

Detection of equine arteritis virus by real-time TaqMan® reverse transcription-PCR assay<...Detection of equine arteritis virus by real-time TaqMan® reverse transcription-PCR assay<...

Detection of equine arteritis virus by real-time TaqMan® reverse transcription-PCR assay. In: Journal of Virological Methods. ... Detection of equine arteritis virus by real-time TaqMan® reverse transcription-PCR assay. Journal of Virological Methods. 2002; ... Detection of equine arteritis virus by real-time TaqMan® reverse transcription-PCR assay. / Balasuriya, Udeni B R; Leutenegger ... Balasuriya, UBR, Leutenegger, CM, Topol, JB, McCollum, WH, Timoney, PJ & Maclachlan, NJ 2002, Detection of equine arteritis ...
more infohttps://ucdavis.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/detection-of-equine-arteritis-virus-by-real-time-taqman-reverse-t

Managing Suspected Temporal Arteritis without a Temporal Artery Biopsy
							| Asian Journal of Ophthalmology
			Managing Suspected Temporal Arteritis without a Temporal Artery Biopsy | Asian Journal of Ophthalmology

... is highly specific for a diagnosis of temporal arteritis, but is only positive in up to 82% of temporal arteritis cases (with ... Managing Suspected Temporal Arteritis without a Temporal Artery Biopsy * Keith Soo Keat ONG , ... MANAGING SUSPECTED TEMPORAL ARTERITIS WITHOUT A TEMPORAL ARTERY BIOPSY Keith Ong, Ophthalmologist, University of Sydney, RNSH, ... ONG, K., ONG, L., & ONG, L. (2016). Managing Suspected Temporal Arteritis without a Temporal Artery Biopsy. Asian Journal of ...
more infohttps://www.asianjo.com/index.php/AsianJO/article/view/188

FDA approves first drug Actemra (tocilizumab)  to specifically treat giant cell arteritis - Drug Approvals InternationalFDA approves first drug Actemra (tocilizumab) to specifically treat giant cell arteritis - Drug Approvals International

FDA approves first drug Actemra (tocilizumab) to specifically treat giant cell arteritis. May 23, 2017FDA 2017Comments: 0. Its ... Giant cell arteritis is a form of vasculitis, a group of disorders that results in inflammation of blood vessels. This ... In giant cell arteritis, the vessels most involved are those of the head, especially the temporal arteries (located on each ... The efficacy and safety of subcutaneous (injected under the skin) Actemra for giant cell arteritis were established in a double ...
more infohttp://drugapprovalsint.com/fda-approves-first-drug-actemra-tocilizumab-to-specifically-treat-giant-cell-arteritis/

Comparison of M and N gene sequences distinguishes variation amongst equine arteritis virus isolates | Microbiology SocietyComparison of M and N gene sequences distinguishes variation amongst equine arteritis virus isolates | Microbiology Society

cDNA copies of the M and N genes of equine arteritis virus (EAV) isolates were synthesized by reverse transcription followed by ... Comparison of M and N gene sequences distinguishes variation amongst equine arteritis virus isolates * Ewan D. Chirnside, ... cDNA copies of the M and N genes of equine arteritis virus (EAV) isolates were synthesized by reverse transcription followed by ...
more infohttps://www.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/0022-1317-75-6-1491

A qualitative study of patient perspectives related to glucocorticoid therapy in polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell...A qualitative study of patient perspectives related to glucocorticoid therapy in polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell...

keywords = "Adverse effects, Giant cell arteritis, Glucocorticoid therapy, Patient experience, Polymyalgia rheumatica", ... and giant cell arteritis (GCA). Methods: Patients with a diagnosis of PMR or GCA were invited to participate in this ... and giant cell arteritis (GCA). Methods: Patients with a diagnosis of PMR or GCA were invited to participate in this ... and giant cell arteritis (GCA). Methods: Patients with a diagnosis of PMR or GCA were invited to participate in this ...
more infohttps://portal.sahmriresearch.org/en/publications/a-qualitative-study-of-patient-perspectives-related-to-glucocorti

