An abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. An A-V fistula usually leads to the formation of a dilated sac-like connection, arteriovenous aneurysm. The locations and size of the shunts determine the degree of effects on the cardiovascular functions such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.
Surgical shunt allowing direct passage of blood from an artery to a vein. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Abnormal communication most commonly seen between two internal organs, or between an internal organ and the surface of the body.
Congenital, inherited, or acquired abnormalities involving ARTERIES; VEINS; or venous sinuses in the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and MENINGES.
An abnormal anatomical passage between the INTESTINE, and another segment of the intestine or other organs. External intestinal fistula is connected to the SKIN (enterocutaneous fistula). Internal intestinal fistula can be connected to a number of organs, such as STOMACH (gastrocolic fistula), the BILIARY TRACT (cholecystoduodenal fistula), or the URINARY BLADDER of the URINARY TRACT (colovesical fistula). Risk factors include inflammatory processes, cancer, radiation treatment, and surgical misadventures (MEDICAL ERRORS).
The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.
A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.
An abnormal passage or communication leading from an internal organ to the surface of the body.
Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).
An abnormal passage or communication between a bronchus and another part of the body.
An abnormal passage between two or more BLOOD VESSELS, between ARTERIES; VEINS; or between an artery and a vein.
An abnormal anatomical passage connecting the RECTUM to the outside, with an orifice at the site of drainage.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
Abnormal passage communicating with the STOMACH.
An abnormal passage in any part of the URINARY TRACT between itself or with other organs.
An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.
Abnormal passage communicating with the ESOPHAGUS. The most common type is TRACHEOESOPHAGEAL FISTULA between the esophagus and the TRACHEA.
Large veins on either side of the root of the neck formed by the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins. They drain blood from the head, neck, and upper extremities, and unite to form the superior vena cava.
Veins draining the cerebrum.
Abnormal passage in any organ of the biliary tract or between biliary organs and other organs.
The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.
The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.
Abnormal passage communicating with the PANCREAS.
An abnormal anatomical passage between the RECTUM and the VAGINA.
'Polyvinyls' is a term that refers to a group of polymers synthesized from vinyl chloride, including polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC), which are widely used in various medical applications such as manufacturing of medical devices, tubing, packaging materials, and pharmaceutical containers due to their chemical resistance, durability, and versatility.
Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
An abnormal anatomical passage between the URINARY BLADDER and the VAGINA.
An abnormal passage communicating between any component of the respiratory tract or between any part of the respiratory system and surrounding organs.
An abnormal anatomical passage that connects the VAGINA to other organs, such as the bladder (VESICOVAGINAL FISTULA) or the rectum (RECTOVAGINAL FISTULA).
Arteries which supply the dura mater.
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
Abnormal passage between the ESOPHAGUS and the TRACHEA, acquired or congenital, often associated with ESOPHAGEAL ATRESIA.
The compartment containing the inferior part and anterior extremities of the frontal lobes (FRONTAL LOBE) of the cerebral hemispheres. It is formed mainly by orbital parts of the FRONTAL BONE and the lesser wings of the SPHENOID BONE.
Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time.
An acquired or spontaneous abnormality in which there is communication between CAVERNOUS SINUS, a venous structure, and the CAROTID ARTERIES. It is often associated with HEAD TRAUMA, specifically basilar skull fractures (SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR). Clinical signs often include VISION DISORDERS and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION.
Penetrating wounds caused by a pointed object.
Abnormal formation of blood vessels that shunt arterial blood directly into veins without passing through the CAPILLARIES. They usually are crooked, dilated, and with thick vessel walls. A common type is the congenital arteriovenous fistula. The lack of blood flow and oxygen in the capillaries can lead to tissue damage in the affected areas.
The vein accompanying the femoral artery in the same sheath; it is a continuation of the popliteal vein and becomes the external iliac vein.
Congenital vascular anomalies in the brain characterized by direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. The locations and size of the shunts determine the symptoms including HEADACHES; SEIZURES; STROKE; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; mass effect; and vascular steal effect.
A vein on either side of the body which is formed by the union of the external and internal iliac veins and passes upward to join with its fellow of the opposite side to form the inferior vena cava.
Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.
The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.
An abnormal passage in the URINARY BLADDER or between the bladder and any surrounding organ.
The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.
Abnormal communication between two ARTERIES that may result from injury or occur as a congenital abnormality.
The long large endothelium-lined venous channel on the top outer surface of the brain. It receives blood from a vein in the nasal cavity, runs backwards, and gradually increases in size as blood drains from veins of the brain and the DURA MATER. Near the lower back of the CRANIUM, the superior sagittal sinus deviates to one side (usually the right) and continues on as one of the TRANSVERSE SINUSES.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.
Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
The venous trunk of the upper limb; a continuation of the basilar and brachial veins running from the lower border of the teres major muscle to the outer border of the first rib where it becomes the subclavian vein.
Disruption of structural continuity of the body as a result of the discharge of firearms.
The two large endothelium-lined venous channels that begin at the internal occipital protuberance at the back and lower part of the CRANIUM and travels laterally and forward ending in the internal jugular vein (JUGULAR VEINS). One of the transverse sinuses, usually the right one, is the continuation of the SUPERIOR SAGITTAL SINUS. The other transverse sinus is the continuation of the straight sinus.
Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.
The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.
Pathologic conditions which feature SPINAL CORD damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord. Traumatic injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and inflammatory/autoimmune processes may affect the spinal cord.
Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.
Malformations of CORONARY VESSELS, either arteries or veins. Included are anomalous origins of coronary arteries; ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA; CORONARY ANEURYSM; MYOCARDIAL BRIDGING; and others.
Not an aneurysm but a well-defined collection of blood and CONNECTIVE TISSUE outside the wall of a blood vessel or the heart. It is the containment of a ruptured blood vessel or heart, such as sealing a rupture of the left ventricle. False aneurysm is formed by organized THROMBUS and HEMATOMA in surrounding tissue.
The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.
The continuation of the axillary vein which follows the subclavian artery and then joins the internal jugular vein to form the brachiocephalic vein.
The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.
A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.
Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.
A state of elevated cardiac output due to conditions of either increased hemodynamic demand or reduced cardiac oxygen output. These conditions may include ANEMIA; ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA; THYROTOXICOSIS; PREGNANCY; EXERCISE; FEVER; and ANOXIA. In time, compensatory changes of the heart can lead to pathological form of high cardiac output and eventual HEART FAILURE.
Radiographic visualization or recording of a vein after the injection of contrast medium.
Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.
The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.
Vein formed by the union (at the hilus of the spleen) of several small veins from the stomach, pancreas, spleen and mesentery.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A tissue adhesive that is applied as a monomer to moist tissue and polymerizes to form a bond. It is slowly biodegradable and used in all kinds of surgery, including dental.
The venous trunk which receives blood from the lower extremities and from the pelvic and abdominal organs.
Vomiting of blood that is either fresh bright red, or older "coffee-ground" in character. It generally indicates bleeding of the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
An abnormal passage communicating between any components of the digestive system, or between any part of the digestive system and surrounding organ(s).
X-ray visualization of the spinal cord following injection of contrast medium into the spinal arachnoid space.
Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.
Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.
The larger of the two terminal branches of the brachial artery, beginning about one centimeter distal to the bend of the elbow. Like the RADIAL ARTERY, its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to their locations in the forearm, wrist, and hand.
Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.
Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.
Methods to repair breaks in tissue caused by trauma or to close surgical incisions.
'Pleural diseases' is a broad term referring to various medical conditions that affect the pleura, the thin, double-layered membrane surrounding the lungs, including inflammation (pleurisy), effusions (excess fluid buildup), thickening, or tumors, which may cause chest pain, coughing, and breathing difficulties.
Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
The innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. It is the fine vascular membrane that lies under the ARACHNOID and the DURA MATER.
A nonspecific symptom of hearing disorder characterized by the sensation of buzzing, ringing, clicking, pulsations, and other noises in the ear. Objective tinnitus refers to noises generated from within the ear or adjacent structures that can be heard by other individuals. The term subjective tinnitus is used when the sound is audible only to the affected individual. Tinnitus may occur as a manifestation of COCHLEAR DISEASES; VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; and other conditions.
A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.
An abnormal passage within the mouth communicating between two or more anatomical structures.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.
Placement of an intravenous CATHETER in the subclavian, jugular, or other central vein.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Mild to moderate loss of bilateral lower extremity motor function, which may be a manifestation of SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; MUSCULAR DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; parasagittal brain lesions; and other conditions.
Short thick veins which return blood from the kidneys to the vena cava.
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
A spontaneous diminution or abatement of a disease over time, without formal treatment.
Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.
A vessel that directly interconnects an artery and a vein, and that acts as a shunt to bypass the capillary bed. Not to be confused with surgical anastomosis, nor with arteriovenous fistula.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
The black, tarry, foul-smelling FECES that contain degraded blood.
The compartment containing the anterior extremities and half the inferior surface of the temporal lobes (TEMPORAL LOBE) of the cerebral hemispheres. Lying posterior and inferior to the anterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, ANTERIOR), it is formed by part of the TEMPORAL BONE and SPHENOID BONE. It is separated from the posterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR) by crests formed by the superior borders of the petrous parts of the temporal bones.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.
Substances used to cause adherence of tissue to tissue or tissue to non-tissue surfaces, as for prostheses.
Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.
Injuries to blood vessels caused by laceration, contusion, puncture, or crush and other types of injuries. Symptoms vary by site and mode of injuries and may include bleeding, bruising, swelling, pain, and numbness. It does not include injuries secondary to pathologic function or diseases such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
Veins which return blood from the intestines; the inferior mesenteric vein empties into the splenic vein, the superior mesenteric vein joins the splenic vein to form the portal vein.
Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the CRANIAL SINUSES, large endothelium-lined venous channels situated within the SKULL. Intracranial sinuses, also called cranial venous sinuses, include the superior sagittal, cavernous, lateral, petrous sinuses, and many others. Cranial sinus thrombosis can lead to severe HEADACHE; SEIZURE; and other neurological defects.
Incision of tissues for injection of medication or for other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Punctures of the skin, for example may be used for diagnostic drainage; of blood vessels for diagnostic imaging procedures.
An autosomal dominant vascular anomaly characterized by telangiectases of the skin and mucous membranes and by recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding. This disorder is caused by mutations of a gene (on chromosome 9q3) which encodes endoglin, a membrane glycoprotein that binds TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.
A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
The vein formed by the union of the anterior and posterior tibial veins; it courses through the popliteal space and becomes the femoral vein.
The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.
The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.
Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.
The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.
Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.
Pathological conditions in the DUODENUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The vein which drains the foot and leg.
Catheters that are inserted into a large central vein such as a SUBCLAVIAN VEIN or FEMORAL VEIN.
Agents acting to arrest the flow of blood. Absorbable hemostatics arrest bleeding either by the formation of an artificial clot or by providing a mechanical matrix that facilitates clotting when applied directly to the bleeding surface. These agents function more at the capillary level and are not effective at stemming arterial or venous bleeding under any significant intravascular pressure.
Abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any one of the iliac arteries including the common, the internal, or the external ILIAC ARTERY.
Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.
Wounds caused by objects penetrating the skin.
Minimally invasive procedures, diagnostic or therapeutic, performed within the BLOOD VESSELS. They may be perfomed via ANGIOSCOPY; INTERVENTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; INTERVENTIONAL RADIOGRAPHY; or INTERVENTIONAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.
Pathological processes involving the URETHRA.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
Congenital abnormality characterized by the lack of full development of the ESOPHAGUS that commonly occurs with TRACHEOESOPHAGEAL FISTULA. Symptoms include excessive SALIVATION; GAGGING; CYANOSIS; and DYSPNEA.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Methods used to temporarily or permanently block the flow of BODY FLUIDS through various ducts and tubules throughout the body, including BLOOD VESSELS and LYMPHATIC VESSELS such as by THERAPEUTIC EMBOLIZATION or LIGATION.
The region of the upper limb between the metacarpus and the FOREARM.
The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.
The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.
The artery supplying nearly all the left half of the transverse colon, the whole of the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and the greater part of the rectum. It is smaller than the superior mesenteric artery (MESENTERIC ARTERY, SUPERIOR) and arises from the aorta above its bifurcation into the common iliac arteries.
A fistula between the maxillary sinus and the oral cavity.
Abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of CORONARY VESSELS. Most coronary aneurysms are due to CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS, and the rest are due to inflammatory diseases, such as KAWASAKI DISEASE.
Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.
Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.
Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.

Acute renal impairment due to a primary aortocaval fistula is normalised after a successful operation. (1/638)

OBJECTIVES: To study renal function in patients with aortocaval fistula, before and after surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During the last 22 years nine male patients (median age 67, age range 50-72) with spontaneous aortocaval fistula in combination with AAA were operated upon. This constitutes 4% of the patients with ruptured AAA and 1.5% of all patients with AAA. RESULTS: A preoperative diagnosis of aortocaval fistula was established in three of the nine cases. The medium duration of symptoms prior to surgery was 5 days (range 4 h-14 days). The fistula was combined with an extravasating ruptured AAA in only three patients. Seven of the patients had acute renal insufficiency, with creatinine levels of in median 292 mumol (IQR 218-342). Creatinine declined to 172 mumol/l (IQR 170-313) on the fifth postoperative day in uncomplicated cases and to 86 mumol at discharge. One patient died due to multi-organ failure, whereas the other left hospital well and alive with normal renal function. CONCLUSION: Acute preoperative renal insufficiency due to an aortocaval fistula in patients with AAA is often due to venous congestion, and is normalised after successful surgery.  (+info)

In vitro models of intracranial arteriovenous fistulas for the evaluation of new endovascular treatment materials. (2/638)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to create and test an in vitro model of intracranial arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) that simulates the geometry of human vasculature and allows realistic testing of devices used in endovascular therapy. METHODS: The models were derived from corrosion casts of the main cervicocranial arteries and veins obtained from two nonfixed human specimens. Wax copies of the casts were produced and combined to create complex models simulating various types of intracranial AVFs. Wax assemblies were embedded with liquid silicone solidified into transparent blocks containing, after wax evacuation, hollow reproductions of the original vascular trees. The models were connected to a pulsatile pump and their compatibility with various imaging techniques and endovascular treatment materials was evaluated. RESULTS: The models were compatible with digital subtraction angiography, CT, MR imaging, and transcranial Doppler sonography. They provided a realistic endovascular environment for the simulation of interventional neuroradiologic procedures. CONCLUSION: Anatomically accurate and reproducible in vitro models of intracranial AVFs provide a valuable method for evaluating new endovascular treatment materials and for teaching purposes.  (+info)

Dural arteriovenous fistula of the cervical spine presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage. (3/638)

We describe a case of dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The diagnosis of DAVF was based on spinal angiography. A review of the literature revealed that five of 13 previously reported DAVFs of the cervical spine were accompanied by SAH. SAH has not been observed in DAVFs involving other segments of the spinal canal.  (+info)

Atypical pulmonary artery sling with diffuse-type pulmonary arteriovenous fistula. (4/638)

The case of a cyanotic infant with a rare combination of atypical pulmonary artery sling, imperforate anus, absence of the left kidney, interruption of the inferior vena cava, left side hemihypertrophy and diffuse-type pulmonary arteriovenous fistula is described. The clinical features were confusing, because of compounding abnormalities involving the respiratory tract and pulmonary circulation. The diagnostic approach to the etiology of cyanosis is discussed and the embryonic origin of pulmonary artery sling is reviewed.  (+info)

Early prenatal diagnosis of cord entanglement in monoamniotic multiple pregnancies. (5/638)

OBJECTIVES: Cord entanglement is a severe complication in monoamniotic multiple pregnancies. Three cases were reviewed to determine how early ultrasound diagnosis might improve counselling and management. METHODS: In two monoamniotic twin and one dichorionic diamniotic triplet pregnancies, cord entanglement was detected between 10 and 18 gestational weeks by color Doppler and pulsed Doppler velocimetry. Pregnancies were followed up on a weekly basis with special observation of fetal behavior and use of color Doppler velocimetry. RESULTS: In Case 1, a monoamniotic twin pregnancy with cord entanglement close to the umbilical insertions was diagnosed at 10 weeks. Longitudinal follow-up showed intrauterine death of both twins at 15 weeks. In Case 2, entanglement of the umbilical cords of two monoamniotic triplets within a dichorionic diamniotic triplet pregnancy was diagnosed at 10 weeks. The pregnancy continued uneventfully until 35 weeks when cord entanglement was confirmed at Cesarean section. All triplets have since developed normally. In Case 3, monoamniotic twins were diagnosed at 18 weeks. Color Doppler detected side-by-side insertion of the umbilical cords and Doppler velocimetry suggested an entanglement at the chorionic plate. The pregnancy was complicated by polyhydramnios. Cesarean section at 36 weeks confirmed cord entanglement at the chorionic plate. Postnatal computer angiography and morphological examination of the placenta showed the presence of superficial artery-to-artery and vein-to-vein anastomoses and of deep arteriovenous shunts. The development of the twins was uneventful. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis of cord entanglement is feasible early in gestation. Future protocols are proposed to document the gestational age at detection, the location, and the Doppler flow patterns and to facilitate the assessment of short- and long-term development.  (+info)

Multiple dural arteriovenous shunts in a 5-year-old boy. (6/638)

We describe a rare case of multiple dural arteriovenous shunts (DAVSs) in a 5-year-old boy. MR imaging performed at 1 year of age showed only a dilated anterior part of the superior sagittal sinus; however, angiography at 5 years of age revealed an infantile-type DAVS there and two other DAVSs of the adult type. The pathophysiological evolution of DAVSs in children and their treatment strategies are discussed.  (+info)

3D Ultrasound imaging--a useful non-invasive tool to detect AV fistulas in transplanted kidneys. (7/638)

BACKGROUND: A precise, non-invasive, non-toxic, repeatable, convenient and inexpensive follow-up of renal transplants, especially following biopsies, is in the interest of nephrologists. Formerly, the rate of biopsies leading to AV fistulas had been underestimated. Imaging procedures suited to a detailed judgement of these vascular malformations are to be assessed. METHODS: Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction techniques of ultrasound flow-directed and non-flow-directed energy mode pictures were compared with a standard procedure, gadolinium-enhanced nuclear magnetic resonance imaging angiography (MRA) using the phase contrast technique. RESULTS: Using B-mode and conventional duplex information, AV fistulas were localized in the upper pole of the kidney transplant of the index patient. The 3D reconstruction provided information about the exact localization and orientation of the fistula in relation to other vascular structures, and the flow along the fistula. The MRA provided localization and orientation information, but less functional information. Flow-directed and non-flow-directed energy mode pictures could be reconstructed to provide 3D information about vascular malformations in transplanted kidneys. CONCLUSION: In transplanted kidneys, 3D-ultrasound angiography may be equally as effective as MRA in localizing and identifying AV malformations. Advantages of the ultrasound method are that it is cheaper, non-toxic, non-invasive, more widely availability and that it even provides more functional information. Future prospective studies will be necessary to evaluate the two techniques further.  (+info)

Aortocaval fistula in ruptured aneurysms. (8/638)

OBJECTIVES: to study incidence, clinical presentation and problems in management of aortocaval fistula in our series. DESIGN: retrospective study. MATERIALS: during a seven-year period, 112 patients operated on for abdominal aortic aneurysm, including four patients with aortocaval fistula. METHODS: standard repair of aortocaval fistula from inside the aneurysmal sac was the preferred operative technique. RESULTS: the incidence of aortocaval fistula was 3.6%. Three cases were found incidentally during emergency surgery for ruptured aneurysms; the fourth case was an isolated aortocaval fistula associated with inferior vena cava thrombosis, diagnosed preoperatively by angiography. In this case, inferior vena cava ligation instead of standard aortocaval repair was performed. CONCLUSIONS: Aortocaval fistulas, although rare, should be kept in mind, because clinical diagnosis is often difficult. Furthermore, unsuspected problems during repair may necessitate appropriate change in operative technique.  (+info)

An arteriovenous fistula is an abnormal connection or passageway between an artery and a vein. This connection causes blood to flow directly from the artery into the vein, bypassing the capillary network that would normally distribute the oxygen-rich blood to the surrounding tissues.

