Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Iliac Artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Radial Artery: The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.Mammary Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles and mammary gland.Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Subclavian Artery: Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Splenic Artery: The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.Brachial Artery: The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Carotid Artery, Common: The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Celiac Artery: The arterial trunk that arises from the abdominal aorta and after a short course divides into the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries.Ophthalmic Artery: Artery originating from the internal carotid artery and distributing to the eye, orbit and adjacent facial structures.Mesenteric Artery, Superior: A large vessel supplying the whole length of the small intestine except the superior part of the duodenum. It also supplies the cecum and the ascending part of the colon and about half the transverse part of the colon. It arises from the anterior surface of the aorta below the celiac artery at the level of the first lumbar vertebra.Umbilical Arteries: Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Renal Artery Obstruction: Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).Thoracic Arteries: Arteries originating from the subclavian or axillary arteries and distributing to the anterior thoracic wall, mediastinal structures, diaphragm, pectoral muscles, mammary gland and the axillary aspect of the chest wall.Temporal Arteries: Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.Bronchial Arteries: Left bronchial arteries arise from the thoracic aorta, the right from the first aortic intercostal or the upper left bronchial artery; they supply the bronchi and the lower trachea.Popliteal Artery: The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.Ulnar Artery: The larger of the two terminal branches of the brachial artery, beginning about one centimeter distal to the bend of the elbow. Like the RADIAL ARTERY, its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to their locations in the forearm, wrist, and hand.Uterine Artery: A branch arising from the internal iliac artery in females, that supplies blood to the uterus.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Carotid Artery, External: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Carotid Artery Injuries: Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Axillary Artery: The continuation of the subclavian artery; it distributes over the upper limb, axilla, chest and shoulder.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Retinal Artery Occlusion: Sudden ISCHEMIA in the RETINA due to blocked blood flow through the CENTRAL RETINAL ARTERY or its branches leading to sudden complete or partial loss of vision, respectively, in the eye.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Carotid Artery Thrombosis: Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Meningeal Arteries: Arteries which supply the dura mater.Aneurysm: Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Maxillary Artery: A branch of the external carotid artery which distributes to the deep structures of the face (internal maxillary) and to the side of the face and nose (external maxillary).Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Angioplasty, Balloon: Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection: The splitting of the vessel wall in one or both (left and right) internal carotid arteries (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the internal carotid artery and aneurysm formation.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Coronary Artery Bypass, Off-Pump: Coronary artery bypass surgery on a beating HEART without a CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS (diverting the flow of blood from the heart and lungs through an oxygenator).Internal Mammary-Coronary Artery Anastomosis: Direct myocardial revascularization in which the internal mammary artery is anastomosed to the right coronary artery, circumflex artery, or anterior descending coronary artery. The internal mammary artery is the most frequent choice, especially for a single graft, for coronary artery bypass surgery.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Coronary Stenosis: Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.Vascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Vertebral Artery Dissection: Splitting of the vessel wall in the VERTEBRAL ARTERY. Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the vertebral artery, aneurysm formation, or THROMBOEMBOLISM. Vertebral artery dissection is often associated with TRAUMA and injuries to the head-neck region but can occur spontaneously.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Mesenteric Artery, Inferior: The artery supplying nearly all the left half of the transverse colon, the whole of the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and the greater part of the rectum. It is smaller than the superior mesenteric artery (MESENTERIC ARTERY, SUPERIOR) and arises from the aorta above its bifurcation into the common iliac arteries.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Angiography, Digital Subtraction: A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Aneurysm, False: Not an aneurysm but a well-defined collection of blood and CONNECTIVE TISSUE outside the wall of a blood vessel or the heart. It is the containment of a ruptured blood vessel or heart, such as sealing a rupture of the left ventricle. False aneurysm is formed by organized THROMBUS and HEMATOMA in surrounding tissue.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Transposition of Great Vessels: A congenital cardiovascular malformation in which the AORTA arises entirely from the RIGHT VENTRICLE, and the PULMONARY ARTERY arises from the LEFT VENTRICLE. Consequently, the pulmonary and the systemic circulations are parallel and not sequential, so that the venous return from the peripheral circulation is re-circulated by the right ventricle via aorta to the systemic circulation without being oxygenated in the lungs. This is a potentially lethal form of heart disease in newborns and infants.Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency: Localized or diffuse reduction in blood flow through the vertebrobasilar arterial system, which supplies the BRAIN STEM; CEREBELLUM; OCCIPITAL LOBE; medial TEMPORAL LOBE; and THALAMUS. Characteristic clinical features include SYNCOPE; lightheadedness; visual disturbances; and VERTIGO. BRAIN STEM INFARCTIONS or other BRAIN INFARCTION may be associated.Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary: Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.Nitroglycerin: A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.Aneurysm, Ruptured: The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.Angina Pectoris: The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Saphenous Vein: The vein which drains the foot and leg.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Vascular Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.Angioplasty: Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY) to compress an ATHEROMA. Except for ENDARTERECTOMY, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Brachiocephalic Trunk: The first and largest artery branching from the aortic arch. It distributes blood to the right side of the head and neck and to the right arm.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Biological Factors: Endogenously-synthesized compounds that influence biological processes not otherwise classified under ENZYMES; HORMONES or HORMONE ANTAGONISTS.Cerebral Arterial Diseases: Pathological conditions of intracranial ARTERIES supplying the CEREBRUM. These diseases often are due to abnormalities or pathological processes in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY.Circle of Willis: A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Gastroepiploic Artery: Abdominal artery that follows the curvature of the stomach. The right gastroepiploic artery is frequently used in CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFTING; MYOCARDIAL REVASCULARIZATION, and other vascular reconstruction.Vasomotor System: The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.Aorta, Abdominal: The aorta from the DIAPHRAGM to the bifurcation into the right and left common iliac arteries.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid: A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Ultrasonography, Interventional: The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Aneurysm, Dissecting: Aneurysm caused by a tear in the TUNICA INTIMA of a blood vessel leading to interstitial HEMORRHAGE, and splitting (dissecting) of the vessel wall, often involving the AORTA. Dissection between the intima and media causes luminal occlusion. Dissection at the media, or between the media and the outer adventitia causes aneurismal dilation.Anastomosis, Surgical: Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.Coronary Vasospasm: Spasm of the large- or medium-sized coronary arteries.Endarterectomy, Carotid: The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.Myography: The recording of muscular movements. The apparatus is called a myograph, the record or tracing, a myogram. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Veins: The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Muscle Tonus: The state of activity or tension of a muscle beyond that related to its physical properties, that is, its active resistance to stretch. In skeletal muscle, tonus is dependent upon efferent innervation. (Stedman, 25th ed)Constriction: The act of constricting.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Graft Occlusion, Vascular: Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Fibromuscular Dysplasia: An idiopathic, segmental, nonatheromatous disease of the musculature of arterial walls, leading to STENOSIS of small and medium-sized arteries. There is true proliferation of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and fibrous tissue. Fibromuscular dysplasia lesions are smooth stenosis and occur most often in the renal and carotid arteries. They may also occur in other peripheral arteries of the extremity.Subclavian Steal Syndrome: A clinically significant reduction in blood supply to the BRAIN STEM and CEREBELLUM (i.e., VERTEBROBASILAR INSUFFICIENCY) resulting from reversal of blood flow through the VERTEBRAL ARTERY from occlusion or stenosis of the proximal subclavian or brachiocephalic artery. Common symptoms include VERTIGO; SYNCOPE; and INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION of the involved upper extremity. Subclavian steal may also occur in asymptomatic individuals. (From J Cardiovasc Surg 1994;35(1):11-4; Acta Neurol Scand 1994;90(3):174-8)Endarterectomy: Surgical excision, performed under general anesthesia, of the atheromatous tunica intima of an artery. When reconstruction of an artery is performed as an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ATHERECTOMY.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Catheterization, Peripheral: Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Arterio-Arterial Fistula: Abnormal communication between two ARTERIES that may result from injury or occur as a congenital abnormality.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Dilatation, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Hypertension, Renovascular: Hypertension due to RENAL ARTERY OBSTRUCTION or compression.NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester: A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Pulsed: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with velocity detection combined with range discrimination. Short bursts of ultrasound are transmitted at regular intervals and the echoes are demodulated as they return.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.TailPlacental Circulation: The circulation of BLOOD, of both the mother and the FETUS, through the PLACENTA.Aortography: Radiographic visualization of the aorta and its branches by injection of contrast media, using percutaneous puncture or catheterization procedures.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Compliance: Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.Infusions, Intra-Arterial: Regional infusion of drugs via an arterial catheter. Often a pump is used to impel the drug through the catheter. Used in therapy of cancer, upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, infection, and peripheral vascular disease.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Rupture, Spontaneous: Tear or break of an organ, vessel or other soft part of the body, occurring in the absence of external force.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Intracranial Arteriosclerosis: Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.Coronary Occlusion: Complete blockage of blood flow through one of the CORONARY ARTERIES, usually from CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Myocardial Revascularization: The restoration of blood supply to the myocardium. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Peripheral Arterial Disease: Lack of perfusion in the EXTREMITIES resulting from atherosclerosis. It is characterized by INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION, and an ANKLE BRACHIAL INDEX of 0.9 or less.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Nitroarginine: An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase which has been shown to prevent glutamate toxicity. Nitroarginine has been experimentally tested for its ability to prevent ammonia toxicity and ammonia-induced alterations in brain energy and ammonia metabolites. (Neurochem Res 1995:200(4):451-6)Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).Endothelin-1: A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.