HIE Multimedia - Polymyalgia rheumaticaHIE Multimedia - Polymyalgia rheumatica

Temporal arteritis. Giant cell arteritis is inflammation and damage to the blood vessels that supply blood to the head, neck, ... PMR may occur before or with giant cell arteritis (GCA; also called temporal arteritis). This is a condition in which blood ... Giant cell arteritis, polymyalgia rheumatica, and Takayasus arteritis. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes IB, ... Giant cell arteritis may also be present or can develop later. If this is the case, the temporal artery would need to be ...
more infohttps://ssl.adam.com/content.aspx?productid=117&pid=1&gid=000415&site=lifecaremedicalcenter.adam.com&login=LIFE1919

Temporal Artery Biopsy | PeaceHealthTemporal Artery Biopsy | PeaceHealth

Giant cell arteritis can occur at various points along an artery. To test for giant cell arteritis, your doctor may have a ... If you have symptoms of giant cell arteritis (GCA) and your doctor believes you may have it, he or she may order a temporal ... If a temporal artery biopsy shows no signs of inflammation but your symptoms strongly suggest giant cell arteritis, you and ...
more infohttps://www.peacehealth.org/medical-topics/id/tn6811

Northwestern Vasculitis Center: Department of Medicine: Feinberg School of Medicine: Northwestern UniversityNorthwestern Vasculitis Center: Department of Medicine: Feinberg School of Medicine: Northwestern University

Temporal Arteritis(Giant cell arteritis): This condition usually affects older individuals (,50) and is associated with severe ... Some forms of vasculitis are more common in people of different ages (like giant cell arteritis in individuals over the age of ...
more infohttps://www.medicine.northwestern.edu/divisions/rheumatology/research/vasculitis.html

Initiation of Glucocorticoid Therapy: Before or After Temporal Artery Biopsy?Initiation of Glucocorticoid Therapy: Before or After Temporal Artery Biopsy?

Introduction Giant cell arteritis (GCA) has been successfully treated with steroids for many years and temporal artery biopsy ( ... Giant cell arteritis (GCA), previously Hortons disease, is a systemic vasculitis affecting the middle-sized or large arteries ... Introduction Temporal arteritis is a rare systemic disease of undefined aetiology. The British Society for Rheumatology has ... Etanercept in giant cell arteritis. // Age & Ageing;Nov2008, Vol. 37 Issue 6, p616 The article discusses a study of patients ...
more infohttp://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/12736728/initiation-glucocorticoid-therapy-before-after-temporal-artery-biopsy

Polymyalgia Rheumatica | Winchester HospitalPolymyalgia Rheumatica | Winchester Hospital

About 15% of people with PMR will also develop giant cell arteritis (GCA). GCA is an inflammation of the lining of the arteries ... About 15% of people with PMR will also develop giant cell arteritis (GCA). GCA is an inflammation of the lining of the arteries ... Questions and answers about polymyalgia rheumatical and giant cell arteritis. National Institute of Arthritis and ... Polymyalgia rheumatica and giant-cell arteritis. N Engl J Med. 2002;347(4):261-271. ...
more infohttp://www.winchesterhospital.org/health-library/article?id=11615

Temporal artery biopsies in south-east Scotland: a five-year review | Royal College of Physicians of EdinburghTemporal artery biopsies in south-east Scotland: a five-year review | Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh

The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the use of temporal artery biopsy in diagnosing giant cell arteritis in ... The data should enable the development of better criteria for referral for investigation of giant cell arteritis. ... Temporal artery biopsy is the gold standard investigation for the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis. ... Results A total of 715 biopsies were included in the study, of which 250 (35.0%) showed features of giant cell arteritis. The ...
more infohttps://www.rcpe.ac.uk/college/journal/temporal-artery-biopsies-south-east-scotland-five-year-review

World of Medicity: Central Nervous System VasculitisWorld of Medicity: Central Nervous System Vasculitis

