Common occlusive arterial disease which is caused by ATHEROSCLEROSIS. It is characterized by lesions in the innermost layer (ARTERIAL INTIMA) of arteries including the AORTA and its branches to the extremities. Risk factors include smoking, HYPERLIPIDEMIA, and HYPERTENSION.
A non-atherosclerotic, inflammatory thrombotic disease that commonly involves small and medium-sized arteries or veins in the extremities. It is characterized by occlusive THROMBOSIS and FIBROSIS in the vascular wall leading to digital and limb ISCHEMIA and ulcerations. Thromboangiitis obliterans is highly associated with tobacco smoking.
A cytosolic carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme primarily expressed in skeletal muscle (MUSCLES, SKELETAL). EC 4.2.1.-
Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES leading to an obstructive lung disease. Bronchioles are characterized by fibrous granulation tissue with bronchial exudates in the lumens. Clinical features include a nonproductive cough and DYSPNEA.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
An interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology, occurring between 21-80 years of age. It is characterized by a dramatic onset of a "pneumonia-like" illness with cough, fever, malaise, fatigue, and weight loss. Pathological features include prominent interstitial inflammation without collagen fibrosis, diffuse fibroblastic foci, and no microscopic honeycomb change. There is excessive proliferation of granulation tissue within small airways and alveolar ducts.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of muscular ARTERIES due to calcification of the TUNICA MEDIA, the concentric layers of helically arranged SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.
A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An occupational disorder resulting from prolonged exposure to vibration, affecting the fingers, hands, and forearms. It occurs in workers who regularly use vibrating tools such as jackhammers, power chain saws, riveters, etc. Symptoms include episodic finger blanching, NUMBNESS, tingling, and loss of nerve sensitivity.
An idiopathic vascular disorder characterized by bilateral Raynaud phenomenon, the abrupt onset of digital paleness or CYANOSIS in response to cold exposure or stress.
Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.
An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.
Accidentally acquired infection in laboratory workers.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
Inflammation of the inner endothelial lining (TUNICA INTIMA) of an artery.

Therapeutic angiogenesis induced by human recombinant hepatocyte growth factor in rabbit hind limb ischemia model as cytokine supplement therapy. (1/58)

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) exclusively stimulates the growth of endothelial cells without replication of vascular smooth muscle cells and acts as a survival factor against endothelial cell death. Therefore we hypothesized that a decrease in local vascular HGF might be related to the pathogenesis of peripheral arterial disease. We initially evaluated vascular HGF concentration in the vessels of patients with arteriosclerosis obliterans. Consistent with in vitro findings that hypoxia downregulated vascular HGF production, vascular HGF concentration in the diseased segments of vessels from patients with arteriosclerosis obliterans was significantly decreased as compared with disease-free segments from the same patients (P<0.05), accompanied by a marked reduction in HGF mRNA. On the other hand, a novel therapeutic strategy for ischemic diseases that uses angiogenic growth factors to expedite and/or augment collateral artery development has recently been proposed. Thus in view of the decreased endogenous vascular HGF, rhHGF (500 micrograms/animal) was intra-arterially administered through the internal iliac artery of rabbits in which the femoral artery was excised to induce unilateral hind limb ischemia, to evaluate the angiogenic activity of HGF, which could potentially have a beneficial effect in hypoxia. Administration of rhHGF twice on days 10 and 12 after surgery produced significant augmentation of collateral vessel development on day 30 in the ischemic model as assessed by angiography (P<0.01). Serial angiograms revealed progressive linear extension of collateral arteries from the origin stem artery to the distal point of the reconstituted parent vessel in HGF-treated animals. In addition, we examined the feasibility of intravenous administration of rhHGF in a moderate ischemia model. Importantly, intravenous administration of rhHGF also resulted in a significant increase in angiographic score as compared with vehicle (P<0.01). Overall, a decrease in vascular HGF might be related to the pathogenesis of peripheral arterial disease. In the presence of decreased endogenous HGF, administration of rhHGF induced therapeutic angiogenesis in the rabbit ischemic hind limb model, as potential cytokine supplement therapy for peripheral arterial disease.  (+info)

Interleukin-10 (IL-10) augments allograft arterial disease: paradoxical effects of IL-10 in vivo. (2/58)

Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory helper T cell type 2 (Th2) cytokine that modulates Th1-type cytokine production. Graft arterial disease (GAD) is a vascular obliterative process mediated via the Th1 cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma); allografts in IFN-gamma-deficient animals do not develop GAD. We investigated the effect of IL-10 and anti-IL-10 on GAD in murine heart transplants and whether anti-IL-10 reestablishes GAD in IFN-gamma-deficient hosts. Major histocompatibility complex class II-mismatched hearts were transplanted for 8 weeks into wild-type or IFN-gamma-deficient mice. In one set of experiments, wild-type hosts received daily administration of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or increasing IL-10; in a subsequent set of experiments, wild-type hosts received weekly PBS, rat IgG, or anti-IL-10 monoclonal antibody; IFN-gamma-deficient recipients received weekly PBS or anti-IL-10 monoclonal antibody. Explanted allografts were assessed for parenchymal rejection and GAD, cytokine profiles, and adhesion/costimulatory-molecule expression. Exogenous IL-10 resulted in increased Th2-like cytokine production; nevertheless, it exacerbated parenchymal rejection and GAD and increased CD8(+) infiltration. Anti-IL-10 did not significantly affect the extent of rejection or GAD, cytokine profiles, or immunohistology of the allografts in wild-type hosts. Adhesion molecule (CD54 and CD106) expression was not diminished by IL-10 treatment, and costimulatory-molecule (CD80 and CD86) expression was augmented by administration of exogenous IL-10. Allografts in IFN-gamma-deficient recipients showed mild rejection and no GAD, regardless of anti-IL-10 treatment. IL-10 in vivo thus has markedly different effects than predicted from in vitro experience. Although allografts develop Th2-like cytokine profiles treatment with IL-10 causes exacerbated rejection and GAD.  (+info)

Ultrasonographic demonstration of manipulation-related aortic injuries after cardiac surgery. (3/58)

OBJECTIVES: This study was performed to evaluate the frequency and risk factors associated with new aortal lesions induced by surgical manipulation and their correlation with postoperative stroke. BACKGROUND: Little is known about the causative mechanism of intraoperative atheroembolism after cardiac surgery. METHODS: Epiaortic echocardiography was performed before cannulation and after decannulation in 472 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation. RESULTS: A new lesion in the ascending aortal intima was identified in 16 patients (3.4%) after decannulation. New lesions were severe, with mobile lesions or disruption of the intima in 10 patients. Six of the severe lesions were related to aortic damping and the other four to aortic cannulation. Three patients in this group had postoperative stroke. Univariate analysis identified only the maximal thickness of the atheroma near the aorta manipulation site as a predictor of new lesions. The incidence of new lesions was 11.8% if the atheroma was approximately 3 to 4 mm thick and as high as 33.3% if the atheroma was >4 mm, but only 0.8% when it was <3 mm. Total 10 patients (2.1%) sustained neurological complications. Arteriosclerosis obliterans, atherosclerosis of the aorta and new mobile lesions were identified as predictors of strokes. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated an association between new lesions created by surgical maneuvers and postoperative stroke. Embolic strokes were more likely to occur if new lesions were complicated with intimal disruption, especially of the mobile type. Modifications in surgical procedures will be needed if thick plaque (especially >4 mm) is noted near the manipulation site.  (+info)

Postoperative delirium in patients with chronic lower limb ischaemia: what are the specific markers? (4/58)

OBJECTIVES: we determined the incidence and specific markers of postoperative delirium in elderly patients with chronic lower limb ischaemia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: since April, 1995, 110 patients aged 60 years or older (mean: 71.6+/-6.6 years) who underwent bypass surgery were assessed regarding aetiological factors of delirium: age, sex, dementia, body-mass index, hypertension, diabetes, cerebral disease, laboratory test results, severity of limb ischaemia, type of arterial occlusion, operative time, and blood transfusion. RESULTS: discriminant analysis showed statistical significance in the following five variables: age >/=70 years; critical limb ischaemia (and/or ankle pressure <40 mmHg); dementia; duration of operation >/=7 hours; low serum albumin. The overall percentage of cases correctly classified was 78.2% (Wilks>> Lambda=0.695, p<0.001); the standardized regression coefficients of the five variables were 0.648, 0.500, 0.329, 0.218, and 0.200, respectively. In logistic regression, the regression coefficients for old age and critical limb ischaemia were 2.646 (14.1 of odds ratio; 95% confidence interval, 2.7-72.0) and 1.337 (3.8; 1.3-10.9), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: the incidence of postoperative delirium in elderly patients with chronic lower-limb ischaemia was as high as 42.3%, and an age of over 70 years and critical limb ischaemia were identified as specific markers, with 14.1 times and 3.8 times the odds of suffering from delirium after bypass surgery.  (+info)

Usefulness of the Symphony Nitinol Stent for arteriosclerosis obliterans. (5/58)

The Symphony Peripheral Stent is a self-expanding stent made of thermal memory Nitinol wire. Stents were implanted in 39 lesions of 32 patients (26 men, 6 women) with atherosclerosis obliterans (ASO). The ankle-arm index (AAI), and vessel diameters evaluated by quantitative angiography were compared before and 6 months after treatment. Symphony Peripheral Stent implantation significantly improved the AAI from 0.50+/-0.4 to 0.9+/-0.2 (p<0.01), the minimum lumen diameter (MLD) from 2+/-1.5 to 5+/-1.4 mm (p<0.01) and percent diameter stenosis (% DS) from 69+/-20% to 16.5+/-8% (p<0.01). Re-evaluation of 33 of the 39 lesions 6 months after treatment revealed a low restenosis rate of 15%, an AAI of 0.8+/-0.3, MLD of 4.5+/-2 mm and %DS of 30+/-22%, so the Symphony Peripheral Stent is thus a promising choice for patients with ASO.  (+info)