Effect of chronic hypoxia on alpha-1 adrenoceptor-mediated inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate signaling in ovine uterine artery. (1/5911)

The present study examined the effect of chronic hypoxia on coupling efficiency of alpha-1 adrenoceptors to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) signaling in ovine uterine artery. Chronic hypoxia did not change the time course of InsP3 formation, but significantly decreased the potency (pD2: 6.17 +/- 0.09 --> 5.26 +/- 0.12) and the maximal response (220.7 +/- 21.7 --> 147.7 +/- 15.3 pmol/mg protein) of norepinephrine-induced InsP3 synthesis. The coupling efficiency of alpha-1 adrenoceptors to InsP3 synthesis (picomoles InsP3 per femtomoles receptor) was decreased 45% by chronic hypoxia. In addition, simultaneous measurement of norepinephrine-induced contractions and InsP3 synthesis indicated that for a given amount of InsP3 generated, the contractile force of the uterine artery was significantly less in chronically hypoxic than in control tissues (0. 27 +/- 0.01 versus 0.35 +/- 0.02 g tension/pmol InsP3). InsP3 receptors were characterized using radioligand binding techniques. Although the density of InsP3 receptors was not changed by chronic hypoxia (Bmax: 325 +/- 35 --> 378 +/- 18 fmol/mg protein), the dissociation constant (Kd) of InsP3 to its receptors was significantly increased (Kd: 5.20 +/- 0.40 --> 7.81 +/- 0.34 nM). Analysis of InsP3 receptor occupancy-tension development relationship indicated no difference in intrinsic ability of the InsP3-receptor complex in eliciting contractions between the control and hypoxic tissues. Our results suggest that chronic hypoxia attenuates coupling efficiency of alpha-1 adrenoceptors to InsP3 synthesis in the uterine artery. In addition, the tissue contractile sensitivity to InsP3 is reduced, which is mediated predominantly by a decrease in InsP3 binding affinity to InsP3 receptors.  (+info)

In oculo transplants of myometrium from postpartum guinea pigs fail to support sympathetic reinnervation. (2/5911)

Sympathetic nerves to the enlarged fetus-containing region of the uterus undergo degenerative changes during late pregnancy and show slow regrowth after parturition. It is not known whether this unusual response of sympathetic nerves to smooth muscle hypertrophy is due to the sensitivity of short adrenergic neurons to hormonal changes, or whether the nerves respond to changes in the neurotrophic capacity of the target. We have investigated this question using in oculo transplantation. Small pieces of myometrium from the uterine horn of virgin guinea pigs, or from the region previously occupied by the placenta and fetus in postpartum guinea pigs, were transplanted into the anterior eye chamber. After 3 wk in oculo, the pattern of reinnervation of the transplants was assessed on whole mount stretch preparations stained for tyrosine hydroxylase. The histology of the transplants was examined in toluidine blue-stained semithin sections. Myometrial transplants from virgin donors and uterine artery transplants from both virgin and postpartum donors became organotypically reinnervated by sympathetic fibres from the host iris. In contrast, sympathetic nerves did not reinnervate myometrial transplants from postpartum donors, although they approached the transplants and became distributed in the surrounding connective tissue. All transplanted tissues showed a normal histological appearance. Both the myometrium and uterine artery from postpartum donors retained a hypertrophic appearance after 3 wk in oculo. We interpret these results to indicate that the degeneration of sympathetic nerves in late pregnancy, as well as their slow regrowth to the uterus after delivery, may be due to changes in uterine smooth muscle rather than a particular sensitivity of short adrenergic neurons to hormonal changes.  (+info)

Facilitation and depression of ATP and noradrenaline release from sympathetic nerves of rat tail artery. (3/5911)

1. Excitatory junction currents (EJCs) were used to measure ATP release; noradrenaline (NA) oxidation currents and fractional overflow of labelled NA, [3H]NA, were used to monitor the release of endogenous and exogenous NA, respectively, from post-ganglionic sympathetic nerves of rat tail artery. 2. During nerve stimulation with 100 pulses at 5-20 Hz the EJCs initially grew in size (maximally by 23 %, at 2-10 Hz), and then depressed, maximally by 68 % at 20 Hz. 3. The peak amplitude of NA oxidation currents in response to nerve stimulation with 100 pulses at 2-20 Hz grew in size with frequency, while the area was independent of frequency and roughly constant. 4. The size of the NA oxidation currents evoked by nerve stimulation with 4-100 pulses at 20 Hz grew linearly with train length between pulses 4-16. Between pulses 20-100 there was a train length-dependent depression of the signal. 5. Fractional overflow of [3H]NA in response to nerve stimulation with 5-100 pulses at 20 Hz behaved similarly to the EJCs. It initially grew roughly linearly between pulses 5-25, and then showed a dramatic depression similar to that of the EJCs. 6. The alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonists rauwolscine and yohimbine increased the overflow of [3H]NA and the amplitude of NA oxidation currents, but not that of the EJCs. 7. It is concluded that during high-frequency stimulation (i) the release of ATP and NA is first briefly facilitated then markedly depressed, (ii) facilitation and depression of the two transmitters are similar in magnitude and time course, and (iii) alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonists differentially modify EJCs and the NA signals. The results obtained in the absence of drugs are compatible with the hypothesis that ATP and NA are released in parallel, while the effects of alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonists seem to suggest dissociated release.  (+info)

Effects of Ca2+ concentration and Ca2+ channel blockers on noradrenaline release and purinergic neuroeffector transmission in rat tail artery. (4/5911)

