A vessel that directly interconnects an artery and a vein, and that acts as a shunt to bypass the capillary bed. Not to be confused with surgical anastomosis, nor with arteriovenous fistula.
A vasoconstrictor found in ergot of Central Europe. It is a serotonin agonist that has been used as an oxytocic agent and in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.
A serotonin agonist that acts selectively at 5HT1 receptors. It is used in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.
Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.
Surgical shunt allowing direct passage of blood from an artery to a vein. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The vein accompanying the femoral artery in the same sheath; it is a continuation of the popliteal vein and becomes the external iliac vein.
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
Tubular vessels that are involved in the transport of LYMPH and LYMPHOCYTES.
Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).

Perfusion of the human finger during cold-induced vasodilatation. (1/104)

We have investigated the effect of severe local cooling on the vasomotor activity of the arteriovenous anastomoses (AVAs) and other finger vessels. The right third finger was subjected to local cooling (3 degrees C) for 30-45 min in 21 healthy, thermoneutral subjects. Blood velocity in the third finger arteries of both hands was simultaneously recorded using ultrasound Doppler, and skin temperature and laser-Doppler flux from the pulp of the cooled finger were also recorded. The results demonstrate that the initial cold-induced vasoconstriction during severe local cooling involves constriction of the AVAs as well as the two main arteries supplying this finger. During cold-induced vasodilatation (CIVD), the maximum velocity values were not significantly different from those before cooling. Furthermore, the velocity fluctuations in the cooled finger were in most subjects found to be synchronous with the velocity fluctuations in the control finger. This indicates that the large blood flow to the finger and the high skin temperature during CIVD are caused by relaxation of the smooth muscle cells of the AVAs.  (+info)

Site of functional bronchopulmonary anastomoses in sheep. (2/104)

The location of bronchopulmonary anastomoses has long been a topic of discussion, and pre-, post-, and capillary sites have all been demonstrated in postmortem examinations. However, there have been few studies that have provided insight into the patency and function of these anastomoses in the intact lung. To identify these functional sites where the bronchial circulation anastomoses with the pulmonary circulation, we studied sheep lungs in situ serial sectioned with high-resolution computed tomography (CT). Differences in radiodensities of blood, air, and nonionic contrast medium were used to differentiate and localize airways and vessels and to identify the effluent from the bronchial circulation. After an initial series of scans to identify the pulmonary arteries and veins adjacent to airways 2-12 mm in diameter, contrast material was infused into the bronchial artery. In three sheep, the major accumulation of contrast medium was found in pulmonary veins. In one of the sheep, a comparable number of pulmonary arteries and veins contained contrast medium. Serial histologic sections were able to identify small bronchial venules lying within subepithelial bronchial folds that drain directly into pulmonary veins. These results using serial CT and histologic images suggest that drainage from the intraparenchymal bronchial vasculature is predominantly into postcapillary pulmonary vessels.  (+info)

Angiographic abnormalities in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: an explanation based on neuropathologic findings. (3/104)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is typically occult at angiography and fails to enhance on MR images. After observing angiographic abnormalities characterized by arteriovenous shunting and pathologic parenchymal blush in patients with AIDS-related PML, often in the absence of contrast enhancement on MR images, we hypothesized that there might be distinct changes in the cerebral microvasculature that account for the reduction in vascular transit time (arteriovenous shunting) in the absence of blood-brain barrier dysfunction. METHODS: The imaging studies and neuropathologic specimens of six patients with biopsy-proved PML were reviewed retrospectively. In all patients contrast-enhanced MR imaging and CT, followed by cerebral angiography, were performed before stereotactically directed biopsy. The angiograms were evaluated for the presence of vascular displacement, pathologic parenchymal blush, arteriovenous shunting, and neovascularity. The CT and MR studies were reviewed for the presence of enhancement of the PML lesions. Biopsy specimens were examined for the presence of necrosis, perivascular inflammation, and neovascularity. RESULTS: All patients had oligodendrocytic intranuclear inclusions diagnostic of PML, together with perivascular inflammation and neovascularity to a varying extent; no other neuropathologic processes were identified. Angiographic abnormalities, characterized by a pathologic parenchymal blush and arteriovenous shunting, were identified in four of the six patients. In only one of these cases, however, was abnormal enhancement identified on cross-sectional imaging studies (MR and CT), and this patient had florid perivascular inflammatory infiltrates histologically. CONCLUSION: The pathologic parenchymal blush and arteriovenous shunting seen angiographically in some patients with PML reflect small-vessel proliferation and perivascular inflammatory changes incited by the presence of the JC virus in infected oligodendrocytes.  (+info)

Investigation of the role of 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors in the sumatriptan-induced constriction of porcine carotid arteriovenous anastomoses. (4/104)

1. It has previously been shown that the antimigraine drug sumatriptan constricts porcine carotid arteriovenous anastomoses via 5-HT1-like receptors, identical to 5-H1B/1D receptors. The recent availability of silent antagonists selective for the 5-HT1B (SB224289) and 5-HT1D (BRL15572) receptor led us to further analyse the nature of receptors involved. 2. In pentobarbitone-anaesthetized, bilaterally vagosympathectomized pigs, sumatriptan (30, 100 and 300 microg kg(-1), i.v.) dose-dependently decreased carotid arteriovenous anastomotic conductance by up to 70+/-5%. 3. The dose-related decreases in carotid arteriovenous anastomotic conductance by sumatriptan (30, 100 and 300 microg kg(-1), i.v.) remained unchanged in animals treated (i.v.) with 1 mg kg(-1) of BRL15572 (maximum decrease: 72+/-3%), but were significantly attenuated by 1 mg kg(-1) (maximum decrease: 30+/-11%) and abolished by 3 mg kg(-1) (maximum decrease: 3+/-7%) of SB224289. The highest dose of SB224289 did not attenuate the hypertension, tachycardia or increases in carotid blood flow induced by bolus injections of noradrenaline (0.1-3 microg kg(-1), i.v.). 4. The results indicate that sumatriptan constricts porcine carotid arteriovenous anastomoses primarily via 5-HT1B, but not via 5-HT1D receptors.  (+info)

