Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Thermodilution: Measurement of blood flow based on induction at one point of the circulation of a known change in the intravascular heat content of flowing blood and detection of the resultant change in temperature at a point downstream.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Cardiac Output, Low: A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Dye Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of dye into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Cardiac Output, High: A state of elevated cardiac output due to conditions of either increased hemodynamic demand or reduced cardiac oxygen output. These conditions may include ANEMIA; ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA; THYROTOXICOSIS; PREGNANCY; EXERCISE; FEVER; and ANOXIA. In time, compensatory changes of the heart can lead to pathological form of high cardiac output and eventual HEART FAILURE.Cardiac Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Cardiography, Impedance: A type of impedance plethysmography in which bioelectrical impedance is measured between electrodes positioned around the neck and around the lower thorax. It is used principally to calculate stroke volume and cardiac volume, but it is also related to myocardial contractility, thoracic fluid content, and circulation to the extremities.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Radial Artery: The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Iliac Artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Catheterization, Swan-Ganz: Placement of a balloon-tipped catheter into the pulmonary artery through the antecubital, subclavian, and sometimes the femoral vein. It is used to measure pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure which reflects left atrial pressure and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. The catheter is threaded into the right atrium, the balloon is inflated and the catheter follows the blood flow through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle and out into the pulmonary artery.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Heart Function Tests: Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.Mammary Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.Death, Sudden, Cardiac: Unexpected rapid natural death due to cardiovascular collapse within one hour of initial symptoms. It is usually caused by the worsening of existing heart diseases. The sudden onset of symptoms, such as CHEST PAIN and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS, particularly VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA, can lead to the loss of consciousness and cardiac arrest followed by biological death. (from Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine, 7th ed., 2005)Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Cardiac Pacing, Artificial: Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Subclavian Artery: Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Blood Circulation: The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Brachial Artery: The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Splenic Artery: The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.Cardiac Tamponade: Compression of the heart by accumulated fluid (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION) or blood (HEMOPERICARDIUM) in the PERICARDIUM surrounding the heart. The affected cardiac functions and CARDIAC OUTPUT can range from minimal to total hemodynamic collapse.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Carotid Artery, Common: The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.Mesenteric Artery, Superior: A large vessel supplying the whole length of the small intestine except the superior part of the duodenum. It also supplies the cecum and the ascending part of the colon and about half the transverse part of the colon. It arises from the anterior surface of the aorta below the celiac artery at the level of the first lumbar vertebra.Celiac Artery: The arterial trunk that arises from the abdominal aorta and after a short course divides into the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Indicator Dilution Techniques: Methods for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Central Venous Pressure: The blood pressure in the central large VEINS of the body. It is distinguished from peripheral venous pressure which occurs in an extremity.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Umbilical Arteries: Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Cardiac Volume: The volume of the HEART, usually relating to the volume of BLOOD contained within it at various periods of the cardiac cycle. The amount of blood ejected from a ventricle at each beat is STROKE VOLUME.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Ophthalmic Artery: Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Heart Arrest: Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Echocardiography, Doppler: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.Pulmonary Wedge Pressure: The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Renal Artery Obstruction: Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Thoracic Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles, mammary gland and the axillary aspect of the chest wall.Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.Splanchnic Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.Temporal Arteries: Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Bronchial Arteries: Left bronchial arteries arise from the thoracic aorta, the right from the first aortic intercostal or the upper left bronchial artery; they supply the bronchi and the lower trachea.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Cardiovascular System: The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Ulnar Artery: The larger of the two terminal branches of the brachial artery, beginning about one centimeter distal to the bend of the elbow. Like the RADIAL ARTERY, its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to their locations in the forearm, wrist, and hand.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Ventricular Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.Popliteal Artery: The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Heart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Uterine Artery: A branch arising from the internal iliac artery in females, that supplies blood to the uterus.Fetal Heart: The heart of the fetus of any viviparous animal. It refers to the heart in the postembryonic period and is differentiated from the embryonic heart (HEART/embryology) only on the basis of time.