1. The effects of Ca2+ concentration and Ca2+ channel blockers on noradrenaline (NA) and adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) release from postganglionic sympathetic nerves have been investigated in rat tail arteries in vitro. Intracellularly recorded excitatory junction potentials (e.j.ps) were used as a measure of ATP release and continuous amperometry was used to measure NA release. 2. Varying the extracellular Ca2+ concentration similarly affected the amplitudes of e.j.ps and NA-induced oxidation currents evoked by trains of ten stimuli at 1 Hz. 3. The N-type Ca2+ blocker, omega-conotoxin GVIA (omega-CTX GVIA, 0.1 microM) reduced the amplitudes of both e.j.ps (evoked by trains of ten stimuli at 1 Hz) and NA-induced oxidation currents (evoked by trains of ten stimuli at 1 Hz and 50 stimuli at 10 Hz) by about 90%. 4. The omega-CTX GVIA resistant e.j.ps and NA-induced oxidation currents evoked by trains of 50 stimuli at 10 Hz were abolished by the non-selective Ca2+ channel blocker, Cd2+ (0.1 mM), and were reduced by omega-conotoxin MVIIC (0.5 microM) and omega-agatoxin IVA (40 nM). 5. Nifedipine (10 microm) had no inhibitory effect on omega-CTX GVIA resistant e.j.ps and NA-induced oxidation currents. 6. Thus both varying Ca2+ concentration and applying Ca2+ channel blockers results in similar effects on NA and ATP release from postganglionic sympathetic nerves. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that NA and ATP are co-released together from the sympathetic nerve terminals.  (+info)

Impact of vascular adaptation to chronic aortic regurgitation on left ventricular performance. (5/5911)

BACKGROUND: This investigation was designed to test the hypothesis that vascular adaptation occurs in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation to maintain left ventricular (LV) performance. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-five patients with chronic aortic regurgitation (mean age 50+/-14 years) were studied using a micromanometer LV catheter to obtain LV pressures and radionuclide ventriculography to obtain LV volumes during multiple loading conditions and right atrial pacing. These 45 patients were subgrouped according to their LV contractility (Ees) and ejection fraction values. Group I consisted of 24 patients with a normal Ees. Group IIa consisted of 10 patients with impaired Ees values (Ees <1.00 mm Hg/mL) but normal LV ejection fractions; Group IIb consisted of 11 patients with impaired contractility and reduced LV ejection fractions. The left ventricular-arterial coupling ratio, Ees/Ea, where Ea was calculated by dividing the LV end-systolic pressure by LV stroke volume, averaged 1.60+/-0.91 in Group I. It decreased to 0.91+/-0.27 in Group IIa (P<0.05 versus Group I), and it decreased further in Group IIb to 0.43+/-0.24 (P<0.001 versus Groups I and IIa). The LV ejection fractions were inversely related to the Ea values in both the normal and impaired contractility groups (r=-0.48, P<0.05 and r=-0.56, P<0.01, respectively), although the slopes of these relationships differed (P<0.05). The average LV work was maximal in Group IIa when the left ventricular-arterial coupling ratio was near 1.0 because of a significant decrease in total arterial elastance (P<0.01 versus Group I). In contrast, the decrease in the left ventricular-arterial coupling ratio in Group IIb was caused by an increase in total arterial elastance, effectively double loading the LV, contributing to a decrease in LV pump efficiency (P<0.01 versus Group IIa and P<0.001 versus Group I). CONCLUSIONS: Vascular adaptation may be heterogeneous in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation. In some, total arterial elastance decreases to maximize LV work and maintain LV performance, whereas in others, it increases, thereby double loading the LV, contributing to afterload excess and a deterioration in LV performance that is most prominent in those with impaired contractility.  (+info)

BDNF is a target-derived survival factor for arterial baroreceptor and chemoafferent primary sensory neurons. (6/5911)

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) supports survival of 50% of visceral afferent neurons in the nodose/petrosal sensory ganglion complex (NPG; Ernfors et al., 1994a; Jones et al., 1994; Conover et al., 1995; Liu et al., 1995; Erickson et al., 1996), including arterial chemoafferents that innervate the carotid body and are required for development of normal breathing (Erickson et al., 1996). However, the relationship between BDNF dependence of visceral afferents and the location and timing of BDNF expression in visceral tissues is unknown. The present study demonstrates that BDNF mRNA and protein are transiently expressed in NPG targets in the fetal cardiac outflow tract, including baroreceptor regions in the aortic arch, carotid sinus, and right subclavian artery, as well as in the carotid body. The period of BDNF expression corresponds to the onset of sensory innervation and to the time at which fetal NPG neurons are BDNF-dependent in vitro. Moreover, baroreceptor innervation is absent in newborn mice lacking BDNF. In addition to vascular targets, vascular afferents themselves express high levels of BDNF, both during and after the time they are BDNF-dependent. However, endogenous BDNF supports survival of fetal NPG neurons in vitro only under depolarizing conditions. Together, these data indicate two roles for BDNF during vascular afferent pathway development; initially, as a target-derived survival factor, and subsequently, as a signaling molecule produced by the afferents themselves. Furthermore, the fact that BDNF is required for survival of functionally distinct populations of vascular afferents demonstrates that trophic requirements of NPG neurons are not modality-specific but may instead be associated with innervation of particular organ systems.  (+info)

Alteration of endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizations in porcine coronary arteries with regenerated endothelium. (7/5911)

The present study was designed to test the ability of regenerated endothelium to evoke endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizations. Hyperpolarizations induced by serotonin and bradykinin were compared in isolated porcine coronary arteries with native or regenerated endothelium, 4 weeks after balloon endothelial denudation. The experiments were performed in the presence of inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (Nomega-nitro-L-arginine) and cyclooxygenase (indomethacin). The transmembrane potential was measured using conventional glass microelectrodes. Smooth muscle cells from coronary arteries with regenerated endothelium were depolarized in comparison with control coronary arteries from the same hearts. Spontaneous membrane potential oscillations of small amplitude or spikes were observed in some of these arteries but never in arteries with native endothelium. In coronary arteries from control pigs, both serotonin and bradykinin induced concentration-dependent hyperpolarizations. In the presence of ketanserin, 10 micromol/L serotonin induced a transient hyperpolarization in control coronary arteries. Four weeks after balloon denudation, the response to serotonin was normal in arteries with native endothelium, but the hyperpolarization was significantly lower in coronary arteries with regenerated endothelium. In control arteries, the endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization obtained with bradykinin (30 nmol/L) was reproducible. Four weeks after balloon denudation, comparable hyperpolarizations were obtained in coronary arteries with native endothelium. By contrast, in arteries with regenerated endothelium, the hyperpolarization to bradykinin became voltage-dependent. In the most depolarized cells, the hyperpolarization to bradykinin was augmented. The changes in resting membrane potential and the alteration in endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizations observed in the coronary arteries with regenerated endothelium may contribute to the reduced response to serotonin and the unchanged relaxation to bradykinin described previously.  (+info)

Balloon-artery interactions during stent placement: a finite element analysis approach to pressure, compliance, and stent design as contributors to vascular injury. (8/5911)

Endovascular stents expand the arterial lumen more than balloon angioplasty and reduce rates of restenosis after coronary angioplasty in selected patients. Understanding the factors involved in vascular injury imposed during stent deployment may allow optimization of stent design and stent-placement protocols so as to limit vascular injury and perhaps reduce restenosis. Addressing the hypothesis that a previously undescribed mechanism of vascular injury during stent deployment is balloon-artery interaction, we have used finite element analysis to model how balloon-artery contact stress and area depend on stent-strut geometry, balloon compliance, and inflation pressure. We also examined superficial injury during deployment of stents of varied design in vivo and in a phantom model ex vivo to show that balloon-induced damage can be modulated by altering stent design. Our results show that higher inflation pressures, wider stent-strut openings, and more compliant balloon materials cause markedly larger surface-contact areas and contact stresses between stent struts. Appreciating that the contact stress and contact area are functions of placement pressure, stent geometry, and balloon compliance may help direct development of novel stent designs and stent-deployment protocols so as to minimize vascular injury during stenting and perhaps to optimize long-term outcomes.  (+info)