Arteriovenous fistulas can occur as a result of trauma, disease, or as a planned surgical procedure for patients who require hemodialysis, a treatment for advanced kidney failure. In hemodialysis, the arteriovenous fistula serves as a site for repeated access to the bloodstream, allowing for efficient removal of waste products and excess fluids.

The medical definition of an arteriovenous fistula is:

"An abnormal communication between an artery and a vein, usually created by surgical means for hemodialysis access or occurring as a result of trauma, congenital defects, or disease processes such as vasculitis or neoplasm."

An arteriovenous shunt is a surgically created connection between an artery and a vein. This procedure is typically performed to reroute blood flow or to provide vascular access for various medical treatments. In a surgical setting, the creation of an arteriovenous shunt involves connecting an artery directly to a vein, bypassing the capillary network in between.

There are different types of arteriovenous shunts used for specific medical purposes:

1. Arteriovenous Fistula (AVF): This is a surgical connection created between an artery and a vein, usually in the arm or leg. The procedure involves dissecting both the artery and vein, then suturing them directly together. Over time, the increased blood flow to the vein causes it to dilate and thicken, making it suitable for repeated needle punctures during hemodialysis treatments for patients with kidney failure.
2. Arteriovenous Graft (AVG): An arteriovenous graft is a synthetic tube used to connect an artery and a vein when a direct AVF cannot be created due to insufficient vessel size or poor quality. The graft can be made of various materials, such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or Dacron. Grafts are more prone to infection and clotting compared to native AVFs but remain an essential option for patients requiring hemodialysis access.
3. Central Venous Catheter (CVC): A central venous catheter is a flexible tube inserted into a large vein, often in the neck or groin, and advanced towards the heart. CVCs can be used as temporary arteriovenous shunts for patients who require immediate hemodialysis access but do not have time to wait for an AVF or AVG to mature. However, they are associated with higher risks of infection and thrombosis compared to native AVFs and AVGs.

In summary, a surgical arteriovenous shunt is a connection between an artery and a vein established through a medical procedure. The primary purpose of these shunts is to provide vascular access for hemodialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease or to serve as temporary access when native AVFs or AVGs are not feasible.

A fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between two organs, vessels, or body parts that usually do not connect. It can form as a result of injury, infection, surgery, or disease. A fistula can occur anywhere in the body but commonly forms in the digestive system, genital area, or urinary system. The symptoms and treatment options for a fistula depend on its location and underlying cause.

Central nervous system (CNS) vascular malformations are abnormal tangles or masses of blood vessels in the brain or spinal cord. These malformations can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (develop later in life). They can vary in size, location, and symptoms, which may include headaches, seizures, weakness, numbness, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, and vision problems.

There are several types of CNS vascular malformations, including:

1. Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs): These are tangles of arteries and veins with a direct connection between them, bypassing the capillary network. AVMs can cause bleeding in the brain or spinal cord, leading to stroke or neurological deficits.
2. Cavernous malformations: These are clusters of dilated, thin-walled blood vessels that form a sac-like structure. They can rupture and bleed, causing symptoms such as seizures, headaches, or neurological deficits.
3. Developmental venous anomalies (DVAs): These are benign vascular malformations characterized by an abnormal pattern of veins that drain blood from the brain. DVAs are usually asymptomatic but can be associated with other vascular malformations.
4. Capillary telangiectasias: These are small clusters of dilated capillaries in the brain or spinal cord. They are usually asymptomatic and found incidentally during imaging studies.
5. Moyamoya disease: This is a rare, progressive cerebrovascular disorder characterized by the narrowing or blockage of the internal carotid arteries and their branches. This can lead to decreased blood flow to the brain, causing symptoms such as headaches, seizures, and strokes.

The diagnosis of CNS vascular malformations typically involves imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans, and sometimes angiography. Treatment options may include observation, medication, surgery, or endovascular procedures, depending on the type, location, and severity of the malformation.

An intestinal fistula is an abnormal communication or connection between the intestines (or a portion of the intestine) and another organ or the skin surface. This connection forms a tract or passage, allowing the contents of the intestines, such as digestive enzymes, bacteria, and waste materials, to leak into other body areas or outside the body. Intestinal fistulas can develop due to various reasons, including inflammatory bowel diseases (like Crohn's disease), infections, complications from surgery, radiation therapy, or trauma. They can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, skin irritation, and infection. Treatment of intestinal fistulas often involves a combination of medical management, nutritional support, and surgical intervention.

Dura Mater is the thickest and outermost of the three membranes (meninges) that cover the brain and spinal cord. It provides protection and support to these delicate structures. The other two layers are called the Arachnoid Mater and the Pia Mater, which are thinner and more delicate than the Dura Mater. Together, these three layers form a protective barrier around the central nervous system.

Therapeutic embolization is a medical procedure that involves intentionally blocking or obstructing blood vessels to stop excessive bleeding or block the flow of blood to a tumor or abnormal tissue. This is typically accomplished by injecting small particles, such as microspheres or coils, into the targeted blood vessel through a catheter, which is inserted into a larger blood vessel and guided to the desired location using imaging techniques like X-ray or CT scanning. The goal of therapeutic embolization is to reduce the size of a tumor, control bleeding, or block off abnormal blood vessels that are causing problems.

A cutaneous fistula is a type of fistula that occurs when a tract or tunnel forms between the skin (cutaneous) and another organ or structure, such as the gastrointestinal tract, vagina, or urinary system. Cutaneous fistulas can result from various medical conditions, including infections, inflammatory diseases, surgical complications, trauma, or malignancies.

Cutaneous fistulas may present with symptoms such as drainage of fluid or pus from the skin, pain, redness, swelling, or irritation around the affected area. The treatment for cutaneous fistulas depends on their underlying cause and can range from conservative management with antibiotics and wound care to surgical intervention.

It is essential to seek medical attention if you suspect a cutaneous fistula, as untreated fistulas can lead to complications such as infection, sepsis, or tissue damage. A healthcare professional can provide an accurate diagnosis and develop an appropriate treatment plan based on the individual's needs.

Cranial sinuses are a part of the venous system in the human head. They are air-filled spaces located within the skull and are named according to their location. The cranial sinuses include:

1. Superior sagittal sinus: It runs along the top of the brain, inside the skull, and drains blood from the scalp and the veins of the brain.
2. Inferior sagittal sinus: It runs along the bottom of the brain and drains into the straight sinus.
3. Straight sinus: It is located at the back of the brain and receives blood from the inferior sagittal sinus and great cerebral vein.
4. Occipital sinuses: They are located at the back of the head and drain blood from the scalp and skull.
5. Cavernous sinuses: They are located on each side of the brain, near the temple, and receive blood from the eye and surrounding areas.
6. Sphenoparietal sinus: It is a small sinus that drains blood from the front part of the brain into the cavernous sinus.
7. Petrosquamosal sinuses: They are located near the ear and drain blood from the scalp and skull.

The cranial sinuses play an essential role in draining blood from the brain and protecting it from injury.

A bronchial fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the bronchial tree (the airways in the lungs) and the surrounding tissues, such as the pleural space (the space between the lungs and the chest wall), blood vessels, or other organs. This condition can result from various causes, including lung injury, infection, surgery, or certain diseases such as cancer or tuberculosis.

Bronchial fistulas can lead to symptoms like coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest pain. They may also cause air leaks, pneumothorax (collapsed lung), or chronic infections. Treatment for bronchial fistulas depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition but often involves surgical repair or closure of the abnormal connection.

A vascular fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the artery and vein, which usually results from a surgical procedure to create access for hemodialysis in patients with chronic kidney disease. This communication allows blood to flow directly from the artery into the vein, bypassing the capillary network and causing high-flow conditions in the affected area. Over time, the increased pressure and flow can lead to various complications such as venous hypertension, stenosis, aneurysm formation, or even heart failure if left untreated. Vascular fistulas may also occur spontaneously due to certain medical conditions like vasculitis, trauma, or infection, although this is less common.

A rectal fistula is an abnormal connection or tunnel that develops between the rectum, which is the lower end of the colon, and another organ or the skin surface surrounding the anus. This condition often results from inflammation, infection, trauma, or surgery in the anal area. The fistula can cause symptoms such as pain, discharge, irritation, and swelling around the anus. In some cases, it may also lead to complications like abscesses or recurrent infections if not treated promptly and effectively. Treatment options typically include surgical intervention to close the fistula and promote healing of the affected tissues.

Renal dialysis is a medical procedure that is used to artificially remove waste products, toxins, and excess fluids from the blood when the kidneys are no longer able to perform these functions effectively. This process is also known as hemodialysis.

During renal dialysis, the patient's blood is circulated through a special machine called a dialyzer or an artificial kidney, which contains a semi-permeable membrane that filters out waste products and excess fluids from the blood. The cleaned blood is then returned to the patient's body.

Renal dialysis is typically recommended for patients with advanced kidney disease or kidney failure, such as those with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). It is a life-sustaining treatment that helps to maintain the balance of fluids and electrolytes in the body, prevent the buildup of waste products and toxins, and control blood pressure.

There are two main types of renal dialysis: hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Hemodialysis is the most common type and involves using a dialyzer to filter the blood outside the body. Peritoneal dialysis, on the other hand, involves placing a catheter in the abdomen and using the lining of the abdomen (peritoneum) as a natural filter to remove waste products and excess fluids from the body.

Overall, renal dialysis is an essential treatment option for patients with kidney failure, helping them to maintain their quality of life and prolong their survival.

A gastric fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the stomach and another organ or the skin surface. This condition can occur as a result of complications from surgery, injury, infection, or certain diseases such as cancer. Symptoms may include persistent drainage from the site of the fistula, pain, malnutrition, and infection. Treatment typically involves surgical repair of the fistula and management of any underlying conditions.

A urinary fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the urinary tract and another organ or tissue, such as the bladder, ureter, or kidney, and the skin, vagina, or intestine. This condition can lead to urine leakage through the abnormal opening, causing discomfort, infection, and other complications if not treated promptly and effectively. Urinary fistulas can be caused by various factors, including surgery, injury, radiation therapy, inflammation, or cancer. The type and location of the fistula will determine the specific symptoms and treatment options.

The cavernous sinus is a venous structure located in the middle cranial fossa, which is a depression in the skull that houses several important nerves and blood vessels. The cavernous sinus is situated on either side of the sphenoid bone, near the base of the skull, and it contains several important structures:

* The internal carotid artery, which supplies oxygenated blood to the brain
* The abducens nerve (cranial nerve VI), which controls lateral movement of the eye
* The oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve III), which controls most of the muscles that move the eye
* The trochlear nerve (cranial nerve IV), which controls one of the muscles that moves the eye
* The ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V), which transmit sensory information from the face and head

The cavernous sinus is an important structure because it serves as a conduit for several critical nerves and blood vessels. However, it is also vulnerable to various pathological conditions such as thrombosis (blood clots), infection, tumors, or aneurysms, which can lead to serious neurological deficits or even death.

An esophageal fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the esophagus (the tube that carries food and liquids from the throat to the stomach) and another organ, such as the trachea (windpipe) or the skin. This condition can result from complications of certain medical conditions, including cancer, prolonged infection, or injury to the esophagus.

Esophageal fistulas can cause a variety of symptoms, including difficulty swallowing, coughing, chest pain, and fever. They can also lead to serious complications, such as pneumonia or sepsis, if left untreated. Treatment for an esophageal fistula typically involves surgical repair of the abnormal connection, along with management of any underlying conditions that may have contributed to its development.

The brachiocephalic veins, also known as the innominate veins, are large veins in the human body. They are formed by the union of the subclavian vein and the internal jugular vein on each side of the body. The resulting vein then carries blood from the upper limbs, head, and neck to the superior vena cava, which is the large vein that returns blood to the heart.

Here's a more detailed medical definition:

The brachiocephalic veins are paired venous structures that result from the union of the subclavian vein and the internal jugular vein on each side of the body. These veins are located in the superior mediastinum, near the base of the neck, and are typically about 2 to 3 centimeters in length. The brachiocephalic veins receive blood from several sources, including the upper extremities, head, neck, and thoracic wall. They then transport this blood to the superior vena cava, which is a large vein that returns blood to the right atrium of the heart.

It's worth noting that the brachiocephalic veins are subject to various pathological conditions, including thrombosis (blood clots), stenosis (narrowing), and compression by nearby structures such as the first rib or the scalene muscles. These conditions can lead to a variety of symptoms, including swelling, pain, and difficulty breathing.

Cerebral veins are the blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from the brain to the dural venous sinuses, which are located between the layers of tissue covering the brain. The largest cerebral vein is the superior sagittal sinus, which runs along the top of the brain. Other major cerebral veins include the straight sinus, transverse sinus, sigmoid sinus, and cavernous sinus. These veins receive blood from smaller veins called venules that drain the surface and deep structures of the brain. The cerebral veins play an important role in maintaining normal circulation and pressure within the brain.

A biliary fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the biliary system (which includes the gallbladder, bile ducts, and liver) and another organ or structure, usually in the abdominal cavity. This connection allows bile, which is a digestive fluid produced by the liver, to leak out of its normal pathway and into other areas of the body.

Biliary fistulas can occur as a result of trauma, surgery, infection, or inflammation in the biliary system. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, fever, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), nausea, vomiting, and clay-colored stools. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the fistula, such as draining an infection or repairing damaged tissue, and diverting bile flow away from the site of the leak. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the fistula.

Veins are blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from the tissues back to the heart. They have a lower pressure than arteries and contain valves to prevent the backflow of blood. Veins have a thin, flexible wall with a larger lumen compared to arteries, allowing them to accommodate more blood volume. The color of veins is often blue or green due to the absorption characteristics of light and the reduced oxygen content in the blood they carry.

Vascular patency is a term used in medicine to describe the state of a blood vessel (such as an artery or vein) being open, unobstructed, and allowing for the normal flow of blood. It is an important concept in the treatment and management of various cardiovascular conditions, such as peripheral artery disease, coronary artery disease, and deep vein thrombosis.

Maintaining vascular patency can help prevent serious complications like tissue damage, organ dysfunction, or even death. This may involve medical interventions such as administering blood-thinning medications to prevent clots, performing procedures to remove blockages, or using devices like stents to keep vessels open. Regular monitoring of vascular patency is also crucial for evaluating the effectiveness of treatments and adjusting care plans accordingly.

A pancreatic fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the pancreas and another organ, often the digestive system. It usually occurs as a complication following trauma, surgery, or inflammation of the pancreas (such as pancreatitis). The pancreas secretes digestive enzymes, and when these enzymes escape the pancreas through a damaged or disrupted duct, they can cause irritation and inflammation in nearby tissues, leading to the formation of a fistula.

Pancreatic fistulas are typically characterized by the drainage of pancreatic fluid, which contains high levels of digestive enzymes, into other parts of the body. This can lead to various symptoms, including abdominal pain, swelling, fever, and malnutrition. Treatment may involve surgical repair of the fistula, as well as supportive care such as antibiotics, nutritional support, and drainage of any fluid collections.

A rectovaginal fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the rectum (the lower end of the colon, leading to the anus) and the vagina. This type of fistula can result from various causes, such as childbirth injuries, surgery complications, Crohn's disease, radiation therapy, or infections. The condition may lead to symptoms like fecal matter passing through the vagina, recurrent vaginal infections, discomfort during sexual intercourse, and skin irritation around the vaginal area. Treatment options typically involve surgical repair of the fistula, depending on its size, location, and underlying cause.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyvinyls" is not a medical term. It is a chemical term that refers to polymers made from vinyl chloride, which is used in the production of various plastics and resins. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those!

Angiography is a medical procedure in which an x-ray image is taken to visualize the internal structure of blood vessels, arteries, or veins. This is done by injecting a radiopaque contrast agent (dye) into the blood vessel using a thin, flexible catheter. The dye makes the blood vessels visible on an x-ray image, allowing doctors to diagnose and treat various medical conditions such as blockages, narrowing, or malformations of the blood vessels.

There are several types of angiography, including:

* Cardiac angiography (also called coronary angiography) - used to examine the blood vessels of the heart
* Cerebral angiography - used to examine the blood vessels of the brain
* Peripheral angiography - used to examine the blood vessels in the limbs or other parts of the body.