Pharmacological evidence that alpha1-and alpha2-adrenoceptors mediate vasoconstriction of carotid arteriovenous anastomoses in anaesthetized pigs. (5/104)

Vasoconstriction of carotid arteriovenous anastomoses may be involved in the therapeutic action of acutely acting anti-migraine agents, including the triptans and ergot alkaloids. While 5-HT1B/1D receptors mediate the effect of triptans, ergotamine and dihydroergotamine also interact with alpha-adrenoceptors. In the present study, we investigated the potential role of alpha1- and alpha2-adrenoceptors in mediating vasoconstriction of carotid arteriovenous anastomoses in anaesthetized pigs. Ten minute intracarotid infusions of phenylephrine (1, 3 and 10 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) or BHT 933 (3, 10 and 30 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) produced dose-dependent decreases in total carotid and arteriovenous anastomotic conductances; no changes were observed in the capillary fraction. The carotid vascular effects of phenylephrine and BHT 933 were selectively abolished by prazosin (100 microg kg(-1), i.v.) and rauwolscine (300 microg kg(-1), i.v.), respectively. The responses to phenylephrine and BHT 933 were not affected by the selective 5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist GR127935 (500 microg kg(-1), i.v.). These results show that both alpha1- and alpha2-adrenoceptors can mediate vasoconstriction of carotid arteriovenous anastomoses in anaesthetized pigs. Since vasoconstrictor activity in this in vivo model is predictive of anti-migraine activity, an agonist activity at particularly the alpha2-adrenoceptor subtypes, in view of their less ubiquitous nature, could provide migraine abortive potential. Thus, the present results may aid further understanding of the mode of action of some current anti-migraine agents and may eventually be helpful in the development of future treatment in migraine.  (+info)

The porcine bronchial artery. Anastomoses with oesophageal, coronary and intercostal arteries. (6/104)

Information about the existence and anatomy of arterial anastomoses with the porcine bronchial artery is lacking in the literature. Prior to basic physiological investigations in a porcine model related to lung transplantation with bronchial artery revascularisation, this study was designed to examine the anatomy of systemic arterial anastomoses with the bronchial artery system. Twenty pigs were studied in 3 groups. In 2 groups the heart-lung block was removed with all mediastinal structures. One group served for investigation of coronary-bronchial artery anastomoses and one for investigation of oesophageal-bronchial artery anastomoses. The systemic arteries to be examined were cannulated. The inflated heart-lung block was examined macroscopically with Evans blue, and radiographically after contrast injection. In the 3rd group intercostobronchial artery anastomoses were studied radiographically with the heart-lung block in situ. Coronary-bronchial artery anastomoses were demonstrated in 3 of the 5 pigs with an aortic 'pouch' technique, but contrast was very limited in 2 of these 3. Oesophageal arterial anastomoses with bronchial arterial branches and/or the pulmonary veins were demonstrated in 6 of the 7 pigs and more markedly than the coronary-bronchial anastomoses. Intercostobronchial artery anastomoses could not be demonstrated angiographically. It was concluded that the existence of coronary-bronchial and oesophageal-bronchial artery anastomoses in the pig appear to establish an arterial net between the base of the heart and the distal oesophagus. The resemblance to human oesophageal-bronchial artery anastomoses supports use of a porcine model for experimental studies.  (+info)

Apoptosis and overexpression of bax protein and bax mRNA in smooth muscle cells within intimal hyperplasia of human radial arteries : analysis with arteriovenous fistulas used for hemodialysis. (7/104)

There is a type of arteriosclerosis with remodeling of middle-size arteries in which intimal hyperplasia of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) plays the main role, and there are few macrophages, T lymphocytes, and foam cells. It is unknown whether apoptosis and the expression of Bax, an inducer of apoptosis, are increased according to the progression of this type of human arteriosclerosis, which is different from so-called atherosclerosis. Bax heterodimerizes with Bcl-2, an inhibitor of apoptosis, and the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 determines cellular apoptosis or survival. Thus, we investigated apoptosis and the expressions of Bax, bax mRNA, and Bcl-2 in human arteriovenous (AV) fistulas used for hemodialysis, a representative of arteriosclerosis of the aforementioned type. The material was 20 radial arteries obtained from 20 patients with chronic renal failure undergoing AV shunt surgery. SMCs, macrophages, and T lymphocytes were immunohistochemically identified at the light microscopic (LM) level. Apoptosis was detected by in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated digoxigenin-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) at both the LM and electron microscopic (EM) level. Cell proliferating activity was estimated by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Bax and Bcl-2 were detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Expression of bax mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization. LM TUNEL-positive cells in both the intima and media were significantly increased according to the percent stenosis of the vessels. EM analysis revealed that ultrastructures of apoptotic SMCs were seen in both synthetic and contractile phenotypes. Their frequency of occurrence in the intima and media were greater in those vessels with >50% stenosis than in those with <50% stenosis (5.2+/-0.7% versus 1.0+/-0.3% in the intima and 2. 1+/-0.5% versus 0.2+/-0.1% in the media). The proportion of apoptotic SMCs with ruptured plasma membranes was greater than that of apoptotic SMCs with intact membranes in the intima of the former (4.1+/-0.6% versus 1.1+/-0.1%). Only those SMCs with apoptotic ultrastructures had TUNEL-positive nuclei with moderate or marked accumulation of immunogold particles at the EM level. However, ultrastructures of oncosis (primary necrosis) were not observed. Immunohistochemical analyses showed significant positive correlations between percent stenosis of vessels and the percentage of either PCNA-positive intimal cells or Bax-positive areas in the intima and media. Bcl-2-positive cells were not observed in the intima but mainly in the outer media. The percentage of Bcl-2-positive medial cells was definitely decreased at an early stage after formation of the AV fistula but did not change according to the duration of hemodialysis or the progression of arteriosclerosis. Western blot analysis of Bax or Bcl-2 and in situ hybridization of bax mRNA confirmed the immunohistochemical data. Thus, regulation of cellularity in intimal hyperplasia of SMCs in human arteriosclerosis with remodeling is mediated by proliferation and apoptosis but not oncosis. The apoptosis is probably induced by an increase in the Bax to Bcl-2 ratio.  (+info)