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Our results demonstrate that in vitro blockade of ACE is insufficient to prevent the contraction of human subcutaneous resistance arteries to Ang I. Because our preliminary experiments showed that this response is completely blocked by losartan, we assume that contraction to Ang I represents the effect of Ang II generated locally and acting on the Ang II type I receptor. Thus, treatment with an ACEI appears to be unable to prevent conversion of Ang I to Ang II in human resistance arteries. In the rabbit, in contrast, ACEI administration fully prevented Ang I-induced contraction.. Because ACE is identical to kininase II, the enzyme responsible for the degradation of kinins, it has been suggested that potentiation of BK may be partly responsible for the actions of ACEI. Thus, plasma kinin concentrations are increased in humans by quinapril, and ACEI-induced coronary artery vasodilation in dogs and humans has been shown to be mediated by BK.16 17 18 We investigated the effect of enalaprilat on the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evidence for a matrix metalloproteinase induction/activation system in arterial vasculature and decreased synthesis and activity in diabetes. AU - Portik-Dobos, Vera. AU - Anstadt, Mark P.. AU - Hutchinson, Jimmie. AU - Bannan, Mary. AU - Ergul, Adviye. PY - 2002/10/1. Y1 - 2002/10/1. N2 - Pathological remodeling characterized by extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition contributes to the diabetic vascular complications. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) regulate ECM turnover. However, the expression profile of the MMP system in diabetic human tissue remains unknown. The objectives of this study were 1) to identify a local MMP induction/activation system that exists in arterial vasculature and 2) to determine how the MMP system may be altered in diabetes. Internal mammary artery specimens were obtained from patients who did (n = 14) and did not (n = 14) have diabetes and were undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. ECM inducer protein (EMMPRIN); membranetype MMP (MT-MMP); ...
A distributing artery (or muscular artery) is a medium-sized artery that draws blood from an elastic artery and branch into "resistance vessels" including small arteries and arterioles. In contrast to the mechanism elastic arteries use to store energy generated by the hearts contraction, distributing arteries contain layers of smooth muscle. Under the microscope distributing arteries can be identified by their clearly defined internal elastic lamina. In constricted vessels the elastic lamina of distributing arteries appears thick and kinky. The elastic lamina is best visualized using Verhoeffs stain, but can be easily detected in specimens stained using other techniques as a well-defined negative staining region. Examples of distributing arteries include the radial artery and the splenic artery. Distributing arteries along with elastic arteries are common site for atherosclerosis.[citation needed] Norrander, J.M., Kirkpatrick C., Bauer, G.E., Porter, M.E., Marker, P.C., Linck, R.W., et al. ...
Definition of muscular artery in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is muscular artery? Meaning of muscular artery as a legal term. What does muscular artery mean in law?
In hypertension and aging, central elastic arteries become stiffer and hence the central pulse pressure is augmented due to the increase in the pulse wave velocity and the early return of reflected waves to the heart from the periphery. Valuable information on arterial properties, such as stiffness, can be obtained from both central (aortic) and peripheral (radial) pressure wave forms. A feasibility study for the noninvasive estimation of arterial stiffness using pressure waves detected by a pneumatic cuff wrapped around the upper arm is presented. The propagation and reflection of arterial pressure waves (generated by the heart) in the central elastic arteries are simulated using a simplified water hammer acoustic model. Furthermore, a lumped parameter model is used to describe the transmission of the pressure waves from the brachial artery to the cuff external wall. By combining the two models, we were able to simulate the pressure contours in the brachial artery and illustrate how these ...
This study indicates that the aging process is associated with geometrical modifications of both large elastic and medium-sized muscular arteries, independent of blood pressure changes. Furthermore, enlargement of arterial diameter and thickening of the arterial wall have opposite effects on the functional parameters of these arteries. An alteration in elastic properties is observed for the carotid artery, but functional properties are preserved in the radial artery. Our results suggest that geometrical modifications associated with aging could be a means by which arteries try to maintain normal distensibility.. Several studies have described arterial changes associated with the aging process.15 16 Kawasaki et al17 studied the common carotid artery, abdominal aorta, femoral artery, and brachial artery in 39 subjects aged 6 to 81 years with an ultrasonic phase-locked echo-tracking system, and they observed a significant increase in the diameter of all arteries, with a reduction in the percentage ...
Artery Model - Plaque Buildup on Artery Walls in 4 Stages Here is a way for individuals to see how plaque builds up on their artery walls over time, causing ath
Porcine Artery Endothelial Cells are derived from healthly porcinine artery. Porcine Artery Endothelial Cells are grown in T25 tissue culture flasks pre-coated with gelatin-based solution for 0.5 hour and incubated in Creative Bioarrays Culture Complete Growth Medium generally for 3-7 days. Cultures are then expanded. Prior to shipping, cells are detached from flasks and immediately cryo-preserved in vials. Each vial contains at least 1x10^6 cells per ml and are delivered frozen ...
Bell, James Stephen, Adio, Aminat, Pitt, Andrew, Hayman, Lindsay, Thorn, Clare E., Shore, Angela C., Whatmore, Jacqueline and Winlove, C. Peter 2016 ...
What is the difference between Elastic and Muscular Arteries? Elastic arteries have more elastin in tunica media; muscular arteries have lesser elastin amount
In this study, direct gene transfer was used to create somatic transgenic models to define gene function in arteries. We examined the pathogenesis of intimal thickening in porcine arteries after expression of PDGF B. Our findings show that recombinant PDGF B gene expression promotes rapid formation of an intima over a period of 3 weeks. The cellular composition of this intima is complex and changes with time. Within the first week after gene transfer, intimal smooth muscle cell proliferation is present. PDGF BB is expressed by these proliferating smooth muscle cells, suggesting that it can regulate cell proliferation in vivo. Intimal cell proliferation peaked at 1 week and declined 2 weeks after gene transfer. The total number of cells in the intima at 2 to 7 days could not be accounted for by proliferation alone, suggesting that migration of medial smooth muscle cells to the intima may contribute to the intimal lesion. These findings are consistent with previous observations in a different ...
This study offers an edition and fresh analysis of the fragmentary evidence for the views of Praxagoras of Cos (4th-3rd c. BC) on arteries, pulsation and pneuma. It presents the relevant fragments and draws new conclusions on Praxagoras views and sources.
Can you name the Leg Muscle Arteries? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by ans562
Question - My mom had a heart attack and other artery is 65% blockage, is she OK ?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Myocardial infarction, Ask an Emergency Medicine Specialist
Clogged arteries can be deadly. In fact clogged arteries kill more people than ANY other disease. Clogged arteries cause heart attacks, heart failure and strokes. You may know clogged arteries by different names such as atherosclerosis, artery disease, peripheral artery disease (PAD) and coronary artery disease. All of those amount to the same thing which is clogged arteries due to atherosclerosis and its resulting plaque build-up. Nobody is going to…. ...
Arterial pathology is the major contributor to cardiovascular diseases and mortality. The mechanical properties of arteries are independent factors for cardiovascular disease and mortality, where genetics influence the structure of the arterial wall, which may result in change in arterial stiffness. The aims of this thesis were to study the mechanical properties of the popliteal artery (PA) in healthy subjects and the influence of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) polymorphism and Fibrillin-1 (FBN1) polymorphism on large arteries. Further, the impact of FBN1 polymorphism on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality was investigated.. The PA is, after the abdominal aorta, the most common site of aneurysmal development. The PA was studied in healthy subject with ultrasound and the diameter increased and the distensibility decreased with age, with men having lower distensibility than women. This seems not to be the behavior of a true muscular artery but rather of a central elastic artery such as the ...