Angiography is typically performed by a radiologist, cardiologist, or vascular surgeon in a hospital setting. It can help diagnose conditions such as coronary artery disease, aneurysms, and peripheral arterial disease, among others.

A vesicovaginal fistula is an abnormal opening or connection between the bladder and the vagina, resulting in the continuous involuntary discharge of urine into the vaginal vault. This condition most commonly occurs as a result of complications during childbirth, particularly in developing countries with limited access to medical care. It can also be caused by surgery, radiation therapy, infection, or injury.

The symptoms of vesicovaginal fistula include constant urinary leakage from the vagina, frequent urinary tract infections, and a foul odor. The condition can lead to social isolation, depression, and other psychological issues due to its impact on a woman's quality of life. Treatment typically involves surgical repair of the fistula, which can be complex and may require specialized medical care.

A respiratory tract fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the respiratory tract (which includes the nose, throat, windpipe, and lungs) and another organ or structure, such as the skin, digestive tract, or blood vessels. This condition can lead to complications such as air leakage, infection, and difficulty breathing. The causes of respiratory tract fistulas vary and can include trauma, surgery, infection, or cancer. Treatment depends on the location and severity of the fistula and may involve surgical repair, antibiotics, or other therapies.

A vaginal fistula is an abnormal opening or connection between the vagina and another organ, such as the bladder (resulting in a vesicovaginal fistula), the rectum (resulting in a rectovaginal fistula), or the colon (resulting in a colovaginal fistula). This condition can lead to various complications, including chronic urinary or fecal incontinence, infection, and difficulty with sexual intercourse.

Vaginal fistulas are often caused by obstetric trauma, such as prolonged labor, or may be the result of surgery, radiation therapy, injury, or infection. Symptoms can vary depending on the size and location of the fistula but typically include abnormal discharge, pain, and foul-smelling odor. Treatment usually involves surgical repair of the fistula, although smaller fistulas may sometimes heal on their own with proper care and management.

Meningeal arteries refer to the branches of the major cerebral arteries that supply blood to the meninges, which are the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. These arteries include:

1. The middle meningeal artery, a branch of the maxillary artery, which supplies the dura mater in the cranial cavity.
2. The anterior and posterior meningeal arteries, branches of the internal carotid and vertebral arteries, respectively, that supply blood to the dura mater in the anterior and posterior cranial fossae.
3. The vasorum nervorum, small arteries that arise from the spinal branch of the ascending cervical artery and supply the spinal meninges.

These arteries play a crucial role in maintaining the health and integrity of the meninges and the central nervous system they protect.

Cerebral angiography is a medical procedure that involves taking X-ray images of the blood vessels in the brain after injecting a contrast dye into them. This procedure helps doctors to diagnose and treat various conditions affecting the blood vessels in the brain, such as aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and stenosis (narrowing of the blood vessels).

During the procedure, a catheter is inserted into an artery in the leg and threaded through the body to the blood vessels in the neck or brain. The contrast dye is then injected through the catheter, and X-ray images are taken to visualize the blood flow through the brain's blood vessels.

Cerebral angiography provides detailed images of the blood vessels in the brain, allowing doctors to identify any abnormalities or blockages that may be causing symptoms or increasing the risk of stroke. Based on the results of the cerebral angiography, doctors can develop a treatment plan to address these issues and prevent further complications.

A tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is an abnormal connection between the trachea (windpipe) and the esophagus (tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach). This congenital anomaly is usually present at birth and can vary in size and location. It can cause complications such as respiratory distress, feeding difficulties, and recurrent lung infections. TEF is often treated surgically to separate the trachea and esophagus and restore their normal functions.

The anterior cranial fossa is a term used in anatomy to refer to the portion of the skull that forms the upper part of the orbits (eye sockets) and the roof of the nasal cavity. It is located at the front of the skull, and is formed by several bones including the frontal bone, sphenoid bone, and ethmoid bone.

The anterior cranial fossa contains several important structures, including the olfactory bulbs (which are responsible for our sense of smell), as well as the optic nerves and parts of the pituitary gland. This region of the skull also provides protection for the brain, particularly the frontal lobes, which are involved in higher cognitive functions such as decision-making, problem-solving, and emotional regulation.

Abnormalities or injuries to the anterior cranial fossa can have serious consequences, including damage to the olfactory bulbs, optic nerves, and pituitary gland, as well as potential injury to the frontal lobes of the brain.

Indwelling catheters, also known as Foley catheters, are medical devices that are inserted into the bladder to drain urine. They have a small balloon at the tip that is inflated with water once the catheter is in the correct position in the bladder, allowing it to remain in place and continuously drain urine. Indwelling catheters are typically used for patients who are unable to empty their bladders on their own, such as those who are bedridden or have nerve damage that affects bladder function. They are also used during and after certain surgical procedures. Prolonged use of indwelling catheters can increase the risk of urinary tract infections and other complications.

A Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula (CCSF) is an abnormal connection between the carotid artery and the cavernous sinus, a venous structure in the skull. This connection can be either direct or indirect. Direct CCSFs are caused by trauma or rupture of an aneurysm, while indirect CCSFs are usually spontaneous and associated with conditions such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, or connective tissue disorders.

Symptoms of a CCSF may include headache, eye redness, protrusion of the eyeball, double vision, hearing disturbances, and pulsatile tinnitus (a rhythmic sound in the ear). The severity of symptoms can vary depending on the size of the fistula and the pressure within the cavernous sinus.

Treatment options for CCSF include endovascular repair with stenting or coiling, surgical closure, or observation, depending on the type and size of the fistula and the presence of symptoms.

A stab wound is a type of penetrating trauma to the body caused by a sharp object such as a knife or screwdriver. The injury may be classified as either a stabbing or a puncture wound, depending on the nature of the object and the manner in which it was inflicted. Stab wounds typically involve a forceful thrusting motion, which can result in damage to internal organs, blood vessels, and other structures.

The depth and severity of a stab wound depend on several factors, including the type and length of the weapon used, the angle and force of the strike, and the location of the wound on the body. Stab wounds to vital areas such as the chest or abdomen can be particularly dangerous due to the risk of internal bleeding and infection.

Immediate medical attention is required for stab wounds, even if they appear minor at first glance. Treatment may involve wound cleaning, suturing, antibiotics, and in some cases, surgery to repair damaged tissues or organs. In severe cases, stab wounds can lead to shock, organ failure, and even death if left untreated.

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are abnormal tangles of blood vessels that directly connect arteries and veins, bypassing the capillary system. This results in a high-flow and high-pressure circulation in the affected area. AVMs can occur anywhere in the body but are most common in the brain and spine. They can vary in size and may cause symptoms such as headaches, seizures, or bleeding in the brain. In some cases, AVMs may not cause any symptoms and may only be discovered during imaging tests for other conditions. Treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, or embolization to reduce the flow of blood through the malformation and prevent complications.

The femoral vein is the large vein that runs through the thigh and carries oxygen-depleted blood from the lower limbs back to the heart. It is located in the femoral triangle, along with the femoral artery and nerve. The femoral vein begins at the knee as the popliteal vein, which then joins with the deep vein of the thigh to form the femoral vein. As it moves up the leg, it is joined by several other veins, including the great saphenous vein, before it becomes the external iliac vein at the inguinal ligament in the groin.

Intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are abnormal, tangled connections between the arteries and veins in the brain. These connections bypass the capillary system, which can lead to high-flow shunting and potential complications such as hemorrhage, stroke, or neurological deficits. AVMs are congenital conditions, meaning they are present at birth, although symptoms may not appear until later in life. They are relatively rare, affecting approximately 0.1% of the population. Treatment options for AVMs include surgery, radiation therapy, and endovascular embolization, depending on the size, location, and specific characteristics of the malformation.

The iliac veins are a pair of large veins in the human body that carry deoxygenated blood from the lower extremities and the pelvic area back to the heart. They are formed by the union of the common iliac veins, which receive blood from the lower abdomen and legs, at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra.

The combined iliac vein is called the inferior vena cava, which continues upward to the right atrium of the heart. The iliac veins are located deep within the pelvis, lateral to the corresponding iliac arteries, and are accompanied by the iliac lymphatic vessels.

The left common iliac vein is longer than the right because it must cross the left common iliac artery to join the right common iliac vein. The external and internal iliac veins are the two branches of the common iliac vein, with the external iliac vein carrying blood from the lower limbs and the internal iliac vein carrying blood from the pelvic organs.

It is essential to maintain proper blood flow in the iliac veins to prevent deep vein thrombosis (DVT), a condition that can lead to serious complications such as pulmonary embolism.

The jugular veins are a pair of large, superficial veins that carry blood from the head and neck to the heart. They are located in the neck and are easily visible when looking at the side of a person's neck. The external jugular vein runs along the surface of the muscles in the neck, while the internal jugular vein runs within the carotid sheath along with the carotid artery and the vagus nerve.

The jugular veins are important in clinical examinations because they can provide information about a person's cardiovascular function and intracranial pressure. For example, distention of the jugular veins may indicate heart failure or increased intracranial pressure, while decreased venous pulsations may suggest a low blood pressure or shock.

It is important to note that medical conditions such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) can also affect the jugular veins and can lead to serious complications if not treated promptly.

The radial artery is a key blood vessel in the human body, specifically a part of the peripheral arterial system. Originating from the brachial artery in the upper arm, the radial artery travels down the arm and crosses over the wrist, where it can be palpated easily. It then continues into the hand, dividing into several branches to supply blood to the hand's tissues and digits.

The radial artery is often used for taking pulse readings due to its easy accessibility at the wrist. Additionally, in medical procedures such as coronary angiography or bypass surgery, the radial artery can be utilized as a site for catheter insertion. This allows healthcare professionals to examine the heart's blood vessels and assess cardiovascular health.

A urinary bladder fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the urinary bladder and another organ or structure, such as the skin, intestine, or vagina. This condition can result from various factors, including surgery, injury, infection, inflammation, radiation therapy, or malignancy.

Bladder fistulas may lead to symptoms like continuous leakage of urine through the skin, frequent urinary tract infections, and fecal matter in the urine (when the fistula involves the intestine). The diagnosis typically involves imaging tests, such as a CT scan or cystogram, while treatment often requires surgical repair of the fistula.

The term "upper extremity" is used in the medical field to refer to the portion of the upper limb that extends from the shoulder to the hand. This includes the arm, elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand. The upper extremity is responsible for various functions such as reaching, grasping, and manipulating objects, making it an essential part of a person's daily activities.

An arterio-arterial fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between two arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body. Under normal circumstances, arteries do not directly communicate with each other; instead, they supply blood to capillaries, which then deliver the blood to veins.

An arterio-arterial fistula can result from various causes, including congenital defects, trauma, or as a complication of medical procedures such as arterial catheterization or surgical interventions. The presence of an arterio-arterial fistula may lead to several hemodynamic consequences, depending on the size, location, and chronicity of the communication. These can include altered blood flow patterns, increased pressure in the affected arteries, and potential cardiac complications due to volume overload.

Symptoms of an arterio-arterial fistula may vary widely, from being asymptomatic to experiencing palpitations, shortness of breath, fatigue, or even congestive heart failure in severe cases. The diagnosis typically involves imaging studies such as ultrasound, CT angiography, or MRI angiography to visualize the abnormal communication and assess its hemodynamic impact. Treatment options may include observation, endovascular interventions, or surgical repair, depending on the individual case.

The Superior Sagittal Sinus is a medical term that refers to a venous sinus (a channel for blood flow) located in the superior part (highest portion) of the sagittal suture, which is the line along the top of the skull where the two parietal bones join in the middle. It runs from front to back, starting at the frontal bone and ending at the occipital bone, and it receives blood from veins that drain the cerebral hemispheres (the right and left halves of the brain).

The Superior Sagittal Sinus is an important structure in the circulatory system of the brain as it plays a critical role in draining venous blood from the cranial cavity. It also contains valveless venous channels that allow for the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) between the intracranial and extracranial compartments.

It is worth noting that any damage to this structure, such as through trauma or infection, can lead to serious neurological complications, including increased intracranial pressure, seizures, and even death.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Graft occlusion in the context of vascular surgery refers to the complete or partial blockage of a blood vessel that has been surgically replaced or repaired with a graft. The graft can be made from either synthetic materials or autologous tissue (taken from another part of the patient's body).

Graft occlusion can occur due to various reasons, including:

1. Thrombosis: Formation of a blood clot within the graft, which can obstruct blood flow.
2. Intimal hyperplasia: Overgrowth of the inner lining (intima) of the graft or the adjacent native vessel, causing narrowing of the lumen and reducing blood flow.
3. Atherosclerosis: Deposition of cholesterol and other substances in the walls of the graft, leading to hardening and narrowing of the vessel.
4. Infection: Bacterial or fungal infection of the graft can cause inflammation, weakening, and ultimately occlusion of the graft.
5. Mechanical factors: Kinking, twisting, or compression of the graft can lead to obstruction of blood flow.

Graft occlusion is a significant complication following vascular surgery, as it can result in reduced perfusion to downstream tissues and organs, leading to ischemia (lack of oxygen supply) and potential tissue damage or loss.

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is not inherently a medical term, but it is a chemical compound with significant uses in the medical field. Medically, PTFE is often referred to by its brand name, Teflon. It is a synthetic fluoropolymer used in various medical applications due to its unique properties such as high resistance to heat, electrical and chemical interaction, and exceptional non-reactivity with body tissues.

PTFE can be found in medical devices like catheters, where it reduces friction, making insertion easier and minimizing trauma. It is also used in orthopedic and dental implants, drug delivery systems, and sutures due to its biocompatibility and non-adhesive nature.

Chronic kidney failure, also known as chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5 or end-stage renal disease (ESRD), is a permanent loss of kidney function that occurs gradually over a period of months to years. It is defined as a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 15 ml/min, which means the kidneys are filtering waste and excess fluids at less than 15% of their normal capacity.

CKD can be caused by various underlying conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, and recurrent kidney infections. Over time, the damage to the kidneys can lead to a buildup of waste products and fluids in the body, which can cause a range of symptoms including fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, and confusion.

Treatment for chronic kidney failure typically involves managing the underlying condition, making lifestyle changes such as following a healthy diet, and receiving supportive care such as dialysis or a kidney transplant to replace lost kidney function.

The axillary vein is a large vein that runs through the axilla or armpit region. It is formed by the union of the brachial vein and the basilic vein at the lower border of the teres major muscle. The axillary vein carries deoxygenated blood from the upper limb, chest wall, and breast towards the heart. As it moves proximally, it becomes continuous with the subclavian vein to form the brachiocephalic vein. It is accompanied by the axillary artery and forms part of the important neurovascular bundle in the axilla.

Gunshot wounds are defined as traumatic injuries caused by the penetration of bullets or other projectiles fired from firearms into the body. The severity and extent of damage depend on various factors such as the type of firearm used, the distance between the muzzle and the victim, the size and shape of the bullet, and its velocity.

Gunshot wounds can be classified into two main categories:

1. Penetrating gunshot wounds: These occur when a bullet enters the body but does not exit, causing damage to the organs, tissues, and blood vessels along its path.

2. Perforating gunshot wounds: These happen when a bullet enters and exits the body, creating an entry and exit wound, causing damage to the structures it traverses.

Based on the mechanism of injury, gunshot wounds can also be categorized into low-velocity (less than 1000 feet per second) and high-velocity (greater than 1000 feet per second) injuries. High-velocity gunshot wounds are more likely to cause extensive tissue damage due to the transfer of kinetic energy from the bullet to the surrounding tissues.

Immediate medical attention is required for individuals with gunshot wounds, as they may experience significant blood loss, infection, and potential long-term complications such as organ dysfunction or disability. Treatment typically involves surgical intervention to control bleeding, remove foreign material, repair damaged structures, and manage infections if present.

The transverse sinuses are a pair of venous channels located within the skull. They are part of the intracranial venous system and are responsible for draining blood from the brain. The transverse sinuses run horizontally along the upper portion of the inner skull, starting at the occipital bone (at the back of the head) and extending to the temporal bones (on the sides of the head).

These sinuses receive blood from the superior sagittal sinus, straight sinus, and the occipital sinus. After passing through the transverse sinuses, the blood is then drained into the sigmoid sinuses, which in turn drain into the internal jugular veins. The transverse sinuses are an essential component of the cerebral venous system, ensuring proper blood flow and drainage from the brain.

Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) is a non-invasive medical imaging technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create detailed images of the blood vessels or arteries within the body. It is a type of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) that focuses specifically on the circulatory system.

MRA can be used to diagnose and evaluate various conditions related to the blood vessels, such as aneurysms, stenosis (narrowing of the vessel), or the presence of plaques or tumors. It can also be used to plan for surgeries or other treatments related to the vascular system. The procedure does not use radiation and is generally considered safe, although people with certain implants like pacemakers may not be able to have an MRA due to safety concerns.

The vertebral artery is a major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the brain and upper spinal cord. It arises from the subclavian artery, then ascends through the transverse processes of several cervical vertebrae before entering the skull through the foramen magnum. Inside the skull, it joins with the opposite vertebral artery to form the basilar artery, which supplies blood to the brainstem and cerebellum. The vertebral artery also gives off several important branches that supply blood to various regions of the brainstem and upper spinal cord.

Spinal cord diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the spinal cord, which is a part of the central nervous system responsible for transmitting messages between the brain and the rest of the body. These diseases can cause damage to the spinal cord, leading to various symptoms such as muscle weakness, numbness, pain, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and difficulty with movement and coordination.

Spinal cord diseases can be congenital or acquired, and they can result from a variety of causes, including infections, injuries, tumors, degenerative conditions, autoimmune disorders, and genetic factors. Some examples of spinal cord diseases include multiple sclerosis, spina bifida, spinal cord injury, herniated discs, spinal stenosis, and motor neuron diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

The treatment for spinal cord diseases varies depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Treatment options may include medication, physical therapy, surgery, and rehabilitation. In some cases, the damage to the spinal cord may be irreversible, leading to permanent disability or paralysis.

A blood vessel prosthesis is a medical device that is used as a substitute for a damaged or diseased natural blood vessel. It is typically made of synthetic materials such as polyester, Dacron, or ePTFE (expanded polytetrafluoroethylene) and is designed to mimic the function of a native blood vessel by allowing the flow of blood through it.