Doppler waveform analysis of the intertwin blood flow in acardiac pregnancy: implications for pathogenesis. (8/104)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate interfetal hemodynamics in acardiac twins and the implications for pathogenesis. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SUBJECTS: All acardiac twins involved in this study were identified by B-mode ultrasound at a teaching hospital in Taiwan. METHODS: Color Doppler imaging and, in one case, color power angiography were used to assess umbilical blood flow between acardiac twins and their normal co-twins. Placental anastomoses were examined by pathologists after delivery. RESULTS: In total five sets of acardiac twins and their normal co-twins were enrolled. Autonomous cardiac activity in the form of a contractile pocket was detected in two cases. Analysis of the pattern of the Doppler waveforms in each case enabled us to classify the type of hemodynamics into one of three categories: 'collision-summation', typified by a pattern of cyclic alternations of bidirectional flow; 'twin-pulse', which described the simultaneous recordings of two opposite constant flows with different pulsating rates; and the 'pump in' pattern, which indicated pulsatile flow in the reversed direction towards the acardiac mass. In two cases we detected, we believe for the first time, an artery-to-vein placental anastomosis between the acardiac twin and its co-twin. The nature of the vascular connections were confirmed on pathological follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Our observations suggest that acardiac twins may be not only the result of but also the cause of placental vascular anastomoses, which may involve either artery-to-artery or artery-to-vein anastomoses.  (+info)

An arteriovenous (AV) anastomosis is a connection or short channel between an artery and a vein that bypasses the capillary bed. In a normal physiological condition, blood flows from the arteries to the capillaries, where oxygen and nutrients are exchanged with the surrounding tissues, and then drains into veins. However, in an AV anastomosis, blood flows directly from the artery to the vein without passing through the capillary network.

AV anastomoses can occur naturally or be created surgically for various medical purposes. For example, they may be created during bypass surgery to reroute blood flow around a blocked or damaged vessel. In some cases, AV anastomoses may also develop as a result of certain medical conditions, such as cirrhosis or arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). AVMs are abnormal connections between arteries and veins that can lead to the formation of an AV anastomosis.

It is important to note that while AV anastomoses can be beneficial in certain medical situations, they can also have negative consequences if they occur inappropriately or become too large. For example, excessive AV anastomoses can lead to high-flow shunts, which can cause tissue damage and other complications.

Ergotamine is a type of ergopeptine alkaloid, derived from the ergot fungus (Claviceps purpurea) that parasitizes certain grains, particularly rye. It is a potent vasoconstrictor and has been used medically to prevent migraines and treat cluster headaches, as well as for other uses such as controlling postpartum hemorrhage and reducing symptoms of orthostatic hypotension.

Ergotamine works by binding to serotonin receptors in the brain and causing vasoconstriction of cranial blood vessels, which can help to relieve migraine headaches. However, it can also cause serious side effects such as nausea, vomiting, muscle pain, numbness or tingling in the extremities, and in rare cases, more severe reactions such as ergotism, a condition characterized by vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels leading to gangrene.

Ergotamine is usually taken orally, but can also be administered rectally or by inhalation. It is important to follow the dosage instructions carefully and avoid taking excessive amounts, as this can increase the risk of serious side effects. Ergotamine should not be taken during pregnancy or while breastfeeding, and it may interact with other medications, so it is important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting ergotamine therapy.

Sumatriptan is a selective serotonin receptor agonist, specifically targeting the 5-HT1D and 5-HT1B receptors. It is primarily used to treat migraines and cluster headaches. Sumatriptan works by narrowing blood vessels around the brain and reducing inflammation that leads to migraine symptoms.

The medication comes in various forms, including tablets, injectables, and nasal sprays. Common side effects of sumatriptan include feelings of warmth or hotness, tingling, tightness, pressure, heaviness, pain, or burning in the neck, throat, jaw, chest, or arms.

It is important to note that sumatriptan should not be used if a patient has a history of heart disease, stroke, or uncontrolled high blood pressure. Additionally, it should not be taken within 24 hours of using another migraine medication containing ergotamine or similar drugs such as dihydroergotamine, methysergide, or caffeine-containing analgesics.

Surgical anastomosis is a medical procedure that involves the connection of two tubular structures, such as blood vessels or intestines, to create a continuous passage. This technique is commonly used in various types of surgeries, including vascular, gastrointestinal, and orthopedic procedures.

During a surgical anastomosis, the ends of the two tubular structures are carefully prepared by removing any damaged or diseased tissue. The ends are then aligned and joined together using sutures, staples, or other devices. The connection must be secure and leak-free to ensure proper function and healing.

The success of a surgical anastomosis depends on several factors, including the patient's overall health, the location and condition of the structures being joined, and the skill and experience of the surgeon. Complications such as infection, bleeding, or leakage can occur, which may require additional medical intervention or surgery.

Proper postoperative care is also essential to ensure the success of a surgical anastomosis. This may include monitoring for signs of complications, administering medications to prevent infection and promote healing, and providing adequate nutrition and hydration.

An arteriovenous shunt is a surgically created connection between an artery and a vein. This procedure is typically performed to reroute blood flow or to provide vascular access for various medical treatments. In a surgical setting, the creation of an arteriovenous shunt involves connecting an artery directly to a vein, bypassing the capillary network in between.

