Abnormal formation of blood vessels that shunt arterial blood directly into veins without passing through the CAPILLARIES. They usually are crooked, dilated, and with thick vessel walls. A common type is the congenital arteriovenous fistula. The lack of blood flow and oxygen in the capillaries can lead to tissue damage in the affected areas.
Congenital vascular anomalies in the brain characterized by direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. The locations and size of the shunts determine the symptoms including HEADACHES; SEIZURES; STROKE; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; mass effect; and vascular steal effect.
An autosomal dominant vascular anomaly characterized by telangiectases of the skin and mucous membranes and by recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding. This disorder is caused by mutations of a gene (on chromosome 9q3) which encodes endoglin, a membrane glycoprotein that binds TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA.
A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.
A tissue adhesive that is applied as a monomer to moist tissue and polymerizes to form a bond. It is slowly biodegradable and used in all kinds of surgery, including dental.
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
Veins draining the cerebrum.
Cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive also used to occlude blood vessels supplying neoplastic or other diseased tissue.
A radiological stereotactic technique developed for cutting or destroying tissue by high doses of radiation in place of surgical incisions. It was originally developed for neurosurgery on structures in the brain and its use gradually spread to radiation surgery on extracranial structures as well. The usual rigid needles or probes of stereotactic surgery are replaced with beams of ionizing radiation directed toward a target so as to achieve local tissue destruction.
An abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. An A-V fistula usually leads to the formation of a dilated sac-like connection, arteriovenous aneurysm. The locations and size of the shunts determine the degree of effects on the cardiovascular functions such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.
Bleeding within the SKULL, including hemorrhages in the brain and the three membranes of MENINGES. The escape of blood often leads to the formation of HEMATOMA in the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.
A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.
A spectrum of congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities in BLOOD VESSELS that can adversely affect the normal blood flow in ARTERIES or VEINS. Most are congenital defects such as abnormal communications between blood vessels (fistula), shunting of arterial blood directly into veins bypassing the CAPILLARIES (arteriovenous malformations), formation of large dilated blood blood-filled vessels (cavernous angioma), and swollen capillaries (capillary telangiectases). In rare cases, vascular malformations can result from trauma or diseases.
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
A group of congenital malformations involving the brainstem, cerebellum, upper spinal cord, and surrounding bony structures. Type II is the most common, and features compression of the medulla and cerebellar tonsils into the upper cervical spinal canal and an associated MENINGOMYELOCELE. Type I features similar, but less severe malformations and is without an associated meningomyelocele. Type III has the features of type II with an additional herniation of the entire cerebellum through the bony defect involving the foramen magnum, forming an ENCEPHALOCELE. Type IV is a form a cerebellar hypoplasia. Clinical manifestations of types I-III include TORTICOLLIS; opisthotonus; HEADACHE; VERTIGO; VOCAL CORD PARALYSIS; APNEA; NYSTAGMUS, CONGENITAL; swallowing difficulties; and ATAXIA. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p261; Davis, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp236-46)
The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.
Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.
Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities involving ARTERIES; VEINS; or venous sinuses in the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and MENINGES.
Tear or break of an organ, vessel or other soft part of the body, occurring in the absence of external force.
The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.
Substances used to cause adherence of tissue to tissue or tissue to non-tissue surfaces, as for prostheses.
The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.
A congenital disorder that is characterized by a triad of capillary malformations (HEMANGIOMA), venous malformations (ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA), and soft tissue or bony hypertrophy of the limb. This syndrome is caused by mutations in the VG5Q gene which encodes a strong angiogenesis stimulator.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.
A vascular anomaly composed of a collection of large, thin walled tortuous VEINS that can occur in any part of the central nervous system but lack intervening nervous tissue. Familial occurrence is common and has been associated with a number of genes mapped to 7q, 7p and 3q. Clinical features include SEIZURES; HEADACHE; STROKE; and progressive neurological deficit.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.
One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS. They are membrane protein kinases belonging to the family of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES. The major type II activin receptors are ActR-IIA and ActR-IIB.
Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).
Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.
Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)
Treatment of varicose veins, hemorrhoids, gastric and esophageal varices, and peptic ulcer hemorrhage by injection or infusion of chemical agents which cause localized thrombosis and eventual fibrosis and obliteration of the vessels.
Bleeding from the nose.
A group of compounds having the general formula CH2=C(CN)-COOR; it polymerizes on contact with moisture; used as tissue adhesive; higher homologs have hemostatic and antibacterial properties.
Structural abnormalities of the central or peripheral nervous system resulting primarily from defects of embryogenesis.
An abnormality in lung development that is characterized by a multicystic mass resulting from an adenomatous overgrowth of the terminal BRONCHIOLES with a consequent reduction of PULMONARY ALVEOLI. This anomaly is classified into three types by the cyst size.
Congenital arteriovenous malformation involving the VEIN OF GALEN, a large deep vein at the base of the brain. The rush of arterial blood directly into the vein of Galen, without passing through the CAPILLARIES, can overwhelm the heart and lead to CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE.
A preparation of oil that contains covalently bound IODINE. It is commonly used as a RADIOCONTRAST AGENT and as a suspension medium for CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS.
Abnormalities in the development of the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These include malformations arising from abnormal neuronal and glial CELL PROLIFERATION or APOPTOSIS (Group I); abnormal neuronal migration (Group II); and abnormal establishment of cortical organization (Group III). Many INBORN METABOLIC BRAIN DISORDERS affecting CNS formation are often associated with cortical malformations. They are common causes of EPILEPSY and developmental delay.
A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.
Symmetrical osteitis of the four limbs, chiefly localized to the phalanges and the terminal epiphyses of the long bones of the forearm and leg, sometimes extending to the proximal ends of the limbs and the flat bones, and accompanied by dorsal kyphosis and joint involvement. It is often secondary to chronic conditions of the lungs and heart. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.
The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.
Chemical agents injected into blood vessels and lymphatic sinuses to shrink or cause localized THROMBOSIS; FIBROSIS, and obliteration of the vessels. This treatment is applied in a number of conditions such as VARICOSE VEINS; HEMORRHOIDS; GASTRIC VARICES; ESOPHAGEAL VARICES; PEPTIC ULCER HEMORRHAGE.
The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.
A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.
A vessel that directly interconnects an artery and a vein, and that acts as a shunt to bypass the capillary bed. Not to be confused with surgical anastomosis, nor with arteriovenous fistula.
A spontaneous diminution or abatement of a disease over time, without formal treatment.
A bluish or purplish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to an increase in the amount of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood or a structural defect in the hemoglobin molecule.
Diseases that affect the structure or function of the cerebellum. Cardinal manifestations of cerebellar dysfunction include dysmetria, GAIT ATAXIA, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.
A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.
A vascular anomaly due to proliferation of BLOOD VESSELS that forms a tumor-like mass. The common types involve CAPILLARIES and VEINS. It can occur anywhere in the body but is most frequently noticed in the SKIN and SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE. (from Stedman, 27th ed, 2000)
An eph family receptor found in a variety of adult and embryonic tissues. Unlike the majority of proteins in this class there is little or no expression of EphB4 receptor in the BRAIN. It has been found at high levels in developing mammary glands and in invasive mammary tumors.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.
The compartment containing the inferior part and anterior extremities of the frontal lobes (FRONTAL LOBE) of the cerebral hemispheres. It is formed mainly by orbital parts of the FRONTAL BONE and the lesser wings of the SPHENOID BONE.
Ethyl ester of iodinated fatty acid of poppyseed oil. It contains 37% organically bound iodine and has been used as a diagnostic aid (radiopaque medium) and as an antineoplastic agent when part of the iodine is 131-I. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A collection of blood outside the BLOOD VESSELS. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
An infant during the first month after birth.
One of the two types of ACTIVIN RECEPTORS or activin receptor-like kinases (ALK'S). There are several type I activin receptors. The major active ones are ALK-2 (ActR-IA) and ALK-4 (ActR-IB).
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.
The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.
A vascular anomaly that is a collection of tortuous BLOOD VESSELS and connective tissue. This tumor-like mass with the large vascular space is filled with blood and usually appears as a strawberry-like lesion in the subcutaneous areas of the face, extremities, or other regions of the body including the central nervous system.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.
The inability to generate oral-verbal expression, despite normal comprehension of speech. This may be associated with BRAIN DISEASES or MENTAL DISORDERS. Organic mutism may be associated with damage to the FRONTAL LOBE; BRAIN STEM; THALAMUS; and CEREBELLUM. Selective mutism is a psychological condition that usually affects children characterized by continuous refusal to speak in social situations by a child who is able and willing to speak to selected persons. Kussmal aphasia refers to mutism in psychosis. (From Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 1994; 62(9):337-44)
Radiographic visualization of the cerebral ventricles by injection of air or other gas.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.
Agents acting to arrest the flow of blood. Absorbable hemostatics arrest bleeding either by the formation of an artificial clot or by providing a mechanical matrix that facilitates clotting when applied directly to the bleeding surface. These agents function more at the capillary level and are not effective at stemming arterial or venous bleeding under any significant intravascular pressure.
A characteristic symptom complex.
The innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. It is the fine vascular membrane that lies under the ARACHNOID and the DURA MATER.
A condition marked by raised intracranial pressure and characterized clinically by HEADACHES; NAUSEA; PAPILLEDEMA, peripheral constriction of the visual fields, transient visual obscurations, and pulsatile TINNITUS. OBESITY is frequently associated with this condition, which primarily affects women between 20 and 44 years of age. Chronic PAPILLEDEMA may lead to optic nerve injury (see OPTIC NERVE DISEASES) and visual loss (see BLINDNESS).
Congenital structural abnormalities of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.
The outer covering of the calvaria. It is composed of several layers: SKIN; subcutaneous connective tissue; the occipitofrontal muscle which includes the tendinous galea aponeurotica; loose connective tissue; and the pericranium (the PERIOSTEUM of the SKULL).
Longitudinal cavities in the spinal cord, most often in the cervical region, which may extend for multiple spinal levels. The cavities are lined by dense, gliogenous tissue and may be associated with SPINAL CORD NEOPLASMS; spinal cord traumatic injuries; and vascular malformations. Syringomyelia is marked clinically by pain and PARESTHESIA, muscular atrophy of the hands, and analgesia with thermoanesthesia of the hands and arms, but with the tactile sense preserved (sensory dissociation). Lower extremity spasticity and incontinence may also develop. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1269)
Congenital structural deformities of the upper and lower extremities collectively or unspecified.
The escape of diagnostic or therapeutic material from the vessel into which it is introduced into the surrounding tissue or body cavity.
A disorder characterized by the accumulation of encapsulated or unencapsulated tumor-like fatty tissue resembling LIPOMA.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in cardiovascular and cerebral circulation.
A congenital abnormality characterized by the persistence of the anal membrane, resulting in a thin membrane covering the normal ANAL CANAL. Imperforation is not always complete and is treated by surgery in infancy. This defect is often associated with NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS; MENTAL RETARDATION; and DOWN SYNDROME.
Unanticipated information discovered in the course of testing or medical care. Used in discussions of information that may have social or psychological consequences, such as when it is learned that a child's biological father is someone other than the putative father, or that a person tested for one disease or disorder has, or is at risk for, something else.
A light and spongy (pneumatized) bone that lies between the orbital part of FRONTAL BONE and the anterior of SPHENOID BONE. Ethmoid bone separates the ORBIT from the ETHMOID SINUS. It consists of a horizontal plate, a perpendicular plate, and two lateral labyrinths.
INFARCTION of the dorsolateral aspect of MEDULLA OBLONGATA in the BRAIN STEM. It is caused by occlusion of the VERTEBRAL ARTERY and/or the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Clinical manifestations vary with the size of infarction, but may include loss of pain and temperature sensation in the ipsilateral face and contralateral body below the chin; ipsilateral HORNER SYNDROME; ipsilateral ATAXIA; DYSARTHRIA; VERTIGO; nausea, hiccup; dysphagia; and VOCAL CORD PARALYSIS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p801)
A transmembrane domain containing ephrin that binds with high affinity to EPHB1 RECEPTOR; EPHB3 RECEPTOR; and EPHB4 RECEPTOR. Expression of ephrin-B2 occurs in a variety of adult tissues. During embryogenesis, high levels of ephrin-B2 is seen in the PROSENCEPHALON; RHOMBENCEPHALON; developing SOMITES; LIMB BUD; and bronchial arches.
Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.
Devices which accelerate electrically charged atomic or subatomic particles, such as electrons, protons or ions, to high velocities so they have high kinetic energy.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.
A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.
Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS feeding the SPINAL CORD, such as the anterior and paired posterior spinal arteries or their many branches. Disease processes may include ATHEROSCLEROSIS; EMBOLISM; and ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS leading to ISCHEMIA or HEMORRHAGE into the spinal cord (hematomyelia).
Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.
A congenital abnormality of the central nervous system marked by failure of the midline structures of the cerebellum to develop, dilation of the fourth ventricle, and upward displacement of the transverse sinuses, tentorium, and torcula. Clinical features include occipital bossing, progressive head enlargement, bulging of anterior fontanelle, papilledema, ataxia, gait disturbances, nystagmus, and intellectual compromise. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp294-5)
Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the CRANIAL SINUSES, large endothelium-lined venous channels situated within the SKULL. Intracranial sinuses, also called cranial venous sinuses, include the superior sagittal, cavernous, lateral, petrous sinuses, and many others. Cranial sinus thrombosis can lead to severe HEADACHE; SEIZURE; and other neurological defects.
A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
A syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of excruciating pain lasting several seconds or longer in the sensory distribution of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. Pain may be initiated by stimulation of trigger points on the face, lips, or gums or by movement of facial muscles or chewing. Associated conditions include MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, vascular anomalies, ANEURYSMS, and neoplasms. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p187)
A hereditary disease characterized by multiple ectodermal, mesodermal, and endodermal nevoid and neoplastic anomalies. Facial trichilemmomas and papillomatous papules of the oral mucosa are the most characteristic lesions. Individuals with this syndrome have a high risk of BREAST CANCER; THYROID CANCER; and ENDOMETRIAL CANCER. This syndrome is associated with mutations in the gene for PTEN PHOSPHATASE.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
Procedures using an electrically heated wire or scalpel to treat hemorrhage (e.g., bleeding ulcers) and to ablate tumors, mucosal lesions, and refractory arrhythmias. It is different from ELECTROSURGERY which is used more for cutting tissue than destroying and in which the patient is part of the electric circuit.