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Blood Volume Determination: Method for determining the circulating blood volume by introducing a known quantity of foreign substance into the blood and determining its concentration some minutes later when thorough mixing has occurred. From these two values the blood volume can be calculated by dividing the quantity of injected material by its concentration in the blood at the time of uniform mixing. Generally expressed as cubic centimeters or liters per kilogram of body weight.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Carotid Artery, External: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.Dobutamine: A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Plethysmography, Impedance: Recording changes in electrical impedance between electrodes placed on opposite sides of a part of the body, as a measure of volume changes in the path of the current. (Stedman, 25th ed)Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Ventricular Pressure: The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Myoblasts, Cardiac: Precursor cells destined to differentiate into cardiac myocytes (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC).Carotid Artery Injuries: Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Xylazine: An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Diastole: Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.Rest: Freedom from activity.Cardiac Imaging Techniques: Visualization of the heart structure and cardiac blood flow for diagnostic evaluation or to guide cardiac procedures via techniques including ENDOSCOPY (cardiac endoscopy, sometimes refered to as cardioscopy), RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; TOMOGRAPHY; or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Troponin I: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It inhibits F-actin-myosin interactions.Indocyanine Green: A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Cardiac Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in cardiac muscle.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Ventricular Function, Right: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the right HEART VENTRICLE.Liver Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Fluid Therapy: Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Supine Position: The posture of an individual lying face up.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Resuscitation: The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: The restoration of the sequential order of contraction and relaxation of the HEART ATRIA and HEART VENTRICLES by atrio-biventricular pacing.Cardiac Glycosides: Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 5- or 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. Plants they come from have long been used in congestive heart failure. They increase the force of cardiac contraction without significantly affecting other parameters, but are very toxic at larger doses. Their mechanism of action usually involves inhibition of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE and they are often used in cell biological studies for that purpose.Compliance: Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.Constriction: The act of constricting.Axillary Artery: The continuation of the subclavian artery; it distributes over the upper limb, axilla, chest and shoulder.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: The artificial substitution of heart and lung action as indicated for HEART ARREST resulting from electric shock, DROWNING, respiratory arrest, or other causes. The two major components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are artificial ventilation (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) and closed-chest CARDIAC MASSAGE.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Nitroglycerin: A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.Retinal Artery Occlusion: Sudden ISCHEMIA in the RETINA due to blocked blood flow through the CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY or its branches leading to sudden complete or partial loss of vision, respectively, in the eye.Arterial Pressure: The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.Hypovolemia: An abnormally low volume of blood circulating through the body. It may result in hypovolemic shock (see SHOCK).Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump: Coronary artery bypass surgery on a beating HEART without a CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS (diverting the flow of blood from the heart and lungs through an oxygenator).Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Shock: A pathological condition manifested by failure to perfuse or oxygenate vital organs.Echocardiography, Transesophageal: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: Occurrence of heart arrest in an individual when there is no immediate access to medical personnel or equipment.
Despite their relatively small size, the kidneys receive approximately 20% of the cardiac output.[7] ... Each renal artery branches into segmental arteries, dividing further into interlobar arteries, which penetrate the renal ... The interlobar arteries then supply blood to the arcuate arteries that run through the boundary of the cortex and the medulla. ... Each arcuate artery supplies several interlobular arteries that feed into the afferent arterioles that supply the glomeruli. ...
displaystyle {\frac {80\cdot (mean\ pulmonary\ arterial\ pressure-mean\ pulmonary\ artery\ wedge\ pressure)}{cardiac\ output}}} ... and the cardiac output is measured in units of litres per minute (L/min). The pulmonary artery wedge pressure (also called ... "Cardiac Output and Blood Pressure". biosbcc. Retrieved 7 April 2011.. *^ Measurement of real pulsatile blood flow using X-ray ... Systemic Vascular Resistance = 80x(Mean Arterial Pressure - Mean Venous Pressure or CVP) / Cardiac Output. Mean arterial ...
Increased cardiac output and low systemic vascular resistance are characteristic of ALF. Pulmonary artery catheterization ... There is a compensatory increase in cardiac output. Adrenal insufficiency has been documented in 60% of ALF cases, and is ... cardiac arrhythmia or arrest and respiratory failure. The median time to death after admission was 5 days. Intravenous N- ...
The renal circulation receives around 20% of the cardiac output. It branches from the abdominal aorta and returns blood to the ... These branches form the intercostal arteries, arteries of the arms and legs, lumbar arteries and the lateral sacral arteries. ... Finally, branches at the front of the aorta consist of the vitelline arteries and umbilical arteries. The vitelline arteries ... The coronary circulation begins near the origin of the aorta by two coronary arteries: the right coronary artery and the left ...