Blood vessel prostheses are used in various surgical procedures, including coronary artery bypass grafting, peripheral arterial reconstruction, and the creation of arteriovenous fistulas for dialysis access. The choice of material and size of the prosthesis depends on several factors, such as the location and diameter of the vessel being replaced, the patient's age and overall health status, and the surgeon's preference.

It is important to note that while blood vessel prostheses can be effective in restoring blood flow, they may also carry risks such as infection, thrombosis (blood clot formation), and graft failure over time. Therefore, careful patient selection, surgical technique, and postoperative management are crucial for the success of these procedures.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

An aneurysm is a localized, balloon-like bulge in the wall of a blood vessel. It occurs when the pressure inside the vessel causes a weakened area to swell and become enlarged. Aneurysms can develop in any blood vessel, but they are most common in arteries at the base of the brain (cerebral aneurysm) and the main artery carrying blood from the heart to the rest of the body (aortic aneurysm).

Aneurysms can be classified as saccular or fusiform, depending on their shape. A saccular aneurysm is a round or oval bulge that projects from the side of a blood vessel, while a fusiform aneurysm is a dilated segment of a blood vessel that is uniform in width and involves all three layers of the arterial wall.

The size and location of an aneurysm can affect its risk of rupture. Generally, larger aneurysms are more likely to rupture than smaller ones. Aneurysms located in areas with high blood pressure or where the vessel branches are also at higher risk of rupture.

Ruptured aneurysms can cause life-threatening bleeding and require immediate medical attention. Symptoms of a ruptured aneurysm may include sudden severe headache, neck stiffness, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, or loss of consciousness. Unruptured aneurysms may not cause any symptoms and are often discovered during routine imaging tests for other conditions.

Treatment options for aneurysms depend on their size, location, and risk of rupture. Small, unruptured aneurysms may be monitored with regular imaging tests to check for growth or changes. Larger or symptomatic aneurysms may require surgical intervention, such as clipping or coiling, to prevent rupture and reduce the risk of complications.

The femoral artery is the major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the lower extremity of the human body. It is a continuation of the external iliac artery and becomes the popliteal artery as it passes through the adductor hiatus in the adductor magnus muscle of the thigh.

The femoral artery is located in the femoral triangle, which is bound by the sartorius muscle anteriorly, the adductor longus muscle medially, and the biceps femoris muscle posteriorly. It can be easily palpated in the groin region, making it a common site for taking blood samples, measuring blood pressure, and performing surgical procedures such as femoral artery catheterization and bypass grafting.

The femoral artery gives off several branches that supply blood to the lower limb, including the deep femoral artery, the superficial femoral artery, and the profunda femoris artery. These branches provide blood to the muscles, bones, skin, and other tissues of the leg, ankle, and foot.

Pathological constriction refers to an abnormal narrowing or tightening of a body passage or organ, which can interfere with the normal flow of blood, air, or other substances through the area. This constriction can occur due to various reasons such as inflammation, scarring, or abnormal growths, and can affect different parts of the body, including blood vessels, airways, intestines, and ureters. Pathological constriction can lead to a range of symptoms and complications depending on its location and severity, and may require medical intervention to correct.

Coronary vessel anomalies refer to abnormalities in the structure, origin, or course of the coronary arteries or veins. These vessels are responsible for delivering oxygenated blood to the heart muscle. Some common types of coronary vessel anomalies include:

1. Anomalous Origin of the Coronary Artery (AOCA): This occurs when one or both of the coronary arteries originate from an abnormal location in the aorta. The left coronary artery may arise from the right sinus of Valsalva, while the right coronary artery may arise from the left sinus of Valsalva. This can lead to ischemia (reduced blood flow) and potentially life-threatening complications such as sudden cardiac death.
2. Coronary Artery Fistula: A fistula is an abnormal connection between a coronary artery and another chamber or vessel in the heart. Blood flows directly from the high-pressure coronary artery into a low-pressure chamber, bypassing the capillaries and leading to a steal phenomenon where oxygenated blood is diverted away from the heart muscle.
3. Coronary Artery Aneurysm: An aneurysm is a localized dilation or bulging of the coronary artery wall. This can lead to complications such as thrombosis (blood clot formation), embolism (blockage caused by a clot that travels to another location), or rupture, which can be life-threatening.
4. Myocardial Bridge: In this condition, a segment of the coronary artery passes between the muscle fibers of the heart, instead of running along its surface. This can cause compression of the artery during systole (contraction) and lead to ischemia.
5. Kawasaki Disease: Although not strictly an anomaly, Kawasaki disease is a pediatric illness that can result in coronary artery aneurysms and other complications if left untreated.

Coronary vessel anomalies may be asymptomatic or present with symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, palpitations, or syncope (fainting). Diagnosis typically involves imaging techniques such as coronary angiography, computed tomography (CT) angiography, or magnetic resonance angiography. Treatment depends on the specific anomaly and may involve medications, percutaneous interventions, or surgical correction.

A false aneurysm, also known as a pseudoaneurysm, is a type of aneurysm that occurs when there is a leakage or rupture of blood from a blood vessel into the surrounding tissues, creating a pulsating hematoma or collection of blood. Unlike true aneurysms, which involve a localized dilation or bulging of the blood vessel wall, false aneurysms do not have a complete covering of all three layers of the arterial wall (intima, media, and adventitia). Instead, they are typically covered by only one or two layers, such as the intima and adventitia, or by surrounding tissues like connective tissue or fascia.

False aneurysms can result from various factors, including trauma, infection, iatrogenic causes (such as medical procedures), or degenerative changes in the blood vessel wall. They are more common in arteries than veins and can occur in any part of the body. If left untreated, false aneurysms can lead to serious complications such as rupture, thrombosis, distal embolization, or infection. Treatment options for false aneurysms include surgical repair, endovascular procedures, or observation with regular follow-up imaging.

In medical terms, the arm refers to the upper limb of the human body, extending from the shoulder to the wrist. It is composed of three major bones: the humerus in the upper arm, and the radius and ulna in the lower arm. The arm contains several joints, including the shoulder joint, elbow joint, and wrist joint, which allow for a wide range of motion. The arm also contains muscles, blood vessels, nerves, and other soft tissues that are essential for normal function.

The subclavian vein is a large venous structure that carries deoxygenated blood from the upper limb and part of the thorax back to the heart. It forms when the axillary vein passes through the narrow space between the first rib and the clavicle (collarbone), becoming the subclavian vein.

On the left side, the subclavian vein joins with the internal jugular vein to form the brachiocephalic vein, while on the right side, the subclavian vein directly merges with the internal jugular vein to create the brachiocephalic vein. These brachiocephalic veins then unite to form the superior vena cava, which drains blood into the right atrium of the heart.

The subclavian vein is an essential structure for venous access in various medical procedures and interventions, such as placing central venous catheters or performing blood tests.

Venous pressure is the pressure exerted on the walls of a vein, which varies depending on several factors such as the volume and flow of blood within the vein, the contractile state of the surrounding muscles, and the position of the body. In clinical settings, venous pressure is often measured in the extremities (e.g., arms or legs) to assess the functioning of the cardiovascular system.

Central venous pressure (CVP) is a specific type of venous pressure that refers to the pressure within the large veins that enter the right atrium of the heart. CVP is an important indicator of right heart function and fluid status, as it reflects the amount of blood returning to the heart and the ability of the heart to pump it forward. Normal CVP ranges from 0 to 8 mmHg (millimeters of mercury) in adults.

Elevated venous pressure can be caused by various conditions such as heart failure, obstruction of blood flow, or fluid overload, while low venous pressure may indicate dehydration or blood loss. Accurate measurement and interpretation of venous pressure require specialized equipment and knowledge, and are typically performed by healthcare professionals in a clinical setting.

Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the blood vessels and blood flow within the body. It combines the use of X-ray technology with digital image processing to produce detailed images of the vascular system.

In DSA, a contrast agent is injected into the patient's bloodstream through a catheter, which is typically inserted into an artery in the leg and guided to the area of interest using fluoroscopy. As the contrast agent flows through the blood vessels, X-ray images are taken at multiple time points.

The digital subtraction process involves taking a baseline image without contrast and then subtracting it from subsequent images taken with contrast. This allows for the removal of background structures and noise, resulting in clearer images of the blood vessels. DSA can be used to diagnose and evaluate various vascular conditions, such as aneurysms, stenosis, and tumors, and can also guide interventional procedures such as angioplasty and stenting.

The external carotid artery is a major blood vessel in the neck that supplies oxygenated blood to the structures of the head and neck, excluding the brain. It originates from the common carotid artery at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, then divides into several branches that supply various regions of the head and neck, including the face, scalp, ears, and neck muscles.

The external carotid artery has eight branches:

1. Superior thyroid artery: Supplies blood to the thyroid gland, larynx, and surrounding muscles.
2. Ascending pharyngeal artery: Supplies blood to the pharynx, palate, and meninges of the brain.
3. Lingual artery: Supplies blood to the tongue and floor of the mouth.
4. Facial artery: Supplies blood to the face, nose, lips, and palate.
5. Occipital artery: Supplies blood to the scalp and muscles of the neck.
6. Posterior auricular artery: Supplies blood to the ear and surrounding muscles.
7. Maxillary artery: Supplies blood to the lower face, nasal cavity, palate, and meninges of the brain.
8. Superficial temporal artery: Supplies blood to the scalp, face, and temporomandibular joint.

The external carotid artery is an essential structure for maintaining adequate blood flow to the head and neck, and any damage or blockage can lead to serious medical conditions such as stroke or tissue necrosis.

Iatrogenic disease refers to any condition or illness that is caused, directly or indirectly, by medical treatment or intervention. This can include adverse reactions to medications, infections acquired during hospitalization, complications from surgical procedures, or injuries caused by medical equipment. It's important to note that iatrogenic diseases are unintended and often preventable with proper care and precautions.

Ultrasonography, Doppler, and Duplex are diagnostic medical techniques that use sound waves to create images of internal body structures and assess their function. Here are the definitions for each:

1. Ultrasonography: Also known as ultrasound, this is a non-invasive imaging technique that uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images of internal organs and tissues. A small handheld device called a transducer is placed on the skin surface, which emits and receives sound waves. The returning echoes are then processed to create real-time visual images of the internal structures.
2. Doppler: This is a type of ultrasound that measures the velocity and direction of blood flow in the body by analyzing the frequency shift of the reflected sound waves. It can be used to assess blood flow in various parts of the body, such as the heart, arteries, and veins.
3. Duplex: Duplex ultrasonography is a combination of both gray-scale ultrasound and Doppler ultrasound. It provides detailed images of internal structures, as well as information about blood flow velocity and direction. This technique is often used to evaluate conditions such as deep vein thrombosis, carotid artery stenosis, and peripheral arterial disease.

In summary, ultrasonography is a diagnostic imaging technique that uses sound waves to create images of internal structures, Doppler is a type of ultrasound that measures blood flow velocity and direction, and duplex is a combination of both techniques that provides detailed images and information about blood flow.

Cardiac output is a measure of the amount of blood that is pumped by the heart in one minute. It is calculated by multiplying the stroke volume (the amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle in each beat) by the heart rate (the number of times the heart beats per minute).

A "high" cardiac output refers to a situation where the cardiac output is greater than normal. This can occur in various conditions such as hyperthyroidism, anemia, fever, pregnancy, or any other condition that increases the body's metabolic demand and requires more blood flow to tissues. It can also be seen in patients with certain heart conditions like a severely narrowed aortic valve or high output cardiac failure.

However, it is important to note that while a high cardiac output may be beneficial in some cases, such as during exercise or pregnancy, chronically elevated levels can lead to increased workload on the heart and potentially contribute to heart failure over time.

Phlebography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize and assess the veins, particularly in the legs. It involves the injection of a contrast agent into the veins, followed by X-ray imaging to capture the flow of the contrast material through the veins. This allows doctors to identify any abnormalities such as blood clots, blockages, or malformations in the venous system.

There are different types of phlebography, including ascending phlebography (where the contrast agent is injected into a foot vein and travels up the leg) and descending phlebography (where the contrast agent is injected into a vein in the groin or neck and travels down the leg).

Phlebography is an invasive procedure that requires careful preparation and monitoring, and it is typically performed by radiologists or vascular specialists. It has largely been replaced by non-invasive imaging techniques such as ultrasound and CT angiography in many clinical settings.

Blood vessel prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure in which an artificial blood vessel, also known as a vascular graft or prosthetic graft, is inserted into the body to replace a damaged or diseased native blood vessel. The prosthetic graft can be made from various materials such as Dacron (polyester), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), or bovine/human tissue.

The implantation of a blood vessel prosthesis is typically performed to treat conditions that cause narrowing or blockage of the blood vessels, such as atherosclerosis, aneurysms, or traumatic injuries. The procedure may be used to bypass blocked arteries in the legs (peripheral artery disease), heart (coronary artery bypass surgery), or neck (carotid endarterectomy). It can also be used to replace damaged veins for hemodialysis access in patients with kidney failure.

The success of blood vessel prosthesis implantation depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the location and extent of the vascular disease, and the type of graft material used. Possible complications include infection, bleeding, graft thrombosis (clotting), and graft failure, which may require further surgical intervention or endovascular treatments.

The iliac arteries are major branches of the abdominal aorta, the large artery that carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body. The iliac arteries divide into two branches, the common iliac arteries, which further bifurcate into the internal and external iliac arteries.

The internal iliac artery supplies blood to the lower abdomen, pelvis, and the reproductive organs, while the external iliac artery provides blood to the lower extremities, including the legs and feet. Together, the iliac arteries play a crucial role in circulating blood throughout the body, ensuring that all tissues and organs receive the oxygen and nutrients they need to function properly.

Ultrasonography, Doppler, color is a type of diagnostic ultrasound technique that uses the Doppler effect to produce visual images of blood flow in vessels and the heart. The Doppler effect is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to an observer who is moving relative to the source of the wave. In this context, it refers to the change in frequency of the ultrasound waves as they reflect off moving red blood cells.

In color Doppler ultrasonography, different colors are used to represent the direction and speed of blood flow. Red typically represents blood flowing toward the transducer (the device that sends and receives sound waves), while blue represents blood flowing away from the transducer. The intensity or brightness of the color is proportional to the velocity of blood flow.

Color Doppler ultrasonography is often used in conjunction with grayscale ultrasound imaging, which provides information about the structure and composition of tissues. Together, these techniques can help diagnose a wide range of conditions, including heart disease, blood clots, and abnormalities in blood flow.

The brachial artery is a major blood vessel in the upper arm. It supplies oxygenated blood to the muscles and tissues of the arm, forearm, and hand. The brachial artery originates from the axillary artery at the level of the shoulder joint and runs down the medial (inner) aspect of the arm, passing through the cubital fossa (the depression on the anterior side of the elbow) where it can be palpated during a routine blood pressure measurement. At the lower end of the forearm, the brachial artery bifurcates into the radial and ulnar arteries, which further divide into smaller vessels to supply the hand and fingers.

The splenic vein is a large, thin-walled vein that carries oxygenated blood from the spleen and pancreas to the liver. It is formed by the union of several smaller veins that drain the upper part of the stomach, the pancreas, and the left side of the colon (splenic flexure). The splenic vein runs along the top border of the pancreas and merges with the superior mesenteric vein to form the portal vein. This venous system allows for the filtration and detoxification of blood by the liver before it is distributed to the rest of the body.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Enbucrilate" is not a medical term or a medication that I am aware of. It's possible that there might be some misunderstanding or misspelling in the term. If you have more context or information about where this term came from, I may be able to provide a more accurate and helpful response.

However, if you are referring to "bucrilate" which is a type of polymer used in some medical applications such as wound dressings, then it is a substance that can absorb large amounts of water and create a gel-like barrier between the wound and the outside environment, helping to keep the wound moist and promote healing.

If you have any further questions or concerns, please don't hesitate to ask.

The inferior vena cava (IVC) is the largest vein in the human body that carries deoxygenated blood from the lower extremities, pelvis, and abdomen to the right atrium of the heart. It is formed by the union of the left and right common iliac veins at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra. The inferior vena cava is a retroperitoneal structure, meaning it lies behind the peritoneum, the lining that covers the abdominal cavity. It ascends through the posterior abdominal wall and passes through the central tendon of the diaphragm to enter the thoracic cavity.

The inferior vena cava is composed of three parts:

1. The infrarenal portion, which lies below the renal veins
2. The renal portion, which receives blood from the renal veins
3. The suprahepatic portion, which lies above the liver and receives blood from the hepatic veins before draining into the right atrium of the heart.

The inferior vena cava plays a crucial role in maintaining venous return to the heart and contributing to cardiovascular function.

Hematemesis is the medical term for vomiting blood. It can range in appearance from bright red blood to dark, coffee-ground material that results from the stomach acid digesting the blood. Hematemesis is often a sign of a serious condition, such as bleeding in the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum, and requires immediate medical attention. The underlying cause can be various, including gastritis, ulcers, esophageal varices, or tumors.

A digestive system fistula is an abnormal connection or passageway that forms between the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, such as the stomach, small intestine, colon, or rectum, and another organ, tissue, or the skin. Fistulas can develop as a result of injury, surgery, infection, inflammation, or cancer.

In the digestive system, fistulas can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, nausea, vomiting, and malnutrition. The severity of these symptoms depends on the location and size of the fistula, as well as the underlying cause. Treatment for a digestive system fistula may involve antibiotics to treat infection, nutritional support, and surgical repair of the fistula.

Myelography is a medical imaging technique used to examine the spinal cord and surrounding structures, such as the spinal nerves, intervertebral discs, and the spinal column. This procedure involves the injection of a contrast dye into the subarachnoid space, which is the area surrounding the spinal cord filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The dye outlines the spinal structures, making them visible on X-ray or CT scan images.

The primary purpose of myelography is to diagnose various spinal conditions, including herniated discs, spinal stenosis, tumors, infection, and traumatic injuries. It can help identify any compression or irritation of the spinal cord or nerves that may be causing pain, numbness, weakness, or other neurological symptoms.