Primary non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage. A municipal emergency hospital viewpoint. (1/438)

The devastating natural history of 138 consecutive admissions for non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage to a major emergency care municipal hospital is reviewed. Sixty-four percent of the patients had demonstrable intracranial hematomas while 36% had mainly subarachnoid hemorrhage. Hypertension was a related condition in 43% of the parenchymal hematoma patients, while proved aneurysms accounted for 74% of the subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. There was only a 14% survivorship for patients requiring emergent surgery. All operated hematoma patients survived delayed surgery with improved level of responsiveness. The overall mortality was 74% for intracranial hematoma patients and 58% for aneurysm-caused subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.  (+info)

Arteriovenous malformation of mesosalpinx associated with a 'vanishing' ectopic pregnancy: diagnosis with three-dimensional color power angiography. (2/438)

We describe two cases of pelvic arteriovenous malformation diagnosed with the aid of three-dimensional color power angiography. In both cases, beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) increased to significant levels (8413 and 1560 mIU/ml, respectively); however, neither an intrauterine nor an adnexal gestational sac could be found. In each case, we observed an adnexal mass with several tortuous areas exhibiting abundant turbulent flow. The diagnosis of arteriovenous malformation was made and further assessment by three-dimensional color power angiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was carried out. The complex vascular anatomy of arteriovenous malformation, including its feeding vessels and drainage, was clearly depicted by three-dimensional color power angiography and correlated well with magnetic resonance angiography. Levels of beta-hCG decreased in subsequent tests, and eventually became negative 2-3 months later without and intervention. We believe that an involutional ectopic pregnancy induced the rapid growth of the arteriovenous malformations within the mesosalpinx. Three-dimensional color power angiography can be performed quickly and easily, using existing ultrasound equipment. It improves our understanding of complicated vasculature, and thus is a useful adjunct to two-dimensional and color Doppler ultrasound in the diagnosis of arteriovenous malformation.  (+info)

Anaesthetic management of a woman who became paraplegic at 22 weeks' gestation after a spontaneous spinal cord haemorrhage secondary to a presumed arteriovenous malformation. (3/438)

A 19-yr-old woman developed a paraplegia with a T10 sensory level at 22 weeks' gestation. The spinal injury was caused by spontaneous bleed of a presumed arteriovenous malformation in the spinal cord. She presented for Caesarean section at term because of the breech position of her fetus. The successful use of a combined spinal epidural-regional anaesthetic is described and the risks of general and regional anaesthesia are discussed.  (+info)

Expression of transforming growth factor-beta complex in arteriovenous malformations. (4/438)

The factors responsible for the development of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are not well known. Patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) have cutaneous vascular dysplasia and a high propensity to develop systemic and cerebral AVMs. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) complex has been implicated in HHT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of TGF-beta 1, TGF-beta 2, TGF-beta 3, and their two receptors (R1 and R2) in AVMs and in normal brain vessels. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from 20 patients with cerebral AVMs (including two patients with HHT) were sequentially sectioned into 6 microns sections. Similar sections from normal brain tissue were obtained from five patients without AVMs and no intracranial pathology, who had died from unrelated causes. The normal tissue sections included large intracranial arteries, small arteries, venous sinuses, cortical veins, and brain tissue containing arterioles, capillaries, and venules. All specimens underwent immunohistochemical analyses with polyclonal antibodies to the following antigens: TGF-beta 1, TGF-beta 2, TGF-beta 3, and R1 and R2. The immunoreactivity, when present, was consistently noted in endothelial cells and in the medial smooth muscle. The intensity of vessel wall immunostaining was graded on a scale from 0 to 3. The mean staining grades of normal vessels for TGF-beta 1, TGF-beta 2, TGF-beta 3, R1, and R2 were 0.6 (range 0-1), 3, 2.8 (range 2-3), 1.6 (range 0-2), and 3, respectively, whereas the mean staining grades of AVM vessels were 0.3 (range 0-1), 0.8 (range 0-1), 0.6 (range 0-1), 1.4 (range 0-2), and 0.9 (range 0-1), respectively. The study thus demonstrated that normal brain vessels (arteries, veins, small vessels) have strong (range 2.8-3) immunostaining for TGF-beta 2, TGF-beta 3, and R2, and that the AVM nidus vessels have a paucity (range 0.8-0.9) of staining for these factors. In AVM vessels that had zero immunoreactivity to the above three factors, the vessel wall was fibrocollagenous rather than muscular. Further studies to examine the TGF-beta complex behavior in AVMs are needed.  (+info)

Angioarchitecture related to hemorrhage in cerebral arteriovenous malformations. (5/438)

A retrospective study was conducted to determine the angioarchitecture related to hemorrhage in patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), who underwent conservative treatment and long-term follow-up. The average observation period was 9.3 years, and the annual bleeding rate was estimated at 3.6%. In all cases angiographic findings were reviewed in detail. The average AVM grade by Spetzler-Martin was 3.5. Higher bleeding rate was observed in large AVM (5.4%) compared with small (2.1%) or medium AVM (2.9%). Deep venous drainage (8.6%/year) was strongly correlated to hemorrhage. Concerning location of nidus, hemorrhage was frequently found in insular, callosal, and cerebellar AVMs. Venous ectasia, feeder aneurysm, and external carotid supply were commonly demonstrated on angiograms. Comparison of annual bleeding rate revealed that AVMs with intranidal aneurysm (8.5%) and venous stenosis (5.5%) had a high propensity to hemorrhage. Therapeutic strategy should be focused on these potentially hazardous lesions by the use of endovascular embolization or stereotactic radiosurgery, even if surgical resection is not indicated.  (+info)

Increased brain tissue oxygenation during arteriovenous malformation resection. (6/438)

The purpose of this study was to determine if baseline oxygen pressure (PO2), carbon dioxide pressure (PCO2), and pH in brain tissue adjacent to an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is different from measures in control patients. In addition, PO2, PCO2, and pH changes were measured during the course of AVM resection. Two groups were studied. Group 1 (n = 8) were non-ischemic patients scheduled for cerebral aneurysm clipping. Group 2 (n = 13) were patients undergoing neurosurgery for AVM resection. Following craniotomy, the dura was retracted and a PO2, PCO2, pH sensor inserted into non-ischemic brain tissue in Group 1. In Group 2, the sensor was inserted into tissue adjacent to the AVM. Following equilibration, tissue gases and pH were measured during steady state anesthetic conditions in Group 1 and during AVM resection in Group 2. The results show that under baseline conditions before the start of surgery, tissue PO2 was decreased in AVM compared to control patients but PCO2 and pH were not changed. During AVM resection, PO2 increased, PCO2 decreased, and pH increased compared to baseline measures. These parameters did not change in control patients over a similar time period. The results suggest that chronic cerebrovascular adaptation occur in AVM patients with decreased tissue perfusion pressure as an adjustment for decreased oxygen delivery. During AVM resection, this adaptation produces a hyperemic environment with relative tissue hyperoxia, hypocapnia, and alkalosis which is not corrected by the end of surgery.  (+info)

Multidisciplinary approach to arteriovenous malformations. (7/438)

The treatment of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) depends on the efforts of a multidisciplinary team whose ultimate goal is to achieve better results when compared to the natural history of the pathology. The role of adjuvant treatment modalities such as radiosurgery and endovascular embolization is discussed. Treatment strategies and surgical results from a personal series of 344 patients operated in a 10-year period are reviewed. The Spetzler and Martin classification was modified to include subgroups IIIA (large size grade III AVMs) and IIIB (small grade III AVMs in eloquent areas) to assist the surgical resection criteria. The treatment strategy followed was surgery for grades I and II, embolization plus surgery for grade IIIA, radiosurgery for grade IIIB, and conservative for grades IV and V. According to the new proposed classification 45 (13%) patients were grade I, 96 (28%) were grade II, 44 (13%) grade IIIA, 97 (28%) grade IIIB, 45 (13%) grade IV, and 17 (5%) were grade V. As for surgical results 85.8% of the patients had a good outcome (no additional neurological deficit), 12.5% had a fair outcome (minor neurological deficit), 0.6% had a bad outcome (major neurological deficit), and 1.2% died. These figures indicate that the treatment of AVMs can achieve better results compared to the natural history if managed by a well trained group of specialists led by an experienced neurosurgeon.  (+info)

Multimodality treatment for large and critically located arteriovenous malformations. (8/438)

To define the current status of the multimodality treatment for large and critically located arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), we have made a retrospective review of 54 consecutive patients with Spetzler-Martin grade IV and V AVMs. The size of nidus is larger than 3 cm in diameter in all cases. Initially, all but one were treated by nidus embolization with the aim of size reduction. Only one patient had complete nidus occlusion by embolization alone. In 52 patients, the obliteration rate of nidus volume averaged 60% after embolization. Ten patients underwent complete surgical resection of AVMs following embolization with no postoperative neurological deterioration. Thirty-one patients underwent stereotactic radiosurgery following embolization. At the time of this analysis, 30 patients underwent follow-up angiography 2-3 years after radiosurgery. The results of radiosurgery correlated well with the preradiosurgical AVM volume. Of 16 patients with small residual AVMs (< 10 cm3, a mean volume of 4.7 cm3), nine (56%) had complete obliteration, and six (38%) had near-total or subtotal obliteration by 3 years after radiosurgery. In contrast, of 14 patients with large residual AVMs (> or = 10 cm3, a mean volume of 17.9 cm3), only two (14%) had complete obliteration, and eight (57%) had near-total or subtotal obliteration. Repeat radiosurgery was performed for the patients with remaining AVMs at 3-year follow-up review. This study indicates that a certain number of large and critically located AVMs can be safely treated by either microsurgery or radiosurgery following a significant volume reduction by nidus embolization. The present data also suggest the need and possible role of repeat radiosurgery in improving complete obliteration rate of large difficult AVMs, since many of those AVMs have significantly responded to initial radiosurgery.  (+info)

AVMs are characterized by a tangle of abnormal blood vessels that can cause a variety of symptoms, including:

* Headaches
* Seizures
* Stroke-like episodes
* Neurological deficits such as weakness or numbness
* Vision problems
* Pain

AVMs can be diagnosed through a combination of imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and catheter angiography. Treatment options for AVMs include:

* Endovascular embolization, which involves using a catheter to inject materials into the abnormal blood vessels to block them off
* Surgery to remove the AVM
* Radiation therapy to shrink the AVM

The goal of treatment is to prevent bleeding, seizures, and other complications associated with AVMs. In some cases, treatment may not be necessary if the AVM is small and not causing any symptoms. However, in more severe cases, prompt treatment can significantly improve outcomes.

There are several types of intracranial AVMs, including:

1. Cerebral AVMs: These are the most common type of AVM and occur in the cerebral hemispheres of the brain.
2. Spinal AVMs: These occur in the spinal cord and are less common than cerebral AVMs.
3. Multiple AVMs: Some people may have multiple AVMs, which can be located in different parts of the brain or spine.

The symptoms of intracranial AVMs can vary depending on the location and size of the malformation. They may include:

1. Seizures: AVMs can cause seizures, which can be a sign of the malformation.
2. Headaches: Patients with AVMs may experience frequent and severe headaches.
3. Weakness or numbness: AVMs can cause weakness or numbness in the arms or legs.
4. Vision problems: AVMs can affect the vision, including blurriness, double vision, or loss of peripheral vision.
5. Confusion or disorientation: Patients with AVMs may experience confusion or disorientation.
6. Seizures: AVMs can cause seizures, which can be a sign of the malformation.
7. Cranial nerve deficits: AVMs can affect the cranial nerves, leading to problems with speech, hearing, or facial movements.
8. Hydrocephalus: AVMs can cause hydrocephalus, which is an accumulation of fluid in the brain.

The diagnosis of intracranial AVMs is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, neuroimaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and angiography. Angiography is a test that uses dye and X-rays to visualize the blood vessels in the brain.

Treatment of intracranial AVMs usually involves a multidisciplinary approach, including neurosurgeons, interventional neuroradiologists, and neurologists. Treatment options may include:

1. Observation: Small AVMs that are not causing symptoms may be monitored with regular imaging studies to see if they grow or change over time.
2. Endovascular embolization: This is a minimally invasive procedure in which a catheter is inserted through a blood vessel in the leg and directed to the AVM in the brain. Once there, the catheter releases tiny particles that block the flow of blood into the AVM, causing it to shrink or disappear.
3. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the AVM. This is usually done when the AVM is large or in a location that makes it difficult to treat with endovascular embolization.
4. Radiation therapy: This may be used to shrink the AVM before surgery or as a standalone treatment.
5. Chemotherapy: This may be used in combination with radiation therapy to treat AVMs that are caused by a genetic condition called hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT).

The choice of treatment depends on the location and size of the AVM, as well as the patient's overall health and other medical conditions. In some cases, a combination of treatments may be necessary to achieve the best outcome.

People with HHT have abnormal blood vessels in their skin, mucous membranes, and organs such as the liver, spleen, and lungs. These abnormal vessels are weak and prone to bleeding, which can lead to nosebleeds, bruising, and other complications.

HHT is usually diagnosed based on a combination of clinical symptoms and genetic testing. Treatment typically involves managing symptoms with medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery or other interventions to prevent bleeding episodes.

Some of the main symptoms of HHT include:

* Recurring nosebleeds
* Easy bruising
* Petechiae (tiny red spots on the skin)
* Purpura (larger purple spots on the skin)
* Gingival bleeding (bleeding from the gums)
* Epistaxis (nosebleeds)
* Hematuria (blood in the urine)
* Gastrointestinal bleeding

HHT is a relatively rare disorder, affecting about 1 in 5,000 to 1 in 10,000 people worldwide. It can be inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, meaning that a single copy of the mutated gene is enough to cause the condition. However, some cases may be caused by spontaneous mutations and not be inherited.

There are several types of HHT, including:

* Type 1: The most common type, characterized by recurring nosebleeds and other bleeding episodes.
* Type 2: Characterized by a milder form of the condition with fewer bleeding episodes.
* Type 3: A rare and severe form of HHT that is often associated with other medical conditions such as liver disease or pulmonary hypertension.

HHT can be diagnosed based on clinical findings and laboratory tests, including:

* Physical examination: To look for signs of bleeding and to assess the size and shape of the nose and ears.
* Imaging studies: Such as CT or MRI scans to evaluate the nasal passages and sinuses.
* Blood tests: To check for abnormalities in blood clotting and platelet function.
* Genetic testing: To identify mutations in the genes associated with HHT.

Treatment for HHT is focused on managing symptoms and preventing complications. It may include:

* Nasal decongestants and antihistamines to reduce bleeding and swelling.
* Corticosteroids to reduce inflammation.
* Antifibrinolytic medications to prevent blood clots from breaking down.
* Surgery to repair or remove affected blood vessels.
* Regular monitoring of blood counts and platelet function.