Arterial pathology is the major contributor to cardiovascular diseases and mortality. The mechanical properties of arteries are independent factors for cardiovascular disease and mortality, where genetics influence the structure of the arterial wall, which may result in change in arterial stiffness. The aims of this thesis were to study the mechanical properties of the popliteal artery (PA) in healthy subjects and the influence of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) polymorphism and Fibrillin-1 (FBN1) polymorphism on large arteries. Further, the impact of FBN1 polymorphism on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality was investigated.. The PA is, after the abdominal aorta, the most common site of aneurysmal development. The PA was studied in healthy subject with ultrasound and the diameter increased and the distensibility decreased with age, with men having lower distensibility than women. This seems not to be the behavior of a true muscular artery but rather of a central elastic artery such as the ...
Abstract Coronary artery development is a delicate, complex, and finely tuned process that includes multiple interactions among many pathways, especially in the pericardium and the developing myocardium. There still exists some controversy on the exact origin of certain cellular components. Nevertheless, an understanding of this extremely important developmental process is paramount in identifying...
Vascular Anatomy Of The Pelvis Radiology Key Median Sacral Artery Median Sacral Artery Median Sacral Artery Arteria Sacralis Mediana Kenhub, Iliac Vessels Musculoskeletal Key Median Sacral Artery, Median Sacral Artery Median Sacral Artery Arteria Sacralis Mediana Kenhub, Vascular Anatomy Of The Pelvis Radiology Key Median Sacral Artery, ...
The head and neck receives the majority of its blood supply through the carotid and vertebral arteries. This article shall explore the arterial supply to these areas.
severed artery - MedHelps severed artery Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for severed artery. Find severed artery information, treatments for severed artery and severed artery symptoms.
In this study, researchers concluded through animal studies that a diet rich in acai juice may raise HDL levels of good cholesterol and decrease hardening of the arteries.
Atherosclerosis is the medical term used to describe clogged arteries or hardening of the arteries. It is a common form of heart disease, in which arteries become clogged or plugged with a fatty substance so that blood cannot easily flow and deliver oxygen rich blood. You might experience clogged arteries in the heart, brain, kidneys, intestines, arms or legs. Its important to know the symptoms of a clogged artery, especially if you have risk factors for getting one, so that you can get medical assistance as quickly as possible ...
Pain is one of the most common symptom of disease, and is thought to be an indication of an underlying pathology, but in some patients it is not possible to identify a pathophysiological mechanism or to find a well-known disease or pathology as the underlying condition. The evaluation of the patient with pain is frequently complex, because pain is a perception rather than a sensation. Now the diagnosis of pain intensity is based on patient s interpretation of a sensation, emotional response, and associated behavior. Newly discovered signal transduction pathway which uses nitric oxide (NO) to modulate the function of the vascular smooth muscle cells through mechanical wall shear stress (WSS) mechanism. WSS is a linear function of the blood flow rate and is inversely related to the third power of the vessel radius. Wall shear stress is influence smooth muscle tone changing arterial lumen. In turn, the changes in arterial lumen regulate the shear stress. Such the arterial lumen is controlled by ...
A friend of mine is pregnant and is not due until the end of November. Apparantly, until now, shes had a normal pregnancy and the baby and she had been doing well. Now, she has had a couple episodes o...
... As you may know, you have to do two things to avoid a heart attack. You have to keep your vascular system free of blood clots, especially the arteries around the heart. And you have to keep your arteries soft and supple. Hardened arteries, or atherosclerosis, occur when the arterial walls thicken because of a build-up of fatty materials. Many times, these two conditions go hand-in-hand. As the arterial walls thicken, they become more likely to clot.
Using a Venturi meter, the flow of blood in a large artery of anesthetized dog is diverted. The wider part of that meter has a cross-sectional area equal to that of the artery and has magnitude \(8\text{ mm}^2\). The narrower part has an area of \(4 \text{ mm}^2\). The pressure drop in the artery is 24 pascals. What is the speed of the blood in the artery in \(\text{ms}^{-1}\) ? Give your answer to correct three decimal places.. Take density of blood as \(1.06 \times 10^3 \text{ kg m}^{-3}\).. ...
Currently, no clinically available small (5 millimeter in diameter and smaller) vascular grafts can emulate the biological and physical properties of normal arteries. Implanted grafts of currently available materials fail because of clotting and stiffness as related to normal blood vessels. "A small vessel prosthesis (artery graft) that better emulates normal arterial walls would greatly improve the treatment of both peripheral vascular disease and coronary artery disease," the researchers state in a summary of their research. "This is one of the applications it suits perfectly since conventional fiber extrusion technology is incapable of making such a material i.e., one that can combine proteins and synthetic materials together to form a composite small- scale device with all the right kind of properties," Brown said ...
The person experiencing these signs may be under a different condition than heart diseases, but if in case it is a clogged artery symptom, immediate medical treatment should be done.. Plaque is the main cause of a clogged artery. When we eat fatty foods, some of the fats flow within our bloodstream. These may build up within the walls of our arteries. This does not happen quickly, but when this continues through the years, plaque may build up within the arterial walls, and when it is big enough, it causes obstruction in the blood flow, which means less blood and oxygen is delivered to the heart, causing it to be less functional.. The following are the most common signs of clogged arteries that should be observed carefully. Although these may indicate another condition, it is still best to respond to them quickly to prevent a stroke or heart attack.. Chest discomfort, which can be described as heaviness, tightness, pressure, burning, aching, or squeezing (this may last for several minutes and ...
The results of this research indicate that the plaque or blockages create around injuries in the arteries.. Now, injuries are formed mostly on places where physical stress on the artery is present and this is where we come to the thesis that certain substances called Lipoprotein(a) inhibitors should prevent and may even dissolve plaque that is present in the arteries. If the plaque is mostly made of this LP(a) LDL cholesterol and considering that this substance can and will attract even more LP(a), solution has been searched in this manner. Next, what if there are some substances that can be attracted to this sticky stuff and dissolve it?. Linus Pauling concluded that lysine, with the help of vitamin C can help the artery. This is just basics of his research but there is much more to it, this explanation is just simplified to be easily understandable. This article shows that with some quality research in to the source of some problems it is possible to understand the inner workings and see where ...
An organs larger arteries and veins flow between its functional units. Often there is a generous amount of loose fibrous tissue separating an artery and the business cells of the organ. If youre interested in the layers of the arteries, they are: Intima: Inner layer, the endothelium, a bit of collagen, and perhaps a few other inconspicuous cells. Media: Middle layer, composed of smooth muscle oriented circumferentially. Adventitia: Fibrous tissue, merging with the surrounding fibrous tissue of the organ. ...
Arti kata dari vaginal artery. Definisi dari vaginal artery. Pengertian dari vaginal artery: a branch of the internal iliac that provides blood for the vagina and the base of the bladder and the rectum;
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I noticed what seems to be a flaw in my Kepler Bb humanoids 2 circulatory systems. That would be bleeding. Sure, the 2 hearts get more oxygen so an MI is less likely and if it does happen, the other healthy heart compensates so they are only considered to have heart disease if both hearts are damaged in some way.. But there is a big problem here with having the arteries right next to each other. If you have a pair of arteries that are the same size and right next to each other, the force from blood pressure on the walls will change. The force from the right side of the left artery will cause the right side of the right artery to have more force. Likewise, the force from the left side of the right artery will cause the left side of the left artery to have more force. Maybe not double but definitely more. Also, the right side of the left artery and the left side of the right artery will have less force. So overall, the force is going to be going outwards. This will cause asymmetric vasodilation ...