Infrainguinal arterial reconstruction for limb salvage in patients with end-stage renal disease. (6/58)

OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the efficacy of infrainguinal bypass for limb-threatening ischaemia in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: from 1991 through 2000, 28 limbs in 22 patients with ESRD received 33 infrainguinal bypasses, while 65 limbs in 57 patients with functioning kidneys underwent 77 bypasses for limb salvage. The prevalence of diabetes is higher in the ESRD group (p = 0.03). RESULTS: perioperative mortality and patient survival rate in the follow-up period were significantly poorer in patients with ESRD (18% vs 0%; p = 0.001, and 45% vs 85%, p < 0.001, respectively). Most causes of death were related to atherosclerosis or respiratory diseases. In spite of no significant difference in 2-year primary and secondary graft patency rates and limb salvage between the ESRD and non-ESRD groups (76% vs 83%; p = 0.12, 85% vs 91%; p = 0.06, and 83% vs 93%; p = 0.06, respectively), two cases of early limb loss occurred as a result of uncontrolled infection in the ESRD group. In contrast to autogenous conduits, nonautogenous conduits revealed a poorer outcome in ESRD patients (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: perioperative mortality and patient survival rate were significantly poorer in the ESRD group. Preoperative full evaluation of myocardial and brain ischaemia, revascularisation with autogenous conduits, appropriate treatment of wound infection, and strict follow-up for accompanying diseases may be needed in these patients.  (+info)

The effects of Chinese medicines on micro-circulation of nail folds and blood flow velocity of limbs in the patients with arteriosclerotic obliteration. (7/58)

The effects of Chinese medicines on micro-circulation and blood flow velocity in arteries of the lower limbs were observed in 33 patients with arteriosclerotic obliteration (ASO). The results showed that the integral values of micro-circulation after treatment were obviously higher than those before treatment (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Blood flow velocity in arteries of the lower limbs determined with the color Doppler ultrasound detecting method after treatment were also obviously higher than those before treatment (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). In this series of 33 ASO patients, the markedly effective rate was 36.36%, and the total effective rate was 63.64%. The observation indicates that the recipe prescribed according to the principle of supplementing qi and activating blood circulation can effectively improve micro-circulation in ASO patients, and accelerate blood flow in arteries of the lower limbs.  (+info)

Serum concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor and monocyte-colony stimulating factor in peripheral arterial disease. (8/58)

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) strongly promotes angiogenesis, and monocyte-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) regulates the differentiation, proliferation, and survival of monocytes. Both VEGF and M-CSF are expressed in atherosclerotic lesions. The present study was performed to clarify the role of VEGF and M-CSF in the development of peripheral artery disease (PAD). The serum VEGF and M-CSF concentrations were determined in patients with arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO) and thromboangitis obliterans (TAO). In both patient groups the serum VEGF concentrations were significantly higher than those in the control subjects. In contrast, the serum M-CSF concentrations in the ASO patients were significantly higher than those in both the TAO patients and control subjects, but there were no differences in the M-CSF concentrations between the TAO patients and control subjects. There was no correlation between the serum concentrations of VEGF and M-CSF. In conclusion, the serum VEGF concentration was increased in ASO and TAO patients, but increased concentration of M-CSF was seen only in ASO patients. These results may reflect a difference between ASO and TAO in disease pathogenesis.  (+info)

Arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO) is a specific type of arteriosclerosis, which is a hardening and narrowing of the arteries. ASO is also known as peripheral artery disease (PAD). It mainly affects the arteries that supply blood to the legs, but it can also affect the arms, head, and stomach.

In ASO, fatty deposits called plaques build up in the inner lining of the arterial walls, causing them to become thickened and less flexible. This leads to a decrease in blood flow, which can cause symptoms such as leg pain or cramping when walking (claudication), numbness, weakness, and coldness in the legs or feet. In severe cases, ASO can lead to tissue damage, gangrene, and even amputation if left untreated.

ASO is typically caused by risk factors such as smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, high cholesterol, and a family history of the disease. Treatment may include lifestyle changes, medication, or surgery to improve blood flow.

Thromboangiitis obliterans, also known as Buerger's disease, is a rare inflammatory disease that affects the small and medium-sized arteries and veins, most commonly in the legs and feet but sometimes in the arms and hands. The condition is characterized by the formation of blood clots (thrombi) and inflammation in the affected blood vessels, leading to their obstruction and damage.