The procedure typically requires the patient to lie flat on their stomach or side while the radiologist inserts a thin needle into the subarachnoid space, usually at the lower lumbar level. Once the contrast dye is injected, the patient will be repositioned for various X-ray views or undergo a CT scan to capture detailed images of the spine. After the procedure, patients may experience headaches, nausea, or discomfort at the injection site, but these symptoms usually resolve within a few days.

The forearm is the region of the upper limb between the elbow and the wrist. It consists of two bones, the radius and ulna, which are located side by side and run parallel to each other. The forearm is responsible for movements such as flexion, extension, supination, and pronation of the hand and wrist.

A reoperation is a surgical procedure that is performed again on a patient who has already undergone a previous operation for the same or related condition. Reoperations may be required due to various reasons, such as inadequate initial treatment, disease recurrence, infection, or complications from the first surgery. The nature and complexity of a reoperation can vary widely depending on the specific circumstances, but it often carries higher risks and potential complications compared to the original operation.

The splenic artery is the largest branch of the celiac trunk, which arises from the abdominal aorta. It supplies blood to the spleen and several other organs in the upper left part of the abdomen. The splenic artery divides into several branches that ultimately form a network of capillaries within the spleen. These capillaries converge to form the main venous outflow, the splenic vein, which drains into the hepatic portal vein.

The splenic artery is a vital structure in the human body, and any damage or blockage can lead to serious complications, including splenic infarction (reduced blood flow to the spleen) or splenic rupture (a surgical emergency that can be life-threatening).

Surgical anastomosis is a medical procedure that involves the connection of two tubular structures, such as blood vessels or intestines, to create a continuous passage. This technique is commonly used in various types of surgeries, including vascular, gastrointestinal, and orthopedic procedures.

During a surgical anastomosis, the ends of the two tubular structures are carefully prepared by removing any damaged or diseased tissue. The ends are then aligned and joined together using sutures, staples, or other devices. The connection must be secure and leak-free to ensure proper function and healing.

The success of a surgical anastomosis depends on several factors, including the patient's overall health, the location and condition of the structures being joined, and the skill and experience of the surgeon. Complications such as infection, bleeding, or leakage can occur, which may require additional medical intervention or surgery.

Proper postoperative care is also essential to ensure the success of a surgical anastomosis. This may include monitoring for signs of complications, administering medications to prevent infection and promote healing, and providing adequate nutrition and hydration.

The Ulnar Artery is a major blood vessel that supplies the forearm, hand, and fingers with oxygenated blood. It originates from the brachial artery in the upper arm and travels down the medial (towards the body's midline) side of the forearm, passing through the Guyon's canal at the wrist before branching out to supply the hand and fingers.

The ulnar artery provides blood to the palmar aspect of the hand and the ulnar side of the little finger and half of the ring finger. It also contributes to the formation of the deep palmar arch, which supplies blood to the deep structures of the hand. The ulnar artery is an important structure in the circulatory system, providing critical blood flow to the upper limb.

Thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. When a clot forms in an artery, it can cut off the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the tissues served by that artery, leading to damage or tissue death. If a thrombus forms in the heart, it can cause a heart attack. If a thrombus breaks off and travels through the bloodstream, it can lodge in a smaller vessel, causing blockage and potentially leading to damage in the organ that the vessel supplies. This is known as an embolism.

Thrombosis can occur due to various factors such as injury to the blood vessel wall, abnormalities in blood flow, or changes in the composition of the blood. Certain medical conditions, medications, and lifestyle factors can increase the risk of thrombosis. Treatment typically involves anticoagulant or thrombolytic therapy to dissolve or prevent further growth of the clot, as well as addressing any underlying causes.

Interventional radiography is a subspecialty of radiology that uses imaging guidance (such as X-ray fluoroscopy, ultrasound, CT, or MRI) to perform minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. These procedures typically involve the insertion of needles, catheters, or other small instruments through the skin or a natural body opening, allowing for targeted treatment with reduced risk, trauma, and recovery time compared to traditional open surgeries.

Examples of interventional radiography procedures include:

1. Angiography: Imaging of blood vessels to diagnose and treat conditions like blockages, narrowing, or aneurysms.
2. Biopsy: The removal of tissue samples for diagnostic purposes.
3. Drainage: The removal of fluid accumulations (e.g., abscesses, cysts) or the placement of catheters to drain fluids continuously.
4. Embolization: The blocking of blood vessels to control bleeding, tumor growth, or reduce the size of an aneurysm.
5. Stenting and angioplasty: The widening of narrowed or blocked vessels using stents (small mesh tubes) or balloon catheters.
6. Radiofrequency ablation: The use of heat to destroy tumors or abnormal tissues.
7. Cryoablation: The use of extreme cold to destroy tumors or abnormal tissues.

Interventional radiologists are medical doctors who have completed specialized training in both diagnostic imaging and interventional procedures, allowing them to provide comprehensive care for patients requiring image-guided treatments.

Wound closure techniques are methods used to bring the edges of a wound together, allowing for proper healing and minimizing the scar formation. The goal is to approximate the wound edges accurately while providing strength and support to the healing tissues. Several techniques can be employed depending on the type, location, and size of the wound. Some common wound closure techniques include:

1. Sutures (Stitches): A surgical thread is passed through the skin on either side of the wound and tied together to hold the edges in place. Sutures can be absorbable or non-absorbable, and various materials and needle types are used depending on the specific application.
2. Staples: Similar to sutures, staples are used to bring the wound edges together. They are typically faster to apply and remove than sutures, making them suitable for certain types of wounds, such as those on the scalp or torso.
3. Adhesive strips (Steri-Strips): These are thin adhesive bandages applied across the wound to keep the edges approximated. They are often used in conjunction with other closure techniques or for superficial wounds that do not require extensive support.
4. Tissue adhesives (Glues): A liquid adhesive is applied to the wound edges, which then hardens and forms a bond between them. This technique is typically used for minor wounds and can be less invasive than sutures or staples.
5. Skin closure tapes: These are specialized tapes that provide support to the healing wound while also protecting it from external factors. They can be used in combination with other closure techniques or on their own for superficial wounds.
6. Surgical sealants: These are medical-grade materials that create a barrier over the wound, helping to prevent infection and maintain moisture at the wound site. They can be used alongside other closure methods or as an alternative for certain types of wounds.

The choice of wound closure technique depends on various factors, including the location, size, and depth of the wound, patient preferences, and the healthcare provider's expertise. Proper wound care and follow-up are essential to ensure optimal healing and minimize scarring.

Pleural diseases refer to conditions that affect the pleura, which is the thin, double-layered membrane that surrounds the lungs and lines the inside of the chest wall. The space between these two layers contains a small amount of fluid that helps the lungs move smoothly during breathing. Pleural diseases can cause inflammation, infection, or abnormal collections of fluid in the pleural space, leading to symptoms such as chest pain, cough, and difficulty breathing.

Some common examples of pleural diseases include:

1. Pleurisy: Inflammation of the pleura that causes sharp chest pain, often worsened by breathing or coughing.
2. Pleural effusion: An abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space, which can be caused by various underlying conditions such as heart failure, pneumonia, cancer, or autoimmune disorders.
3. Empyema: A collection of pus in the pleural space, usually resulting from a bacterial infection.
4. Pleural thickening: Scarring and hardening of the pleura, which can restrict lung function and cause breathlessness.
5. Mesothelioma: A rare form of cancer that affects the pleura, often caused by exposure to asbestos.
6. Pneumothorax: A collection of air in the pleural space, which can result from trauma or a rupture of the lung tissue.

Proper diagnosis and treatment of pleural diseases require a thorough evaluation by a healthcare professional, often involving imaging tests such as chest X-rays or CT scans, as well as fluid analysis or biopsy if necessary.

Vascular surgical procedures are operations that are performed to treat conditions and diseases related to the vascular system, which includes the arteries, veins, and capillaries. These procedures can be invasive or minimally invasive and are often used to treat conditions such as peripheral artery disease, carotid artery stenosis, aortic aneurysms, and venous insufficiency.

Some examples of vascular surgical procedures include:

* Endarterectomy: a procedure to remove plaque buildup from the inside of an artery
* Bypass surgery: creating a new path for blood to flow around a blocked or narrowed artery
* Angioplasty and stenting: using a balloon to open a narrowed artery and placing a stent to keep it open
* Aneurysm repair: surgically repairing an aneurysm, a weakened area in the wall of an artery that has bulged out and filled with blood
* Embolectomy: removing a blood clot from a blood vessel
* Thrombectomy: removing a blood clot from a vein

These procedures are typically performed by vascular surgeons, who are trained in the diagnosis and treatment of vascular diseases.

The spinal cord is a major part of the nervous system, extending from the brainstem and continuing down to the lower back. It is a slender, tubular bundle of nerve fibers (axons) and support cells (glial cells) that carries signals between the brain and the rest of the body. The spinal cord primarily serves as a conduit for motor information, which travels from the brain to the muscles, and sensory information, which travels from the body to the brain. It also contains neurons that can independently process and respond to information within the spinal cord without direct input from the brain.

The spinal cord is protected by the bony vertebral column (spine) and is divided into 31 segments: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. Each segment corresponds to a specific region of the body and gives rise to pairs of spinal nerves that exit through the intervertebral foramina at each level.

The spinal cord is responsible for several vital functions, including:

1. Reflexes: Simple reflex actions, such as the withdrawal reflex when touching a hot surface, are mediated by the spinal cord without involving the brain.
2. Muscle control: The spinal cord carries motor signals from the brain to the muscles, enabling voluntary movement and muscle tone regulation.
3. Sensory perception: The spinal cord transmits sensory information, such as touch, temperature, pain, and vibration, from the body to the brain for processing and awareness.
4. Autonomic functions: The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system originate in the thoracolumbar and sacral regions of the spinal cord, respectively, controlling involuntary physiological responses like heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and respiration.

Damage to the spinal cord can result in various degrees of paralysis or loss of sensation below the level of injury, depending on the severity and location of the damage.

Pia Mater is the inner-most layer of the meninges, which are the protective coverings of the brain and spinal cord. It is a very thin and highly vascularized (rich in blood vessels) membrane that closely adheres to the surface of the brain. The name "Pia Mater" comes from Latin, meaning "tender mother." This layer provides nutrition and protection to the brain, and it also allows for the movement and flexibility of the brain within the skull.

Tinnitus is the perception of ringing or other sounds in the ears or head when no external sound is present. It can be described as a sensation of hearing sound even when no actual noise is present. The sounds perceived can vary widely, from a whistling, buzzing, hissing, swooshing, to a pulsating sound, and can be soft or loud.

Tinnitus is not a disease itself but a symptom that can result from a wide range of underlying causes, such as hearing loss, exposure to loud noises, ear infections, earwax blockage, head or neck injuries, circulatory system disorders, certain medications, and age-related hearing loss.

Tinnitus can be temporary or chronic, and it may affect one or both ears. While tinnitus is not usually a sign of a serious medical condition, it can significantly impact quality of life and interfere with daily activities, sleep, and concentration.

Treatment failure is a term used in medicine to describe the situation when a prescribed treatment or intervention is not achieving the desired therapeutic goals or objectives. This may occur due to various reasons, such as:

1. Development of drug resistance by the pathogen or disease being treated.
2. Inadequate dosage or frequency of the medication.
3. Poor adherence or compliance to the treatment regimen by the patient.
4. The presence of underlying conditions or comorbidities that may affect the efficacy of the treatment.
5. The severity or progression of the disease despite appropriate treatment.

When treatment failure occurs, healthcare providers may need to reassess the patient's condition and modify the treatment plan accordingly, which may include adjusting the dosage, changing the medication, adding new medications, or considering alternative treatments.

An oral fistula is an abnormal connection or tunnel that links the oral cavity (the mouth) to another structure, usually the skin of the face or the neck. This condition can occur as a result of various factors such as infection, trauma, surgery, or congenital abnormalities. Oral fistulas may cause symptoms like pain, discomfort, difficulty in swallowing or speaking, and leakage of saliva or food from the opening of the fistula. Treatment typically involves surgical closure of the fistulous tract to restore normal anatomy and function.

Regional blood flow (RBF) refers to the rate at which blood flows through a specific region or organ in the body, typically expressed in milliliters per minute per 100 grams of tissue (ml/min/100g). It is an essential physiological parameter that reflects the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissues while removing waste products. RBF can be affected by various factors such as metabolic demands, neural regulation, hormonal influences, and changes in blood pressure or vascular resistance. Measuring RBF is crucial for understanding organ function, diagnosing diseases, and evaluating the effectiveness of treatments.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Pulmonary veins are blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. There are four pulmonary veins in total, two from each lung, and they are the only veins in the body that carry oxygen-rich blood. The oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins is then pumped by the left ventricle to the rest of the body through the aorta. Any blockage or damage to the pulmonary veins can lead to various cardiopulmonary conditions, such as pulmonary hypertension and congestive heart failure.

Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) is an organosulfur compound with the formula (CH3)2SO. It is a polar aprotic solvent, which means it can dissolve both polar and nonpolar compounds. DMSO has a wide range of uses in industry and in laboratory research, including as a cryoprotectant, a solvent for pharmaceuticals, and a penetration enhancer in topical formulations.

In medicine, DMSO is used as a topical analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent. It works by increasing the flow of blood and other fluids to the site of application, which can help to reduce pain and inflammation. DMSO is also believed to have antioxidant properties, which may contribute to its therapeutic effects.

It's important to note that while DMSO has been studied for various medical uses, its effectiveness for many conditions is not well established, and it can have side effects, including skin irritation and a garlic-like taste or odor in the mouth after application. It should be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider.

Central venous catheterization is a medical procedure in which a flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into a large vein in the body, usually in the neck (internal jugular vein), chest (subclavian vein), or groin (femoral vein). The catheter is threaded through the vein until it reaches a central location, such as the superior vena cava or the right atrium of the heart.

Central venous catheterization may be performed for several reasons, including:

1. To administer medications, fluids, or nutritional support directly into the bloodstream.
2. To monitor central venous pressure (CVP), which can help assess a patient's volume status and cardiac function.
3. To draw blood samples for laboratory tests.
4. To deliver chemotherapy drugs or other medications that may be harmful to peripheral veins.
5. To provide access for hemodialysis or other long-term therapies.

The procedure requires careful attention to sterile technique to minimize the risk of infection, and it is usually performed under local anesthesia with sedation or general anesthesia. Complications of central venous catheterization may include bleeding, infection, pneumothorax (collapsed lung), arterial puncture, and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI).

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Paraparesis is a medical term that refers to a mild to moderate form of paralysis affecting the lower limbs, specifically the legs. It is characterized by partial loss of strength and mobility, which may result in difficulty walking or maintaining balance. Paraparesis can be caused by various conditions such as spinal cord injuries, multiple sclerosis, spina bifida, or other neurological disorders affecting the spinal cord.

The term "para" means "two," and "paresis" comes from the Greek word "paresis," which means "loosening" or "relaxation." Therefore, paraparesis implies weakness or partial paralysis in two lower extremities. It is important to note that while paraparesis can impact a person's ability to walk and perform daily activities, it does not necessarily lead to complete loss of movement or sensation in the affected limbs.

Proper diagnosis and management of the underlying cause are crucial for improving symptoms and preventing further progression of paraparesis. Treatment options may include physical therapy, medications, assistive devices, or surgical interventions depending on the specific condition causing the paraparesis.

The renal veins are a pair of large veins that carry oxygen-depleted blood and waste products from the kidneys to the inferior vena cava, which is the largest vein in the body that returns blood to the heart. The renal veins are formed by the union of several smaller veins that drain blood from different parts of the kidney.

In humans, the right renal vein is shorter and passes directly into the inferior vena cava, while the left renal vein is longer and passes in front of the aorta before entering the inferior vena cava. The left renal vein also receives blood from the gonadal (testicular or ovarian) veins, suprarenal (adrenal) veins, and the lumbar veins.

It is important to note that the renal veins are vulnerable to compression by surrounding structures, such as the overlying artery or a tumor, which can lead to renal vein thrombosis, a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention.

Catheterization is a medical procedure in which a catheter (a flexible tube) is inserted into the body to treat various medical conditions or for diagnostic purposes. The specific definition can vary depending on the area of medicine and the particular procedure being discussed. Here are some common types of catheterization:

1. Urinary catheterization: This involves inserting a catheter through the urethra into the bladder to drain urine. It is often performed to manage urinary retention, monitor urine output in critically ill patients, or assist with surgical procedures.
2. Cardiac catheterization: A procedure where a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel, usually in the groin or arm, and guided to the heart. This allows for various diagnostic tests and treatments, such as measuring pressures within the heart chambers, assessing blood flow, or performing angioplasty and stenting of narrowed coronary arteries.
3. Central venous catheterization: A catheter is inserted into a large vein, typically in the neck, chest, or groin, to administer medications, fluids, or nutrition, or to monitor central venous pressure.
4. Peritoneal dialysis catheterization: A catheter is placed into the abdominal cavity for individuals undergoing peritoneal dialysis, a type of kidney replacement therapy.
5. Neurological catheterization: In some cases, a catheter may be inserted into the cerebrospinal fluid space (lumbar puncture) or the brain's ventricular system (ventriculostomy) to diagnose or treat various neurological conditions.

These are just a few examples of catheterization procedures in medicine. The specific definition and purpose will depend on the medical context and the particular organ or body system involved.

Spontaneous remission in a medical context refers to the disappearance or significant improvement of symptoms of a disease or condition without any specific treatment being administered. In other words, it's a situation where the disease resolves on its own, without any apparent cause. While spontaneous remission can occur in various conditions, it is relatively rare and not well understood. It's important to note that just because a remission occurs without treatment doesn't mean that medical care should be avoided, as many conditions can worsen or lead to complications if left untreated.

A neurological examination is a series of tests used to evaluate the functioning of the nervous system, including both the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) and peripheral nervous system (the nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body). It is typically performed by a healthcare professional such as a neurologist or a primary care physician with specialized training in neurology.