Atherosclerosis is a common disorder of the arteries. Fat, cholesterol, and other substances collect in the walls of arteries. Larger accumulations are called atheromas or plaque and can damage artery walls and block blood flow. Severely restricted blood flow in the heart muscle leads to symptoms such as chest pain ...
Study Flashcards On arteries at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
What is an artery and a vein? Veins and arteries are the two types of blood vessels of a circulatory system of a body. Artery All blood vessels starting from
This study investigated the co-relation of artery stiffness and hypertension with Cancer progression and mortality in patients treated with sorafenib or
The left marginal artery, also known as obtuse marginal artery, arises from the left circumflex branch of the heart left coronary artery. It runs down almost vertically along the left margin of the left ventricle towards the apex of the heart. It supplies the myocardium of the left ventricle with oxygenated blood. ...
function: arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. They carry blood which is rich in oxygen (exception: the pulmonary trunc and its branches, the lung arteries). The blood pressure in arteries is higher than in veins. For this reason the wall of artieries is thicker than that of veins with the same diameter ...
How To Reverse Clogged Arteries. Remove plaque from your heart and arteries. Clean your arteries with a therapy that has proven to work.
How is Proximal Left Anterior Descending Artery abbreviated? P-LAD stands for Proximal Left Anterior Descending Artery. P-LAD is defined as Proximal Left Anterior Descending Artery very rarely.
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Clogged arteries can increase your chances of developing stroke,heart disease or even death.This remedy can unclog arteries naturally with only few ...
By the time many people reach their 20s, blockages that disrupt the flow of blood already exist within their arteries. Responsible for carrying oxygen-rich blood and life-sustaining nutrients from the heart to the rest of the body, healthy arteries are essential for maintaining a healthy body.
An artery is one of a series of vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the various parts of the body. The thick elastic walls expand as blood flows through the arteries.. ...
How To Get Rid Of Plaque In Arteries. Try a trusted therapy that has proven to help remove plaque from the heart and arteries. Visit our site to find more information today.
... Definition Artery is any of the blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the bodys cells, tissues, and organs. Arteri
The stretching of an artery, or an aortic aneurysm as it is known, occurs when the wall of an artery becomes thinner. Visit Nuffield Health for more details.
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Our PTX artery clearing treatment is a natural way clear clogged arteries without the need for surgery! Invasive surgery is not always the best solution.
because continual smoking causes progressive stiffening of the arteries. In fact, smokers arteries stiffen with age at about double the speed of those of nonsmo
We are concerned about the health of our readers and want you to have good heart health with no clogged arteries. This is why today we present a list of the foods one must avoid to not suffer from clogged arteries.
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Arteriosclerosis Disease risk arising from the concentration of lipids on the inner membrane of the arteries, causing Bansdadha partially or completely. This may cause the disease to disability and death, as it may lead to diseases vary according to the affected area, leading injured arteries of the brain to the nervous system and brain, while the injured arteries of the parties, could cause a deficiency in the blood supply to the muscles of the legs, and the injury of the coronary arteries leading to angina a heart attack. And the factors that lead to the disease many of them: A high proportion of fat in the food. 2 smoking. 3 high blood pressure. 4 alcohol consumption. 5 lack of movement. 6 stress and tension. 7 diabetes. 8 menopause and the accompanying hormonal secretions. 9 obesity. 10 years old. Genetics 11. 12 Gender. 13 categories of blood. One way to prevent this disease that follows the one the following tips: A reduction of weight and avoid foods that help the accumulation of grease ...
Many patients who passed their stress test and later tested high for calcium in their arteries went on to have an adverse cardiac event within one year.
Can anyone please help me with the correct icd-9 code for stenosis of the left sublcavian artery? The procedure done was MRI Neck. Thanks
Save time learning, be better prepared and learn everything about this topic: Arteries of the brain seen from the lateral and medial views of the brain.
Read more information from The Circulation Foundation about the different types of Angiogram that can be performed to view your arteries
Routine screening for a narrowing of the neck arteries should not be done in healthy adults, an influential panel of U.S. health experts says. this reduced bloo
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Dealing Among A Dickhead - Ariella Ferrera is on the artery burdensome to secure a excellent darknesss lounge, besides Clover further hellos irritat
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Arterial Therapy promotes healthy arteries and blood flow.* Arterial Therapy™ triple-action artery promotes calcium transfer from blood to bones.*
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Driving that Route 38 gauntlet might become just a bit less daunting. News that the state will undertake a $3 million remake of a 1.
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It distributes twigs to the adjacent muscles, and numerous branches to the thyroid gland, connecting with its fellow of the opposite side, and with the inferior thyroid arteries. The branches to the gland are generally two in number. One, the larger, supplies principally the anterior surface; on the isthmus of the gland it connects with the corresponding artery of the opposite side. A second branch descends on the posterior surface of the gland and anastomoses with the inferior thyroid artery.. Besides the arteries distributed to the muscles and to the thyroid gland, the branches of the superior thyroid are:. ...
Looking for online definition of arcuate artery in the Medical Dictionary? arcuate artery explanation free. What is arcuate artery? Meaning of arcuate artery medical term. What does arcuate artery mean?
The invention provides devices, systems and methods for occluding arteries without puncturing skin or vessel walls. The devices, systems and methods for occluding arteries are configured to be applied to arteries externally of the arteries. Occlusion may be temporary or permanent, and may be partial or complete. Clamping a device to tissue near to an artery is effective to compress tissue around the artery and to indirectly compress the artery. The methods, devices and systems of the invention find use in, for example, treatment of uterine disorders and conditions which may be treated by occlusion of the uterine arteries. A uterine artery may be access via a patients vagina by compressing a portion of the vaginal wall around a portion of a uterine artery to occlude a uterine artery. Clamping of an artery may also be performed by clamping a device directly onto an artery.
The effects of alpha,beta-methylene ATP, an agent known to stimulate and then to desensitize P2-purinoceptors, on the release of endogenous norepinephrine from the electrically stimulated rat caudal artery were determined. Norepinephrine was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection techniques. alpha,beta-Methylene ATP over the concentration range of 1 to 100 microM did not affect the release of norepinephrine evoked by stimulation for 3 min at 1 Hz. In contrast, 2-chloroadenosine, a P1 receptor agonist, and beta,gamma-methylene ATP, a P2 receptor agonist, produced a concentration-related inhibition of the release of norepinephrine presumably by activating prejunctional purinoceptors. The failure of alpha,beta-methylene ATP to inhibit transmitter release was apparently not related to the length of pretreatment with this agent because pretreatments of 0.5 to 15 min yielded similar results. These findings indicate that the ability of alpha,beta-methylene ATP to ...
The Big Dig is the unofficial name of the Central Artery/Tunnel Project (CA/T), a megaproject that rerouted the Central Artery (Interstate 93), the...
03/12/1990. Ground breaking ceremony for the Central Artery project (aka the Big Dig), where they used welding equipment to dismantle a bridge, rather than shovels to literally break ground. Interview with Public Works commissioner Jane Garvey on nature of the project and its funding. Michael Dukakis and William Bulger speak at the ceremony. At the same time, a public hearing is being held at the State House, where State Inspector General Joseph Baressi is trying to overhaul the way the state does business with consultant, which Baressi thinks is a problem with the Central Artery project. Following the edited story is b-roll of the construction site environs and the ceremony, as well as excerpts of Dukakiss speech, Bulgers speech, and other speakers.. ...