There are different types of arteriovenous shunts used for specific medical purposes:

1. Arteriovenous Fistula (AVF): This is a surgical connection created between an artery and a vein, usually in the arm or leg. The procedure involves dissecting both the artery and vein, then suturing them directly together. Over time, the increased blood flow to the vein causes it to dilate and thicken, making it suitable for repeated needle punctures during hemodialysis treatments for patients with kidney failure.
2. Arteriovenous Graft (AVG): An arteriovenous graft is a synthetic tube used to connect an artery and a vein when a direct AVF cannot be created due to insufficient vessel size or poor quality. The graft can be made of various materials, such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or Dacron. Grafts are more prone to infection and clotting compared to native AVFs but remain an essential option for patients requiring hemodialysis access.
3. Central Venous Catheter (CVC): A central venous catheter is a flexible tube inserted into a large vein, often in the neck or groin, and advanced towards the heart. CVCs can be used as temporary arteriovenous shunts for patients who require immediate hemodialysis access but do not have time to wait for an AVF or AVG to mature. However, they are associated with higher risks of infection and thrombosis compared to native AVFs and AVGs.

In summary, a surgical arteriovenous shunt is a connection between an artery and a vein established through a medical procedure. The primary purpose of these shunts is to provide vascular access for hemodialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease or to serve as temporary access when native AVFs or AVGs are not feasible.

Regional blood flow (RBF) refers to the rate at which blood flows through a specific region or organ in the body, typically expressed in milliliters per minute per 100 grams of tissue (ml/min/100g). It is an essential physiological parameter that reflects the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissues while removing waste products. RBF can be affected by various factors such as metabolic demands, neural regulation, hormonal influences, and changes in blood pressure or vascular resistance. Measuring RBF is crucial for understanding organ function, diagnosing diseases, and evaluating the effectiveness of treatments.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

The femoral vein is the large vein that runs through the thigh and carries oxygen-depleted blood from the lower limbs back to the heart. It is located in the femoral triangle, along with the femoral artery and nerve. The femoral vein begins at the knee as the popliteal vein, which then joins with the deep vein of the thigh to form the femoral vein. As it moves up the leg, it is joined by several other veins, including the great saphenous vein, before it becomes the external iliac vein at the inguinal ligament in the groin.

The femoral artery is the major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the lower extremity of the human body. It is a continuation of the external iliac artery and becomes the popliteal artery as it passes through the adductor hiatus in the adductor magnus muscle of the thigh.

The femoral artery is located in the femoral triangle, which is bound by the sartorius muscle anteriorly, the adductor longus muscle medially, and the biceps femoris muscle posteriorly. It can be easily palpated in the groin region, making it a common site for taking blood samples, measuring blood pressure, and performing surgical procedures such as femoral artery catheterization and bypass grafting.

The femoral artery gives off several branches that supply blood to the lower limb, including the deep femoral artery, the superficial femoral artery, and the profunda femoris artery. These branches provide blood to the muscles, bones, skin, and other tissues of the leg, ankle, and foot.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

In the context of human anatomy, the thigh is the part of the lower limb that extends from the hip to the knee. It is the upper and largest portion of the leg and is primarily composed of the femur bone, which is the longest and strongest bone in the human body, as well as several muscles including the quadriceps femoris (front thigh), hamstrings (back thigh), and adductors (inner thigh). The major blood vessels and nerves that supply the lower limb also pass through the thigh.

The femoral nerve is a major nerve in the thigh region of the human body. It originates from the lumbar plexus, specifically from the ventral rami (anterior divisions) of the second, third, and fourth lumbar nerves (L2-L4). The femoral nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to various muscles and areas in the lower limb.

Motor Innervation:
The femoral nerve is responsible for providing motor innervation to several muscles in the anterior compartment of the thigh, including:

1. Iliacus muscle
2. Psoas major muscle
3. Quadriceps femoris muscle (consisting of four heads: rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius)

These muscles are involved in hip flexion, knee extension, and stabilization of the hip joint.

Sensory Innervation:
The sensory distribution of the femoral nerve includes:

1. Anterior and medial aspects of the thigh
2. Skin over the anterior aspect of the knee and lower leg (via the saphenous nerve, a branch of the femoral nerve)

The saphenous nerve provides sensation to the skin on the inner side of the leg and foot, as well as the medial malleolus (the bony bump on the inside of the ankle).

In summary, the femoral nerve is a crucial component of the lumbar plexus that controls motor functions in the anterior thigh muscles and provides sensory innervation to the anterior and medial aspects of the thigh and lower leg.

Lymphatic vessels are thin-walled, valved structures that collect and transport lymph, a fluid derived from the interstitial fluid surrounding the cells, throughout the lymphatic system. They play a crucial role in immune function and maintaining fluid balance in the body. The primary function of lymphatic vessels is to return excess interstitial fluid, proteins, waste products, and immune cells to the bloodstream via the subclavian veins near the heart.

There are two types of lymphatic vessels:

1. Lymphatic capillaries: These are the smallest lymphatic vessels, found in most body tissues except for the central nervous system (CNS). They have blind ends and are highly permeable to allow the entry of interstitial fluid, proteins, and other large molecules.
2. Larger lymphatic vessels: These include precollecting vessels, collecting vessels, and lymphatic trunks. Precollecting vessels have valves that prevent backflow of lymph and merge to form larger collecting vessels. Collecting vessels contain smooth muscle in their walls, which helps to propel the lymph forward. They also have valves at regular intervals to ensure unidirectional flow towards the heart. Lymphatic trunks are large vessels that collect lymph from various regions of the body and eventually drain into the two main lymphatic ducts: the thoracic duct and the right lymphatic duct.

Overall, lymphatic vessels play a vital role in maintaining fluid balance, immune surveillance, and waste removal in the human body.

Blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system that transport blood throughout the body. They form a network of tubes that carry blood to and from the heart, lungs, and other organs. The main types of blood vessels are arteries, veins, and capillaries. Arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the rest of the body, while veins return deoxygenated blood back to the heart. Capillaries connect arteries and veins and facilitate the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste materials between the blood and the body's tissues.