The sympathetic stimulation also increases the rate of heart contractions and cardiac output. Increased heart rate is also ... The pressure rises to the point where it overcomes the resisting pressure of the compressed artery, and blood is allowed ... If the increase in blood pressure is not sufficient to compensate for the compression on the artery, infarction occurs. Raised ... alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, causing constriction of the body's arteries. This constriction raises the total resistance of ...
... peripheral artery disease, and chronic kidney disease. Cardiac output and peripheral resistance are the two determinants of ... Cardiac output is determined by stroke volume and heart rate; stroke volume is related to myocardial contractility and to the ... It does this by regulating the peripheral vasculature, and kidney function, which in turn affect cardiac output, vascular ... It acts on the musculature of arteries, raising peripheral resistance and thereby elevating blood pressure. Angiotensin II also ...
Cardiac output is determined by stroke volume and heart rate; stroke volume is related to myocardial contractility and to the ... One possible mechanism involves a reduction in vascular compliance due to the stiffening of the arteries. This can build up due ... Cardiac output and peripheral resistance are the two determinants of arterial pressure and so blood pressure is normally ... What is known is that cardiac output is raised early in the disease course, with total peripheral resistance (TPR) normal; over ...
... of the total cardiac output. If blood flow to the colon drops by more than about 50%, ischemia will develop. The arteries ... The rectum receives blood from both the inferior mesenteric artery and the internal iliac artery; the rectum is rarely involved ... The blood supply from these two major arteries overlap, with abundant collateral circulation via the marginal artery of the ... If possible, cardiac function and oxygenation should be optimized to improve oxygen delivery to the ischemic bowel. A ...
The rate of blood flow out of the heart (often expressed in L/min) is known as the cardiac output (CO). ... The smaller arteries and arterioles have higher resistance, and confer the main blood pressure drop across major arteries to ... In the innominate artery, the average reading is 110/70 mmHg, the right subclavian artery averages 120/80 and the abdominal ... The shear stress at the wall that is associated with blood flow through an artery depends on the artery size and geometry and ...
... and cardiac output are measured by stretch receptors found in the carotid arteries. Nerves embed themselves within these ...
At rest, 20% of the cardiac output flows to the brain via the internal carotid and vertebral arteries. This drains via the ... The venous hum is heard throughout the cardiac cycle. The difference is easily detected by placing a finger on the jugular vein ...
Actions of the β2 receptor include: Heart muscle contraction increase cardiac output (minor degree compared to β1). Increases ... inotropic effect). Increases contractility and automaticity of ventricular cardiac muscle. Dilate hepatic artery. Dilate ... heart rate in sinoatrial node (SA node) (chronotropic effect). Increases atrial cardiac muscle contractility. ( ...
... leading to a reduced cardiac output, and acid-base disturbances. The intestine becomes distended due to the trapped fluid and ... Both arteries and veins may be affected immediately, or progressively as in simple obstruction. Common causes of strangulating ... As in epiploic foramen entrapment, the bowel first enlarges, since arteries do not occlude as easily as veins, which causes ... then arteries. This impairment of blood supply leads to hyperemia and congestion, and ultimately to ischaemic necrosis and ...
This lowered peripheral resistance causes the heart to increase cardiac output to maintain proper blood flow to all tissues. ... Both the artery and the vein dilate and elongate in response to the greater blood flow and shear stress, but the vein dilates ... When an arteriovenous fistula is formed involving a major artery like the abdominal aorta, it can lead to a large decrease in ... Normal blood flow in the brachial artery is 85 to 110 milliliters per minute (mL/min). After the creation of a fistula, the ...
MAP is the average of blood pressure over a cardiac cycle and is determined by the cardiac output (CO), systemic vascular ... The rise in pulse pressure with age is attributed to increased stiffness of the arteries.[32] An age-related rise in blood ... Cardiac output is the product of stroke volume and heart rate, and stroke volume is influenced by blood volume. In the short- ... The resultant increase in blood volume results in an increased cardiac output by the Frank-Starling law of the heart, in turn ...
... of the cardiac output. The arteries deliver oxygenated blood, glucose and other nutrients to the brain, and the veins carry ... It is supplied by the following arteries: Vertebral arteries: These smaller arteries branch from the subclavian arteries which ... The internal carotid artery branches into the anterior cerebral artery and continues to form the middle cerebral artery ... It is supplied by the following arteries: Internal carotid arteries: These large arteries are the medial branches of the common ...