Objective: To investigate the association between peripherally measured arterial compliance and cardiovascular and total mortality in an elderly cohort.. Background: There is limited evidence that systemic indices of elasticity and stiffness in the carotid and femoral arteries can predict incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. Little is known about the associations between systemic arterial compliance and CVD events.. Methods: Between 1997 and 1999, 849 community dwelling participants in the Rancho Bernardo Study (mean age 74, 39% male, 4.2% with type 2 diabetes) underwent noninvasive pulse wave measurements. Systemic and brachial artery compliance were estimated using the PulseMetric device applying an algorithm previously validated by angiography. Data on cardiovascular risk factors and fasting blood samples were obtained at the same visit as the compliance measurements, as well as at a follow-up visit conducted within one year. CVD and overall mortality were recorded through January ...
Definition of genicular artery, medial inferior in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is genicular artery, medial inferior? Meaning of genicular artery, medial inferior as a legal term. What does genicular artery, medial inferior mean in law?
The arcuate artery of the foot is generally considered one of two major branches of the dorsalis pedis artery, arising just in front of the lateral tarsal artery. However, research has shown that the lateral tarsal may be the true origin of the arcuate artery in certain individuals. From its
The arcuate artery of the foot is generally considered one of two major branches of the dorsalis pedis artery, arising just in front of the lateral tarsal artery. However, research has shown that the lateral tarsal may be the true origin of the arcuate artery in certain individuals. From its
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a global problem - over 202 million people worldwide are estimated to have PAD. In the United States alone, PAD results in $21 billion in annual costs and is the leading cause of lower limb amputation. PAD arises when atherosclerotic plaques block arteries in the lower limbs, thereby limiting blood flow to the distal tissue. A promising therapeutic approach to restore distal blood flow is to stimulate the lumenal growth of the patients own pre-existing collateral arteries that bypass the occlusion(s) (i.e. arteriogenesis). Unfortunately, large clinical trials have had limited success to date, highlighting the critical need to better understand the basic mechanisms regulating arteriogenesis.. Arteriogenesis occurs in response to increased blood flow through the collateral arteries that bypass an occluded artery. We have recently demonstrated that arteriogenesis varies along collateral artery pathways due to differences in regional hemodynamics (Heuslein and ...
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Synonyms for genicular artery in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for genicular artery. 11 synonyms for artery: vein, blood vessel, route, way, course, round, road, passage, avenue, arteria, arterial blood vessel. What are synonyms for genicular artery?
The arcuate artery of the foot is generally considered one of two major branches of the dorsalis pedis artery, arising just in front of the lateral tarsal artery.
... : abdomen: arteries (L1 (lumbar), T12, (x paired visceral arteries, v paired visceral arteries), (v paired parietal arteries, x paired parietal arteries), abdominal aorta, L2 (lumbar), L3 (lumbar), L5 (lumbar), L4 (lumbar), )
Jobling P. and McLachlan E.M. (1992) An electrophysiological study of responses evoked in isolated segments of rat tail artery during growth and maturation. Journal of Physiology, 454 1: 83-105. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1992.sp019255 ...
Free flashcards to help memorize facts about ST major arteries of systemic circulation. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble, games, matching, quizes, and tests.
Procardia belongs to a class of medications called calcium channel blockers. These medications block the transport of calcium into the smooth muscle cells lining the coronary arteries and other arteries of the body. Since calcium is important in muscle contraction, blocking calcium transport relaxes artery muscles and dilates coronary arteries and other arteries of the body. By relaxing coronary arteries, procardia is useful in treating and preventing chest pain (angina) resulting from coronary artery spasm. Relaxing the muscles lining the arteries of the rest of the body lowers the blood pressure, which reduces the burden on the heart as it pumps blood to the body. Reducing heart burden lessens the heart muscles demand for oxygen, and further helps to prevent angina in patients with coronary artery disease ...
Procardia belongs to a class of medications called calcium channel blockers. These medications block the transport of calcium into the smooth muscle cells lining the coronary arteries and other arteries of the body. Since calcium is important in muscle contraction, blocking calcium transport relaxes artery muscles and dilates coronary arteries and other arteries of the body. By relaxing coronary arteries, procardia is useful in treating and preventing chest pain (angina) resulting from coronary artery spasm. Relaxing the muscles lining the arteries of the rest of the body lowers the blood pressure, which reduces the burden on the heart as it pumps blood to the body. Reducing heart burden lessens the heart muscles demand for oxygen, and further helps to prevent angina in patients with coronary artery disease ...
Pathological changes in retinal microvasculature are known to be associated with systemic diseases such as hypertension and diabetes, and may result in potentially disadvantageous blood flow and impair oxygen distribution. Therefore, in order to improve our understanding of the link between systemic diseases and the retinal circulation, it is necessary to develop an approach to quantitatively determine the hemodynamic and oxygen transport parameters in the retinal vascular circulation. This thesis aims to provide more insights into the detailed hemodynamic features of the retinal arterial tree by means of non-invasive imaging and computational modelling. It covers the following two aspects: i) 3D reconstruction of the retinal arterial tree, and ii) development of an image-based computational model to predict blood flow and oxygen transport in realistic subject-specific retinal arterial trees. The latter forms the main body of the thesis. 3D reconstruction of the retinal arterial tree was ...
Part I. Blood Pressure: Basic Concepts of Steady and Pulsatile Arterial Hemodynamics -- 1. Arterial Stiffness, Wave Reflection, Wave Amplification: Basic Concepts, Principles of Measurement and Analysis in Humans / Michael F. ORourke, Caroline OBrien, and Thomas Weber -- 2. Large Arteries, Microcirculation, and Mechanisms of Hypertension / Harry A.J. Struijker-Boudier -- 3. Direct Measurement of Local Arterial Stiffness and Pulse Pressure / Luc M. Van Bortel, Tine De Backer, and Patrick Segers --4. Ventricular-Arterial Coupling and Mechanism of Wave Reflections / Julio A. Chirinos and Patrick Segers -- 5. Determination of Systemic and Regional Arterial Structure and Function / Pierre Boutouyrie, Laurent Macron, Elie Mousseaux, and Stéphane Laurent -- 6. Animal Models for Studies of Arterial Stiffness / Patrick Lacolley, Simon N. Thornton, and Yvonnick Bezie -- 7. Elastin, Calcium and Age-Related Stiffening of the Arterial Wall / Jeffrey Atkinson -- 8. Genetic and Cellular Aspects of Arterial ...
We recognize several limitations of our study. First, we had a limited number of ECs obtained from arterial samples. Although we were able to use arterial cell samples to document EC oxidative stress with aging, as well as its relation to EC NF-κB expression, our other measurements of protein expression were restricted to ECs obtained from venous sampling. We do not believe, however, that this limitation affected our key results and conclusions because we found a highly significant positive relationship between expression of nitrotyrosine measured in cells obtained from venous compared with arterial samples collected from the same subjects on the same day (r=0.86, P=0. 003; n=9); other proteins studied also demonstrated positive correlations (mean r=0.71, A.E. Silver, D. Christou, D.R. Seals, unpublished results, 2006). Moreover, expected differences in protein expression between healthy controls and patients with CVD are observed in ECs obtained from veins using the same procedures as in the ...
An angioplasty is a surgical procedure done to unblock or widen a blood vessel. It is commonly done on the coronary arteries that carry blood to the heart.. During a typical angioplasty procedure, the doctor will insert a thin tube called a catheter into an artery in the patients groin or leg. Using an X-ray screen to guide them, the doctor will maneuver the catheter through the arteries until they reach the blocked coronary artery.. The doctor inserts a very thin guidewire through the catheter to or across the blocked and narrowed section of the artery. They then insert another catheter containing an uninflated balloon over the guidewire to the blockage. The doctor inflates the balloon, and it pushes the plaque and other deposits causing the blockage against the arterys walls. Depending on the size and extent of the blockage, the doctor may inflate the balloon several times.. In many cases, the doctor will also insert a tube made of wire mesh called a stent that keeps the artery open. The ...