Goodman, C (July 1914). "ARTERIOVENOUS ANASTOMOSIS OF THE FEMORAL VESSELS FOR IMPENDING GANGRENE". Annals of Surgery. 60 (1): ...
... are divided into the common ones and the arteriovenous anastomosis. The common ones are arteries that are ... The joining of endometrial arteries and veins of the endometrium is known as arteriovenous. Endometrial arteries are also ...
He is especially known for studies of the human tongue and arterio-venous anastomoses in humans and other animals. Vastarini- ... His major work was on the studies of arteriovenous anastomosis in the tongue of humans. He introduced glycogen-staining ...
The glomus body is a small arteriovenous anastomosis surrounded by a capsule of connective tissue. Glomus bodies (glomera) are ... The arteriovenous shunt of the glomus body is a normal anatomic shunt as opposed to an abnormal arteriovenous fistula. A ...
In 1876 he described arteriovenous anastomoses (known as Hoyer bodies) and in 1882 he described a medium for mounting stained ... "The fine structure of human digital arterio-venous anastomoses (Hoyer-Grosser's organs)". Anatomy and Embryology. 150 (3): 269- ...
The pathogenesis of TAPS is based on the presence of few, minuscule arterio-venous (AV) placental anastomoses (diameter ... Depending on the number, type and direction of the interconnecting blood vessels (anastomoses), blood can be transferred ...
... veno-venous anastomosis) or between an artery and a vein (arterio-venous anastomosis). Anastomoses between arteries and between ... In the normal heart these anastomoses are non-functional. Superficial arterio-venous anastomoses open when the body reaches a ... Portacaval anastomosis, by contrast, is a veno-venous anastomosis between a vein of the portal circulation and a vein of the ... A circulatory anastomosis is a connection (an anastomosis) between two blood vessels, such as between arteries (arterio- ...
A small specialised arteriovenous anastomosis known as a glomus body or organ serves to transfer heat in the fingers and toes. ... A subcutaneous venous plexus is continuous, and a high rate of flow is supplied by small arteriovenous anastomoses. The high ... Anastomoses An anastomosis is a joining of two structures such as blood vessels. In the circulation these are called ... circulatory anastomoses, one of which is the join between an artery with a vein known as an arteriovenous anastomosis. This ...
"Assessment of Feto-fetal Transfusion Flow Through Placental Arterio-venous Anastomoses in a Unique Case of Twin-to-Twin ... With this technique, not only all anastomoses are coagulated (closed) but also a line is drawn between those in order to ... the part of the placenta where the anastomoses need to be coagulated), complete dichorionization by the Solomon technique might ... coagulate anastomoses that might not (yet) be visible during fetoscopy.[citation needed] It should be stressed that the success ...
... the entire capillary bed may be bypassed by blood flow through arteriovenous anastomoses or through preferential flow through ...
... malformation Arteriovenous fistula Arteriovenous oxygen difference Arteriovenous anastomosis This disambiguation ... Arteriovenous refers to relations between arteries and veins, such as: ... page lists articles associated with the title Arteriovenous. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link ...
... decrease in the release of neurotransmitters from the sympathetic nerves to the muscular coat of the arteriovenous anastomoses ...
... including those on the arteriovenous anastomoses, leads to vasoconstriction, which is correlated with the relief of migraine ...
... arteriovenous anastomosis MeSH A07.231.432.410 - capillaries MeSH A07.231.432.952 - venules MeSH A07.231.491.800 - tunica media ...
... decrease in the release of neurotransmitters from the sympathetic nerves to the muscular coat of the arteriovenous anastomoses ...
In areas of glabrous, that is non-hairy, skin there are special blood vessels called arteriovenous anastomoses, or AVAs, which ...
... the tail can be precisely controlled in response to changes in ambient temperature using a system of arteriovenous anastomoses ...
... such as an arteriovenous fistula) or innate (such as the arteriovenous shunt of a metarteriole); and it may be natural (such as ... Surgical anastomosis techniques include Linear Stapled Anastomosis, Hand Sewn Anastomosis, End-to-End Anastomosis (EEA). ... Arterial anastomosis includes actual arterial anastomosis (e.g., palmar arch, plantar arch) and potential arterial anastomosis ... Anastomosis: medical or Modern Latin, from Greek ἀναστόμωσις, anastomosis, "outlet, opening", Gr ana- "up, on, upon", stoma " ...
An anastomosis connecting an artery to a vein is also used to create an arteriovenous fistula as an access for hemodialysis.[ ... For example, an arterial anastomosis is used in vascular bypass and a colonic anastomosis is used to restore colonic continuity ... "nerve anastomoses" (not strictly an anastomosis according to the above definition), and operations to restore fertility after ... While an anastomosis may be end-to-end, equally it could be performed side-to-side or end-to-side depending on the ...
A cerebral AVM is an abnormal anastomosis (connection) between the arteries and veins in the human brain and are most commonly ... Arteriovenous malformations. An analysis of 545 cases of cranio-cerebral arteriovenous malformations and fistulae reported to ... an arteriovenous malformation in the cerebrum. The most frequently observed problems related to a cerebral arteriovenous ... A cerebral arteriovenous malformation (cerebral AVM, CAVM, cAVM, brain AVM, or BAVM) is an abnormal connection between the ...
MeSH E04.035.070 - anastomosis, roux-en-y MeSH E04.035.087 - arteriovenous shunt, surgical MeSH E04.035.188 - cerebrospinal ... anastomosis, roux-en-y MeSH E04.210.078 - appendectomy MeSH E04.210.120 - biliary tract surgical procedures MeSH E04.210. ... arteriovenous shunt, surgical MeSH E04.100.814.200 - blood vessel prosthesis implantation MeSH E04.100.814.300 - cerebral ... internal mammary-coronary artery anastomosis MeSH E04.100.376.730 - pericardial window techniques MeSH E04.100.376.735 - ...
AV (arteriovenous) grafts are much like fistulas in most respects, except that an artificial vessel is used to join the artery ... To create a fistula, a vascular surgeon joins an artery and a vein together through anastomosis. Since this bypasses the ... Three primary methods are used to gain access to the blood: an intravenous catheter, an arteriovenous fistula (AV) or a ... Either abnormality can limit the maturation and viability of the arteriovenous fistula. This research raises the possibility ...