It corresponds to 17% of the combined cardiac output of the fetus at 10 weeks, and 33% at 20 weeks of gestation. Endothelin and ... Some of the blood moves from the aorta through the internal iliac arteries to the umbilical arteries, and re-enters the ... Fetal cardiac activity (also called fetal heartbeat and usually called embryonic cardiac activity before approximately 10 weeks ... The uterine arteries carry blood to the placenta, and the blood permeates the sponge-like material there. Oxygen then diffuses ...
Cardiac output (CO) is the product of stroke volume and heart rate. Although CO is available beat by beat, it is usually ... how much blood was ejected from a heartbeat into the arteries). The heart rate (HR) can be calculated from the time difference ... The cross-sectional area is adjusted to give more accurate cardiac output and renamed to aortic constant (AC). The product of ... and cardiac output (CO). A properly constructed and calibrated probe is approved for use on adults and children in many parts ...
The cardiac output is normalized to body size through body surface area and is called the cardiac index. The average cardiac ... These are the left main coronary artery and the right coronary artery. The left main coronary artery splits shortly after ... the middle cardiac vein (draining the bottom of the left and right ventricles), and small cardiac veins. The anterior cardiac ... Cardiac output (CO) is a measurement of the amount of blood pumped by each ventricle (stroke volume) in one minute. This is ...
... cardiac output, and heart rate. Protamine sulfate is an antidote for heparin overdose. A chain shortened version of protamine ... Adverse effects include increased pulmonary artery pressure and decrease peripheral blood pressure, myocardial oxygen ... Protamine is used in cardiac surgery, vascular surgery, and interventional radiology procedures to neutralize the anti-clotting ...
... factors decreases the contractile force that the myocardium must exert in order to achieve the same level of cardiac output. ... L-type calcium channel blockers can induce dilation of the coronary arteries while also decreasing the heart's demand for ... involves placing a stent at the site of stenosis in an artery and inflating the stent using a balloon catheter. Another ... The potential for these contraindications and drug-drug interaction could lead to asystole and cardiac arrest. ...
... the normal physiological response to low blood pressure in the renal arteries is to increase cardiac output (CO) to maintain ... and norepinephrine which increase blood output from the heart and constrict arteries. People with neurogenic hypertension ... Voiculescu A, Rump LC (January 2009). "[Hypertension in patients with renal artery stenosis]". Der Internist (in German). 50 (1 ... Malformed aorta, slow pulse, ischemia: these cause reduced blood flow to the renal arteries, with physiological responses as ...
... decreasing left ventricular filling and cardiac output".[3] The pressure in the right ventricle tries to open the pulmonary ... The pressure in the pulmonary artery tries to close the pulmonary valve. Remember that the higher pressure will "win". Hence, ... Wiggers diagram of various events of a cardiac cycle, with 2nd heart sound at bottom. ... opposing the pressure in the pulmonary artery and keeping it open longer than in expiration. The change in A2 is not that ...
... is known as the cardiac output (CO). Blood being pumped out of the heart first enters the aorta, the largest artery of the body ... The smaller arteries and arterioles have higher resistance, and confer the main blood pressure drop across major arteries to ... The shear stress at the wall that is associated with blood flow through an artery depends on the artery size and geometry and ... cardiac output (in L/min) MAP = mean arterial pressure (in mmHg), the average pressure of blood as it leaves the heart RAP = ...
... and cardiac output. This increases cardiac power output and cardiac index. The combined effects of the Impella on wall stress ... The pumps are inserted by a physician typically through femoral artery access, although axillary and subclavian artery ... Lastly, augmented cardiac output and forward flow from the left ventricle has secondary benefits related to right ventricular ... "Totally percutaneous insertion and removal of Impella device using axillary artery in the setting of advanced peripheral artery ...
A 24-hour urine collection can be used to quantify daily protein loss (see proteinuria), urine output, creatinine clearance or ... The physical examination typically includes an assessment of volume state, blood pressure, heart, lungs, peripheral arteries, ...
An abnormal connection between an artery and a vein. Short-circuits the circulation and forces the heart to pump more blood ... Increased number of blood vessels requires increased cardiac output.. Related Information. *Heart Failure ... High-Output Heart Failure. Topic Overview. High-output heart failure happens when the bodys need for blood is unusually high, ... High-output heart failure occurs when the normally functioning heart cannot keep up with an unusually high demand for blood to ...