The exact cause of thromboangiitis obliterans is not known, but it is strongly associated with tobacco use, particularly smoking. The condition primarily affects young men, although women can also develop the disease. The symptoms include pain and cramping in the affected limbs, especially during exercise, skin discoloration, ulcers, and in severe cases, gangrene.

The diagnosis of thromboangiitis obliterans is based on a combination of clinical presentation, medical history, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. There is no cure for the disease, but quitting smoking and other tobacco products can help slow its progression and reduce the risk of complications. Treatment typically involves medications to manage symptoms, improve blood flow, and prevent further clotting. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue or bypass blocked blood vessels.

Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) is a member of the carbonic anhydrase enzyme family, which catalyzes the reversible reaction between carbon dioxide and water to form bicarbonate and protons. This enzyme is primarily found in muscle tissues, where it plays a role in regulating pH levels during muscle contraction and relaxation. CAIII has a lower catalytic activity compared to other carbonic anhydrase isoforms, suggesting that it may have additional functions beyond simple CO2 hydration. Additionally, CAIII has been implicated in various physiological processes such as protection against oxidative stress and regulation of muscle metabolism.

Bronchiolitis obliterans is a medical condition characterized by the inflammation and scarring (fibrosis) of the bronchioles, which are the smallest airways in the lungs. This results in the narrowing or complete obstruction of the airways, leading to difficulty breathing and reduced lung function.

The condition is often caused by a respiratory infection, such as adenovirus or mycoplasma pneumonia, but it can also be associated with exposure to certain chemicals, drugs, or radiation therapy. In some cases, the cause may be unknown.

Symptoms of bronchiolitis obliterans include cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, and crackles heard on lung examination. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical exam, imaging studies (such as chest X-ray or CT scan), and pulmonary function tests. In some cases, a biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment for bronchiolitis obliterans is focused on managing symptoms and preventing further lung damage. This may include bronchodilators to help open up the airways, corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, and oxygen therapy to help with breathing. In severe cases, a lung transplant may be necessary.

In medical terms, the leg refers to the lower portion of the human body that extends from the knee down to the foot. It includes the thigh (femur), lower leg (tibia and fibula), foot, and ankle. The leg is primarily responsible for supporting the body's weight and enabling movements such as standing, walking, running, and jumping.

The leg contains several important structures, including bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, nerves, and joints. These structures work together to provide stability, support, and mobility to the lower extremity. Common medical conditions that can affect the leg include fractures, sprains, strains, infections, peripheral artery disease, and neurological disorders.

Arteriosclerosis is a general term that describes the hardening and stiffening of the artery walls. It's a progressive condition that can occur as a result of aging, or it may be associated with certain risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, smoking, and a sedentary lifestyle.

The process of arteriosclerosis involves the buildup of plaque, made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances, in the inner lining of the artery walls. Over time, this buildup can cause the artery walls to thicken and harden, reducing the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the body's organs and tissues.

Arteriosclerosis can affect any of the body's arteries, but it is most commonly found in the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart, the cerebral arteries that supply blood to the brain, and the peripheral arteries that supply blood to the limbs. When arteriosclerosis affects the coronary arteries, it can lead to heart disease, angina, or heart attack. When it affects the cerebral arteries, it can lead to stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). When it affects the peripheral arteries, it can cause pain, numbness, or weakness in the limbs, and in severe cases, gangrene and amputation.

Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) is a type of lung disorder that is characterized by the presence of inflammation and scarring in the lungs. The term "cryptogenic" means that the cause of the condition is unknown or unclear.

Organizing pneumonia is a specific pattern of injury to the lungs that can be caused by various factors, including infections, medications, and autoimmune disorders. However, in cases of COP, there is no clear underlying cause that can be identified.

The main symptoms of COP include cough, shortness of breath, fever, and fatigue. The condition can also cause crackles or wheezing sounds when listening to the lungs with a stethoscope. Diagnosis of COP typically involves a combination of imaging studies, such as chest X-rays or CT scans, and lung biopsy.

Treatment for COP usually involves the use of corticosteroids, which can help to reduce inflammation and improve symptoms. In some cases, other medications may also be used to manage the condition. The prognosis for people with COP is generally good, with most individuals responding well to treatment and experiencing improvement in their symptoms over time. However, recurrence of the condition is possible, and long-term monitoring may be necessary.

Monckeberg medial calcific sclerosis is a medical condition that affects the muscular layer (media) of medium-sized and large arteries, most commonly the muscular arteries of the legs. It is characterized by calcium deposits in the media of the artery wall, resulting in stiffening and hardening of the arteries, which can lead to decreased blood flow and oxygen supply to the affected tissues.