Frequent topics of these articles have been: surgical aneurysm management brain circulation microanatomy, anastomosis and ... There he expanded his work in microsurgery, cerebrovascular surgery, particularly aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and ... blood gases and pH in surgical patients cerebral arteriovenous malformations Ausman is a pioneer in the field of ... Fourth International Symposium on Microsurgical Anastomoses for Cerebral Ischemia. Springer-Verlag. pp. 325-327. Slavin KV, ...
A short distal bypass is created and the artery just distal to the AV anastomosis is ligated. Schanzer H, Schwartz M, ... Harrington E, Haimov M (1988). "Treatment of ischemia due to "steal" by arteriovenous fistula with distal artery ligation and ...
If the femoral artery must be ligated, blood can bypass the occlusion through the genicular anastomosis and reach the popliteal ... an injury of the artery and vein may result in an arteriovenous fistula (communication between an artery and a vein). Failure ... The superior muscular branches of the popliteal artery have clinically important anastomoses with the terminal part of the deep ... They participate in the formation of the periarticular genicular anastomosis, a network of vessels surrounding the knee that ...
Even when other anastomoses from the circle of Willis were blocked off, the whole cerebral arterial tree could be filled. Later ... Kim, D.J.; Krings, T. (2011-09-01). "Whole-Brain Perfusion CT Patterns of Brain Arteriovenous Malformations: A Pilot Study in ... Inter-territorial end to end anastomoses exist between branches of the anterior cerebral artery and middle cerebral artery, the ... Vander Eecken HM, Adams RD (April 1953). "The anatomy and functional significance of the meningeal arterial anastomoses of the ...
Malik, Ghaus M.; Sadasivan, Balaji; Knighton, Robert S.; Ausman, James I. (1991), "The management of arteriovenous ... "Posterior inferior to posterior inferior cerebellar artery anastomosis combined with trapping for vertebral artery aneurysm", ... "Balloon embolization of nontraumatic vertebral arteriovenous fistulae in children", Surgical Neurology, 32 (2): 126-130, doi: ...
The modified direct anastomosis and encephalo-myo-arterio-synangiosis play a role in this improvement by increasing cerebral ... At least one case of simultaneous unilateral moyamoya syndrome and ipsilateral dural arteriovenous fistula has been reported at ... investigations have established that both moyamoya disease and arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) of the lining of the brain, the ... "Simultaneous unilateral moyamoya disease and ipsilateral dural arteriovenous fistula: case report". Neurosurgery. 62 (6): E1375 ...
Coronary arteriovenous fistula, acquired (I28.0) Arteriovenous fistula of pulmonary vessels Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula: ... surgical creation of a portacaval fistula produces an anastomosis between the hepatic portal vein and the inferior vena cava ... I67.1) Cerebral arteriovenous fistula, acquired (I77.0) Arteriovenous fistula, acquired (I77.2) Fistula of artery (J86.0) ... Head trauma can lead to perilymph fistulas, whereas trauma to other parts of the body can cause arteriovenous fistulas. ...
Stage of peripheral arteriolar-venular anastomoses: Arteriolar-venular anastomoses develop as blood is diverted from blocked ... Tortuosity is caused by arteriovenous shunting from the retinal periphery. It can feature small bleeds of the retina known as ... Stage of neovascularization and fibrous proliferation: Neovascularization starts from the arteriolar-venular anastomoses, and ...
Goodman, C (July 1914). "ARTERIOVENOUS ANASTOMOSIS OF THE FEMORAL VESSELS FOR IMPENDING GANGRENE". Annals of Surgery. 60 (1): ...
It is also known as a Cimino type anastomosis.. For 36825 (Creation of arteriovenous fistula by other than direct arteriovenous ... Arteriovenous anastomosis, open; direct, any site (eg, Cimino type) (separate procedure)), the surgeon creates an arteriovenous ... Use of this code is different from direct arteriovenous anastomosis because it is using an autogenous vein graft, as opposed to ... You would report 36825 when a provider creates the arteriovenous graft he uses for anastomosis from material taken from a donor ...
... pulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses result in arteriovenous shunting. HPS is a potentially progressive and life-threatening ...
... pulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses result in arteriovenous shunting. HPS is a potentially progressive and life-threatening ...
Multiple arteriovenous anastomosis and myoneural glomus units are present within the nail bed. [28] Capillaries are abundant in ... The arteriovenous anastomoses and blood vessels of the human finger. Morphological and functional aspects. Medicine (Baltimore) ...
Halstead, A.E.; Vaughan, R.T. Arteriovenous anastomosis in the treatment of gangrene of the extremities. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. ...
In addition, multiple direct arteriovenous anastomoses bypass the capillary beds. This allows significant increases in blood ...
Central arteriovenous anastomosis for the treatment of patients with uncontrolled hypertension (the ROX CONTROL HTN study): a ...
Glomus tumor is a benign tumor derived from the vascular wall of the arteriovenous anastomosis complex. Glomus tumors in the ... Effects of acute normovolemic hemodilution on healing of gastric anastomosis in rats Kim TY, Kim DW, Jeong MA, Jun JH, Min SJ, ... When performing laparoscopic gastrectomy, suturing the intestinal anastomosis presents one of the greatest challenges. The V- ...
The transitional flow which initiates within the junction (anastomosis) of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is known to be a ... The stent-absent case generally had higher turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in the anastomosis which led to larger cycle-to-cycle ... A novel treatment method involving the implantation of a flexible stent across the anastomosis has enabled the retention of a ... Mitigation of the turbulence within an arteriovenous fistula with a stent implantation ...
In the cat, sumatriptan selectively constricts the carotid arteriovenous anastomoses while having little effect on blood flow ...
... peripheral arterial bypass proximal anastomosis, and arteriovenous graft arterial anastomosis.. † THROMBIN-JMI Thrombin, ... or arteriovenous graft formation for hemodialysis access), the safety of RECOTHROM (n=88 patients) was compared to placebo ( ... or arteriovenous graft formation for hemodialysis access).2 The incidence of thromboembolic adverse reactions in this study was ... arteriovenous graft formation, or other procedures).3 The incidence of thromboembolic adverse reactions in this study was 3%. ...
... and Arteriovenous Anastomosis (AVA) (Stagnaro and Stagnaro-Neri, 2004a; Stagnaro, 2009; Stagnaro and Caramel, 2010). ...