Early diagnosis and treatment can help improve the quality of life for people with HHT. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

The AVF is created by joining a radial or brachial artery to a vein in the forearm or upper arm. The vein is typically a radiocephalic vein, which is a vein that drains blood from the hand and forearm. The fistula is formed by sewing the artery and vein together with a specialized suture material.

Once the AVF is created, it needs time to mature before it can be used for hemodialysis. This process can take several weeks or months, depending on the size of the fistula and the individual patient's healing response. During this time, the patient may need to undergo regular monitoring and testing to ensure that the fistula is functioning properly.

The advantages of an AVF over other types of hemodialysis access include:

1. Improved blood flow: The high-flow path created by the AVF allows for more efficient removal of waste products from the blood.
2. Reduced risk of infection: The connection between the artery and vein is less likely to become infected than other types of hemodialysis access.
3. Longer duration: AVFs can last for several years, providing a reliable and consistent source of hemodialysis access.
4. Improved patient comfort: The fistula is typically located in the arm or forearm, which is less invasive and more comfortable for the patient than other types of hemodialysis access.

However, there are also potential risks and complications associated with AVFs, including:

1. Access failure: The fistula may not mature properly or may become blocked, requiring alternative access methods.
2. Infection: As with any surgical procedure, there is a risk of infection with AVF creation.
3. Steal syndrome: This is a rare complication that occurs when the flow of blood through the fistula interferes with the normal flow of blood through the arm.
4. Thrombosis: The fistula may become occluded due to clotting, which can be treated with thrombolysis or surgical intervention.

In summary, an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is a type of hemodialysis access that is created by connecting an artery and a vein, providing a high-flow path for hemodialysis. AVFs offer several advantages over other types of hemodialysis access, including improved blood flow, reduced risk of infection, longer duration, and improved patient comfort. However, there are also potential risks and complications associated with AVFs, including access failure, infection, steal syndrome, and thrombosis. Regular monitoring and testing are necessary to ensure that the fistula is functioning properly and to minimize the risk of these complications.

There are several types of intracranial hemorrhage, including:

1. Cerebral hemorrhage: Bleeding within the cerebral tissue itself, which can cause damage to brain cells and lead to a variety of complications.
2. Subarachnoid hemorrhage: Bleeding between the brain and the thin membrane that covers it (the meninges), which can cause severe headaches and other symptoms.
3. Epidural hemorrhage: Bleeding between the dura mater, a protective layer of tissue surrounding the brain, and the skull.
4. Subdural hemorrhage: Bleeding between the dura mater and the arachnoid membrane, which can cause severe headaches and other symptoms.

The symptoms of intracranial hemorrhage can vary depending on the location and severity of the bleeding, but may include:

* Sudden, severe headache
* Nausea and vomiting
* Confusion and disorientation
* Weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg
* Seizures
* Loss of consciousness

Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as CT or MRI scans), and laboratory tests to determine the cause of the hemorrhage. Treatment depends on the location and severity of the bleeding, but may include medications to control symptoms, surgery to repair the source of the bleeding, or other interventions as needed.

There are several types of vascular malformations, including:

1. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs): These are abnormal connections between arteries and veins that can cause bleeding, seizures, and other neurological symptoms.
2. Capillary malformations (CMs): These are abnormalities in the tiny blood vessels that can cause redness, swelling, and other skin changes.
3. Venous malformations (VMs): These are abnormalities in the veins that can cause swelling, pain, and other symptoms.
4. Lymphatic malformations: These are abnormalities in the lymphatic system that can cause swelling, pain, and other symptoms.

Vascular malformations can be diagnosed using a variety of imaging tests, such as ultrasound, CT scans, and MRI scans. Treatment options vary depending on the type and location of the malformation, and may include surgery, embolization, or sclerotherapy.

In summary, vascular malformations are abnormalities in the blood vessels that can cause a range of symptoms and can be diagnosed using imaging tests. Treatment options vary depending on the type and location of the malformation.

Symptoms of cerebral hemorrhage may include sudden severe headache, confusion, seizures, weakness or numbness in the face or limbs, and loss of consciousness. The condition is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans, and laboratory tests to determine the cause of the bleeding.

Treatment for cerebral hemorrhage depends on the location and severity of the bleeding, as well as the underlying cause. Medications may be used to control symptoms such as high blood pressure or seizures, while surgery may be necessary to repair the ruptured blood vessel or relieve pressure on the brain. In some cases, the condition may be fatal, and immediate medical attention is essential to prevent long-term damage or death.

Some of the most common complications associated with cerebral hemorrhage include:

1. Rebleeding: There is a risk of rebleeding after the initial hemorrhage, which can lead to further brain damage and increased risk of death.
2. Hydrocephalus: Excess cerebrospinal fluid can accumulate in the brain, leading to increased intracranial pressure and potentially life-threatening complications.
3. Brain edema: Swelling of the brain tissue can occur due to the bleeding, leading to increased intracranial pressure and potentially life-threatening complications.
4. Seizures: Cerebral hemorrhage can cause seizures, which can be a sign of a more severe injury.
5. Cognitive and motor deficits: Depending on the location and severity of the bleeding, cerebral hemorrhage can result in long-term cognitive and motor deficits.
6. Vision loss: Cerebral hemorrhage can cause vision loss or blindness due to damage to the visual cortex.
7. Communication difficulties: Cerebral hemorrhage can cause difficulty with speech and language processing, leading to communication difficulties.
8. Behavioral changes: Depending on the location and severity of the bleeding, cerebral hemorrhage can result in behavioral changes, such as irritability, agitation, or apathy.
9. Infection: Cerebral hemorrhage can increase the risk of infection, particularly if the hemorrhage is caused by a ruptured aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation (AVM).
10. Death: Cerebral hemorrhage can be fatal, particularly if the bleeding is severe or if there are underlying medical conditions that compromise the patient's ability to tolerate the injury.

There are several types of Arnold-Chiari malformation, ranging from Type I to Type IV, with Type I being the most common and mildest form. In Type I, the cerebellar tonsils extend into the spinal canal, while in Type II, a portion of the cerebellum itself is pushed down into the spinal canal. Types III and IV are more severe and involve more extensive protrusion of brain tissue into the spinal canal.

The symptoms of Arnold-Chiari malformation can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include headaches, dizziness, balance problems, numbness or weakness in the limbs, and difficulty swallowing. The condition is often diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as MRI or CT scans, and other diagnostic procedures.

Treatment for Arnold-Chiari malformation depends on the severity of the condition and may range from observation to surgery. In mild cases, no treatment may be necessary, while in more severe cases, surgery may be required to relieve pressure on the brain and spinal cord. The goal of surgery is to restore the normal position of the brain and spinal cord and to alleviate symptoms.

In conclusion, Arnold-Chiari malformation is a congenital condition that affects the brainstem and cerebellum, resulting in protrusion of brain tissue into the spinal canal. The severity of the condition varies, and treatment ranges from observation to surgery, depending on the symptoms and severity of the condition.

The different types of CNSVMs include:

1. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs): These are abnormal connections between arteries and veins that can cause bleeding, seizures, and neurological deficits.
2. Cavernous malformations: These are abnormal collections of blood vessels that can cause seizures, headaches, and neurological deficits.
3. Capillary telangiectasia: These are small, fragile blood vessels that can cause seizures, headaches, and neurological deficits.
4. Venous malformations: These are abnormalities of the veins that can cause neurological symptoms and cosmetic deformities.

The diagnosis of CNSVMs is based on a combination of clinical presentation, imaging studies (such as MRI or CT scans), and angiography. Treatment options vary depending on the type and location of the malformation and may include observation, surgery, embolization, or radiosurgery. The prognosis for CNSVMs varies depending on the specific type and location of the malformation, as well as the severity of the symptoms. In general, early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications.

A sudden and unexpected tearing or breaking open of a bodily structure, such as a blood vessel, muscle, or tendon, without any obvious external cause. This can occur due to various factors, including genetic predisposition, aging, or other underlying medical conditions.

Examples:

* Spontaneous rupture of the Achilles tendon
* Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD)
* Spontaneous pneumothorax (collapsed lung)

Symptoms and Signs:

* Sudden, severe pain
* Swelling and bruising in the affected area
* Difficulty moving or using the affected limb
* Palpitations or shortness of breath (in cardiac cases)

Diagnosis:

* Physical examination and medical history
* Imaging tests, such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans, to confirm the rupture and assess the extent of damage
* Blood tests to check for underlying conditions that may have contributed to the rupture

Treatment:

* Rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) to reduce pain and swelling
* Immobilization of the affected limb with a cast or brace
* Medications to manage pain and inflammation
* Surgery may be required in some cases to repair the damaged tissue or organ

Prognosis:

* The prognosis for spontaneous rupture depends on the location and severity of the rupture, as well as the underlying cause. In general, the sooner treatment is received, the better the outcome.

Complications:

* Infection
* Further damage to surrounding tissues or organs
* Chronic pain or limited mobility
* In some cases, long-term disability or death

The symptoms of KTWS can vary in severity and may include:

* Swelling and bruising in the affected limb
* Painful or tender nodules in the soft tissues
* Reddish-purple discoloration of the skin (hyperemia)
* Enlarged veins and lymphatic vessels that are visible under the skin
* Decreased mobility and range of motion in the affected joints

KTWS is typically diagnosed through a combination of clinical examination, imaging studies such as ultrasound or MRI, and angiography. Treatment for KTWS usually involves a multidisciplinary approach that may include:

* Compression garments or wraps to reduce swelling
* Physical therapy to maintain joint mobility and range of motion
* Pain management with medication or injections
* Surgical intervention to remove varicose veins, lymphatic malformations, or hypertrophied soft tissue

The prognosis for KTWS varies depending on the severity of the condition and the presence of any associated complications. Some individuals with mild forms of the syndrome may experience few symptoms and have a good quality of life, while others with more severe forms may experience significant disability and discomfort. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help improve outcomes for individuals with KTWS.

Hemangiomas are caused by an abnormal formation of blood vessels during fetal development. They are more common in infants and children, but they can also occur in adults. The exact cause of CNS hemangiomas is not fully understood, but genetic mutations, environmental factors, and hormonal influences have been implicated.

The symptoms of CNS hemangiomas can vary depending on their location and size. Large hemangiomas can cause pressure on surrounding brain tissue, leading to symptoms such as headaches, seizures, and developmental delays. Smaller hemangiomas may not cause any symptoms at all, but they can still be detected through imaging tests such as MRI or CT scans.

Hemangiomas can occur anywhere in the CNS, but they are most commonly found in the brain, specifically in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia. They can also occur in the spinal cord, where they can cause symptoms such as pain, numbness, and weakness in the limbs.

The diagnosis of a CNS hemangioma is based on a combination of clinical findings, imaging studies, and histopathological analysis. Imaging studies, such as MRI or CT scans, can help identify the location and size of the hemangioma, while histopathological analysis can confirm the presence of dilated blood vessels.

There is no specific treatment for CNS hemangiomas, but various options are available depending on the severity of the condition and the symptoms it causes. Observation, corticosteroids, and surgery are some of the most common treatments used to manage CNS hemangiomas. In some cases, interventional techniques such as embolization or stereotactic radiosurgery may be necessary to treat the condition.

Overall, CNS hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors that can cause a range of symptoms and cognitive impairments in children and adults. While there is no specific treatment for these tumors, various options are available to manage their symptoms and improve quality of life. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as early diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve outcomes.

Congenital Abnormalities are relatively common, and they affect approximately 1 in every 30 children born worldwide. Some of the most common types of Congenital Abnormalities include:

Heart Defects: These are abnormalities that affect the structure or function of the heart. They can range from mild to severe and can be caused by genetics, viral infections, or other factors. Examples include holes in the heart, narrowed valves, and enlarged heart chambers.

Neural Tube Defects: These are abnormalities that affect the brain and spine. They occur when the neural tube, which forms the brain and spine, does not close properly during fetal development. Examples include anencephaly (absence of a major portion of the brain), spina bifida (incomplete closure of the spine), and encephalocele (protrusion of the brain or meninges through a skull defect).

Chromosomal Abnormalities: These are changes in the number or structure of chromosomes that can affect physical and mental development. Examples include Down syndrome (an extra copy of chromosome 21), Turner syndrome (a missing or partially deleted X chromosome), and Klinefelter syndrome (an extra X chromosome).

Other types of Congenital Abnormalities include cleft lip and palate, clubfoot, and polydactyly (extra fingers or toes).

Congenital Abnormalities can be diagnosed before birth through prenatal testing such as ultrasound, blood tests, and amniocentesis. After birth, they can be diagnosed through physical examination, imaging studies, and genetic testing. Treatment for Congenital Abnormalities varies depending on the type and severity of the condition, and may include surgery, medication, and other forms of therapy. In some cases, the abnormality may be minor and may not require any treatment, while in other cases, it may be more severe and may require ongoing medical care throughout the person's life.

Intracranial aneurysms are relatively rare but can have serious consequences if they rupture and cause bleeding in the brain.

The symptoms of an unruptured intracranial aneurysm may include headaches, seizures, and visual disturbances.

If an intracranial aneurysm ruptures, it can lead to a subarachnoid hemorrhage (bleeding in the space around the brain), which is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment.

Diagnosis of an intracranial aneurysm typically involves imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans, and may also involve catheter angiography.

Treatment for intracranial aneurysms usually involves surgical clipping or endovascular coiling, depending on the size, location, and severity of the aneurysm.

Preventing rupture of intracranial aneurysms is important, as they can be difficult to treat once they have ruptured.

Endovascular coiling is a minimally invasive procedure in which a catheter is inserted into the affected artery and a small coil is inserted into the aneurysm, causing it to clot and preventing further bleeding.

Surgical clipping involves placing a small metal clip across the base of the aneurysm to prevent further bleeding.

In addition to these treatments, medications such as anticonvulsants and antihypertensives may be used to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Definition: A nosebleed, also known as a bloody nose, is a common condition that occurs when the nasal passages bleed. It can be caused by a variety of factors, such as dry air, allergies, colds, sinus infections, and injuries to the nose.

Synonyms: Nosebleed, bloody nose, anterior epistaxis, posterior epistaxis.

Antonyms: None.

Epistaxis is a common condition that can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Dry air: Dry air can cause the nasal passages to become dry and cracked, leading to bleeding.
2. Allergies: Seasonal allergies or allergies to dust, pollen, or other substances can cause inflammation and irritation in the nasal passages, leading to bleeding.
3. Colds: A common cold can cause inflammation and congestion in the nasal passages, leading to bleeding.
4. Sinus infections: An infection in the sinuses can cause inflammation and bleeding in the nasal passages.
5. Injuries: Trauma to the nose, such as a blow to the face or a fall, can cause bleeding.
6. Medications: Certain medications, such as aspirin or warfarin, can thin the blood and increase the risk of bleeding.
7. High blood pressure: High blood pressure can cause damage to the blood vessels in the nose, leading to bleeding.
8. Nose picking: Picking or blowing the nose too forcefully can cause trauma to the nasal passages and lead to bleeding.
9. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT): A rare genetic disorder that affects the blood vessels and can cause recurring nosebleeds.