During a neurological examination, the healthcare provider will assess various aspects of neurological function, including:

1. Mental status: This involves evaluating a person's level of consciousness, orientation, memory, and cognitive abilities.
2. Cranial nerves: There are 12 cranial nerves that control functions such as vision, hearing, smell, taste, and movement of the face and neck. The healthcare provider will test each of these nerves to ensure they are functioning properly.
3. Motor function: This involves assessing muscle strength, tone, coordination, and reflexes. The healthcare provider may ask the person to perform certain movements or tasks to evaluate these functions.
4. Sensory function: The healthcare provider will test a person's ability to feel different types of sensations, such as touch, pain, temperature, vibration, and proprioception (the sense of where your body is in space).
5. Coordination and balance: The healthcare provider may assess a person's ability to perform coordinated movements, such as touching their finger to their nose or walking heel-to-toe.
6. Reflexes: The healthcare provider will test various reflexes throughout the body using a reflex hammer.

The results of a neurological examination can help healthcare providers diagnose and monitor conditions that affect the nervous system, such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, or peripheral neuropathy.

An arteriovenous (AV) anastomosis is a connection or short channel between an artery and a vein that bypasses the capillary bed. In a normal physiological condition, blood flows from the arteries to the capillaries, where oxygen and nutrients are exchanged with the surrounding tissues, and then drains into veins. However, in an AV anastomosis, blood flows directly from the artery to the vein without passing through the capillary network.

AV anastomoses can occur naturally or be created surgically for various medical purposes. For example, they may be created during bypass surgery to reroute blood flow around a blocked or damaged vessel. In some cases, AV anastomoses may also develop as a result of certain medical conditions, such as cirrhosis or arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). AVMs are abnormal connections between arteries and veins that can lead to the formation of an AV anastomosis.

It is important to note that while AV anastomoses can be beneficial in certain medical situations, they can also have negative consequences if they occur inappropriately or become too large. For example, excessive AV anastomoses can lead to high-flow shunts, which can cause tissue damage and other complications.

The pulmonary artery is a large blood vessel that carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs for oxygenation. It divides into two main branches, the right and left pulmonary arteries, which further divide into smaller vessels called arterioles, and then into a vast network of capillaries in the lungs where gas exchange occurs. The thin walls of these capillaries allow oxygen to diffuse into the blood and carbon dioxide to diffuse out, making the blood oxygen-rich before it is pumped back to the left side of the heart through the pulmonary veins. This process is crucial for maintaining proper oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs.

Melena is a medical term that refers to the passage of black, tarry stools. It's not a specific disease but rather a symptom caused by the presence of digested blood in the gastrointestinal tract. The dark color results from the breakdown of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells, by gut bacteria and stomach acids.

Melena stools are often associated with upper gastrointestinal bleeding, which can occur due to various reasons such as gastric ulcers, esophageal varices (dilated veins in the esophagus), Mallory-Weiss tears (tears in the lining of the esophagus or stomach), or tumors.

It is essential to differentiate melena from hematochezia, which refers to the passage of bright red blood in the stool, typically indicating lower gastrointestinal bleeding. A healthcare professional should evaluate any concerns related to changes in bowel movements, including the presence of melena or hematochezia.

The middle cranial fossa is a depression or hollow in the skull that forms the upper and central portion of the cranial cavity. It is located between the anterior cranial fossa (which lies anteriorly) and the posterior cranial fossa (which lies posteriorly). The middle cranial fossa contains several important structures, including the temporal lobes of the brain, the pituitary gland, the optic chiasm, and the cavernous sinuses. It is also where many of the cranial nerves pass through on their way to the brain.

The middle cranial fossa can be further divided into two parts: the anterior and posterior fossae. The anterior fossa contains the optic chiasm and the pituitary gland, while the posterior fossa contains the temporal lobes of the brain and the cavernous sinuses.

The middle cranial fossa is formed by several bones of the skull, including the sphenoid bone, the temporal bone, and the parietal bone. The shape and size of the middle cranial fossa can vary from person to person, and abnormalities in its structure can be associated with various medical conditions, such as pituitary tumors or aneurysms.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the rest of the body. They have thick, muscular walls that can withstand the high pressure of blood being pumped out of the heart. Arteries branch off into smaller vessels called arterioles, which further divide into a vast network of tiny capillaries where the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste occurs between the blood and the body's cells. After passing through the capillary network, deoxygenated blood collects in venules, then merges into veins, which return the blood back to the heart.

The subclavian artery is a major blood vessel that supplies the upper limb and important structures in the neck and head. It arises from the brachiocephalic trunk (in the case of the right subclavian artery) or directly from the aortic arch (in the case of the left subclavian artery).

The subclavian artery has several branches, including:

1. The vertebral artery, which supplies blood to the brainstem and cerebellum.
2. The internal thoracic artery (also known as the mammary artery), which supplies blood to the chest wall, breast, and anterior mediastinum.
3. The thyrocervical trunk, which gives rise to several branches that supply the neck, including the inferior thyroid artery, the suprascapular artery, and the transverse cervical artery.
4. The costocervical trunk, which supplies blood to the neck and upper back, including the posterior chest wall and the lower neck muscles.

The subclavian artery is a critical vessel in maintaining adequate blood flow to the upper limb, and any blockage or damage to this vessel can lead to significant morbidity, including arm pain, numbness, weakness, or even loss of function.

Tissue adhesives, also known as surgical glues or tissue sealants, are medical devices used to approximate and hold together tissues or wounds in place of traditional sutures or staples. They work by creating a bond between the tissue surfaces, helping to promote healing and reduce the risk of infection. Tissue adhesives can be synthetic or biologically derived and are often used in various surgical procedures, including ophthalmic, dermatological, and pediatric surgeries. Some common types of tissue adhesives include cyanoacrylate-based glues, fibrin sealants, and collagen-based sealants.

The occipital bone is the single, posterior cranial bone that forms the base of the skull and encloses the brain. It articulates with the parietal bones anteriorly and the temporal bones laterally. The occipital bone also contains several important structures such as the foramen magnum, through which the spinal cord connects to the brain, and the external and internal occipital protuberances, which serve as attachment points for neck muscles.

Vascular system injuries refer to damages or disruptions to the body's vascular system, which is made up of the heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries. These injuries can occur due to various reasons such as trauma, disease, or surgical complications. They may result in bleeding, blockage of blood flow, or formation of blood clots, leading to serious consequences like tissue damage, organ failure, or even death if not treated promptly and appropriately.

Traumatic injuries to the vascular system can include cuts, tears, or bruises to the blood vessels, which can lead to internal or external bleeding. Blunt trauma can also cause damage to the blood vessels, leading to blockages or aneurysms.

Diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and inflammatory conditions can weaken the blood vessels and make them more prone to injury. Surgical complications, such as accidental cuts to blood vessels during operations, can also lead to vascular system injuries.

Treatment for vascular system injuries may include surgery, medication, or lifestyle changes, depending on the severity and location of the injury.

The mesenteric veins are a set of blood vessels that are responsible for draining deoxygenated blood from the small and large intestines. There are two main mesenteric veins: the superior mesenteric vein and the inferior mesenteric vein. The superior mesenteric vein drains blood from the majority of the small intestine, as well as the ascending colon and proximal two-thirds of the transverse colon. The inferior mesenteric vein drains blood from the distal third of the transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum. These veins ultimately drain into the portal vein, which carries the blood to the liver for further processing.

Intracranial sinus thrombosis is a medical condition characterized by the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) within the intracranial venous sinuses, which are responsible for draining blood from the brain. The condition can lead to various neurological symptoms and complications, such as increased intracranial pressure, headaches, seizures, visual disturbances, and altered consciousness. Intracranial sinus thrombosis may result from various factors, including hypercoagulable states, infections, trauma, and malignancies. Immediate medical attention is necessary for proper diagnosis and treatment to prevent potential long-term neurological damage or even death.

A puncture, in medical terms, refers to a small hole or wound that is caused by a sharp object penetrating the skin or other body tissues. This can result in damage to underlying structures such as blood vessels, nerves, or organs, and may lead to complications such as bleeding, infection, or inflammation.

Punctures can occur accidentally, such as from stepping on a nail or getting pricked by a needle, or they can be inflicted intentionally, such as during medical procedures like injections or blood draws. In some cases, puncture wounds may require medical attention to clean and close the wound, prevent infection, and promote healing.

Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) is a rare genetic disorder that affects the blood vessels. It is also known as Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome. This condition is characterized by the formation of abnormal blood vessels called telangiectases, which are small red spots or tiny bulges that can be found in the skin, mucous membranes (like those inside the nose, mouth, and GI tract), and sometimes in vital organs like the lungs and brain.

These telangiectases have a tendency to bleed easily, leading to potentially serious complications such as anemia due to chronic blood loss, and in some cases, strokes or brain abscesses if the telangiectases in the brain rupture. HHT is typically inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, meaning that a child has a 50% chance of inheriting the gene from an affected parent. There are several genes associated with HHT, the most common being ACVRL1, ENG, and SMAD4.

Blood flow velocity is the speed at which blood travels through a specific part of the vascular system. It is typically measured in units of distance per time, such as centimeters per second (cm/s) or meters per second (m/s). Blood flow velocity can be affected by various factors, including cardiac output, vessel diameter, and viscosity of the blood. Measuring blood flow velocity is important in diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, such as heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease.

Cranial nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect the cranial nerves, which are a set of 12 pairs of nerves that originate from the brainstem and control various functions in the head and neck. These functions include vision, hearing, taste, smell, movement of the eyes and face, and sensation in the face.

Diseases of the cranial nerves can result from a variety of causes, including injury, infection, inflammation, tumors, or degenerative conditions. The specific symptoms that a person experiences will depend on which cranial nerve is affected and how severely it is damaged.

For example, damage to the optic nerve (cranial nerve II) can cause vision loss or visual disturbances, while damage to the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) can result in weakness or paralysis of the face. Other common symptoms of cranial nerve diseases include pain, numbness, tingling, and hearing loss.

Treatment for cranial nerve diseases varies depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to treat the underlying cause and relieve symptoms. Physical therapy or rehabilitation may also be recommended to help individuals regain function and improve their quality of life.

Ischemia is the medical term used to describe a lack of blood flow to a part of the body, often due to blocked or narrowed blood vessels. This can lead to a shortage of oxygen and nutrients in the tissues, which can cause them to become damaged or die. Ischemia can affect many different parts of the body, including the heart, brain, legs, and intestines. Symptoms of ischemia depend on the location and severity of the blockage, but they may include pain, cramping, numbness, weakness, or coldness in the affected area. In severe cases, ischemia can lead to tissue death (gangrene) or organ failure. Treatment for ischemia typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the blocked blood flow, such as through medication, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

The popliteal vein is the continuation of the tibial and fibular (or anterior and posterior tibial) veins, forming in the lower leg's back portion or popliteal fossa. It carries blood from the leg towards the heart. The popliteal vein is located deep within the body and is accompanied by the popliteal artery, which supplies oxygenated blood to the lower leg. This venous structure is a crucial part of the venous system in the lower extremities and is often assessed during physical examinations for signs of venous insufficiency or deep vein thrombosis (DVT).

A ruptured aneurysm is a serious medical condition that occurs when the wall of an artery or a blood vessel weakens and bulges out, forming an aneurysm, which then bursts, causing bleeding into the surrounding tissue. This can lead to internal hemorrhage, organ damage, and even death, depending on the location and severity of the rupture.

Ruptured aneurysms are often caused by factors such as high blood pressure, smoking, aging, and genetic predisposition. They can occur in any part of the body but are most common in the aorta (the largest artery in the body) and the cerebral arteries (in the brain).

Symptoms of a ruptured aneurysm may include sudden and severe pain, weakness or paralysis, difficulty breathing, confusion, loss of consciousness, and shock. Immediate medical attention is required to prevent further complications and increase the chances of survival. Treatment options for a ruptured aneurysm may include surgery, endovascular repair, or medication to manage symptoms and prevent further bleeding.

Drainage, in medical terms, refers to the removal of excess fluid or accumulated collections of fluids from various body parts or spaces. This is typically accomplished through the use of medical devices such as catheters, tubes, or drains. The purpose of drainage can be to prevent the buildup of fluids that may cause discomfort, infection, or other complications, or to treat existing collections of fluid such as abscesses, hematomas, or pleural effusions. Drainage may also be used as a diagnostic tool to analyze the type and composition of the fluid being removed.

Neurosurgical procedures are operations that are performed on the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. These procedures are typically carried out by neurosurgeons, who are medical doctors with specialized training in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the nervous system. Neurosurgical procedures can be used to treat a wide range of conditions, including traumatic injuries, tumors, aneurysms, vascular malformations, infections, degenerative diseases, and congenital abnormalities.

Some common types of neurosurgical procedures include:

* Craniotomy: A procedure in which a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to gain access to the brain. This type of procedure may be performed to remove a tumor, repair a blood vessel, or relieve pressure on the brain.
* Spinal fusion: A procedure in which two or more vertebrae in the spine are fused together using bone grafts and metal hardware. This is often done to stabilize the spine and alleviate pain caused by degenerative conditions or spinal deformities.
* Microvascular decompression: A procedure in which a blood vessel that is causing pressure on a nerve is repositioned or removed. This type of procedure is often used to treat trigeminal neuralgia, a condition that causes severe facial pain.
* Deep brain stimulation: A procedure in which electrodes are implanted in specific areas of the brain and connected to a battery-operated device called a neurostimulator. The neurostimulator sends electrical impulses to the brain to help alleviate symptoms of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease or dystonia.
* Stereotactic radiosurgery: A non-invasive procedure that uses focused beams of radiation to treat tumors, vascular malformations, and other abnormalities in the brain or spine. This type of procedure is often used for patients who are not good candidates for traditional surgery due to age, health status, or location of the lesion.

Neurosurgical procedures can be complex and require a high degree of skill and expertise. Patients considering neurosurgical treatment should consult with a qualified neurosurgeon to discuss their options and determine the best course of action for their individual situation.

The skull base is the lower part of the skull that forms the floor of the cranial cavity and the roof of the facial skeleton. It is a complex anatomical region composed of several bones, including the frontal, sphenoid, temporal, occipital, and ethmoid bones. The skull base supports the brain and contains openings for blood vessels and nerves that travel between the brain and the face or neck. The skull base can be divided into three regions: the anterior cranial fossa, middle cranial fossa, and posterior cranial fossa, which house different parts of the brain.

A subarachnoid hemorrhage is a type of stroke that results from bleeding into the space surrounding the brain, specifically within the subarachnoid space which contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This space is located between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater, two of the three layers that make up the meninges, the protective covering of the brain and spinal cord.

The bleeding typically originates from a ruptured aneurysm, a weakened area in the wall of a cerebral artery, or less commonly from arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) or head trauma. The sudden influx of blood into the CSF-filled space can cause increased intracranial pressure, irritation to the brain, and vasospasms, leading to further ischemia and potential additional neurological damage.

Symptoms of a subarachnoid hemorrhage may include sudden onset of severe headache (often described as "the worst headache of my life"), neck stiffness, altered mental status, nausea, vomiting, photophobia, and focal neurological deficits. Rapid diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent further complications and improve the chances of recovery.

Duodenal diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine. Here are some examples of duodenal diseases:

1. Duodenitis: This is inflammation of the duodenum, which can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and bloating. Duodenitis can be caused by bacterial or viral infections, excessive use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or chronic inflammation due to conditions like Crohn's disease.
2. Peptic ulcers: These are sores that develop in the lining of the duodenum, usually as a result of infection with Helicobacter pylori bacteria or long-term use of NSAIDs. Symptoms can include abdominal pain, bloating, and heartburn.
3. Duodenal cancer: This is a rare type of cancer that affects the duodenum. Symptoms can include abdominal pain, weight loss, and blood in the stool.
4. Celiac disease: This is an autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack the lining of the small intestine in response to gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye. This can lead to inflammation and damage to the duodenum.
5. Duodenal diverticulosis: This is a condition in which small pouches form in the lining of the duodenum. While many people with duodenal diverticulosis do not experience symptoms, some may develop complications such as inflammation or infection.
6. Duodenal atresia: This is a congenital condition in which the duodenum does not form properly, leading to blockage of the intestine. This can cause symptoms such as vomiting and difficulty feeding in newborns.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

The saphenous vein is a term used in anatomical description to refer to the great or small saphenous veins, which are superficial veins located in the lower extremities of the human body.

The great saphenous vein (GSV) is the longest vein in the body and originates from the medial aspect of the foot, ascending along the medial side of the leg and thigh, and drains into the femoral vein at the saphenofemoral junction, located in the upper third of the thigh.

The small saphenous vein (SSV) is a shorter vein that originates from the lateral aspect of the foot, ascends along the posterior calf, and drains into the popliteal vein at the saphenopopliteal junction, located in the popliteal fossa.

These veins are often used as conduits for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery due to their consistent anatomy and length.

Central venous catheters (CVCs) are medical devices used to access the central venous system, typically placed in one of the large great veins such as the internal jugular, subclavian, or femoral vein. They can be used for a variety of purposes including administration of medications and fluids, monitoring central venous pressure, and obtaining blood samples. CVCs come in different types, such as non-tunneled, tunneled, and implantable ports, each with its own specific indications and uses. Proper placement and maintenance of CVCs are crucial to prevent complications such as infection, thrombosis, and catheter-related bloodstream infections.

Hemostatics are substances or agents that promote bleeding cessation or prevent the spread of bleeding. They can act in various ways, such as by stimulating the body's natural clotting mechanisms, constricting blood vessels to reduce blood flow, or forming a physical barrier to block the bleeding site.

Hemostatics are often used in medical settings to manage wounds, injuries, and surgical procedures. They can be applied directly to the wound as a powder, paste, or gauze, or they can be administered systemically through intravenous injection. Examples of hemostatic agents include fibrin sealants, collagen-based products, thrombin, and oxidized regenerated cellulose.

It's important to note that while hemostatics can be effective in controlling bleeding, they should be used with caution and only under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Inappropriate use or overuse of hemostatic agents can lead to complications such as excessive clotting, thrombosis, or tissue damage.

An iliac aneurysm is a localized dilation or bulging of the iliac artery, which are the main blood vessels that supply blood to the lower extremities. The iliac arteries branch off from the abdominal aorta and divide into the internal and external iliac arteries. An aneurysm occurs when the wall of the artery becomes weakened and balloons out, leading to an increased risk of rupture and serious complications such as bleeding and organ damage. Iliac aneurysms are often asymptomatic but can cause symptoms such as abdominal or back pain, leg pain, or a pulsating mass in the abdomen or groin. They are typically diagnosed through imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI and may require surgical intervention to prevent rupture and other complications.