Arterial anastomoses, Arteriovenous anastomoses, Venous anastomoses * What are the neural branches called that enter the ... an anastomosis is any arrangement of blood vessels that allows an alternate pathway for blood totake around a blockage. ...
Arteriovenous anastomoses, funicular vessels besides the vasa vasorum were also observed. Arteriovenous anastomoses were found ...
Clinical significance of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations after staging bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis. Am J ... Shah M, Rychik J, Fogel MA, Murphy JD, Jacobs ML: Pulmonary arterio-venous malformations after superior cavo-pulmonary ... Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation; Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation; Congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Rychik J and ... Diagnostic assessment before Fontan operation in patients with bi-directional cavopulmonary anastomosis: are non-invasive ...
... in-stent restenosis of SFA lesions and in stenosis or thrombotic occlusion at the venous anastomosis of synthetic arteriovenous ...
An anastomosis is a surgical connection between two structures. It usually means a connection that is created between tubular ... Arteriovenous fistula (an opening created between an artery and vein) for dialysis ... An anastomosis is a surgical connection between two structures. It usually means a connection that is created between tubular ... The procedure is known as an intestinal anastomosis. ...
Laboratory and field investigations have demonstrated that intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (IPAVA) may provide an ...
... including those on arterio-venous anastomoses, leads to vasoconstriction, which correlates with the relief of migraine headache ...
Anxiety and Depression in Men Undergoing Hemodialysis with Arteriovenous Anastomosis (fistula) 15-06-2018 ...
Percutaneous Creation of a Central Iliac Arteriovenous Anastomosis for the Treatment of Arterial Hypertension. Bertog, S. C., ...
Arteriovenous (AV) graft surgery ≈ $2,498 * Secondary Cimino arteriovenous anastomosis surgery ≈ $1,405 * Peripheral artery ...
The glomus body is a controlled arteriovenous anastomosis or shunt between the terminal vessels thought to be important in ... The normal glomus body is an arteriovenous shunt that is composed of an afferent arteriole, an anastomotic vessel (Sucquet- ...
The incidence of blood flow through intracardiac shunt and intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (IPAVA) may differ between ... N2 - The incidence of blood flow through intracardiac shunt and intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (IPAVA) may differ ... AB - The incidence of blood flow through intracardiac shunt and intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (IPAVA) may differ ... abstract = "The incidence of blood flow through intracardiac shunt and intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (IPAVA) may ...
Microvascular anastomosis techniques are important for revascularization surgeries on brachiocephalic and carotid arteries and ... D. G. Potts, "Aneurysms and arteriovenous anomalies of the brain: diagnosis and treatment," Hoeber Medical Division: Harper & ... Paul, MN) for end-to-end anastomosis and Elana (Elana bv, Utrecht, Netherlands) for end-to-side anastomosis would result in ... Microvascular Anastomosis Training in Neurosurgery: A Review. Vadim A. Byvaltsev. ,1,2,3,4Serik K. Akshulakov. ,5Roman A. ...
Intracranial arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is a rare disease, defined as anastomoses between cerebral or meningeal arteries and ... At 11 years after STA-MCA bypass surgery, a 3-mm aneurysm appeared at the anastomosis site. Four years later, headache ... Surgically treated intracranial arteriovenous fistulas with hemorrhage, resulting in complete obliteration: illustrative cases ... Only a few reports have described aneurysms appearing around the anastomosis site after bypass surgery, and the underlying ...
arteriovenous anastomosis of patients undergo to dialysis. *arterio-venous shunts / prosthetic of patients undergo to dialysis ...
3). Oozing was observed at several sites but there was no leakage of the arteriovenous or ureter anastomosis. A capsulotomy and ... Anastomosis of the external iliac artery and vein and the renal artery and vein was performed and renal perfusion was started. ... After the anastomosis, immediate diuresis was observed. Surgery was completed without complications and the patient was ...
  • Dr. Saad: Several randomized controlled trials have demonstrated superior primary patency with primary stenting at the venous anastomosis. (intaninvest.net)
  • The horse's foot is rich in blood vessels, and is also rich in arteriovenous anastomoses-direct connections between arterial and venous blood vessels-that allow rapid increases in net blood flow to the foot," he explains. (equisearch.com)
  • This report of 8 clinical cases discusses the flat panel catheter angiotomography appearance of a type of spinal venous structure until now principally known through the analysis of postmortem material, transmedullary venous anastomosis. (ajnr.org)
  • The illustrated configurations include centrodorsolateral, median anteroposterior, median anteroposterior with duplicated origin, and combined centrodorsolateral/median anteroposterior transmedullary venous anastomoses, while a pathologic example documents the potential role of transmedullary venous anastomoses as collateral venous pathways. (ajnr.org)
  • Transmedullary venous anastomoses are normal venous structures that need to be differentiated from spinal cord anomalies, such as intramedullary vascular malformations. (ajnr.org)
  • This retrospective review of 8 clinical cases describes the morphology and angiographic appearance of several types of transmedullary venous anastomoses (TMVAs), including some previously undocumented configurations observed during routine spinal DSA. (ajnr.org)
  • Secale: Disorders in the arterio-venous anastomoses and the precapillaries. (kayawell.com)
  • An inability to increase inflow often results from perianastomotic stenosis and venous neointimal hyperplasia, which are both related to endothelial and smooth muscle cell activation in the area of the anastomosis and are capable of inducing AVF stenosis. (laminatemedical.com)
  • Rare, congenital malformation of arterial and venous vessels with formation of arteriovenous anastomoses, a. (altmeyers.org)
  • Background-The patency of arteriovenous (AV) expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) hemodialysis grafts is severely compromised by intimal hyperplasia (IH) at the venous anastomosis and in the venous outflow tract. (eur.nl)