The condition was first described by a German pathologist named Johann Georg Monckeberg in 1903. It is often asymptomatic and found incidentally during imaging studies or at autopsy. However, in some cases, it can lead to complications such as peripheral artery disease, claudication (pain in the legs with exercise), or even tissue necrosis (tissue death) due to insufficient blood supply.

It is important to note that Monckeberg medial calcific sclerosis is different from atherosclerosis, which is a more common condition characterized by plaque buildup in the inner lining of the arteries. While both conditions can lead to hardening and narrowing of the arteries, they have different underlying causes and risk factors.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Arterial occlusive diseases are medical conditions characterized by the blockage or narrowing of the arteries, which can lead to a reduction in blood flow to various parts of the body. This reduction in blood flow can cause tissue damage and may result in serious complications such as tissue death (gangrene), organ dysfunction, or even death.

The most common cause of arterial occlusive diseases is atherosclerosis, which is the buildup of plaque made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances in the inner lining of the artery walls. Over time, this plaque can harden and narrow the arteries, restricting blood flow. Other causes of arterial occlusive diseases include blood clots, emboli (tiny particles that travel through the bloodstream and lodge in smaller vessels), inflammation, trauma, and certain inherited conditions.

Symptoms of arterial occlusive diseases depend on the location and severity of the blockage. Common symptoms include:

* Pain, cramping, or fatigue in the affected limb, often triggered by exercise and relieved by rest (claudication)
* Numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected limb
* Coldness or discoloration of the skin in the affected area
* Slow-healing sores or wounds on the toes, feet, or legs
* Erectile dysfunction in men

Treatment for arterial occlusive diseases may include lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and eating a healthy diet. Medications to lower cholesterol, control blood pressure, prevent blood clots, or manage pain may also be prescribed. In severe cases, surgical procedures such as angioplasty, stenting, or bypass surgery may be necessary to restore blood flow.

In the context of medicine and physiology, vibration refers to the mechanical oscillation of a physical body or substance with a periodic back-and-forth motion around an equilibrium point. This motion can be produced by external forces or internal processes within the body.

Vibration is often measured in terms of frequency (the number of cycles per second) and amplitude (the maximum displacement from the equilibrium position). In clinical settings, vibration perception tests are used to assess peripheral nerve function and diagnose conditions such as neuropathy.

Prolonged exposure to whole-body vibration or hand-transmitted vibration in certain occupational settings can also have adverse health effects, including hearing loss, musculoskeletal disorders, and vascular damage.

Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) is a disorder that affects the nerves, blood vessels, muscles, and joints of the hands and arms. It's primarily caused by prolonged exposure to high levels of hand-transmitted vibration, such as from operating power tools or machinery that vibrate.

The symptoms of HAVS can include:

1. Numbness, tingling, or loss of sensation in the fingers.
2. Fingertip color changes (blanching) when exposed to cold.
3. Impaired blood flow, leading to finger blotchiness and skin color changes.
4. Reduced hand grip strength and coordination.
5. Pain and stiffness in the hands and arms.

The symptoms can develop gradually over time and may not be immediately noticeable. Early recognition and limiting exposure to vibration sources are crucial for preventing further progression of HAVS.

Raynaud's disease, also known as Raynaud's phenomenon or syndrome, is a condition that affects the blood vessels, particularly in the fingers and toes. It is characterized by episodes of vasospasm (constriction) of the small digital arteries and arterioles, which can be triggered by cold temperatures or emotional stress. This results in reduced blood flow to the affected areas, causing them to become pale or white and then cyanotic (blue) due to the accumulation of deoxygenated blood. As the episode resolves, the affected areas may turn red as blood flow returns, sometimes accompanied by pain, numbness, or tingling sensations.

Raynaud's disease can be primary, meaning it occurs without an underlying medical condition, or secondary, which is associated with connective tissue disorders, autoimmune diseases, or other health issues such as carpal tunnel syndrome, vibration tool usage, or smoking. Primary Raynaud's is more common and tends to be less severe than secondary Raynaud's.

Treatment for Raynaud's disease typically involves avoiding triggers, keeping the body warm, and using medications to help dilate blood vessels and improve circulation. In some cases, lifestyle modifications and smoking cessation may also be recommended to manage symptoms and prevent progression of the condition.

In medical terms, fingers are not specifically defined as they are common anatomical structures. However, I can provide you with a general anatomy definition:

Fingers are the terminal parts of the upper limb in primates, including humans, consisting of four digits (thumb, index, middle, and ring fingers) and one opposable thumb. They contain bones called phalanges, connected by joints that allow for movement and flexibility. Each finger has a nail, nerve endings for sensation, and blood vessels to supply nutrients and oxygen. Fingers are crucial for various activities such as grasping, manipulating objects, and tactile exploration of the environment.

A Laboratory Infection, also known as a laboratory-acquired infection (LAI), is an infection that occurs in individuals who are exposed to pathogens or other harmful microorganisms while working in a laboratory setting. These infections can occur through various routes of exposure, including inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion of contaminated materials.