A stent is a small mesh tube that's used to treat narrow or weak arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from your heart to other parts of your body. A stent is placed in an artery as part of a procedure called angioplasty. Angioplasty restores blood flow through narrowed or blocked arteries by inflating a tiny balloon inside the blocked artery to widen it.

The stent is then inserted into the widened artery to keep it open. The stent is usually made of metal, but some are coated with medication that is slowly and continuously released to help prevent the formation of scar tissue in the artery. This can reduce the chance of the artery narrowing again.

Stents are also used in other parts of the body, such as the neck (carotid artery) and kidneys (renal artery), to help maintain blood flow and prevent blockages. They can also be used in the urinary system to treat conditions like ureteropelvic junction obstruction or narrowing of the urethra.

Penetrating wounds are a type of traumatic injury that occurs when an object pierces through the skin and underlying tissues, creating a hole or cavity in the body. These wounds can vary in severity, depending on the size and shape of the object, as well as the location and depth of the wound.

Penetrating wounds are typically caused by sharp objects such as knives, bullets, or glass. They can damage internal organs, blood vessels, nerves, and bones, leading to serious complications such as bleeding, infection, organ failure, and even death if not treated promptly and properly.

The management of penetrating wounds involves a thorough assessment of the wound and surrounding tissues, as well as the identification and treatment of any associated injuries or complications. This may include wound cleaning and closure, antibiotics to prevent infection, pain management, and surgery to repair damaged structures. In some cases, hospitalization and close monitoring may be necessary to ensure proper healing and recovery.

Endovascular procedures are minimally invasive medical treatments that involve accessing and repairing blood vessels or other interior parts of the body through small incisions or punctures. These procedures typically use specialized catheters, wires, and other tools that are inserted into the body through an artery or vein, usually in the leg or arm.

Endovascular procedures can be used to treat a wide range of conditions, including aneurysms, atherosclerosis, peripheral artery disease, carotid artery stenosis, and other vascular disorders. Some common endovascular procedures include angioplasty, stenting, embolization, and thrombectomy.

The benefits of endovascular procedures over traditional open surgery include smaller incisions, reduced trauma to surrounding tissues, faster recovery times, and lower risks of complications such as infection and bleeding. However, endovascular procedures may not be appropriate for all patients or conditions, and careful evaluation and consideration are necessary to determine the best treatment approach.

In medical terms, the "neck" is defined as the portion of the body that extends from the skull/head to the thorax or chest region. It contains 7 cervical vertebrae, muscles, nerves, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and glands (such as the thyroid gland). The neck is responsible for supporting the head, allowing its movement in various directions, and housing vital structures that enable functions like respiration and circulation.

A cerebral hemorrhage, also known as an intracranial hemorrhage or intracerebral hemorrhage, is a type of stroke that results from bleeding within the brain tissue. It occurs when a weakened blood vessel bursts and causes localized bleeding in the brain. This bleeding can increase pressure in the skull, damage nearby brain cells, and release toxic substances that further harm brain tissues.

Cerebral hemorrhages are often caused by chronic conditions like hypertension (high blood pressure) or cerebral amyloid angiopathy, which weakens the walls of blood vessels over time. Other potential causes include trauma, aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, illicit drug use, and brain tumors. Symptoms may include sudden headache, weakness, numbness, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, vision problems, loss of balance, and altered level of consciousness. Immediate medical attention is required to diagnose and manage cerebral hemorrhage through imaging techniques, supportive care, and possible surgical interventions.

The popliteal artery is the continuation of the femoral artery that passes through the popliteal fossa, which is the area behind the knee. It is the major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the lower leg and foot. The popliteal artery divides into the anterior tibial artery and the tibioperoneal trunk at the lower border of the popliteus muscle. Any damage or blockage to this artery can result in serious health complications, including reduced blood flow to the leg and foot, which may lead to pain, cramping, numbness, or even tissue death (gangrene) if left untreated.

Urethral diseases refer to a range of conditions that affect the urethra, which is the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body. These diseases can cause various symptoms such as pain or discomfort during urination, difficulty in urinating, blood in urine, and abnormal discharge. Some common urethral diseases include urethritis (inflammation of the urethra), urethral stricture (narrowing of the urethra due to scar tissue or inflammation), and urethral cancer. The causes of urethral diseases can vary, including infections, injuries, congenital abnormalities, and certain medical conditions. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing urethral diseases and preventing complications.

In medical terms, the leg refers to the lower portion of the human body that extends from the knee down to the foot. It includes the thigh (femur), lower leg (tibia and fibula), foot, and ankle. The leg is primarily responsible for supporting the body's weight and enabling movements such as standing, walking, running, and jumping.

The leg contains several important structures, including bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, nerves, and joints. These structures work together to provide stability, support, and mobility to the lower extremity. Common medical conditions that can affect the leg include fractures, sprains, strains, infections, peripheral artery disease, and neurological disorders.

Esophageal atresia is a congenital condition in which the esophagus, the tube that connects the throat to the stomach, does not develop properly. In most cases, the upper esophagus ends in a pouch instead of connecting to the lower esophagus and stomach. This condition prevents food and liquids from reaching the stomach, leading to difficulty swallowing and feeding problems in newborn infants. Esophageal atresia often occurs together with a congenital defect called tracheoesophageal fistula, in which there is an abnormal connection between the esophagus and the windpipe (trachea).

The medical definition of 'Esophageal Atresia' is:

A congenital anomaly characterized by the absence of a normal connection between the upper esophagus and the stomach, resulting in the separation of the proximal and distal esophageal segments. The proximal segment usually ends in a blind pouch, while the distal segment may communicate with the trachea through a tracheoesophageal fistula. Esophageal atresia is often associated with other congenital anomalies and can cause serious complications if not diagnosed and treated promptly after birth.

Ligation, in the context of medical terminology, refers to the process of tying off a part of the body, usually blood vessels or tissue, with a surgical suture or another device. The goal is to stop the flow of fluids such as blood or other substances within the body. It is commonly used during surgeries to control bleeding or to block the passage of fluids, gases, or solids in various parts of the body.

Preoperative care refers to the series of procedures, interventions, and preparations that are conducted before a surgical operation. The primary goal of preoperative care is to ensure the patient's well-being, optimize their physical condition, reduce potential risks, and prepare them mentally and emotionally for the upcoming surgery.

Preoperative care typically includes:

1. Preoperative assessment: A thorough evaluation of the patient's overall health status, including medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and diagnostic imaging, to identify any potential risk factors or comorbidities that may impact the surgical procedure and postoperative recovery.
2. Informed consent: The process of ensuring the patient understands the nature of the surgery, its purpose, associated risks, benefits, and alternative treatment options. The patient signs a consent form indicating they have been informed and voluntarily agree to undergo the surgery.
3. Preoperative instructions: Guidelines provided to the patient regarding their diet, medication use, and other activities in the days leading up to the surgery. These instructions may include fasting guidelines, discontinuing certain medications, or arranging for transportation after the procedure.
4. Anesthesia consultation: A meeting with the anesthesiologist to discuss the type of anesthesia that will be used during the surgery and address any concerns related to anesthesia risks, side effects, or postoperative pain management.
5. Preparation of the surgical site: Cleaning and shaving the area where the incision will be made, as well as administering appropriate antimicrobial agents to minimize the risk of infection.
6. Medical optimization: Addressing any underlying medical conditions or correcting abnormalities that may negatively impact the surgical outcome. This may involve adjusting medications, treating infections, or managing chronic diseases such as diabetes.
7. Emotional and psychological support: Providing counseling, reassurance, and education to help alleviate anxiety, fear, or emotional distress related to the surgery.
8. Preoperative holding area: The patient is transferred to a designated area near the operating room where they are prepared for surgery by changing into a gown, having intravenous (IV) lines inserted, and receiving monitoring equipment.

By following these preoperative care guidelines, healthcare professionals aim to ensure that patients undergo safe and successful surgical procedures with optimal outcomes.

Therapeutic occlusion is a dental term that refers to the deliberate and controlled closure of the teeth using various appliances or devices, with the aim of treating or preventing dental or oral conditions. This technique is often used in orthodontics (the branch of dentistry concerned with the correction of teeth and jaw alignment) to influence the growth and development of the jaws, correct bite relationships, or move teeth into more favorable positions.

The appliances used for therapeutic occlusion can be removable or fixed, and they work by altering the way the upper and lower teeth come together when biting or chewing. The duration and frequency of therapeutic occlusions are carefully planned and monitored by dental professionals to ensure optimal treatment outcomes and minimize potential side effects.

Examples of appliances used for therapeutic occlusion include:

1. Bite plates or splints: These are removable devices made of acrylic material that cover some or all of the teeth in one arch, creating a artificial bite relationship when worn. They can be used to relieve pressure on specific teeth, muscles, or joints, or to guide the jaw into a more favorable position.
2. Twin blocks: These are removable appliances made of acrylic material that have two pieces, one for the upper arch and one for the lower arch. They are designed to interlock in a specific way when the jaws close together, encouraging the lower jaw to move forward and correcting an overbite or deep bite.
3. Herbst appliance: This is a fixed appliance that connects the upper and lower molars using telescopic rods or tubes. The appliance limits the movement of the lower jaw, helping to correct an overbite by encouraging the lower jaw to grow forward.
4. Headgear: This is an external appliance worn around the head and connected to a dental device in the mouth. It applies gentle pressure to guide the growth and development of the jaws, typically used to correct an excessive overjet or overbite.

It's important to note that therapeutic occlusion should only be performed under the supervision of a qualified dental professional, as improper use can lead to unwanted side effects or further dental issues.

A medical definition of the wrist is the complex joint that connects the forearm to the hand, composed of eight carpal bones arranged in two rows. The wrist allows for movement and flexibility in the hand, enabling us to perform various activities such as grasping, writing, and typing. It also provides stability and support for the hand during these movements. Additionally, numerous ligaments, tendons, and nerves pass through or near the wrist, making it susceptible to injuries and conditions like carpal tunnel syndrome.

The cervical vertebrae are the seven vertebrae that make up the upper part of the spine, also known as the neck region. They are labeled C1 to C7, with C1 being closest to the skull and C7 connecting to the thoracic vertebrae in the chest region. The cervical vertebrae have unique structures to allow for a wide range of motion in the neck while also protecting the spinal cord and providing attachment points for muscles and ligaments.

Microsurgery is a surgical technique that requires the use of an operating microscope and fine instruments to perform precise surgical manipulations. It is commonly used in various fields such as ophthalmology, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, and plastic and reconstructive surgery. The magnification provided by the microscope allows surgeons to work on small structures like nerves, blood vessels, and tiny bones. Some of the most common procedures that fall under microsurgery include nerve repair, replantation of amputated parts, and various types of reconstructions such as free tissue transfer for cancer reconstruction or coverage of large wounds.

The Inferior Mesenteric Artery (IMA) is a major artery that supplies blood to the distal portion of the large intestine, including the descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum. It originates from the abdominal aorta, typically at the level of the third lumbar vertebra (L3), and descends anteriorly to the left psoas major muscle before crossing the iliac crest and entering the pelvis.

Once in the pelvis, the IMA divides into several branches, including the left colic artery, which supplies the descending colon; the sigmoidal branches, which supply the sigmoid colon; and the superior rectal artery, which supplies the upper part of the rectum. The inferior mesenteric artery plays a crucial role in maintaining blood flow to the distal gut and is often evaluated during surgical procedures involving the abdomen or pelvis.

An oroantral fistula is an abnormal communication or connection between the oral cavity (mouth) and the maxillary sinus, which is one of the air-filled cavities in the upper jaw. This condition typically arises as a complication following dental procedures, such as tooth extractions, particularly in the upper molars, where the roots are close to or even within the maxillary sinus.

An oroantral fistula may also result from other factors, including trauma, infection, tumors, or cysts that erode the thin bony wall separating the oral cavity and the maxillary sinus. The presence of an oroantral fistula can lead to various symptoms, such as nasal discharge, pain, difficulty swallowing, and communication between the mouth and nose.

Treatment for an oroantral fistula usually involves surgical closure of the communication, often with the use of a flap of tissue from another part of the mouth. Proper diagnosis and management are essential to prevent further complications and restore normal function.

A coronary aneurysm is a localized dilation or bulging of a portion of the wall of a coronary artery, which supplies blood to the muscle tissue of the heart. It's similar to a bubble or balloon-like structure that forms within the artery wall due to weakness in the arterial wall, leading to abnormal enlargement or widening.

Coronary aneurysms can vary in size and may be classified as true or false aneurysms based on their structure. True aneurysms involve all three layers of the artery wall, while false aneurysms (also known as pseudoaneurysms) only have one or two layers involved, with the remaining layer disrupted.

These aneurysms can lead to complications such as blood clots forming inside the aneurysm sac, which can then dislodge and cause blockages in smaller coronary arteries (embolism). Additionally, coronary aneurysms may rupture, leading to severe internal bleeding and potentially life-threatening situations.

Coronary aneurysms are often asymptomatic but can present with symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, or palpitations, especially if the aneurysm causes a significant narrowing (stenosis) in the affected artery. They can be diagnosed through imaging techniques like coronary angiography, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options include medications to manage symptoms and prevent complications, as well as surgical interventions such as stenting or bypass grafting to repair or reroute the affected artery.

Intracranial hypertension is a medical condition characterized by an increased pressure within the skull (intracranial space) that contains the brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and blood. Normally, the pressure inside the skull is carefully regulated to maintain a balance between the formation and absorption of CSF. However, when the production of CSF exceeds its absorption or when there is an obstruction in the flow of CSF, the pressure inside the skull can rise, leading to intracranial hypertension.

The symptoms of intracranial hypertension may include severe headaches, nausea, vomiting, visual disturbances such as blurred vision or double vision, and papilledema (swelling of the optic nerve disc). In some cases, intracranial hypertension can lead to serious complications such as vision loss, brain herniation, and even death if left untreated.

Intracranial hypertension can be idiopathic, meaning that there is no identifiable cause, or secondary to other underlying medical conditions such as brain tumors, meningitis, hydrocephalus, or certain medications. The diagnosis of intracranial hypertension typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies (such as MRI or CT scans), and lumbar puncture to measure the pressure inside the skull and assess the CSF composition. Treatment options may include medications to reduce CSF production, surgery to relieve pressure on the brain, or shunting procedures to drain excess CSF from the intracranial space.

Peripheral catheterization is a medical procedure that involves the insertion of a thin, flexible tube (catheter) into a peripheral vein, which is a blood vessel located outside of the chest and abdomen. This type of catheterization is typically performed to administer medications, fluids, or nutritional support, or to monitor various physiological parameters such as central venous pressure.

Peripheral catheters are usually inserted into veins in the hands or arms, although they can also be placed in other peripheral veins. The procedure is typically performed using aseptic technique to minimize the risk of infection. Once the catheter is in place, it may be secured with a dressing or suture to prevent movement and dislodgement.

Peripheral catheterization is a relatively safe and common procedure that is routinely performed in hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare settings. However, like any medical procedure, it carries a small risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, or damage to the vein or surrounding tissues.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyethylene Terephthalates" is not a medical term. It is a type of polymer used in the manufacturing of various products, such as plastic bottles and textile fibers. Medically, you might encounter the abbreviation "PET" or "PET scan," which stands for "Positron Emission Tomography." A PET scan is a type of medical imaging that provides detailed pictures of the body's interior. If you have any medical terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

Surgical instruments are specialized tools or devices that are used by medical professionals during surgical procedures to assist in various tasks such as cutting, dissecting, grasping, holding, retracting, clamping, and suturing body tissues. These instruments are designed to be safe, precise, and effective, with a variety of shapes, sizes, and materials used depending on the specific surgical application. Some common examples of surgical instruments include scalpels, forceps, scissors, hemostats, retractors, and needle holders. Proper sterilization and maintenance of these instruments are crucial to ensure patient safety and prevent infection.