  • Methods and Results-In 25 pigs, ePTFE AV grafts were created bilaterally between the carotid artery and the jugular vein, whereupon a self-expandable nitinol stent (14 SESs and 11 bare-metal stents) was implanted over the venous anastomosis in 1 of the 2 grafts. (eur.nl)
  • AVF creation is the preferred method of hemodialysis access for patients with ESRD, as it is associated with fewer complications and better long-term outcomes compared to other methods such as central venous catheters or arteriovenous grafts. (txhospitals.in)
  • A young girl had anisometropia that on further examination revealed a retinal vascular malformation (retinal arteriovenous anastomoses) most consistent with Wyburn-Mason syndrome of the left eye ( Figure ). (jamanetwork.com)
  • An 8-month-old girl presented with vitreous hemorrhage, peripheral retinal arteriovenous anastomosis, and hypoplasia of the thumb. (nih.gov)
  • Distinguish between fistula creation and anastomosis. (aapc.com)
  • 36836 ( Percutaneous arteriovenous fistula creation, upper extremity, single access of both the peripheral artery and peripheral vein, including fistula maturation procedures (eg, transluminal balloon angioplasty, coil embolization) when performed, including all vascular access, imaging guidance and radiologic supervision and interpretation ). (aapc.com)
  • In it, CMS replaced HCPCS Level II arteriovenous fistula creation codes G2170 and G2171 with 36836 and 36837. (aapc.com)
  • Additional findings include choroidal neovascularization, retinochoroidal and arteriovenous anastomoses, and neovascularization of the disc. (medscape.com)
  • Historically, observation, lasercoagulation or surgical treatments (radial optic neurotomy, retinochoroidal anastomosis, arteriovenous (AV) sheatotomy) represented the only available therapeutic options. (touchophthalmology.com)
  • Grade II, an anastomosis between a branch artery and a branch vein, and Grade III, a diffuse marked dilation of the whole vascular system. (bmj.com)
  • During a 36825 procedure, your cardiologist will make an incision over the target area and surgically create an arteriovenous fistula - a connection between an artery and a vein. (aapc.com)
  • Code 36825 describes an open procedure that uses an autogenous vein graft from elsewhere in the patient's body to create a direct, end-to-end anastomosis graft connecting the desired artery and vein. (aapc.com)
  • Acute renal hemorrhage, Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), Kidney cancer, Ovarian vein reflux, and others. (doctor.global)
  • A superficial anastomosis between the anteromedian spinal vein (AMSV) and the left posterolateral spinal vein (PLSV) was documented at T12 in a 36-year-old woman with progressive myelopathy ( Fig 1 ). (ajnr.org)
  • the anastomosis of an artery and a vein. (nih.gov)
  • Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) creation is a surgical procedure that involves connecting an artery and a vein in the arm to create a site for hemodialysis access in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). (txhospitals.in)
  • The artery is then carefully dissected and connected to the vein using a technique called anastomosis. (txhospitals.in)
  • In contrast, the contribution of skin temperature to the control of cold responses such as arteriovenous shunt vasoconstriction and shivering is less well established. (asahq.org)
  • Retinal haemorrhages due to ROP tend to occur on the surface of the neovascular ridge, which represents an arteriovenous shunt formed by the anastomosis of primitive retinal vessels. (weebly.com)
  • thickening and narrowing and/or loss of Arteriovenous fistula A type of vascular access elasticity of the arterial walls due to plaque used in hemodialysis patients and created by deposition. (nih.gov)
  • In some cases, your cardiologist may need to create an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) to provide vascular access for hemodialysis patients. (aapc.com)
  • distribution, corpus cavernosum of the penis via capillary beds and via helicine arteries and arteriovenous anastomoses to produce an erection. (chemwatch.net)
  • Not to be confused with SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS or ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA . (bvsalud.org)
  • An anastomosis is a surgical connection between two structures. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Archer et al proposed a classification for arteriovenous communications of the retina. (bmj.com)
  • Liang A, Wang Y, Han G, Truong L, Cheng J " Chronic kidney disease accelerates endothelial barrier dysfunction in a mouse model of an arteriovenous fistula. . (bcm.edu)
  • Bioresorbable Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Loaded Electrospun Polymeric Scaffold Inhibits Neointimal Hyperplasia Following Arteriovenous Fistula Formation in a Rat Model of Chronic Kidney Disease. (viictr.org)
  • Treatment of angiosclerotic gangrene of the lower extremity by arteriovenous anastomosis. (nih.gov)
  • Feng S, Peden EK, Guo Q, Lee TH, Li Q, Yuan Y, Chen C, Huang F, Cheng J . Downregulation of the endothelial histone demethylase JMJD3 is associated with neointimal hyperplasia of arteriovenous fistulas in kidney failure. (viictr.org)
  • The arteriovenous anastomoses (6) are usually closed during normal conditions but open under special circum- stances of blood flow. (nih.gov)
  • It does so by taking advantage of a unique arrangement of blood vessels called the arteriovenous anastomosis (AVA's) in the palm of the hand. (pranalink.com)
  • In the cat, sumatriptan selectively constricts the carotid arteriovenous anastomoses while having little effect on blood flow or resistance in cerebral or extracerebral tissues. (nih.gov)
  • In MCDADZ twin, vascular anastomosis occurs by sharing the placenta, then twin-twin transfusion syndrome or the confusion in blood typing or genetic test due to blood chimerism can occur. (e-kmj.org)
  • It is an innovative device which attempts to address the root causes of AVF failure by minimising flow disturbances around the area of the anastomosis. (laminatemedical.com)
  • Some remodelling is necessary in order to accommodate a markedly increased flow resulting from the arteriovenous anastomosis. (laminatemedical.com)
  • A case of arteriovenous anastomosis for obliterative endarteritis. (nih.gov)
  • There are no arteriovenous shunts in the normal retina, but some arteriovenous communications of the retina have been described and classified. (bmj.com)
  • In addition to these components of the small vessel unit there occasionally are relatively large short vessels, the arteriovenous anastomoses, which arise from metarterioles or arterioles and empty directly into venules. (nih.gov)
  • Since many arteriovenous anastomoses late, an x-linked recessive forms of the katp channel is performed. (lorenzopetrantoni.com)