Laboratory infections pose significant risks to laboratory workers, researchers, and even visitors who may come into contact with infectious agents during their work or visit. To minimize these risks, laboratories follow strict biosafety protocols, including the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), proper handling and disposal of contaminated materials, and adherence to established safety guidelines.

Examples of laboratory infections include tuberculosis, salmonella, hepatitis B and C, and various other bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections. Prompt diagnosis, treatment, and implementation of appropriate infection control measures are crucial to prevent the spread of these infections within the laboratory setting and beyond.

Occupational diseases are health conditions or illnesses that occur as a result of exposure to hazards in the workplace. These hazards can include physical, chemical, and biological agents, as well as ergonomic factors and work-related psychosocial stressors. Examples of occupational diseases include respiratory illnesses caused by inhaling dust or fumes, hearing loss due to excessive noise exposure, and musculoskeletal disorders caused by repetitive movements or poor ergonomics. The development of an occupational disease is typically related to the nature of the work being performed and the conditions in which it is carried out. It's important to note that these diseases can be prevented or minimized through proper risk assessment, implementation of control measures, and adherence to safety regulations.

Endarteritis is a medical condition that refers to the inflammation of the inner lining (intima) of an artery, particularly the portion that comes into contact with the heart. This condition can affect any artery in the body and is often caused by bacterial or fungal infections that spread through the bloodstream.

Endarteritis can lead to the narrowing or complete blockage of the affected artery, which can result in tissue damage or even death in severe cases. The symptoms of endarteritis depend on the location and extent of the inflammation, but they may include fever, chills, fatigue, weight loss, and pain or weakness in the affected area. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eliminate the underlying infection and may also include surgery to remove damaged tissue or restore blood flow.