Symptoms of epistaxis may include:

1. Blood flowing from one or both nostrils
2. Nasal congestion or stuffiness
3. Pain or discomfort in the nose or face
4. Difficulty breathing through the nose
5. Postnasal drip (mucus running down the back of the throat)
6. Swelling around the eyes or face
7. Fever or chills
8. Headache
9. Weakness or fatigue

If you experience any of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention. A healthcare professional can diagnose the cause of the nosebleed and recommend appropriate treatment. Treatment for epistaxis may include:

1. Nasal decongestants or antihistamines to reduce nasal congestion
2. Topical or oral antibiotics to treat any underlying infections
3. Applications of a topical ointment or cream to help protect the nasal passages and promote healing
4. Injectable medications to help constrict blood vessels and stop bleeding
5. Surgery to repair damaged blood vessels or remove any foreign objects that may be causing the bleeding.

Some examples of multiple abnormalities include:

1. Multiple chronic conditions: An individual may have multiple chronic conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, arthritis, and heart disease, which can affect their quality of life and increase their risk of complications.
2. Congenital anomalies: Some individuals may be born with multiple physical abnormalities or birth defects, such as heart defects, limb abnormalities, or facial deformities.
3. Mental health disorders: Individuals may experience multiple mental health disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder, which can impact their cognitive functioning and daily life.
4. Neurological conditions: Some individuals may have multiple neurological conditions, such as epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, and stroke, which can affect their cognitive and physical functioning.
5. Genetic disorders: Individuals with genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome or Turner syndrome, may experience a range of physical and developmental abnormalities.

The term "multiple abnormalities" is often used in medical research and clinical practice to describe individuals who have complex health needs and require comprehensive care. It is important for healthcare providers to recognize and address the multiple needs of these individuals to improve their overall health outcomes.

Some examples of nervous system malformations include:

1. Neural tube defects: These are among the most common types of nervous system malformations and occur when the neural tube, which forms the brain and spinal cord, fails to close properly during fetal development. Examples include anencephaly (absence of a major portion of the brain), spina bifida (incomplete closure of the spine), and encephalocele (protrusion of the brain or meninges through a skull defect).
2. Cerebral palsy: This is a group of disorders that affect movement, balance, and posture, often resulting from brain damage during fetal development or early childhood. The exact cause may not be known, but it can be related to genetic mutations, infections, or other factors.
3. Hydrocephalus: This is a condition in which there is an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain, leading to increased pressure and enlargement of the head. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, infections, or blockages in the CSF circulatory system.
4. Moyamoya disease: This is a rare condition caused by narrowing or blockage of the internal carotid artery and its branches, leading to reduced blood flow to the brain. It can result in stroke-like episodes, seizures, and cognitive impairment.
5. Spinal muscular atrophy: This is a genetic disorder that affects the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscle movement, leading to progressive muscle weakness and wasting. It can be diagnosed through blood tests or genetic analysis.
6. Neurofibromatosis: This is a genetic disorder that causes non-cancerous tumors to grow on nerve tissue, leading to symptoms such as skin changes, learning disabilities, and eye problems. It can be diagnosed through clinical evaluation and genetic testing.
7. Tuberous sclerosis: This is a rare genetic disorder that causes non-cancerous tumors to grow in the brain and other organs, leading to symptoms such as seizures, developmental delays, and skin changes. It can be diagnosed through clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and genetic testing.
8. Cerebral palsy: This is a group of disorders that affect movement, posture, and muscle tone, often resulting from brain damage sustained during fetal development or early childhood. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including premature birth, infections, and genetic mutations.
9. Down syndrome: This is a genetic disorder caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21, leading to intellectual disability, developmental delays, and physical characteristics such as a flat face and short stature. It can be diagnosed through blood tests or genetic analysis.
10. William syndrome: This is a rare genetic disorder caused by a deletion of genetic material on chromosome 7, leading to symptoms such as cardiovascular problems, growth delays, and learning disabilities. It can be diagnosed through clinical evaluation and genetic testing.

It's important to note that these are just a few examples of developmental disorders, and there are many other conditions that can affect cognitive and physical development in children. If you suspect your child may have a developmental disorder, it's important to speak with a qualified healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Synonyms: congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM), pulmonary airway hamartoma, broncho-pulmonary foregut malformation (BPFM). See also cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung (CAM).

The Vein of Galen malformation is typically diagnosed during infancy or early childhood, and it can cause a range of symptoms including seizures, developmental delays, and weakness or paralysis on one side of the body. In some cases, the condition may also be associated with other congenital anomalies such as hydrocephalus (fluid buildup in the brain) or spina bifida (a type of spinal cord abnormality).

Treatment for Vein of Galen malformations often involves a combination of surgery and endovascular procedures to repair or obliterate the affected blood vessel. In some cases, medications may also be used to manage symptoms such as seizures or high blood pressure. The prognosis for patients with Vein of Galen malformations varies depending on the severity of the condition and the timeliness and effectiveness of treatment. In general, early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications such as stroke or brain damage.

Types of Malformations of Cortical Development:

There are several types of malformations of cortical development, including:

1. Cerebral palsy: a group of disorders that affect movement, balance, and posture, often resulting from brain damage during fetal development or birth.
2. Hydrocephalus: a condition in which there is an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain, leading to increased intracranial pressure and enlargement of the head.
3. Microcephaly: a condition in which the brain and skull are smaller than normal, often resulting in developmental delays, intellectual disability, and seizures.
4. Macrocephaly: a condition in which the brain and skull are larger than normal, often resulting from an overproduction of CSF or a brain tumor.
5. Cortical dysplasia: a condition in which there is abnormal development of the cerebral cortex, leading to problems with movement, cognition, and behavior.
6. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD): a group of conditions that result from exposure to alcohol during fetal development, often causing malformations of the cerebral cortex and other brain structures.
7. Genetic mutations: some genetic mutations can lead to malformations of cortical development, such as those caused by maternal infection or exposure to certain medications.
8. Infections during pregnancy: certain infections, such as rubella or toxoplasmosis, can cause malformations of cortical development if contracted during pregnancy.
9. Traumatic brain injury: a head injury during fetal development or early childhood can disrupt normal cortical development and lead to developmental delays and cognitive impairments.
10. Exposure to toxins: exposure to certain toxins, such as lead or pesticides, during fetal development can damage the developing brain and result in malformations of cortical development.

These are just a few examples of conditions that can cause malformations of cortical development. It's important to note that many of these conditions can be diagnosed through imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans, and some may require specialized testing or monitoring throughout childhood. Early detection and intervention can help improve outcomes for children with these conditions.

The symptoms of a brain abscess can vary depending on the location and size of the abscess, but may include:

* Headache
* Fever
* Confusion or disorientation
* Seizures
* Weakness or numbness in the arms or legs
* Vision problems
* Speech difficulties

If a brain abscess is suspected, a doctor will typically perform a physical examination and order imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment usually involves antibiotics to treat the underlying infection, as well as surgery to drain the abscess and remove any infected tissue. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the patient.

With prompt and appropriate treatment, most people with a brain abscess can recover fully or almost fully, but in some cases, the condition can result in long-term complications such as memory loss, cognitive impairment, or personality changes. In rare instances, a brain abscess can be fatal if not treated promptly and properly.

Some common examples of drug-induced abnormalities include:

1. Allergic reactions: Some drugs can cause an allergic reaction, which can lead to symptoms such as hives, itching, swelling, and difficulty breathing.
2. Side effects: Many drugs can cause side effects, such as nausea, dizziness, and fatigue, which can be mild or severe.
3. Toxic reactions: Some drugs can cause toxic reactions, which can damage the body's organs and tissues.
4. Autoimmune disorders: Certain drugs can trigger autoimmune disorders, such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis, which can cause a range of symptoms including joint pain, fatigue, and skin rashes.
5. Gastrointestinal problems: Some drugs can cause gastrointestinal problems, such as stomach ulcers, diarrhea, or constipation.
6. Neurological disorders: Certain drugs can cause neurological disorders, such as seizures, tremors, and changes in mood or behavior.
7. Cardiovascular problems: Some drugs can increase the risk of cardiovascular problems, such as heart attack or stroke.
8. Metabolic changes: Certain drugs can cause metabolic changes, such as weight gain or loss, and changes in blood sugar levels.
9. Endocrine disorders: Some drugs can affect the body's endocrine system, leading to hormonal imbalances and a range of symptoms including changes in mood, energy levels, and sexual function.
10. Kidney damage: Certain drugs can cause kidney damage or failure, especially in people with pre-existing kidney problems.

It's important to note that not all drugs will cause side effects, and the severity of side effects can vary depending on the individual and the specific drug being taken. However, it's important to be aware of the potential risks associated with any medication you are taking, and to discuss any concerns or questions you have with your healthcare provider.

Symptoms of secondary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy may include:

1. Pain and stiffness in the hands and feet
2. Swelling and redness in the affected joints
3. Thickening and enlargement of the bones in the hands and feet
4. Limited range of motion in the affected joints
5. Warmth and erythema (redness) over the affected joints.

SHOA can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, X-rays, and other imaging tests such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment for SHOA may include medications to manage pain and inflammation, as well as surgery to remove any excess bone growth. In some cases, the underlying condition that is causing the bone growth may also be treated.

SHOA is a rare condition, and it is estimated to affect only about 1 in 100,000 people. It can occur at any age but is more common in adults. The exact prevalence of SHOA is not known, as it is often misdiagnosed or underdiagnosed.

Secondary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy is a rare condition that causes excessive growth and thickening of the bones in the hands and feet. It is often associated with other conditions, such as inflammatory diseases or cancers. The exact cause of SHOA is not known, but it is thought to be related to an abnormal response to injury or inflammation. Treatment for SHOA typically focuses on managing the underlying condition that is causing the bone growth.

SHOA is a rare and often misdiagnosed condition that can cause significant pain and disability. It is important for individuals who are experiencing symptoms of SHOA to seek medical attention to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. With proper treatment, many people with SHOA can experience improvement in their symptoms and quality of life.

There are several types of headaches, including:

1. Tension headache: This is the most common type of headache and is caused by muscle tension in the neck and scalp.
2. Migraine: This is a severe headache that can cause nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
3. Sinus headache: This type of headache is caused by inflammation or infection in the sinuses.
4. Cluster headache: This is a rare type of headache that occurs in clusters or cycles and can be very painful.
5. Rebound headache: This type of headache is caused by overuse of pain medication.

Headaches can be treated with a variety of methods, such as:

1. Over-the-counter pain medications, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen.
2. Prescription medications, such as triptans or ergots, for migraines and other severe headaches.
3. Lifestyle changes, such as stress reduction techniques, regular exercise, and a healthy diet.
4. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture or massage, which can help relieve tension and pain.
5. Addressing underlying causes, such as sinus infections or allergies, that may be contributing to the headaches.

It is important to seek medical attention if a headache is severe, persistent, or accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, confusion, or weakness. A healthcare professional can diagnose the cause of the headache and recommend appropriate treatment.

In medicine, cyanosis is often used as an indication of the severity of a patient's condition. For example, a patient with severe cyanosis may have a more serious underlying condition than a patient with mild cyanosis. Additionally, cyanosis can be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatment and to determine when further interventions are necessary.

Cyanosis can be diagnosed through physical examination, blood tests, and other diagnostic procedures such as pulse oximetry or arterial blood gas analysis. Treatment for cyanosis depends on the underlying cause and may include oxygen therapy, medication, or surgical intervention.

In summary, cyanosis is a condition characterized by a bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to inadequate oxygenation of the body's tissues. It is an important sign of underlying disease and can be used to assess the severity of a patient's condition and monitor the effectiveness of treatment.

Some common types of cerebellar diseases include:

1. Cerebellar atrophy: This is a condition where the cerebellum shrinks or degenerates, leading to symptoms such as tremors, muscle weakness, and difficulty with movement.
2. Cerebellar degeneration: This is a condition where the cerebellum deteriorates over time, leading to symptoms such as loss of coordination, balance problems, and difficulties with speech and language.
3. Cerebellar tumors: These are abnormal growths that develop in the cerebellum, which can cause a variety of symptoms depending on their size and location.
4. Cerebellar stroke: This is a condition where blood flow to the cerebellum is interrupted, leading to damage to the brain tissue and symptoms such as weakness or paralysis of certain muscle groups.
5. Cerebellar vasculature disorders: These are conditions that affect the blood vessels in the cerebellum, leading to symptoms such as transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or strokes.
6. Inflammatory diseases: These are conditions that cause inflammation in the cerebellum, leading to symptoms such as tremors, ataxia, and weakness.
7. Infections: Bacterial, viral, or fungal infections can affect the cerebellum and cause a range of symptoms.
8. Trauma: Head injuries or other forms of trauma can damage the cerebellum and lead to symptoms such as loss of coordination, balance problems, and memory loss.
9. Genetic disorders: Certain genetic mutations can affect the development and function of the cerebellum, leading to a range of symptoms.
10. Degenerative diseases: Conditions such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease can cause degeneration of the cerebellum and lead to symptoms such as tremors, ataxia, and weakness.

It's important to note that this is not an exhaustive list, and there may be other causes of cerebellar symptoms not included here. A healthcare professional can help determine the underlying cause of your symptoms based on a thorough medical history and examination.

Intracranial hematoma occurs within the skull and is often caused by head injuries, such as falls or car accidents. It can lead to severe neurological symptoms, including confusion, seizures, and loss of consciousness. Extracranial hematomas occur outside the skull and are commonly seen in injuries from sports, accidents, or surgery.

The signs and symptoms of hematoma may vary depending on its location and size. Common symptoms include pain, swelling, bruising, and limited mobility. Diagnosis is typically made through imaging tests such as CT scans or MRI scans, along with physical examination and medical history.

Treatment for hematoma depends on its severity and location. In some cases, conservative management with rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) may be sufficient. However, surgical intervention may be necessary to drain the collection of blood or remove any clots that have formed.

In severe cases, hematoma can lead to life-threatening complications such as infection, neurological damage, and organ failure. Therefore, prompt medical attention is crucial for proper diagnosis and treatment.