Assessment of the accuracy of continuous cardiac output and pulse contour cardiac output in tracking cardiac index changes ... The PA-TD cardiac output decreased unexpectedly (0.5 l/min), whereas the pulse contour cardiac output increased (0.8 l/min) as ... Agreement between cardiac output determined with PA-TD and TP-TD. Cardiac output measured with TP-TD was significantly higher ... Precision of cardiac output measurements: PA-TD. The mean difference between replicate measurements of cardiac output was 0.09 ...
However, the correlations of MAP to cardiac output (CO) and cerebral perfusion are volume state-dependent. In severe ... This study aims to investigate the effect of standard versus advanced cardiac monitoring with optimization of CO on the ... This study aims to investigate the effect of standard versus advanced cardiac monitoring with optimization of CO on the ... However, the correlations of MAP to cardiac output (CO) and cerebral perfusion are volume state-dependent. In severe ...
... and precision of transpulmonary thermodilution cardiac output (CO) measurement. For this purpose, this technique was compared ... Cardiac Output*. Coronary Artery Bypass*. Female. Humans. Intensive Care Units. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. ... Cardiac output measurement by transpulmonary versus conventional thermodilution technique in intensive care patients after ... and precision of transpulmonary thermodilution cardiac output (CO) measurement. For this purpose, this technique was compared ...
Increases in Pulmonary Artery Pressure and Cardiac Output Due to the Inhibition of Nitric Oxide Synthesis During Operative ...
Erroneous Cardiac Output Determination Due to Pulmonary Artery Catheter Proximal Port Dysfunction. Anesthesiology 5 1986, Vol. ... Erroneous Cardiac Output Determination Due to Pulmonary Artery Catheter Proximal Port Dysfunction ... Erroneous Cardiac Output Determination Due to Pulmonary Artery Catheter Proximal Port Dysfunction ... JOSEPH CURLEY, FRANCIS HARTE, FARHAN SHEIKH; Erroneous Cardiac Output Determination Due to Pulmonary Artery Catheter Proximal ...
Femoral artery thermodilution (FATD) has proven a useful technique for the measurement of cardiac output (CO) in children as it ... Measurement of cardiac output in infants less than 10 kg: accuracy of femoral artery thermodilution as compared to direct Fick ... When haemodynamically stable, a 1.3 Fr thermistor was placed into the femoral artery via a percutaneously placed 22 gauge ... 20 ventilated infants were studied following cardiac surgery, median weight 4.7 kg (range 2.5-10 kg). Absence of anatomical ...
Gardner, A., Daly, D., Screaton, M. et al. Evaluation of a new real continuous cardiac output pulmonary artery catheter. Crit ... Evaluation of a new real continuous cardiac output pulmonary artery catheter. *A Gardner1. , ... At best, the so-called continuous cardiac output (CO) catheters (and associated software) indicate continuously an averaged ... None of the currently available pulmonary artery (PA) catheters allows instantaneous and continuous measurement of pulmonary ...
and pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) PAP = 38 - 2.5 pulsatility ±5, ; ). Cardiac output measured by MDCT was significantly ... Pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) was assessed both in stable state and under NO (20 ppm) inhalation. Cardiac output was obtained ... The relationships between pulmonary artery features and hemodynamic variables and between cardiac output assessed by MDCT and ... "Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging-derived pulmonary artery distensibility index correlates with pulmonary artery stiffness and ...
... and pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) were measured. JVA and ionJVA were calculated from changes in plasma protein, hemoglobin, ... and pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) were measured. JVA and ionJVA were calculated from changes in plasma protein, hemoglobin, ... Cardiac Output and Pulmonary Artery Pressure. Cardiac output did not change with the duration of GA (time), nor was there a ... Cardiac output (Q) and pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) were measured. JVA and ionJVA were calculated from changes in plasma ...
Validation of cardiac output measurement with the LiDCO™ pulse contour system in patients with impaired left ventricular ... Lack of effectiveness of the pulmonary artery catheter in cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg. 2011 Nov. 113(5):994-1002. [Medline]. ... Clinical validation of the non-invasive cardiac output monitor USCOM-1A in critically ill patients. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2008 ... Pulmonary artery catheter being introduced from pulmonary artery in to wedge position. ...
Validation of cardiac output measurement with the LiDCO™ pulse contour system in patients with impaired left ventricular ... Lack of effectiveness of the pulmonary artery catheter in cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg. 2011 Nov. 113(5):994-1002. [Medline]. ... Clinical validation of the non-invasive cardiac output monitor USCOM-1A in critically ill patients. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2008 ... Pulmonary artery catheter being introduced from pulmonary artery in to wedge position. ...