... is an occlusive arterial disease most prominently affecting the abdominal aorta and the small- and ... Arteriosclerosis Monckeberg's arteriosclerosis Skin lesion James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' ...
It is used in peripheral vascular diseases, like arteriosclerosis obliterans, Raynaud's disease, thromboangiitis obliterans ( ... Richter IH, Fogel M, Fabricant H (1951). "An evaluation of roniacol tartrate in arteriosclerosis obliterans". New York State ...
February 2008). "Serum adiponectin and markers of endothelial injury in hemodialysis patients with arteriosclerosis obliterans ... May 2009). "CD146 and its soluble form regulate monocyte transendothelial migration". Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and ...
Arteriosclerosis obliterans has been postulated as the cause, along with errors of the clotting and fibrinolytic pathways such ... Arteriography reveals large and medium vessel arteriosclerosis occasionally with dye within the area of tissue infarction. ...
... arteriosclerosis obliterans, thromboangiitis obliterans, diabetic microangiopathy and Raynaud's phenomenon). Ancrod has been ... forms of peripheral arterial circulatory disorders such as those resulting from years of heavy smoking and/or arteriosclerosis ...
Causes include: Thrombosis (approximately 40% of cases) Arterial embolism (approximately 40%) arteriosclerosis obliterans ... angiography can distinguish between cases caused by arteriosclerosis obliterans (displaying abnormalities in other vessels and ...
Arteriosclerosis obliterans Bier spots Blueberry muffin baby Bonnet-Dechaume-Blanc syndrome (Wyburn-Mason syndrome) Bullous ... Thromboangiitis obliterans (Buerger's disease) Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (Moschcowitz syndrome) Traumatic purpura ...
... oligonucleotide Antisense oligonucleotide Anti-streptolysin O Arterial switch operation Arteriosclerosis obliterans Adelaide ...
... arteriosclerosis MeSH C14.907.137.126.056 - arteriolosclerosis MeSH C14.907.137.126.114 - arteriosclerosis obliterans MeSH ... Coronary Arteriosclerosis MeSH C14.280.647.250.285 - coronary stenosis MeSH C14.280.647.250.285.200 - coronary restenosis MeSH ... thromboangiitis obliterans MeSH C14.907.940.907 - vasculitis, central nervous system MeSH C14.907.940.907.175 - aids arteritis ... Coronary Arteriosclerosis MeSH C14.907.553.470.250.285 - coronary stenosis MeSH C14.907.553.470.250.285.200 - coronary ...
Anemia Cardiovascular diseases Arteriosclerosis Hypertension Pre-eclampsia (toxemia of pregnancy) Occlusive vascular disease ( ... Thromboangiitis obliterans Hereditary telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome) Cushing's disease Addison's disease Diabetes ...
All these factors make smokers more at risk of developing various forms of arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries). As the ... Smoking tobacco has also been linked to Buerger's disease (thromboangiitis obliterans), the acute inflammation and thrombosis ( ... Joyce JW (May 1990). "Buerger's disease (thromboangiitis obliterans)". Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America. 16 (2): 463- ... Bonetti PO, Lerman LO, Lerman A (2003). "Endothelial dysfunction: a marker of atherosclerotic risk". Arteriosclerosis, ...
IP receptor agonists have been used to treat Thromboangiitis obliterans, a disease involving blood clotting and inflammation of ... Ricciotti E, FitzGerald GA (May 2011). "Prostaglandins and inflammation". Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. ...
Diacetyl and acetyl propionyl are associated with bronchiolitis obliterans ("popcorn lung"), a serious lung disease. A 2015 ... Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 40 (2): 335-349. doi:10.1161/ATVBAHA. ...
Thromboangiitis obliterans - Affects small- & medium-sized vessels that is strongly associated with tobacco products. Pain, ... arteriosclerosis and arteriolosclerosis - to narrow which arteries are diseased and can easily be confused due to similar ...
Arteriosclerosis obliterans is an occlusive arterial disease most prominently affecting the abdominal aorta and the small- and ... Arteriosclerosis Monckebergs arteriosclerosis Skin lesion James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews ...
a. Thromboangiitis obliterans. b. Arteriosclerosis. c. Embolism. d. Thrombosis. 4. Dysglobulinemia. a. Cold hemagglutination ...
Peripheral vascular disease; PVD; PAD; Arteriosclerosis obliterans; Blockage of leg arteries; Claudication; Intermittent ...
Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO), an inflammatory vasculopathy also known as Buerger disease, is characterized by an ... Arteriosclerosis, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia. Discovered 5.1-10 y after diagnosis (−1). Discovered 2.1-5 y later (− ... encoded search term (Thromboangiitis Obliterans (Buerger Disease)) and Thromboangiitis Obliterans (Buerger Disease) What to ... Thromboangiitis Obliterans (Buerger Disease). Updated: Jul 22, 2022 * Author: Naiem Nassiri, MD, RPVI; Chief Editor: Vincent ...
Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO), an inflammatory vasculopathy also known as Buerger disease, is characterized by an ... Arteriosclerosis, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia. Discovered 5.1-10 y after diagnosis (−1). Discovered 2.1-5 y later (− ... encoded search term (Thromboangiitis Obliterans (Buerger Disease)) and Thromboangiitis Obliterans (Buerger Disease) What to ... Thromboangiitis Obliterans (Buerger Disease) Treatment & Management. Updated: Jul 22, 2022 * Author: Naiem Nassiri, MD, RPVI; ...
Effects of puerarin on blood lipids and inflammatory factors in rats with lower limb arteriosclerosis obliterans Research Paper ... on blood lipid and inflammatory factor levels in rats with lower limb arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO). Sixty rats were ...
Arteriosclerosis Obliterans Medicine and Dentistry 77% * Cohort Analysis Medicine and Dentistry 56% ...
This process is also called arteriosclerosis obliterans.. Risk factors for peripheral arterial disease include:. *Hypertension ... Buerger disease (thromboangiitis obliterans).. Venous insufficiency. The veins may fail to clear blood from the tissues because ...
Outcomes in Patients with critical limb ischemia due to arteriosclerosis obliterans who do not undergo arterial reconstructions ...
1, 2] PVD, also known as arteriosclerosis obliterans, manifests as insufficient tissue perfusion resulting from atherosclerosis ...
Peripheral vascular disease; PVD; PAD; Arteriosclerosis obliterans; Blockage of leg arteries; Claudication; Intermittent ...