1. Infection: Bacterial or viral infections can develop after surgery, potentially leading to sepsis or organ failure.
2. Adhesions: Scar tissue can form during the healing process, which can cause bowel obstruction, chronic pain, or other complications.
3. Wound complications: Incisional hernias, wound dehiscence (separation of the wound edges), and wound infections can occur.
4. Respiratory problems: Pneumonia, respiratory failure, and atelectasis (collapsed lung) can develop after surgery, particularly in older adults or those with pre-existing respiratory conditions.
5. Cardiovascular complications: Myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiac failure can occur after surgery, especially in high-risk patients.
6. Renal (kidney) problems: Acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease can develop postoperatively, particularly in patients with pre-existing renal impairment.
7. Neurological complications: Stroke, seizures, and neuropraxia (nerve damage) can occur after surgery, especially in patients with pre-existing neurological conditions.
8. Pulmonary embolism: Blood clots can form in the legs or lungs after surgery, potentially causing pulmonary embolism.
9. Anesthesia-related complications: Respiratory and cardiac complications can occur during anesthesia, including respiratory and cardiac arrest.
10. delayed healing: Wound healing may be delayed or impaired after surgery, particularly in patients with pre-existing medical conditions.

It is important for patients to be aware of these potential complications and to discuss any concerns with their surgeon and healthcare team before undergoing surgery.

Here are some examples of how 'Aneurysm, Ruptured' is used in different contexts:

1. Medical literature: "The patient was rushed to the hospital with a ruptured aneurysm after experiencing sudden severe headaches and vomiting."
2. Doctor-patient communication: "You have a ruptured aneurysm, which means that your blood vessel has burst and is causing bleeding inside your body."
3. Medical research: "The study found that patients with a history of smoking are at increased risk of developing a ruptured aneurysm."
4. Emergency medical services: "The patient was transported to the hospital with a ruptured aneurysm and was in critical condition upon arrival."
5. Patient education: "To prevent a ruptured aneurysm, it is important to manage high blood pressure and avoid smoking."

The severity of GIH can vary widely, ranging from mild to life-threatening. Mild cases may resolve on their own or with minimal treatment, while severe cases may require urgent medical attention and aggressive intervention.

Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Symptoms:

* Vomiting blood or passing black tarry stools
* Hematemesis (vomiting blood)
* Melena (passing black, tarry stools)
* Rectal bleeding
* Abdominal pain
* Fever
* Weakness and dizziness

Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Causes:

* Peptic ulcers
* Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
* Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
* Diverticulosis and diverticulitis
* Cancer of the stomach, small intestine, or large intestine
* Vascular malformations

Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Diagnosis:

* Physical examination
* Medical history
* Laboratory tests (such as complete blood count and coagulation studies)
* Endoscopy (to visualize the inside of the gastrointestinal tract)
* Imaging studies (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI)

Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Treatment:

* Medications to control bleeding and reduce acid production in the stomach
* Endoscopy to locate and treat the site of bleeding
* Surgery to repair damaged blood vessels or remove a bleeding tumor
* Blood transfusions to replace lost blood

Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Prevention:

* Avoiding alcohol and spicy foods
* Taking medications as directed to control acid reflux and other gastrointestinal conditions
* Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
* Reducing stress
* Avoiding smoking and excessive caffeine consumption.

The exact cause of hemangiomas is not known, but they are thought to be caused by an abnormal formation of blood vessels during fetal development. Hemangiomas are more common in infants and children, and they tend to grow rapidly during the first year of life. They are usually small and do not cause any symptoms, but can become larger and more complex over time.

The diagnosis of a hemangioma is based on a physical examination, imaging studies such as ultrasound or MRI, and a biopsy. Treatment for hemangiomas may include observation, steroid medications, or surgical removal if the lesion is causing symptoms or is large and unsightly.

The following are some of the key features of hemangioma, cavernous:

1. Location: Hemangiomas can occur anywhere in the body, but they are most common in the skin and subcutaneous tissue.
2. Composition: Hemangiomas are made up of abnormal and dilated blood vessels.
3. Size: Hemangiomas can range in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter.
4. Shape: Hemangiomas can be round or oval in shape, and may have a raised or depressed surface.
5. Color: Hemangiomas are typically red or purple in color, but can also be blue or brown.
6. Symptoms: Hemangiomas may cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, or bleeding, depending on their location and size.
7. Cause: The exact cause of hemangiomas is not known, but they are thought to be caused by an abnormal formation of blood vessels during fetal development.
8. Treatment: Treatment for hemangiomas may include observation, steroid medications, or surgical removal if the lesion is causing symptoms or is cosmetically unsightly.

The following are some of the key features of hemangioma, capillary:

1. Location: Hemangiomas can occur anywhere in the body, but they are most common in the skin and subcutaneous tissue.
2. Composition: Hemangiomas are made up of abnormal and dilated capillaries.
3. Size: Hemangiomas can range in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter.
4. Shape: Hemangiomas can be round or oval in shape, and may have a raised or depressed surface.
5. Color: Hemangiomas are typically red or purple in color, but can also be blue or brown.
6. Symptoms: Hemangiomas may cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, or bleeding, depending on their location and size.
7. Cause: The exact cause of hemangiomas is not known, but they are thought to be caused by an abnormal formation of capillaries during fetal development.
8. Treatment: Treatment for hemangiomas usually involves observation and monitoring, but may also include surgical removal or laser therapy in some cases.

It's important to note that while hemangiomas are not cancerous, they can be difficult to distinguish from other types of vascular lesions, and a biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. If you suspect you have a hemangioma, it's important to consult with a qualified healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

There are several types of mutism, including:

1. Selective mutism: This is a condition where an individual is unable to speak in certain situations or to specific people, but can speak freely in other situations.
2. Total mutism: This is a condition where an individual is completely unable to speak, and may communicate only through nonverbal means such as gestures or writing.
3. Mutism due to brain damage: This can be caused by head injury, stroke, or other forms of brain damage that affect language processing.
4. Mutism in children: This can be caused by a variety of factors, including developmental delays, hearing loss, or social anxiety.
5. Mutism as a symptom of other conditions: Mutism may be a symptom of other conditions such as autism spectrum disorder, anxiety disorders, or depression.

Diagnosis of mutism typically involves a comprehensive evaluation of the individual's speech and language abilities, as well as any underlying medical or psychological conditions that may be contributing to the mutism. Treatment options may include speech therapy, behavioral therapy, and in some cases, medication to address any underlying conditions.

It is important to note that mutism is not the same as aphasia, which is a condition where an individual experiences difficulty with language processing due to brain damage or other causes. While individuals with mutism may have difficulty with language processing, they do not experience the same level of cognitive impairment as individuals with aphasia.

Examples of fetal diseases include:

1. Down syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21, which can cause delays in physical and intellectual development, as well as increased risk of heart defects and other health problems.
2. Spina bifida: A birth defect that affects the development of the spine and brain, resulting in a range of symptoms from mild to severe.
3. Cystic fibrosis: A genetic disorder that affects the respiratory and digestive systems, causing thick mucus buildup and recurring lung infections.
4. Anencephaly: A condition where a portion of the brain and skull are missing, which is usually fatal within a few days or weeks of birth.
5. Clubfoot: A deformity of the foot and ankle that can be treated with casts or surgery.
6. Hirschsprung's disease: A condition where the nerve cells that control bowel movements are missing, leading to constipation and other symptoms.
7. Diaphragmatic hernia: A birth defect that occurs when there is a hole in the diaphragm, allowing organs from the abdomen to move into the chest cavity.
8. Gastroschisis: A birth defect where the intestines protrude through a opening in the abdominal wall.
9. Congenital heart disease: Heart defects that are present at birth, such as holes in the heart or narrowed blood vessels.
10. Neural tube defects: Defects that affect the brain and spine, such as spina bifida and anencephaly.

Early detection and diagnosis of fetal diseases can be crucial for ensuring proper medical care and improving outcomes for affected babies. Prenatal testing, such as ultrasound and blood tests, can help identify fetal anomalies and genetic disorders during pregnancy.

Some common types of brain diseases include:

1. Neurodegenerative diseases: These are progressive conditions that damage or kill brain cells over time, leading to memory loss, cognitive decline, and movement disorders. Examples include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
2. Stroke: This occurs when blood flow to the brain is interrupted, leading to cell death and potential long-term disability.
3. Traumatic brain injury (TBI): This refers to any type of head injury that causes damage to the brain, such as concussions, contusions, or penetrating wounds.
4. Infections: Viral, bacterial, and fungal infections can all affect the brain, leading to a range of symptoms including fever, seizures, and meningitis.
5. Tumors: Brain tumors can be benign or malignant and can cause a variety of symptoms depending on their location and size.
6. Cerebrovascular diseases: These conditions affect the blood vessels of the brain, leading to conditions such as aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), and Moyamoya disease.
7. Neurodevelopmental disorders: These are conditions that affect the development of the brain and nervous system, such as autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, and intellectual disability.
8. Sleep disorders: Conditions such as insomnia, narcolepsy, and sleep apnea can all have a significant impact on brain function.
9. Psychiatric disorders: Mental health conditions such as depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia can affect the brain and its functioning.
10. Neurodegenerative with brain iron accumulation: Conditions such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and Huntington's disease are characterized by the accumulation of abnormal proteins and other substances in the brain, leading to progressive loss of brain function over time.

It is important to note that this is not an exhaustive list and there may be other conditions or factors that can affect the brain and its functioning. Additionally, many of these conditions can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life, and it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Examples of syndromes include:

1. Down syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21 that affects intellectual and physical development.
2. Turner syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by a missing or partially deleted X chromosome that affects physical growth and development in females.
3. Marfan syndrome: A genetic disorder affecting the body's connective tissue, causing tall stature, long limbs, and cardiovascular problems.
4. Alzheimer's disease: A neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory loss, confusion, and changes in personality and behavior.
5. Parkinson's disease: A neurological disorder characterized by tremors, rigidity, and difficulty with movement.
6. Klinefelter syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by an extra X chromosome in males, leading to infertility and other physical characteristics.
7. Williams syndrome: A rare genetic disorder caused by a deletion of genetic material on chromosome 7, characterized by cardiovascular problems, developmental delays, and a distinctive facial appearance.
8. Fragile X syndrome: The most common form of inherited intellectual disability, caused by an expansion of a specific gene on the X chromosome.
9. Prader-Willi syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by a defect in the hypothalamus, leading to problems with appetite regulation and obesity.
10. Sjogren's syndrome: An autoimmune disorder that affects the glands that produce tears and saliva, causing dry eyes and mouth.

Syndromes can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment for a syndrome depends on the underlying cause and the specific symptoms and signs presented by the patient.

Examples of Urogenital Abnormalities:

1. Congenital Anomalies: Conditions that are present at birth and affect the urinary tract or genitalia, such as hypospadias (a condition where the urethra opens on the underside of the penis instead of the tip), undescended testes (testes that fail to descend into the scrotum), or interrupted or absent vas deferens (tubes that carry sperm from the epididymis to the penis).
2. Infections: Bacterial or viral infections that can cause urogenital abnormalities, such as pyelonephritis (a kidney infection) or prostatitis (an inflammation of the prostate gland).
3. Trauma: Injuries to the urinary tract or genitalia, such as those caused by sexual assault or accidents, can lead to urogenital abnormalities.
4. Neurological Conditions: Certain neurological conditions, such as spina bifida (a birth defect that affects the spine and spinal cord), can cause urogenital abnormalities.
5. Cancer: Cancer of the urinary tract or genitalia, such as bladder cancer or prostate cancer, can cause urogenital abnormalities.

Symptoms of Urogenital Abnormalities:

Depending on the specific condition, symptoms of urogenital abnormalities may include:

1. Difficulty urinating or painful urination
2. Blood in the urine or semen
3. Frequent urination or incontinence
4. Pain during sexual activity
5. Abnormalities in the shape or size of the genitalia
6. Testicular atrophy or swelling
7. Discharge from the vagina or penis
8. Foul-smelling urine

Diagnosis and Treatment of Urogenital Abnormalities:

Diagnosis of urogenital abnormalities typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as urinalysis, blood tests, and imaging studies (such as X-rays or ultrasound). Treatment depends on the specific condition causing the abnormality. Some common treatments include:

1. Medications to treat infections or inflammation
2. Surgery to repair or remove damaged tissue
3. Lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise modifications
4. Pelvic floor exercises to strengthen the muscles that control urination and bowel movements
5. Assistive devices, such as catheters or prosthetic limbs
6. Hormone therapy to treat hormonal imbalances or gender identity issues.

The exact cause of syringomyelia is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to abnormal development or blockage of the spinal cord during fetal development. Some cases may be associated with genetic mutations or other inherited conditions, while others may be caused by acquired factors such as trauma, infection, or tumors.

Symptoms of syringomyelia can vary widely and may include:

1. Pain: Pain is a common symptom of syringomyelia, particularly in the neck, back, or limbs. The pain may be aching, sharp, or burning in nature and may be exacerbated by movement or activity.
2. Muscle weakness: As the syrinx grows, it can compress and damage the surrounding nerve fibers, leading to muscle weakness and wasting. This can affect the limbs, face, or other areas of the body.
3. Paresthesias: Patients with syringomyelia may experience numbness, tingling, or burning sensations in the affected area.
4. Spasticity: Some individuals with syringomyelia may experience spasticity, which is characterized by stiffness and increased muscle tone.
5. Sensory loss: In severe cases of syringomyelia, patients may experience loss of sensation in the affected area.
6. Bladder dysfunction: Syringomyelia can also affect the bladder and bowel function, leading to urinary retention or incontinence.
7. Orthostatic hypotension: Some patients with syringomyelia may experience a drop in blood pressure when standing, leading to dizziness or fainting.

Diagnosis of syringomyelia is typically made through a combination of imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans, and clinical evaluation. Treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, but may include:

1. Physical therapy to maintain muscle strength and prevent deformities.
2. Orthotics and assistive devices to improve mobility and function.
3. Pain management with medication or injections.
4. Surgery to release compressive lesions or remove tumors.
5. Chemotherapy to treat malignant causes of syringomyelia.
6. Shunting procedures to drain cerebrospinal fluid and relieve pressure.
7. Rehabilitation therapies such as occupational and speech therapy to address any cognitive or functional deficits.

It's important to note that the prognosis for syringomyelia varies depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, the condition may be manageable with treatment, while in others it may progress and lead to significant disability or death. Early diagnosis and intervention are key to improving outcomes for patients with syringomyelia.

Note: The medical information provided here is for general purposes only and should not be considered a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. If you suspect that your child may have a congenital limb deformity, it is important to consult with a qualified healthcare provider as soon as possible.

The term extravasation is commonly used in medical contexts to describe the leakage of fluids or medications from a blood vessel or other body structure. In the context of diagnostic and therapeutic materials, extravasation can refer to the leakage of materials such as contrast agents, medications, or other substances used for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.