Cardiac output (Qc) and pulmonary tissue volume (Vti) were measured by a rebreathing technique with the inert gas Freon 22, and ... Cardiac output (Qc) and pulmonary tissue volume (Vti) were measured by a rebreathing technique with the inert gas Freon 22, and ...
Once the distal ends of the dilator and the guiding catheter are placed near the ostium of the coronary artery, the dilator and ... the radial artery in the arm to be approximately 2 French sizes smaller in diameter as compared to the hole that would be ... place the guiding catheters distal end in the ostium of a coronary artery. Any of several well known procedures can then be ... the guiding catheter with straightening dilator as described herein allows the hole in the wall of the femoral artery in the ...
Levosimendan Administration in Neonates With Transposition of the Great Arteries. *Low Cardiac Output Syndrome ... Low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) incidence reduction in the treatment group. 63. All. up to 30 Days (Child). NCT01120106. ... Maximum Decline in Measured Cardiac Output. 21. All. up to 3 Months (Child). NCT00374088. IRBMED No.: 2004-851. February 2005. ... 29 Studies found for: Transposition of the great arteries. Also searched for Transposition of Great Vessels. See Search ...
NIRS Predict Low Cardiac Output State in Neonates and Infants in Cardiac Surgery. The safety and scientific validity of this ... Does Near Infrared Spectroscopy Predict Low Cardiac Output State in Neonates and Infants Following Cardiac Surgery for ... Cardiac Output, Low. Cardiovascular Diseases. Cardiovascular Abnormalities. Congenital Abnormalities. Signs and Symptoms. ... The ability to use noninvasive, continuous monitoring for overall perfusion and cardiac output will allow better and earlier ...
active renal artery perfusion. Ccr. creatinine clearance. CO. cardiac output. IR. intrarenal. RAF. renal arterial flow. RAP. ... When cardiac output was decreased to half of the baseline value and this degree of cardiac output reduction was stable for 20 ... A, cardiac output. B, systemic aortic pressure (equivalent to renal arterial pressure). C, renal arterial flow in the left ... A, cardiac output. B, systemic aortic pressure (equivalent to renal arterial pressure in the control kidney, black circles) and ...
Learn about the normal output rate, how its measured, and causes of low cardiac output. ... Cardiac output is defined as the amount of blood your heart pumps. ... Pulmonary artery catheter. Your doctor inserts this device into the artery that sends blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen. ... "Understanding Cardiac Output," "Why Measure Cardiac Output?". University of Mississippi Medical Center: "Control of Cardiac ...
... pulmonary artery; PAP/CO=pulmonary artery pressure and cardiac output; PEA=pulmonary endarterectomy; PFT=pulmonary function ... Cardiac output (CO) is reduced with normal right atrial (RA) pressure. FEV1=forced expiratory volume in 1 sec; FVC=forced vital ... B) Chest radiograph showing enlarged pulmonary artery and pruning of distal pulmonary vasculature. (C) cardiac magnetic ... ACCT=pulmonary artery acceleration time; ACE=angiotensin converting enzyme; AOC=area under curve; AP=anteroposterior; ARB= ...
The exception, the pulmonary artery, carries oxygen-depleted blood to the lungs for oxygenation and removal of excess carbon ... Artery,, in human physiology, any of the vessels that, with one exception, carry oxygenated blood and nourishment from the ... cardiovascular disease: Shock due to inadequate cardiac output. artery, causes damage to the muscle with resultant diminution ... Large arteries branch off from the aorta and in turn give rise to smaller arteries until the level of the smallest arteries, or ...
Continuous thermodilution cardiac output measurement in sheep. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg (in press)Google Scholar ... Continuous thermodilution cardiac output measurement in ICU patients. J CU Anes (in press)Google Scholar ... Continuous measurement of cardiac output with the use of stochastic system identification techniques. J Clin Monit 1990;6:322- ... Public Health Catheter Pulmonary Artery Pulmonary Artery Catheter Thermal Safety These keywords were added by machine and not ...