Zhou B, She J, Wang Y, Ma X. Venous thrombosis and arteriosclerosis obliterans of lower extremities in a very severe patient ...
a blockage of the arteries called arteriosclerosis obliterans.. *serious numbness or prickling or tingling of fingers and toes. ...
Arteriosclerosis Obliterans 7% * Person 7% * Ischemic Heart Disease 7% * Health 3% * Aging 3% ...
The drug is credited for opening a new field in the treatment for arteriosclerosis obliterans and hyperlipidemia ( ...
5,811,457 it is reported that propionyl L-carnitine is useful the treatment of chronic arteriosclerosis obliterans ...
The patient was a 70-year-old man with right arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO). He had also undergone a right iliac artery ...
Arteriosclerosis obliterans. *. impetigo. Pre-treatment Advice. *. A consultation and patch test must be booked at least 24 ...
Peripheral vascular disease; PVD; PAD; Arteriosclerosis obliterans; Blockage of leg arteries; Claudication; Intermittent ... Arteriosclerosis of the extremities is a disease of the peripheral blood vessels that is characterized by narrowing and ...
Arteriosclerosis obliterans. *Impaired kidney function. *Glucosamine allergy. *Chondroitin allergy. Side Effects. The adverse ...
Arteriosclerosis Obliterans 62% * Patient 50% * Inpatient 50% * Aerobic Exercise 50% * Pain 50% ...
Journal Article] Clinical application of bone marrow implantation in patients with arteriosclerosis obliterans, and the ...
Arteriosclerosis Obliterans Medicine and Dentistry 16% * Diabetes Medicine and Dentistry 8% * Logistic Regression Analysis ...
11 SSc, 29 with arteriosclerosis obliterans). Severe digital ulcers. All had pain and trans-cutaneous oxygen tension ...
Arteriosclerosis Obliterans Medicine and Dentistry 14% View full fingerprint Cite this. * APA ...
Arteriosclerosis Obliterans Medicine and Dentistry 100% * Ankle Brachial Index Medicine and Dentistry 100% ...
Predictive Value of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound in Chemical Lumbar Sympathectomy for End-Stage Arteriosclerosis Obliterans of ...
Vascular surgery - arteriosclerosis, Buergers Disease (Thromboangitis Obliterans), lymphedema. *Laparoscopic surgery - ...
  • Thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO), an inflammatory vasculopathy also known as Buerger disease, is characterized by an inflammatory endarteritis that causes a prothrombotic state and subsequent vaso-occlusive phenomena. (
  • A concrete diagnosis of thromboangiitis obliterans is often difficult as it relies heavily on exclusion of other conditions. (
  • Arteriosclerosis of the extremities is a disease of the peripheral blood vessels that is characterized by narrowing and hardening of the arteries that supply the legs and feet. (
  • Mesenteric ischemia, peripheral artery obstruction, and enormous vessel arteriosclerosis obliterans have likewise been reported, as has cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. (
  • Peripheral artery disease ( PAD ), also known as peripheral vascular disease ( PVD ), peripheral artery occlusive disease , and peripheral obliterative arteriopathy , is a form of arteriosclerosis involving occlusion of arteries, most commonly in the lower extremities. (
  • Vasodilan is used for improving blood flow in some conditions (eg, cerebral vascular insufficiency, arteriosclerosis obliterans, Buerger disease, Raynaud disease). (
  • Arteriosclerosis obliterans is an occlusive arterial disease most prominently affecting the abdominal aorta and the small- and medium-sized arteries of the lower extremities, which may lead to absent dorsalis pedis, posterior tibial, and/or popliteal artery pulses. (
  • a blockage of the arteries called arteriosclerosis obliterans. (
  • The main clinical manifestation of senile arteriosclerosis obliterans is lower limb ischemia, which is currently difficult to treat. (
  • Narrowing of the arterial lumen nor damage to the endothelial lining can result from such factors as atherosclerotic buildup of lipid deposits or arteriosclerosis obliterans that causes arterial occlusion. (
  • Impairment of the connective tissues, arteriosclerosis, circulatory disorders. (
  • The patient was a 70-year-old man with right arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO). (
  • Vasodilan es utilizado para mejorar el flujo sanguíneo en ciertas condiciones (por ejemplo, insuficiencia vascular cerebral, la arteriosclerosis obliterante, enfermedad de Buerger, enfermedad de Raynaud). (
  • The inhalation of flavoring concentrate may expose you to hazardous chemicals, toxins, and nanoparticles, including diacetyl, acetyl propionyl and/or acetoin, which have been associated with permanent lung injury and disease, including bronchiolitis obliterans, a disease characterized by inflammation and scarring of the small airways of the lungs, which leads to severe and disabling shortness of breath. (
  • Arteriosclerosis obliterans of the aorta and lower limbs. (
  • Background: Arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO) is the leading cause of nontraumatic lower-extremity amputations. (
  • Critical Limb Ischemia biasanya dipicu oleh arteriosclerosis obliterans (ASO) dan thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO). (
  • PVD, also known as arteriosclerosis obliterans, is primarily the result of atherosclerosis. (
  • This study was performed to study the outcomes of operations in the patients with atherosclerosis obliterans of lower extremities. (
  • A thoughtful management can prevent the progress of atherosclerosis obliterans(ASO) and may preserve the function of lower limb. (
  • Methods and Results: A randomized clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized PBMNC transplantation in patients with PAD (Fontaine stage II-IV and Rutherford category 1-5) caused by arteriosclerosis obliterans or Buerger's disease. (
  • Arteriosclerosis Monckeberg's arteriosclerosis Skin lesion James, William D. (
  • Et tilfælde af endarteritis obliterans med Pt. (
  • 758 male arteriosclerosis obliterans patients and 793 male controls were genotyped for rs2043211 with the TaqMan allele assays. (
  • In addition, in October 2020, Kaneka Corporation, chemicals, food products, and medical devices company launched rheocarna, an adsorption type blood purification device that treats severe form of arteriosclerosis obliterans. (
  • A Case of Inferior Mesenteric Artery Aneurysm in Association with Arteriosclerosis Obliterans Y. Nishimura et al. (
  • 4. [Blood coagulation disorders observed in arteriosclerosis obliterans]. (