Extravagation of diagnostic and therapeutic materials can have significant consequences, including tissue damage, infection, and systemic toxicity. For example, if a contrast agent used for imaging purposes leaks into the surrounding tissues, it can cause inflammation or other adverse reactions. Similarly, if a medication intended for injection into a specific location leaks into the surrounding tissues or organs, it can cause unintended side effects or toxicity.

To prevent extravasation of diagnostic and therapeutic materials, healthcare providers must follow proper techniques and protocols for administration and use of these materials. This may include using sterile equipment, following proper injection techniques, and monitoring the patient closely for any signs of complications. In cases where extravasation does occur, prompt treatment and management are essential to minimize potential harm and prevent long-term consequences.

While lipomatosis is not a life-threatening condition, it can cause discomfort and pain due to the size and location of the lipomas. In some cases, lipomatosis may also lead to other health problems, such as obesity, joint pain, and sleep apnea.

There are several risk factors for developing lipomatosis, including:

* Genetics: Lipomatosis can be inherited from one's parents.
* Obesity: Excess weight is a major risk factor for developing lipomatosis.
* Hormonal changes: Changes in hormone levels, such as those that occur during pregnancy or menopause, can increase the risk of developing lipomatosis.
* Age: Lipomatosis is more common in adults over the age of 40.
* Gender: Women are more likely to develop lipomatosis than men.

There are several treatment options for lipomatosis, including:

* Liposuction: A surgical procedure that removes excess fat cells.
* Medications: Certain medications, such as corticosteroids and antidepressants, can help reduce the size of lipomas.
* Diet and exercise: Maintaining a healthy diet and exercise routine can help reduce body weight and alleviate symptoms of lipomatosis.

It is important to note that while lipomatosis is not a life-threatening condition, it can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life. If you suspect you may be experiencing symptoms of lipomatosis, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Sources:

1. Cleveland Clinic. (n.d.). Imperforation Anus. Retrieved from
2. Healthline. (n.d.). Imperforate Anus. Retrieved from
3. Mayo Clinic. (n.d.). Imperforate anus. Retrieved from

The main symptoms of Lateral Medullary Syndrome include:

1. Weakness or paralysis of the face, tongue, and one side of the body
2. Difficulty speaking and swallowing
3. Numbness or tingling sensation in the face and limbs
4. Double vision or other eye movements
5. Dizziness or vertigo
6. Abnormal posture or gait
7. Decreased reflexes

The causes of Lateral Medullary Syndrome are diverse, including:

1. Trauma to the neck or head
2. Stroke or bleeding in the brain
3. Tumors or cysts in the brainstem
4. Infections such as meningitis or encephalitis
5. Vascular malformations
6. Brain aneurysms
7. Arteriovenous malformations
8. Cavernous malformations
9. Trauma to the spinal cord

The diagnosis of Lateral Medullary Syndrome is based on a combination of clinical findings, imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans, and electrophysiological tests like electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies (NCS). Treatment options for Lateral Medullary Syndrome depend on the underlying cause and may include:

1. Supportive care to manage symptoms such as weakness, numbness, and difficulty speaking or swallowing.
2. Physical therapy to improve motor function and prevent joint contractures.
3. Speech therapy to improve communication and swallowing difficulties.
4. Medications to manage pain, spasticity, and other symptoms.
5. Surgery to relieve compression or repair damaged tissue in the brainstem or spinal cord.
6. Rehabilitation to regain lost function and improve quality of life.

The prognosis for Lateral Medullary Syndrome varies depending on the underlying cause and the severity of the injury. In general, the earlier the diagnosis and treatment, the better the outcome. However, some patients may experience significant residual weakness or disability, and a small number may be at risk for sudden death due to the development of cardiac arrhythmias.

Types of congenital heart defects include:

1. Ventricular septal defect (VSD): A hole in the wall between the two lower chambers of the heart, allowing abnormal blood flow.
2. Atrial septal defect (ASD): A hole in the wall between the two upper chambers of the heart, also allowing abnormal blood flow.
3. Tetralogy of Fallot: A combination of four heart defects, including VSD, pulmonary stenosis (narrowing of the pulmonary valve), and abnormal development of the infundibulum (a part of the heart that connects the ventricles to the pulmonary artery).
4. Transposition of the great vessels: A condition in which the aorta and/or pulmonary artery are placed in the wrong position, disrupting blood flow.
5. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS): A severe defect in which the left side of the heart is underdeveloped, resulting in insufficient blood flow to the body.
6. Pulmonary atresia: A condition in which the pulmonary valve does not form properly, blocking blood flow to the lungs.
7. Truncus arteriosus: A rare defect in which a single artery instead of two (aorta and pulmonary artery) arises from the heart.
8. Double-outlet right ventricle: A condition in which both the aorta and the pulmonary artery arise from the right ventricle instead of the left ventricle.

Causes of congenital heart defects are not fully understood, but genetics, environmental factors, and viral infections during pregnancy may play a role. Diagnosis is typically made through fetal echocardiography or cardiac ultrasound during pregnancy or after birth. Treatment depends on the type and severity of the defect and may include medication, surgery, or heart transplantation. With advances in medical technology and treatment, many children with congenital heart disease can lead active, healthy lives into adulthood.


Types of Spinal Cord Vascular Diseases:

1. Moyamoya disease: A rare condition caused by narrowing or blockage of the internal carotid artery and its branches, leading to decreased blood flow to the brain and spinal cord.
2. Stenosis (narrowing): A common condition caused by wear and tear or inflammation that can occur anywhere along the length of the spine.
3. Spinal cord infarction: A condition caused by a lack of blood supply to the spinal cord, often due to a blockage or clot in the blood vessels.
4. Vasculitis: An inflammatory condition that affects the blood vessels, including those supplying the spinal cord.
5. Thoracic outlet syndrome: A condition caused by compression of the nerves and blood vessels between the neck and shoulder.

Symptoms:

1. Weakness or numbness in the arms or legs
2. Pain in the neck, back, or limbs
3. Difficulty with coordination and balance
4. Bladder or bowel dysfunction
5. Loss of sensation in the arms or legs
6. Tingling or burning sensations in the arms or legs
7. Muscle spasms or stiffness
8. Weakness or paralysis of specific muscle groups

Diagnosis:

1. Medical history and physical examination
2. Imaging studies, such as MRI or CT scans
3. Blood tests to check for inflammatory markers or signs of vasculitis
4. Angiography or MRA to visualize the blood vessels
5. Electromyography (EMG) to assess muscle function and nerve damage

Treatment:

1. Medications to manage symptoms, such as pain relievers, anti-inflammatory drugs, or corticosteroids
2. Physical therapy to improve range of motion and strength
3. Surgery to release compressed nerves or repair damaged blood vessels
4. Injections of botulinum toxin or other medications to relieve symptoms
5. Lifestyle modifications, such as avoiding heavy lifting or bending, taking regular breaks to rest, and practicing good posture.

There are several types of hydrocephalus, including:

1. Aqueductal stenosis: This occurs when the aqueduct that connects the third and fourth ventricles becomes narrowed or blocked, leading to an accumulation of CSF in the brain.
2. Choroid plexus papilloma: This is a benign tumor that grows on the surface of the choroid plexus, which is a layer of tissue that produces CSF.
3. Hydrocephalus ex vacuo: This occurs when there is a decrease in the volume of brain tissue due to injury or disease, leading to an accumulation of CSF.
4. Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH): This is a type of hydrocephalus that occurs in adults and is characterized by an enlarged ventricle, gait disturbances, and cognitive decline, despite normal pressure levels.
5. Symptomatic hydrocephalus: This type of hydrocephalus is caused by other conditions such as brain tumors, cysts, or injuries.

Symptoms of hydrocephalus can include headache, nausea, vomiting, seizures, and difficulty walking or speaking. Treatment options for hydrocephalus depend on the underlying cause and may include medication, surgery, or a shunt to drain excess CSF. In some cases, hydrocephalus can be managed with lifestyle modifications such as regular exercise and a balanced diet.

Prognosis for hydrocephalus varies depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. However, with timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment, many people with hydrocephalus can lead active and fulfilling lives.

The syndrome is named after the American neurologist Dr. Arthur Dandy and British pediatrician Dr. Norman Walker, who first described it in the early 20th century. It is also known as hydrocephalus type I or cerebellar hydrocephalus.

DWS typically affects children, usually girls, between 3 and 18 months of age. The symptoms can vary in severity and may include:

* Enlarged skull
* Abnormal posture and gait
* Delayed development of motor skills
* Intellectual disability
* Seizures
* Vision problems

The exact cause of Dandy-Walker Syndrome is not known, but it is believed to be related to genetic mutations or environmental factors during fetal development. It can occur as an isolated condition or in combination with other congenital anomalies.

There is no cure for DWS, but treatment options may include:

* Shunts to drain excess CSF
* Physical therapy and occupational therapy
* Speech and language therapy
* Seizure medication
* Monitoring with regular imaging studies

The prognosis for children with Dandy-Walker Syndrome varies depending on the severity of the condition and the presence of other medical issues. Some individuals may experience significant developmental delays and intellectual disability, while others may have milder symptoms. With appropriate treatment and support, many individuals with DWS can lead fulfilling lives.

Here are some possible clinical presentations and diagnostic procedures for intracranial sinus thrombosis:

Clinical Presentations:

* Headache (most common symptom)
* Fever
* Nasal congestion or swelling
* Pain in the face, particularly on one side
* Vision changes or blurriness
* Nausea and vomiting

Diagnostic Procedures:

1. Imaging studies (CT or MRI scans) to confirm the presence of a blood clot within a sinus and to rule out other conditions that may cause similar symptoms.
2. Endoscopy, which involves inserting a flexible tube with a camera into the nasal cavity to visualize the inside of the sinuses and to collect tissue or fluid samples for further examination.
3. Blood tests to check for infection or inflammation.
4. Sinus aspiration, which involves draining fluid from the affected sinus to determine if there is a blood clot present.

Treatment options for intracranial sinus thrombosis depend on the severity of the condition and may include antibiotics, anticoagulation medications, or surgical drainage of the affected sinus. In some cases, the condition may be life-threatening and require emergency treatment.

The symptoms of TN can vary in severity and frequency, and may include:

* Pain on one side of the face
* Episodes of sudden, intense pain that can be triggered by light touch or contact with the face
* Pain that is described as stabbing, shooting, or like an electric shock
* Spontaneous pain episodes without any apparent cause
* Pain that is worse with light sensation, such as from wind, cold, or touch
* Pain that is better with pressing or rubbing the affected area

The exact cause of TN is not known, but it is believed to be related to compression or irritation of the trigeminal nerve. The condition can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* A blood vessel pressing on the nerve
* A tumor or cyst in the brain or face
* Multiple sclerosis or other conditions that damage the nerve
* Injury to the nerve
* Genetic mutations that affect the nerve

There is no cure for TN, but various treatments can help manage the symptoms. These may include:

* Medications such as anticonvulsants or pain relievers
* Nerve blocks or injections to reduce inflammation and relieve pain
* Surgery to decompress the nerve or remove a tumor or cyst
* Lifestyle modifications, such as avoiding triggers and using gentle, soothing touch

It is important for individuals with TN to work closely with their healthcare provider to find the most effective treatment plan for their specific needs. With proper management, many people with TN are able to experience significant relief from their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

The symptoms of Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple can vary widely depending on the location and size of the hamartomas. Some common features of this condition include:

* Skin manifestations, such as multiple small tumors or growths on the face, neck, or trunk
* Neurological symptoms, such as seizures, developmental delays, or vision problems
* Spinal deformities or abnormalities
* Eye abnormalities, such as cataracts or glaucoma
* Gastrointestinal tract abnormalities, such as polyps or tumors

Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple is caused by mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes. These genes play a critical role in regulating cell growth and division, and mutations in these genes can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and the development of hamartomas.

There is no cure for Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple, but various treatments can be used to manage the symptoms and prevent complications. These may include medications to control seizures or other neurological symptoms, surgery to remove tumors or correct spinal deformities, and regular monitoring by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals.

Overall, Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple is a rare and complex condition that requires careful management by a team of specialists. With appropriate treatment and support, however, many individuals with this condition can lead active and fulfilling lives.