The Distribution of Cardiac Output in Pregnant Sheep. Cardiovascular Responses of the Fetal Pig to Autonomic Stimulation. The ... Elastic Properties of Coronary Arteries in Conscious Dogs. A New Model for the Static Elastic Properties of the Aging Human ... Cell-to-Cell Coupling in Cardiac Tissue. Intracellular Chloride Activity in Cat Ventricular Muscle. Ca-Dependent Activation of ... Biomechanical Properties of Arteries. Introduction: Contribution of Wall Components to Arterial Mechanical Properties. ...
An improved apparatus and method for determining the cardiac output of a living subject. The improved apparatus generally ... Pulmonary Artery Occluded Pressure. MmHg. PEP. Pre-Ejection Period. Ms. PF. Peak Flow. ml s−1 ... cardiac output is then determined using the measured cardiac stroke volume and cardiac rate from the ECG potential. ... determining cardiac stroke volume from the measured voltage; and determining cardiac output based on stroke volume and cardiac ...
Study Arteries, Arterioles and Distribution Of Bloof Flow. flashcards from lahiru ambawatte ... Arteries, Arterioles and Distribution Of Bloof Flow. Flashcards Preview MED 1022 , Arteries, Arterioles and Distribution Of ... Cardiac arrest, Hypovolemia, Peripheral arterial disease (intermittent claudiaction). 14 Pressure in which arteries are very ... Arteries stiffen with age, undergo atherosclerosis which leads to a rise in blood pressure. ...
  • Large arteries branch off from the aorta and in turn give rise to smaller arteries until the level of the smallest arteries, or arterioles , is reached. (britannica.com)
  • The large arteries differ structurally from the medium-sized arteries in that they have a much thicker tunica media and a somewhat thicker tunica adventitia. (britannica.com)
  • The present study aimed to develop systems for assessing mechanical properties of the large arteries using an echo-and Doppler ultrasonograph, and to examine the effects of aging and daily exercise on the mechanical property of the artery. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Finally, in patients with heart rates below 60 beats/min or a cardiac index of less than 2.5 l/min/m 2 , atrial pacing was started and the haemodynamic consequences were monitored with the PA-TD and pulse contour methods. (wiley.com)
  • The changes in cardiac output with atrial pacing were in the same direction and of the same magnitude in 15 of the 16 patients. (wiley.com)
  • The Effect on Cardiac Output of the Conversion from Atrial Fibrillation to a Normal Sinus Mechanism. (annals.org)
  • To determine whether restoration of a sinus rhythm is hemodynamically beneficial to some or all patients, we have measured the cardiac output in a group of 47 patients with atrial fibrillation in whom an attempt at conversion was about to be made. (annals.org)
  • We hypothesized that estrogen metabolite, 16α-hydroxyestrone (16αOHE1), stimulates nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (Nox)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and proliferative responses in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (hPASMCs) and that in PAH aberrant growth signaling promotes vascular remodeling. (ahajournals.org)
  • Units for measuring vascular resistance are dyn ·s·cm −5 , pascal seconds per cubic metre (Pa·s/m³) or, for ease of deriving it by pressure (measured in mmHg ) and cardiac output (measured in l/min), it can be given in mmHg·min/l. (wikipedia.org)
  • The therapeutic effects of diltiazem are believed to be related to its ability to inhibit the cellular influx of calcium ions during membrane depolarization of cardiac and vascular smooth muscle. (drugs.com)
  • Diltiazem produces relaxation of coronary vascular smooth muscle and dilation of both large and small coronary arteries at drug levels that cause little or no negative inotropic effect. (drugs.com)
  • Furthermore a system to assess the relationship between internal pressure and diameter change of the artery was also developed by using the tonometry and the impedance plethysmography. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The endurance training for 8 weeks improved running performance, but did not make any improvements of the maximal oxygen uptake, the cardiac index and PWV The Lissajous map between internal pressure and the diameter of the common carotid artery was much varied between young and middle aged subjects. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Sometimes, sepsis , your body's response to blood infections that can lead to a dangerous drop in blood pressure and organ failure, can cause high cardiac output. (webmd.com)
  • VLBW infants with suspected prenatal infection showed a unique circulation status, namely high cardiac output, latency of high PAP, and low organ flow. (bmj.com)
  • where the pressures are measured in units of millimetres of mercury ( mmHg ) and the cardiac output is measured in units of litres per minute (L/min). (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood flow in the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) was also evaluated by Doppler ultrasound. (bmj.com)
  • Vasodilation caused by relaxation of smooth muscle cells in arteries causes an increase in blood flow. (omicsonline.org)