When the vein is large enough to allow cannulation, the fistula is defined as "mature". An arteriovenous fistula can increase ... Arteriovenous malformation Branham sign Carotid-cavernous fistula Fistula Human umbilical vein graft Pseudoaneurysm Vascular ... When an arteriovenous fistula is formed involving a major artery like the abdominal aorta, it can lead to a large decrease in ... An arteriovenous fistula is an abnormal connection or passageway between an artery and a vein. It may be congenital, surgically ...
... simple dural arteriovenous fistulas have a single meningeal arterial supply Type Ib - more complex arteriovenous fistulas are ... A dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) or malformation is an abnormal direct connection (fistula) between a meningeal artery and ... Arteriovenous fistula Sundt, Thoralf M.; Piepgras, David G. (1983-07-01). "The surgical approach to arteriovenous malformations ... Type I dural arteriovenous fistulas are supplied by meningeal arteries and drain into a meningeal vein or dural venous sinus. ...
Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are caused by RASA1 mutations as well. Therefore, if all ... When abnormalities such as vascular malformation, capillary arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) ... "Arteriovenous fistula, Mayo Clinic". Mayo Clinic. "capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome, NIH Genetics ... Peripheral arteriovenous fistula: abnormal communication between artery and vein that is a direct result of the abnormal ...
Coronary arteriovenous fistula, acquired (I28.0) Arteriovenous fistula of pulmonary vessels Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula: ... I67.1) Cerebral arteriovenous fistula, acquired (I77.0) Arteriovenous fistula, acquired (I77.2) Fistula of artery (J86.0) ... Fistula of appendix (K60) Anal and rectal fissures and fistulas (K60.3) Anal fistula (K60.5) Anorectal fistula (fecal fistula, ... A fistula (PL: fistulas or fistulae /-li, -laɪ/; from Latin fistula, "tube, pipe") in anatomy is an abnormal connection between ...
Arteriovenous fistula is a rare complication. Interventional radiology List of surgeries by type Content initially copied from ... An arteriovenous fistula as a complication of percutaneous nephrostomy]". Archivos Espanoles De Urologia (in Spanish). 46 (9): ... Examples of conditions that can be treated with such method are malignant/traumatic/inflammatory fistula, and haemorrhagic ...
An arteriovenous fistula can increase preload. Preload is also affected by two main body "pumps": Respiratory pump - ...
It is a type of arteriovenous fistula. As arterial blood under high pressure enters the cavernous sinus, the normal venous ... CCF symptoms include bruit (a humming sound within the skull due to high blood flow through the arteriovenous fistula), ... Ong, CK; Wang, LL; Parkinson, RJ; Wenderoth, JD (2009). "Onyx embolisation of cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula via ... Selective arteriography is used to evaluate arteriovenous fistulas. High resolution digital subtraction angiography may help in ...
Surgical management of cerebral dural arteriovenous fistulas". Cerebral Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas. Academic Press. pp. 105- ... They may be the draining site of abnormal fistulas. Diagram of the arterial circulation at the base of the brain. Sagittal ...
Cerebral Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas. Academic Press. pp. 125-134. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-819525-3.00004-6. ISBN 978-0-12- ...
The arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the preferred method. Arteriovenous fistula are created surgically by directly connecting an ... An arteriovenous graft (AVG) relies on the same principle but bridges the gap between the artery and vein with a medical-grade ... Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are abnormal blood vessel structures in which an artery connects to a vein via an abnormal ... The Fistula First initiative works to promote physician and patient awareness about the benefits of first attempting ...
Primary cause has been regarded arteriovenous fistula within bone. The lesion may arise de novo or may arise secondarily within ...
"Selective Embolization of Large Symptomatic Iatrogenic Renal Transplant Arteriovenous Fistula". CardioVascular and ... "Arteriovenous Malformations". Neurosurgery. Retrieved June 26, 2023. "A Randomized Trial of Unruptured Brain Arteriovenous ... An arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an abnormal connection between arteries and veins, bypassing the capillary system. ... Shields, Jerry A.; Streicher, Theodor F. E.; Spirkova, Jane H. J.; Stubna, Michal; Shields, Carol L. (2006). "Arteriovenous ...
Roca-Tey R (March 2016). "Permanent Arteriovenous Fistula or Catheter Dialysis for Heart Failure Patients". The Journal of ...
A Cimino fistula, also Cimino-Brescia fistula, surgically created arteriovenous fistula and (less precisely) arteriovenous ... The radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula (RC-AVF) is a shortcut created between cephalic vein and radial artery at the wrist. It ... Tayama K, Akashi H, Hiromatsu S, Okazaki T, Yokokura Y, Aoyagi S (February 2005). "Acquired arteriovenous fistula of the right ... March 2014). "Patency rates of the arteriovenous fistula for hemodialysis: a systematic review and meta-analysis". American ...
Dural arteriovenous fistula / dAVF (reversible parkinsonism through fistula treatment) Dural arteriovenous malformation / dAVM ... "Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) presenting progressive dementia and parkinsonism". Journal of the Neurological ... "Dural Arteriovenous Fistula-Associated Reversible Parkinsonism with Presynaptic Dopaminergic Loss". Journal of Movement ... "Reversible Parkinsonism and Rapidly Progressive Dementia Due to Dural Arteriovenous Fistula: Case Series and Literature Review ...
"Chronic Hemodialysis Using Venipuncture and a Surgically Created Arteriovenous Fistula". New England Journal of Medicine. 275 ( ... "Chronic Hemodialysis Using Venipuncture and a Surgically Created Arteriovenous Fistula". New England Journal of Medicine. 275 ( ... James Cimino - Developed the Cimino-Brescia fistula with Michael J. Brescia. Paul R. Cunningham - Surgeon. Later dean of Brody ... Brescia developed the Cimino-Brescia fistula. In 1985 a dedicated five storey medical research building connected to the main ...
Traumatic aneurysms and arteriovenous fistulas in Nigeria. Clinical aspects of pulmonary and pleural carcinoma in Nigeria. ... Anyanwu, CH; Ude, AC; Swarup, AS; Umerah, BC; Udekwu, FA (August 1980). "Traumatic aneurysms and arteriovenous fistulas in ...
In modern medicine, the sign is elicited when pressure is applied to an artery proximal to an arteriovenous fistula and said to ... June 2004). "Acute arterio-venous fistula occlusion decreases sympathetic activity and improves baroreflex control in kidney ... "Branham's sign is an exaggerated Bezold-Jarisch reflex of arteriovenous fistula". Journal of Vascular Surgery. 26 (1): 171-172 ... In an AV fistula, there is shunting of blood from the arteries directly into a vein, bypassing the capillary beds. This causes ...
Arteriovenous fistula Lymphohemangioma Telangiectasia Vascular disease Jackson, Ian T., et al. "Hemangiomas, vascular ... Arteriovenous malformations occur between an artery and a vein. In the brain a cerebral arteriovenous malformation causes ... Those involving the mix of vessels are known as cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs or cAVMs). The arteriovenous type is ... There are also malformations that are of mixed-flow involving more than one type of vessel, such as an arteriovenous ...
At least one case of simultaneous unilateral moyamoya syndrome and ipsilateral dural arteriovenous fistula has been reported at ... investigations have established that both moyamoya disease and arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) of the lining of the brain, the ... "Simultaneous unilateral moyamoya disease and ipsilateral dural arteriovenous fistula: case report". Neurosurgery. 62 (6): E1375 ...
Barney Brooks, The Treatment of Traumatic Arteriovenous Fistula, Southern Medical Journal. 01/1930; 23(2):100-106. Bown SG ( ... of a carotid-cavernous fistula); described by Brooks. 1960s - Radioisotopes such as Yttrium-90 (Y90) started to be investigated ...
Coronary arteriovenous fistulas are anomalies at the termination consisting of an anomalous connection of coronary arteries to ... such as coronary arteriovenous fistulas).[citation needed] Criteria for intervention in ACAOS-IM are: - symptoms of effort- ... Smaller fistulas are usually benign, and only severe cases can be complicated by aneurysmatic dilatation with potential ...
When arteriovenous fistula affects the cavernous sinus, blood flow may occur backwards in the superior ophthalmic vein. This ... It may also be affected by an arteriovenous fistula of the cavernous sinus. The superior ophthalmic vein - together with the ...
Linton RR, White PD (1945). "Arteriovenous Fistula Between The Right Common Iliac Artery And The Inferior Vena Cava". Archives ...
Morisaki was diagnosed with a spinal arteriovenous fistula shortly after she was born. The condition caused paraplegia. ...
AV (arteriovenous) fistulas are recognized as the preferred access method. To create a fistula, a vascular surgeon joins an ... an arteriovenous fistula (AV) or a synthetic graft. In the latter two, needles are used to puncture the graft or fistula each ... the arteriovenous fistula. In spite of AV Fistula being one of the most preferred methods of Vascular access, the researchers ... fistula'), the forearm (usually a radiocephalic fistula, or so-called Brescia-Cimino fistula, in which the radial artery is ...
The confluence of sinuses may be affected by arteriovenous fistulas. This is treated with surgery to embolise of the fistula. ... It may be affected by arteriovenous fistulas, a thrombus, major trauma, or surgical damage, and may be imaged with many ...
January 1976). "Arteriovenous Fistulas Constructed With Modified Human Umbilical Cord Vein Graft". Arch Surg. 111 (1): 60-62. ...
The superior petrosal sinus may be affected by an arteriovenous malformation or arteriovenous fistula. Most do not resolve by ... They may be affected by arteriovenous malformation or arteriovenous fistula, usually treated with surgery. The superior ... "Endovascular Treatment for Dural Arteriovenous Fistulae of the Superior Petrosal Sinus". Neurosurgery. 53 (1): 25-33. doi: ...
An irregular connection between an artery and a vein is known as arteriovenous fistula. A small specialised arteriovenous ... A subcutaneous venous plexus is continuous, and a high rate of flow is supplied by small arteriovenous anastomoses. The high ... Abnormal connections can be present known as arteriovenous malformations. These are usually congenital and the connections are ... A cerebral arteriovenous malformation is one that is located in the brain. ...
When the vein is large enough to allow cannulation, the fistula is defined as "mature". An arteriovenous fistula can increase ... Arteriovenous malformation Branham sign Carotid-cavernous fistula Fistula Human umbilical vein graft Pseudoaneurysm Vascular ... When an arteriovenous fistula is formed involving a major artery like the abdominal aorta, it can lead to a large decrease in ... An arteriovenous fistula is an abnormal connection or passageway between an artery and a vein. It may be congenital, surgically ...
... and fistula (AVF) symptoms, and the treatments available at UPMC for these vascular malformations of the spine. ... Two of the most common types are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs). ...
encoded search term (Arteriovenous Fistulas and Malformations) and Arteriovenous Fistulas and Malformations What to Read Next ... Arteriovenous Fistulas and Malformations. Updated: Oct 30, 2023 * Author: Sateesh C Babu, MD; Chief Editor: Vincent Lopez Rowe ... Arteriovenous fistula (AVF), by definition, describes an abnormal communication between an artery and a vein. These ... Factors affecting the patency of arteriovenous fistulas for dialysis access. J Vasc Surg. 2012 Mar. 55 (3):849-55. [QxMD ...
Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Example. *A dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) is an abnormal connection between the arteries that ... The backwards flow within the brain veins indicates that this is the "bad" type of dural arteriovenous fistula. The patient ... The image on the left is the original angiogram showing the fistula. The image on the right shows that the fistula is gone ...
Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas Treatment Market is expected to grow at a CAGR over 6.60% by Type, Treatment technology, industry ... Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas Treatment Market Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas Treatment Market Research Report Information: By ... Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas Treatment Market Scenario. The dural arteriovenous fistulas treatment market is expected to grow ... What are the key growth impeders of the dural arteriovenous fistulae treatment market? Higher cost and reported cases of side ...
External carotid-external jugular arteriovenous fistula Case contributed by Mohammad A. ElBeialy ... ElBeialy M, External carotid-external jugular arteriovenous fistula. Case study, Radiopaedia.org (Accessed on 24 Apr 2024) ... Congenital right external carotid artery-external jugular vein arteriovenous fistula with aneurysmal dilatation as well as ... Evidence of arteriovenous fistulous communication between the distal branches of the right external carotid artery and ...
CT findings suggested a complex coronary arteriovenous fistula (CAF), Sakakibara type A. The patient was not recommended for ... Four other fistulas originated therefrom - the first, with a clear "jet sign", drained into the MPA suggesting a left to right ... 1a) image shows a fistula draining into the MPA with a clear "jet sign" (arrow). A MIP image (Fig. 1b) shows a dilated LM ... In this case, the multiple fistulas draining into the AA, IA, LSA, BA and MCV are clearly identified. The other challenge is ...
Arteriovenous Fistula - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical ... An arteriovenous fistula may be congenital (usually affecting smaller vessels) or acquired as a result of trauma (eg, a bullet ... An arteriovenous fistula is an abnormal communication between an artery and a vein. ... an arteriovenous fistula is created surgically to provide vascular access for the procedure. ...
Cerebral or spinal arteriovenous malformation (AVMs) are rare tangles of blood vessels on, in or near the brain or spinal cord ... Cerebral or Spinal Arteriovenous Malformations and Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas Overview Cerebral or Spinal Arteriovenous ... Dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) are a subtype of AVM where the abnormal connection is between an artery in the covering of ... Malformations and Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas Cerebral or spinal arteriovenous malformation (AVMs) are rare tangles of blood ...
Arteriovenous fistulas are particularly common in wartime, resulting from penetration of shell fragments and other types of ... A penetrating injury such as that caused by a bullet or a sharp instrument may result in an arteriovenous fistula, an opening ... Arteriovenous fistula. A penetrating injury such as that caused by a bullet or a sharp instrument may result in an ... Arteriovenous fistulas are particularly common in wartime, resulting from penetration of shell fragments and other types of ...
An arteriovenous fistula is a medical condition where an artery and vein connect directly, causing blood to flow between them. ... Is arteriovenous fistula serious? › A significant arteriovenous fistula in the lungs (pulmonary arteriovenous fistula) is a ... Arteriovenous (AV) Fistula: Symptoms & Treatment? › Causes of Arteriovenous Fistulas. Acquired arteriovenous fistulas often ... What is the most common cause of an arteriovenous fistula? › Causes of Arteriovenous Fistulas. Acquired arteriovenous fistulas ...
Internal jugular vein fistula mimicking dural arteriovenous fistula after cardiac pacemaker placement.. Zachary Sokol, Erik ... Carotid jugular arteriovenous fistulas are a documented complication of cannulation of the internal jugular vein. They may ... Below, we report the case of a 68-year-old male with an incidentally found carotid-jugular fistula secondary to pacemaker ... However, carotid jugular fistula secondary thrombus formation after jugular cannulation with radiographic presentation similar ...
Failure of native arteriovenous fistulas continues to be a major unsolved problem. Although mature fistulas survive longer than ... Does Vascular Elasticity Affect Arteriovenous Fistula Maturation? William D. Paulson*. Specialty Care, Charlie Norwood VA ... Venous distensibility as a key factor in the success of arteriovenous fistulas at the wrist Ann Vasc Surg 2011; 25: 1094-8.. ... Roy-Chaudhury P, Spergel LM, Besarab A, Asif A, Ravani P. Biology of arteriovenous fistula failure J Nephrol 2007; 20: 150-63. ...
Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) were first described in 1897. They consist of abnormal communications between the ... encoded search term (Pulmonary Arteriovenous Fistulae) and Pulmonary Arteriovenous Fistulae What to Read Next on Medscape ... These are also referred to as pulmonary arteriovenous fistulae.. Most patients with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations have ... pulmonary arteriovenous malformations in 53%, hepatic arteriovenous malformations (HAVMs) in 47%, and cerebral arteriovenous ...
There are number of vascular access options including native Arteriovenous Fistulas (AVF), artificial arteriovenous grafts (AVG ... Native arteriovenous fistula, surgical outcomes and primary failure in Taiz Yemen: A prospective study Ismail S. Al-Shameri, ...
Witkin, Erwin, "Arterio-venous fistula of the lung" (1951). MD Theses. 1798. https://digitalcommons.unmc.edu/mdtheses/1798 ...
... on the blood flow and remodelling of arteriovenous (AV) fistulas in a rat model of diabetes. AV fistulas were created in ... Effects of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 on Arteriovenous Fistula Remodelling and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Phenotype Switching in ... The blood flow and vasomotor function of the aortic limb of the fistula were measured. Concentrations of serum norepinephrine ... thereby attenuating blood flow in the AV fistula. ...
Fistula Arteriovenous Coronary): Read more about Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications, Causes and Prognosis. ... With obliteration of the fistula by suturing, the prognosis is usually excellent. Figure 1 Coronary Arteriovenous Fistula on ... A loud continuous murmur heard at the lower or midsternal border of the heart suggests a coronary arteriovenous fistula; the ... As the fistula was very large and to prevent its complications, it was planned to close the fistula percutaneously. [ncbi.nlm. ...
Percutaneous endovascular forearm arteriovenous fistula creation for haemodialysis access. (IPG710). Product type:. Guidance. ...
Traumatic arteriovenous fistula of superficial temporal vessels--a case report. / Lee, F. P.; Huang, T. S. In: Taiwan yi xue ... Traumatic arteriovenous fistula of superficial temporal vessels--a case report. Taiwan yi xue hui za zhi. Journal of the ... Lee, F. P. ; Huang, T. S. / Traumatic arteriovenous fistula of superficial temporal vessels--a case report. In: Taiwan yi xue ... title = "Traumatic arteriovenous fistula of superficial temporal vessels--a case report",. author = "Lee, {F. P.} and Huang, {T ...
A patient has an arteriovenous (AV) fistula placed and it is allowed to mature. The "rule of 6s" for AV fistula maturation ...
Arteriovenous Fistula Introduction. Delineated by a variety of factors, the formation of AV fistulas is a commonly observed ... Specifically, an AV fistula is an abnormal connection between an artery and a vein, altering the normal flow of blood in the ... In this informative piece, we delve into the details of what these fistulas are, their underlying causes, common symptoms, ... However, in instances of an AV fistula, blood bypasses this crucial step, depriving tissues of adequate oxygen and nutrients. ...
Removal of Noninfected Arteriovenous Fistulae after Kidney Transplantation is a Safe and Beneficial Management Strategy for ... Removal of Noninfected Arteriovenous Fistulae after Kidney Transplantation is a Safe and Beneficial Management Strategy for ... Removal of Noninfected Arteriovenous Fistulae after Kidney Transplantation is a Safe and Beneficial Management Strategy for ... Removal of Noninfected Arteriovenous Fistulae after Kidney Transplantation is a Safe and Beneficial Management Strategy for ...
ObjectivesUnderstand that thrombosis of AVF in ESRD is very common, causing significant morbidity and contributes to the cost of providing care.
Arteriovenous fistula. Early venous enhancement, enlarged veins. Enlarged veins, tracking arterial density. ... Aretrioportal fistula. Hyperenhancement of liver supplied by affected portal branch. Dissection. Decreased, irregular caliber, ...
Grafts and catheters are more likely than fistulas to clot.. The blood vessels in your graft or fistula can become narrow and ... If you have a graft or fistula, keep the dressing dry for the first 2 days. You can bathe or shower as usual after the dressing ... A fistula takes from 4 to 6 weeks to heal and mature before it is ready to use. ... Fistula: An artery in your forearm or upper arm is sewn to a vein nearby. ...
Ilio-Iliac Arteriovenous Fistulae-An Unusual Diagnosis with an Even More Unusual Clinical Presentation. ... Background: Major pelvic ilio-iliac arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is an exceedingly rare diagnosis with only a few described ...
Keywords: Moyamoya disease; Arteriovenous fistula; Pseudoaneurysm; Revascularization INTRODUCTION. Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a ... Cerebral dural arteriovenous fistulas: clinical and angiographic correlation with a revised classification of venous drainage. ... Spontaneous closure of dural arteriovenous fistulas: report of three cases and review of the literature. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ... Vadivelu S, Xin X, Loven T, Restrepo G, Chalif DJ, Setton A. Iatrogenic dural arteriovenous fistula and aneurysmal subarachnoid ...
Arteriovenous fistula infection. 2. 1. 1. Otitis. 2 (,1). 1 (2). 1 (,1). 0.31. ...

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