Giant cell arteritis. Takayasus arteritis. Wegeners granulomatosis. Churg-Strauss. Behcets disease. Sarcoidosis. SLE, RA. ... Fungi, tuberculosis, and syphilis may all cause a cerebral arteritis that has to be excluded by CSF and other diagnostic tests ... A marked delay (often decades) is typical, but the effects can be devastating and the arteritis is not responsive to ... CSF is needed to exclude infectious causes of cerebral arteritis and might be found in cultures and serology. ...
more infohttp://medicitysavelife.blogspot.com/2010/10/central-nervous-system-vasculitis.html

Holmes-Adie SyndromeHolmes-Adie Syndrome

Arteritis, alcoholism, and diabetes can also cause the disease.. Medical practitioners diagnose the disease by watching out for ...
more infohttp://weheartvision.com/holmes-adie-syndrome

Multimodality Imaging of Aortitis | JACC: Cardiovascular ImagingMultimodality Imaging of Aortitis | JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging

Giant cell arteritis with atypical (extracranial) features and Takayasu arteritis in the early "pre-pulseless" phase was often ... Vascular ultrasonography findings may be useful for the diagnosis of extracranial giant cell arteritis, Takayasu arteritis, and ... 2008) Takayasus arteritis mimicking aortic intramural hematoma in a female patient with chest pain. Hellenic J Cardiol 49:280- ... 1999) Takayasu arteritis: diagnosis with MR imaging and MR angiography in acute and chronic active stages. J Magn Reson Imaging ...
more infohttp://www.imaging.onlinejacc.org/content/7/6/605

Polymyalgia Rheumatica - Noble Medical CarePolymyalgia Rheumatica - Noble Medical Care

It may occur with another health problem, giant cell arteritis.. The average age when symptoms start is 70, so people who have ...
more infohttp://noblemedicalcare.com/rheumatology/polymyalgia-rheumatica/

Difference Between Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Rheumatoid Arthritis | Polymyalgia Rheumatica vs Rheumatoid ArthritisDifference Between Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Rheumatoid Arthritis | Polymyalgia Rheumatica vs Rheumatoid Arthritis

There is giant cell arteritis in temporal artery. There is no associated giant cell arteritis.. ... A giant arteritis of temporal artery is observed in PMR but not in rheumatoid arthritis. This is the main difference between ... Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a systemic illness of the elderly associated with the finding of a giant cell arteritis on ... Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a systemic illness of the elderly associated with the finding of a giant cell arteritis on ...
more infohttp://www.differencebetween.com/difference-between-polymyalgia-rheumatica-and-vs-rheumatoid-arthritis/

Temporal Arteritis | Giant Cell Arteritis | MedlinePlusTemporal Arteritis | Giant Cell Arteritis | MedlinePlus

Giant cell arteritis causes inflammation and narrowing of the arteries in the head. It often occurs with the disease ... Giant Cell Arteritis (American College of Rheumatology) * Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Giant Cell Arteritis (National Institute ... Giant Cell Arteritis (Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center) - In English and Spanish Also in Spanish ... Giant cell arteritis is a disorder that causes inflammation of your arteries, usually in the scalp, neck, and arms. It narrows ...
more infohttps://medlineplus.gov/giantcellarteritis.html

Arteritis - WikipediaArteritis - Wikipedia

This type of arteritis is most common in females, with a median age of 25 years. Takayasu arteritis is more common in women of ... Arteritis may be primary or secondary to some other disease process. The primary types are: An example of a secondary arteritis ... Arteritis is the inflammation of the walls of arteries, usually as a result of infection or autoimmune response. Arteritis, a ... A complication of arteritis is thrombosis, which can be fatal. Arteritis and phlebitis are forms of vasculitis. Symptoms of ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arteritis
  • Although there are no widely accepted standard treatment protocols in relation to dose or duration of treatment, guidelines from the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) recommend starting corticosteroid therapy with 12.5-25mg/day of prednisolone or the equivalent (see resources), or 40-60mg daily for GCA where temporal arteritis is suspected. (gponline.com)
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