"Arteriovenous Malformations". Johns Hopkins Medicine. 2022. Retrieved 26 October 2022. Arteriovenous Malformation Information ... Research trials in arterio-venous malformations; Rustam Al-Shahi Salman Archived February 17, 2012, at the Wayback Machine (CS1 ... Arteriovenous malformation is an abnormal connection between arteries and veins, bypassing the capillary system. This vascular ... Reichert, M; Kerber, S; Alkoudmani, I; Bodner, J (April 2016). "Management of a solitary pulmonary arteriovenous malformation ...
Arteriovenous malformations. An analysis of 545 cases of cranio-cerebral arteriovenous malformations and fistulae reported to ... A cerebral arteriovenous malformation (cerebral AVM, CAVM, cAVM) is an abnormal connection between the arteries and veins in ... Arteriovenous malformations are most commonly of prenatal origin. In a normal brain oxygen enriched blood from the heart ... 1986). "Arteriovenous malformations of the brain: natural history in unoperated patients". J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 49 (1 ...
Schlachter LB, Fleischer AS, Faria MA Jr, Tindall GT (November 1980). "Multifocal Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations". ... "Dual cerebral and meningeal supply to giant arteriovenous malformations of the posterior cerebral hemisphere". Journal of ... diagnosis and treatment of cerebral aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations; radiographic techniques; diagnosis, evaluation, ... Faria MA Jr; Hoffman JC; O'Brien MS (1984). "Metrizamide Cisternography and the management of the Chiari II malformation". ...
Brown JW, Ruzmetov M, Vijay P, Rodefeld MD, Turrentine MW (2005). "Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations in children after the ... Kawashima Y (1997). "Cavopulmonary shunt and pulmonary arteriovenous malformations". Ann. Thorac. Surg. 63 (4): 930-2. doi: ... of the hepatic veins into the cavopulmonary circulation in patients with heterotaxy and pulmonary arteriovenous malformations ...
However, it can also be used to detect other forms of right-to-left shunts including pulmonary arteriovenous malformations ... Pollack, Jeffery (2021). Image-Guided Interventions: Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations. Elsevier. pp. 434-440. Maron, ... or a pulmonary arteriovenous fistula, where arteries in the lungs connect directly to veins without capillaries in between. ...
This multi-center trial (ARUBA: A Randomized Trial of Unruptured Brain Arteriovenous Malformations) has been funded by the ... "A Randomized Trial of Unruptured Brain Arteriovenous Malformations". www.arubastudy.org. 12 November 2021. Clinical trial ... September 2007). "Racial/Ethnic differences in longitudinal risk of intracranial hemorrhage in brain arteriovenous malformation ... August 2000). "The epidemiology of brain arteriovenous malformations". Neurosurgery. 47 (2): 389-96, discussion 397. doi: ...
... cerebral aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations (AVM). DSA is done less routinely in imaging departments. It is being ...
"Pathophysiology and Animal Models of Dural Arteriovenous Malformations." In: Awad I and Barrow D, eds, Dural Arteriovenous ... "Spinal Arteriovenous Malformations: Pathophysiology and Hemodynamics." In: Barrow D, Awad I (eds), Spinal Vascular ... arteriovenous malformations, trigeminal neuralgia, tumors of the skull base, carotid artery disease and problems of the ... Malformations. American Association of Neurological Surgeons Press, Park Ridge, Illinois, pp 37-43, 1998. Bederson JB, Batjer ...
Diamond BJ, Mosley JE (2011). "Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM)". In Kreutzer JS, DeLuca J, Caplan B (eds.). Encyclopedia of ... Arnold-Chiari malformation multiple sclerosis head injury giant cell arteritis temporomandibular joint dysfunction metabolic ... and MR scans can evaluate the nerves and potential masses or malformations. Early diagnosis can prevent long term impairments ...
Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are abnormal blood vessel structures in which an artery connects to a vein via an abnormal ... "Arteriovenous Malformations - Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment Options". www.aans.org. Retrieved 2019-11-03. Derdeyn, Colin P ... The arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the preferred method. Arteriovenous fistula are created surgically by directly connecting an ... "Management of Brain Arteriovenous Malformations: A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart ...
The Arteriovenous Malformation Study Group (June 10, 1999). "Arteriovenous Malformations of the Brain in Adults". New England ... Five patterns of Galenic arteriovenous malformations have been described: These malformations develop in utero by the ... However, there have been several reported cases of arteriovenous malformations recurring. The young age of many patients, the ... Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VGAM) and Vein of Galen aneurysmal dilations (VGAD) are the most frequent arteriovenous ...
Patterson was diagnosed with cerebral arteriovenous malformation. He still started in the first 15 games of the season, missing ...
Tufted angiomas are associated with arteriovenous malformations. The origin of tufted angiomas is not clear but markers on the ... The other grouping is vascular malformations. Vascular tumors can be further subclassified as being benign, borderline or ... Vascular tumors are described as proliferative, and vascular malformations as nonproliferative. A vascular tumor typically ...
Lee BB, Do YS, Yakes W, Kim DI, Mattassi R, Hyon WS (March 2004). "Management of arteriovenous malformations: a ... Butyl cyanoacrylate has been used to treat arteriovenous malformations by application of the glue into the abnormality through ... n-Butyl cyanoacrylate is also used for embolization of cerebral arteriovenous malformations before their surgical treatment. ...
... cerebral arteriovenous malformation (for Seltzer-Martin grading and plan for intervention), dural arteriovenous fistula, ... Valavanis A, Yaşargil MG (1998). "The endovascular treatment of brain arteriovenous malformations". Advances and Technical ... thereby allowing detection of abnormalities such as arteriovenous malformations and aneurysms. It was pioneered in 1927 by the ... "Management of patients with brain arteriovenous malformations". European Journal of Radiology. 46 (3): 195-205. doi:10.1016/ ...
She was diagnosed with cerebral arteriovenous malformation. She died on September 18, 1955, from a suspected cerebral ...
Brahimaj, BC; Keigher, K; Lopes, DK (2019). "Transvenous arteriovenous malformation embolization". Journal of ... Kerolus, MG; Tan, LA; Lopes, DK (2017). "Giant vein of Galen malformation in an adult". Radiol Case Rep. 12 (3): 585-589. doi: ... research results demonstrating the safety and efficacy of transvenous embolization for treating arteriovenous malformations. ... brain aneurysms and arterial malformations. He collaborated on major studies that defined the current indications for ...
... results from arteriovenous malformations. The exact cause of this disorder is unknown, and no ... The ophthalmic features of Bonnet-Dechaume-Blanc syndrome occur as retinal arteriovenous malformation (AVMs). There are three ... The abnormal development of vascular tissue leads to arteriovenous malformations, which affect both visual and cerebral ... is a rare congenital disorder characterized by arteriovenous malformations of the brain, retina or facial nevi. The syndrome ...
GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Capillary Malformation-Arteriovenous Malformation Syndrome and RASA1-Related Parkes Weber ... Boon LM, Mulliken JB, Vikkula M (2005). "RASA1: variable phenotype with capillary and arteriovenous malformations". Curr. Opin ...
Arteriovenous malformations in the brain have a 2-4% chance of rupture each year. However, many arteriovenous malformations go ... In arteriovenous malformations, arteries are directly connected to veins, which increases the risk of venous rupture and ... Examples of congenital cerebrovascular diseases include arteriovenous malformations, germinal matrix hemorrhage, and CADASIL ( ... arteriovenous malformations, fistulas, and arterial dissections. Many of these diseases can be asymptomatic until an acute ...
CARD9 Capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation; 608354; RASA1 Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency; 237300; ... D2HGDH Dandy-Walker malformation; 220200; ZIC1 Dandy-Walker malformation; 220200; ZIC4 Darier disease; 124200; ATP2A2 Darsun ... NOTCH3 Cerebral cavernous malformations 3; 603285; PDCD10 Cerebral cavernous malformations-1; 116860; CCM1 Cerebral cavernous ... ATXN7 Split-hand/foot malformation 6; 225300; WNT10B Split-hand/foot malformation, type 4; 605289; TP63 Spondylocarpotarsal ...
Less common causes include a tumor or arteriovenous malformation. It is a type of nerve pain. Diagnosis is typically based on ... arteriovenous malformation); by a tumor; such as an arachnoid cyst or meningioma in the cerebellopontine angle; or by a ... "Intrinsic Arteriovenous Malformation of the Trigeminal Nerve". Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. 37 (5): 681-683. doi: ...
Just like berry aneurysm, a cerebral arteriovenous malformation can rupture causing subarachnoid hemorrhage. The cause of this ... Meier NM, Foster ML, Battaile JT (June 2018). "Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and pulmonary arteriovenous malformations ... Arteriovenous malformation Branham sign Carotid-cavernous fistula Fistula Human umbilical vein graft Pseudoaneurysm Vascular ... When an arteriovenous fistula is formed involving a major artery like the abdominal aorta, it can lead to a large decrease in ...
... such as an arteriovenous malformation. Low-flow vascular malformations include capillary malformations, venous malformations, ... Arteriovenous malformations occur between an artery and a vein. In the brain a cerebral arteriovenous malformation causes ... A capillary malformation is also a feature of the disorder macrocephaly-capillary malformation. Venous malformations are ... A severe venous malformation can involve the lymph vessels as a lymphaticovenous malformation. Lymphatic malformations are ...
Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the brain. The first patient with superficially located inoperabel AVM:s was treated in ...
... arteriovenous malformation. Brian Barnes, 74, Scottish golfer, cancer. Robert Frank, 94, Swiss-American photographer (The ...
Acceleration-deceleration trauma, rupture of an aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation (AVM), and bleeding within a tumor are ... Causes include brain trauma, aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and brain tumors. The biggest risk factors for spontaneous ... have been proved to be effective in diagnosing intracranial vascular malformations after ICH. So frequently, a CT angiogram ... "Computed tomography angiography or magnetic resonance angiography for detection of intracranial vascular malformations in ...
... arteriovenous malformations, aneurysm, abscesses, and tuberculomas. Hallucinatory palinopsia from seizures may be secondary to ... "Visual symptoms with dural arteriovenous malformations draining into occipital veins". Neurology. 52 (1): 156-62. doi:10.1212/ ...
... arteriovenous malformation, cortical dysplasia, aneurysm) and various seizure causes (hyperglycemia, ion channel mutations, ... "Visual symptoms with dural arteriovenous malformations draining into occipital veins". Neurology. 52 (1): 156-62. doi:10.1212/ ...
2019). "Expert Consensus on the Management of Brain Arteriovenous Malformations". Asian J Neurosurg. 14 (4): 1074-1081. doi: ... Kato specializes in surgical treatment of cerebrovascular disease, particularly aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations. She ...
Cerebral cavernous malformations Cerebral gigantism Cerebral gigantism jaw cysts Cerebral hypoxia Cerebral malformations ... aneurysms of the great vessels Congenital antithrombin III deficiency Congenital aplastic anemia Congenital arteriovenous shunt ... hand malformation Cholelithiasis Cholemia, familial Cholera Cholestasis Cholestasis pigmentary retinopathy cleft palate ... with Dandy-Walker malformation and hydrocephalus Craniosynostosis Craniotelencephalic dysplasia Crawfurd syndrome Creatine ...
"The management of arteriovenous malformations in children", Child's Nervous System, 7 (1): 43-47, doi:10.1007/BF00263833, PMID ... Sadasivan, Balaji; Malik, Ghaus M.; Lee, Chang; Ausman, James I. (May 1990), "Vascular malformations and pregnancy", Surgical ... "Balloon embolization of nontraumatic vertebral arteriovenous fistulae in children", Surgical Neurology, 32 (2): 126-130, doi: ...
It can also be used to identify small aneurysms or arteriovenous malformation inside the brain that can be life-threatening. ...
Powers underwent surgery for a cerebral arteriovenous malformation (CAVM) in the late 1980s. In spite of suffering from short- ...
Damage can result from dysfunction of the blood vessels, as in arteriovenous malformation, or when a blood clot becomes lodged ...
... rupture of an aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation (AVM) - arteriopathy (e.g. cerebral amyloid angiopathy, moyamoya) - ... or decreased level of consciousness Hypertension Arteriovenous malformation Aneurysm rupture Cerebral amyloid angiopathy ... In addition, venous malformations are associated with hemorrhage. In the elderly population, amyloid angiopathy is associated ... vascular malformations, specifically AVMs and cavernous angiomas are more common causes for hemorrhage. ...
... introduced many neurointerventional procedures in Argentina such as brain embolization to cure arteriovenous malformation. In ...
... cerebral arteriovenous malformation, trauma and brainstem toxoplasmosis infection. Neoplasms and giant aneurysms of the ...
The superior petrosal sinus may be affected by an arteriovenous malformation or arteriovenous fistula. Most do not resolve by ... They may be affected by arteriovenous malformation or arteriovenous fistula, usually treated with surgery. The superior ... "Endovascular Treatment for Dural Arteriovenous Fistulae of the Superior Petrosal Sinus". Neurosurgery. 53 (1): 25-33. doi: ...
... can result either from trauma or from ruptures of aneurysms or arteriovenous malformations. Blood is seen layering into the ...
As such, some authors refer to them as hamartomas or vascular malformations (see etymology below). On computed tomography (CT) ... and spinal dural arteriovenous fistula. Treatment for VHs normally only takes place if a patient presents with neurological ... "venous malformations" to present consistent language for practitioners and patients. However, the term "vertebral hemangioma" ...
Diseases with such patterns include intracranial hemorrhage, arteriovenous malformation, cavernoma, hemorrhage in a tumor, ...
... arteriovenous malformation (AVM), and radiation proctitis; nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use is a risk factor for ...
... infection uterine arteriovenous malformations and cystic adenomyosis. An example procedure is gynography. Gynecologic ...
Congenital malformations of the dermatoglyphs Congenital smooth muscle hamartoma Cystic lymphatic malformation Dermoid cyst ... Arteriovenous fistula Benign neonatal hemangiomatosis Branchial cyst (branchial cleft cyst) Bronchogenic cyst Capillary ... capillary malformation, port-wine stain) Nevus flammeus nuchae (stork bite) Nevus lipomatosus superficialis (nevus lipomatosis ... Superficial lymphatic malformation (lymphangioma circumscriptum) Supernumerary nipple (accessory nipple, pseudomamma) ...
In 2012, he was diagnosed with Foix-Alajouanine Syndrome - an arteriovenous malformation of the spinal cord affecting the lower ...
There he expanded his work in microsurgery, cerebrovascular surgery, particularly aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations and by ... blood gases and pH in surgical patients cerebral arteriovenous malformations Ausman is a pioneer in the field of ...
... arteriovenous malformation, subdural hematomas and hygromas, and a vermian tumour (which a few studies suggest are present 5-22 ... Symptoms and diagnosis typically occur by the age of two, although depending on factors like malformations and congenital ...
... in 2007 by Ben Munoz and Scott Orn during Munoz's recovery from a rare brain aneurysm caused by an Arteriovenous malformation ( ...
... is a disease caused by an arteriovenous malformation of the spinal cord. In particular, most cases involve dural arteriovenous ... A spinal MRA will serve as a superior imaging technique to visualize the extent of the arteriovenous malformation within the ... Surgical treatment may be attempted with endovascular embolization or ligation of the arteriovenous malformation within the ... due to intradural arteriovenous fistula of the filum terminale fed by anterior spinal artery: Case report and review of ...
... and pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. Chopin's biographers have often touched on the subject of depression, but the topic ...
"Bragg Peak Proton Radiosurgery for Arteriovenous Malformation of the Brain" R.N. Kjelberg, presented at First Int. Seminar on ...
In 1980, Martino suffered a hemorrhaged arteriovenous malformation that caused a "near-fatal seizure". The resulting surgery, ...
... artery disease and arteriovenous malformations. Moniz is recognized as the pioneer in this field. He performed the first ... including arteriovenous malformations and aneurysms. One common cerebral angiographic procedure is neuro-vascular digital ...
... may refer to: Arteriovenous malformation, a congenital disorder of the veins and arteries that make up the vascular system ... Cerebral arteriovenous malformation, an abnormal connection of the veins and arteries in the brain Acute viral meningitis, ...
These include aneurysms in the circle of Willis, middle cerebral artery infarction, parietal arteriovenous malformation, ...
encoded search term (Arteriovenous Fistulas and Malformations) and Arteriovenous Fistulas and Malformations What to Read Next ... Arteriovenous Fistulas and Malformations. Updated: Nov 15, 2021 * Author: Sateesh C Babu, MD; Chief Editor: Vincent Lopez Rowe ... The first recorded case of an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) was in the late 16th century. In 1757, Hunter described an AVF ... Congenital arteriovenous malformations: tailored embolotherapy. Radiology. 1988 Nov. 169 (2):511-6. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ...
Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are defects in your arteries, veins, and capillaries. It is common in the brain and spine. ... Arteriovenous Malformation (AVMs) (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) * What Is an Arteriovenous ... Capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome: MedlinePlus Genetics (National Library of Medicine) * Hereditary ... Cerebral arteriovenous malformation (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Medical ...
... J ... We describe a Taiwanese HHT family with hepatic arteriovenous malformation. Clinical and molecular evaluations were performed ...
Mount Sinai offers comprehensive treatment fot Peripheral Arteriovenous Malformations. When your blood vessels form incorrectly ... disrupting communication between your arteries and your veins, you have an arteriovenous malformation (AVM). ... Peripheral Arteriovenous Malformations When your blood vessels form incorrectly, disrupting communication between your arteries ... If you have an arteriovenous malformation, some of the capillaries are replaced by larger channels that connect the arteries ...
Accuracy of Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging for the Detection of Arteriovenous Shunting in Vascular Malformations of the Brain ... Epilepsy associated with cerebral arteriovenous malformations: a multivariate analysis of angioarchitectural characteristics.. ... Overview of the current concepts in the management of arteriovenous malformations of the brain ... Effect of Age on Clinical and Morphological Characteristics in Patients With Brain Arteriovenous Malformation ...
Rates of Re-hemorrhage, Risk Factors, and Outcomes of Previously Ruptured Arteriovenous Malformations (AVMs). ...
Morbidity Remains an Issue When Onyx System Used for Unruptured Brain Arteriovenous Malformations ...
As many of you know, I am an Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM) Survivor, a topic I write about on this blog semi-frequently. ...
Dr Saver reviews epidemiologic and clinical aspects of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations as a cause of ischemic stroke. ... Dr Saver reviews epidemiologic and clinical aspects of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations as a cause of ischemic stroke. ... Stroke transcranial Doppler ultrasonography transesophageal echocardiography iron deficiency arterio-venous malformation ...
Intramuscular arteriovenous malformations are rare in the head and neck region. Less than 1% of the vascular tumors are ... Arteriovenous malformation is a turner characterized by direct connection between an artery and vein without capillaries in- ... In this case report, diagnostic and therapeutic tools addressing arteriovenous malformation located in the masseter muscle are ... pain and progressively growing mass in the right cheek that appeared 1.5 years ago was diagnosed as arteriovenous malformation ...
Brain aneurysms and arterio-venous malformations. This website cannot replace a visit to a medical office. Consult with your ...
Valories Story - Arteriovenous Malformation In February 1969, Valories arteriovenous malformation (AVM) bled for the first ... CYBERKNIFE THERAPY - EXCELLENT ALTERNATIVE TO SURGERY FOR BRAIN OR SPINAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS (AVM). by CyberKnife ...
... characterized by arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), mucocutaneous telangiectasia and nosebleeds. HHT is caused by a ... responsible for hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and pulmonary arteriovenous malformations.. Balachandar, Srimmitha; ...
Medial trigonal arteriovenous malformations. / Nair, S.; Rout, D.; Menon, G. et al. In: Keio Journal of Medicine, Vol. 49, No. ... Nair, S., Rout, D., Menon, G., Kachhara, R., & Bhattacharya, R. N. (2000). Medial trigonal arteriovenous malformations. Keio ... Medial trigonal arteriovenous malformations. In: Keio Journal of Medicine. 2000 ; Vol. 49, No. 1. pp. 14-19. ... Nair, S, Rout, D, Menon, G, Kachhara, R & Bhattacharya, RN 2000, Medial trigonal arteriovenous malformations, Keio Journal of ...
arteriovenous malformation,stereotactic radiosurgery,embolization, stroke,endovascular,vascular disorders ... TagsArteriovenous malformation, embolization, Endovascular, Stereotactic radiosurgery, Stroke, vascular disorders. Post ... Stereotactic radiosurgery with versus without prior Onyx embolization for brain arteriovenous malformations. ... on brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) have not accounted for initial angioarchitectural features prior to ...
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... we offer comprehensive care for newborn babies with malformations of the brain and spinal cord. ... Arteriovenous Malformations and Vein of Galen Malformation. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are defects of the brains ... The most common AVM affecting newborns is the Vein of Galen Malformation. If left untreated, Vein of Galen malformation can ... Malformations of the Brain and Spinal Cord. The Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery at UCLA Mattel Childrens Hospital offers ...
This is a temporary file and hence do not link it from a website, instead link the URL of this page if you wish to link the PDF file ...
The Role of Macrophage in the Pathogenesis of Brain Arteriovenous Malformation ... 27. Walker EJ, Su H, Shen F, Choi EJ, Oh SP, Chen G, Lawton MT, Kim H, Chen Y, Chen W, Young WL. Arteriovenous malformation in ... Ma L, Guo Y, Zhao YL, Su H. The Role of Macrophage in the Pathogenesis of Brain Arteriovenous Malformation. International ... 30. Choi EJ, Chen W, Jun K, Arthur HM, Young WL, Su H. Novel brain arteriovenous malformation mouse models for type 1 ...
Congenital pulmonary arteriovenous malformation Q25.79 Other congenital malformations of pulmonary artery Q25.8 Other ... Other congenital malformations of aortic and mitral valves Q23.9 Congenital malformation of aortic and mitral valves, ... Other congenital malformations of cardiac chambers and connections Q20.9 Congenital malformation of cardiac chambers and ...
The authors report a patient in whom a subdural hematoma developed from a Type I spinal arteriovenous malformation (AVM). The ... The authors report a patient in whom a subdural hematoma developed from a Type I spinal arteriovenous malformation (AVM). The ... "Subdural Hematoma From a Type I Spinal Arteriovenous Malformation: Case Report" (1999). Neurosurgery. 395. https://scholar. ...
... factors of radiation-induced changes following single-session gamma knife radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations. ... factors of radiation-induced changes following single-session gamma knife radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations. ...
Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation. *Pulmonary Edema. *Pulmonary Embolism. *Pulmonary Eosinophilia. *Pulmonary Hypertension. ...
Arteriovenous (av) malformation,. *Pulmonary hamartoma,. *Bronchial adenoma,. *Pulmonary abscess,. *Pseudonodule (e.g., nipple ...
Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation. Discussion: Dont forget pulmonary AVMs in your differential for solitary pulmonary ...
keywords = "Contrast-enhanced CT, Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation, Reperfusion",. author = "Satoko Makimoto and Takao ... reperfusion and the percentage of shrinkage of the aneurysmal sac after embolization of pulmonary arteriovenous malformation ( ... reperfusion and the percentage of shrinkage of the aneurysmal sac after embolization of pulmonary arteriovenous malformation ( ... reperfusion and the percentage of shrinkage of the aneurysmal sac after embolization of pulmonary arteriovenous malformation ( ...
4] Arora R, Achla B, Pinkee S, Purba G, Bharti M. Arteriovenous malformations of the uterus. N Z Med J 2004; 11:U1182. ... 9] Cura M, Martinez N, Cura A, Dalsaso TJ, Elmerhi F. Arteriovenous malformations of the uterus. Acta Radiol 2009; 50:823-829. ... Arteriovenous cervicoisthmic malformation is a risk factor that was identified in a hysterectomy sample. ... Uterine arteriovenous malformations: from diagnosis to treatment. J Ultrasound Med 2006; 25:1387-1392. ...
Arteriovenous malformation of the renal artery * Polyarteritis nodosa * Diaphragmatic crus compression Acquired RVHT may also ...
... in the world using specialized treatment techniques called radiosurgery to treat tumors and arteriovenous malformations (AVM) ...
Vascular malformations (ie, arteriovenous malformation, cavernous angioma). * Cryptogenic (a cause is presumed but has not been ...
  • Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are abnormal, snarled tangles of blood vessels that cause multiple irregular connections between your arteries and veins. (nih.gov)
  • Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are defects in your vascular system. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) affect approximately 0.1% of the population and are associated with chronic headache in a portion of these individuals. (clinicalpainadvisor.com)
  • During the last ten years, patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) were treated with palliative maneuvers such as partial embolization, radiosurgery, or feeder ligation alone. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • A retrospective analysis of 48 patients of medial paratrigonal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) which constituted 18% of the total 258. (manipal.edu)
  • Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant multisystemic vascular dysplasia, characterized by arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), mucocutaneous telangiectasia and nosebleeds . (bvsalud.org)
  • Investigations of the combined effects of neoadjuvant Onyx embolization and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) on brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) have not accounted for initial angioarchitectural features prior to neuroendovascular intervention. (neurosurgery-blog.com)
  • Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are defects of the brain's circulatory system that are generally believed to arise during fetal development. (uclahealth.org)
  • People with HHT can develop abnormal blood vessels called arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in several areas of the body. (nih.gov)
  • These malformations most often occur in the spinal cord and in any part of your brain or on its surface but can develop elsewhere in the body. (nih.gov)
  • Designed for presurgical embolization of brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs). (medtronic.com)
  • Read about presurgical embolization options for your patients with brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs). (medtronic.com)
  • Explore presurgical embolization products for your patients with brain arteriovenous malformations. (medtronic.com)
  • With consultation from specialists in Pediatric Neurosurgery , Craniofacial Surgery , and Interventional Neuroradiology , we offer comprehensive care for newborn babies with malformations of the brain and spinal cord. (uclahealth.org)
  • If left untreated, Vein of Galen malformation can lead to bleeding in the brain and congestive heart failure. (uclahealth.org)
  • Brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) is an important risk factor for intracranial hemorrhage, especially in children and young adults. (ghrnet.org)
  • Brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVMs) are complexes of tortuous, tangled vessels located in the brain parenchyma, in which a loss of normal capillary bed results in fistulous connections between arteries and veins. (ghrnet.org)
  • People with type 1 tend to develop symptoms earlier than those with type 2, and are more likely to have blood vessel malformations in the lungs and brain. (nih.gov)
  • The treatment for Vein of Galen malformation involves endovascular embolization of the abnormal blood vessels, often within the first few days or weeks of a baby's life. (uclahealth.org)
  • 14. Three-dimensional color Doppler before and after embolization of postpartum-acquired enhanced myometrial vascularity/arteriovenous malformation. (nih.gov)
  • Dr Saver reviews epidemiologic and clinical aspects of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations as a cause of ischemic stroke. (neurodiem.nl)
  • Identification and validation of a novel pathogenic variant in GDF2 (BMP9) responsible for hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. (bvsalud.org)
  • Bervini, D, Oxenham, V & Morgan, MK 2014, ' Pure word deafness after resection of a Vein of Galen aneurysm and arteriovenous malformation: Report of a case ', Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery , vol. 123, pp. 146-149. (edu.au)
  • The most common AVM affecting newborns is the Vein of Galen Malformation . (uclahealth.org)
  • Dr. Timmerman is one of the most experienced clinicians in the world using specialized treatment techniques called radiosurgery to treat tumors and arteriovenous malformations (AVM) in children's brains. (childrens.com)
  • Epilepsy associated with cerebral arteriovenous malformations: a multivariate analysis of angioarchitectural characteristics. (ajnr.org)
  • Arterial supply to the malformation was quite uniform with posterior (43 patients) and anterior cerebral (25 patients) being the most frequent source. (manipal.edu)
  • In 1996, the Workshop of the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) presented a new classification of this vast group of conditions, which divided them into vascular tumors and vascular malformations. (medscape.com)
  • Indications for surgical intervention of vascular malformations include hemorrhage, painful ischemia, congestive heart failure, nonhealing ulcers, functional impairment, and limb-length inequality. (medscape.com)
  • Generally, congenital vascular malformations are inborn errors in embryologic development. (medscape.com)
  • 17. Acquired uterine vascular malformations: radiological and clinical outcome after transcatheter embolotherapy. (nih.gov)
  • In the classification of vascular anomalies currently employed, a division is made between tumors and malformations. (medscape.com)
  • We concluded the following: (1) The pulsatility index was shown to be a more dependable transcranial Doppler parameter in the clinical evaluation of an arteriovenous malformation because of two reasons: preoperative pulsatility index findings inversely correlated with arteriovenous malformation volume, and the pulsatility index returned to normal values before the mean blood flow velocity did. (acibadem.edu.tr)
  • Arteriovenous fistula (AVF), by definition, describes an abnormal communication between an artery and a vein. (medscape.com)
  • When your blood vessels form incorrectly, disrupting communication between your arteries and your veins, you have an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) . (mountsinai.org)
  • If you have an arteriovenous malformation, some of the capillaries are replaced by larger channels that connect the arteries directly to the veins. (mountsinai.org)
  • This publication provides an overview of arteriovenous malformations, including common symptoms, diagnosis, and available therapies. (nih.gov)
  • 1. Ultrasound diagnosis and management of acquired uterine enhanced myometrial vascularity/arteriovenous malformations. (nih.gov)
  • 15. HDlive Flow silhouette mode for the diagnosis of uterine enhanced myometrial vascularity/arteriovenous malformations. (nih.gov)
  • 16. Uterine arteriovenous malformation - diagnosis and management. (nih.gov)
  • Arteriovenous malformation is a turner characterized by direct connection between an artery and vein without capillaries in-between, and it is commonly located intracranially. (istanbul.edu.tr)
  • Abnormal arteriovenous shunting contributes to high flow in focal vascular structures, especially in the tangled nidus and draining veins. (ghrnet.org)
  • Most often, the location of the pain is not specific to the malformation and may encompass most of the head. (nih.gov)
  • Arteriovenous Malformation: improperly formed blood vessels. (robertjbessmd.com)
  • Women are more likely than men to develop blood vessel malformations in the lungs with type 1, and are also at higher risk of liver involvement with both type 1 and type 2. (nih.gov)
  • 11. Uterine arteriovenous malformations induced after diagnostic curettage: a systematic review. (nih.gov)
  • Most malformations tend to be discovered only incidentally, usually during treatment for an unrelated disorder or at autopsy. (nih.gov)
  • Intramuscular arteriovenous malformations are rare in the head and neck region. (istanbul.edu.tr)
  • The first recorded case of an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) was in the late 16th century. (medscape.com)
  • In this case report, diagnostic and therapeutic tools addressing arteriovenous malformation located in the masseter muscle are discussed in the light of current literature. (istanbul.edu.tr)
  • 12. Arteriovenous malformation of the uterus after a midtrimester loss: a case report. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, arteriovenous malformations may be associated with other medical conditions. (nih.gov)
  • 3) The presented grading system may contribute to the standardization and quantification of the hemodynamic changes during multidisciplinary management of arteriovenous malformations. (acibadem.edu.tr)
  • 19. Arterio-venous malformations of uterus - diagnostic and management dilemmas. (nih.gov)
  • 3. Ultrasonographic technique to differentiate enhanced myometrial vascularity/arteriovenous malformation from retained products of conception. (nih.gov)
  • 4. Pregnancy-related uterine arteriovenous malformations: experience from a single medical center. (nih.gov)
  • The condition of a 36-year-old patient who applied to our clinic with the complaints of progressively increasing pain and progressively growing mass in the right cheek that appeared 1.5 years ago was diagnosed as arteriovenous malformation located in the masseter muscle. (istanbul.edu.tr)