The deep femoral artery is a branch of the common femoral artery of the human body. The common femoral artery is one of the largest arteries in the human body, with multiple branches. The deep femoral artery is a major blood vessel supplying the leg. The deep femoral artery supplies
The radial artery is a major artery in the human forearm. It is close to the surface of the underside of the forearm; when the palm of the hand is pointing upwards, so is the radial artery. The radial artery supplies the arm and hand with oxygenated blood from the
The carotid arteries are 2 blood vessels, one either side of the neck, that each transport blood to the brain from the heart. These arteries can become partly or totally blocked resulting in the decrease of blood flow to the brain. This condition in turn is caused by atherosclerosis, also known as hardening of the arteries. Atherosclerosis is the outcome of a build up of cholesterol and calcium on the inner lining of the arteries. These deposits are referred to as plaques, which might eventually become so thick that they totally prevent the blood flow through the arteries. Those with untreated blocked carotid arteries are statistically likely to have a stroke ...
The arcuate artery of kidney is a vessel of the renal circulation system. It can be found at the edge of the renal medulla and renal cortex. The artery got its named because of how the renal medulla is shaped (like an arc).
Recent research as suggested that use of the HIV medication abacavir (Ziagen, or co-formulated with lamivudine as Epzicom) may increase risk for heart disease, though findings from multiple studies have been inconsistent. This pilot study will examine vascular function, a marker of heart disease risk, among patients taking abacavir as part of their HIV medications and are then randomized to: 1) switch to tenofovir, another HIV medication, or 2) continue to take abacavir ...
Typically, coronary artery disease occurs when part of the smooth, elastic lining inside a coronary artery (the arteries that ... Other terms sometimes used for this condition are "hardening of the arteries" and "narrowing of the arteries".[109] In Latin it ... Micrograph of a coronary artery with the most common form of coronary artery disease (atherosclerosis) and marked luminal ... Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD),[13] refers to a group of diseases which includes ...
Regression of the hyaloid artery[edit]. The hyaloid artery, an artery running through the vitreous humour during the fetal ...
Anterior cerebral artery theory[edit]. Another theory into the cause of cold-stimulus headaches is explained by increased blood ... This increase in blood volume and resulting increase in size in this artery is thought to bring on the pain associated with a ... When the anterior cerebral artery constricts, reining in the response to this increased blood volume, the pain disappears. The ... flow to the brain through the anterior cerebral artery, which supplies oxygenated blood to most medial portions of the frontal ...
... the main artery of the heart, thereby raising risk of coronary artery disease.[63] ... Coronary artery disease[edit]. The primary health risk identified for trans fat consumption is an elevated risk of coronary ... Although trans fats are edible, consuming trans fats has been shown to increase the risk of coronary artery disease in part by ... This is because any incremental increase in trans fat intake increases the risk of coronary artery disease.[55] ...
internal carotid artery[edit]. *ophthalmic artery *Orbital group *Lacrimal artery *lateral palpebral arteries ... common hepatic artery *proper hepatic artery *Terminal branches *right hepatic artery *Cystic artery ... posterior tibial artery *fibular artery (sometimes from popliteal artery) *communicating branch to the anterior tibial artery ... superior rectal artery. median sacral[edit]. common iliac[edit]. Common iliac arteries[edit]. internal iliac artery[edit]. ...
ACA (anterior communicating, Recurrent artery of Heubner, Orbitofrontal artery). *MCA (anterolateral central, Prefrontal artery ... The arteries and veins have three layers. The middle layer is thicker in the arteries than it is in the veins: *The inner layer ... In all arteries apart from the pulmonary artery, hemoglobin is highly saturated (95-100%) with oxygen. In all veins apart from ... In general, arteries and arterioles transport oxygenated blood from the lungs to the body and its organs, and veins and venules ...
... the celiac artery, superior mesenteric artery, and inferior mesenteric artery. The areas supplied by these arteries are used to ... The sac is surrounded by a network of vitelline arteries. Over time, these arteries consolidate into the three main arteries ... From the bifurcation of the trachea downwards, the esophagus passes behind the right pulmonary artery, left main bronchus, and ... The upper parts of the esophagus and the upper esophageal sphincter receive blood from the inferior thyroid artery, the parts ...
Each renal artery branches into segmental arteries, dividing further into interlobar arteries, which penetrate the renal ... The interlobar arteries then supply blood to the arcuate arteries that run through the boundary of the cortex and the medulla. ... Each arcuate artery supplies several interlobular arteries that feed into the afferent arterioles that supply the glomeruli. ... 1. Renal pyramid • 2. Interlobular artery • 3. Renal artery • 4. Renal vein 5. Renal hilum • 6. Renal pelvis • 7. Ureter • 8. ...
Artery. Intercostal arteries. Nerve. Intercostal nerves. Actions. Depresses ribs. Identifiers. Latin. Musculus transversus ...
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Renal artery stenosis - is the narrowing of renal arteries that carry blood to the kidneys from the aorta.[2] ... Peripheral artery disease - happens when atheromatous plaques build up in the arteries that supply blood to the arms and legs, ... "Renal Artery Stenosis". www.niddk.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-06-23.. *^ a b "Vascular Diseases: MedlinePlus". www.nlm.nih.gov. ... Vascular disease is a class of diseases of the blood vessels - the arteries and veins of the circulatory system of the body. It ...
Important transportation arteries. *Independence Street (vulytsya Nezalezhnosti) / Tysmenytsya Road (doroha Tysmenetska). * ...
These birth defects included neural tube defects, malformations of the cardiac septa, anomalies of arteries and veins, and ... pulmonary artery and heart valves.[42] The effects of carbon monoxide exposure are decreased later in fetal development during ...
Artery. superior hypophyseal artery, infundibular artery, prechiasmal artery, inferior hypophyseal artery, capsular artery, ... Gibo H, Hokama M, Kyoshima K, Kobayashi S (1993). "[Arteries to the pituitary]". Nippon Rinsho. 51 (10): 2550-4. PMID 8254920. ...
A shunt can be created between the aorta and the pulmonary artery to help increase blood flow to the lungs. As the child grows ... The type of surgery recommended depends on the size of the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery, if the right ventricle is ... The pulmonary valve is located on the right side of the heart between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery. In a normal ... and the walls and arteries/veins near the heart muscle. Consequently, blood flow due to the aforementioned structural ...
Artery. short posterior ciliary arteries. Identifiers. Latin. processus ciliares. TA. A15.2.03.011. ...
"Constitutive modelling of arteries". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A. 466 (2118): 1551-1597. Bibcode:2010RSPSA. ...
The median nerve enters the forearm between the two heads of the muscle, and is separated from the ulnar artery by the ulnar ...
Second, the superior epigastric artery, a terminal branch of the internal thoracic artery, supplies blood to the upper portion ... The hematoma may be caused by either rupture of the epigastric artery or by a muscular tear. Causes of this include ... Classification of the vascular anatomy of muscles: First, the inferior epigastric artery and vein (or veins) run superiorly on ... Finally, numerous small segmental contributions come from the lower six intercostal arteries as well. ...
Artery. Mylohyoid branch of inferior alveolar artery and submental artery of facial artery. ...
Artery. Inferior rectal artery. Vein. Inferior rectal vein. Nerve. Inferior rectal nerves. ...
Qureshi, T. A.; Habib, M.; Hunter, A.; Al-Diri, B. (June 2013). A manually-labeled, artery/vein classified benchmark for the ... Veins are darker and slightly wider than corresponding arteries. The optic disc is at right, and the macula lutea is near the ... Retinal vessel analysis is a non-invasive method to examine the small arteries and veins in the retina which allows to draw ... the ophthalmic artery bifurcates and supplies the retina via two distinct vascular networks: the choroidal network, which ...
Artery. Inferior vesical artery. Middle rectal artery. Internal pudendal artery. Vein. Inferior vesical vein. Middle rectal ...
This axillary arch crosses the axillary artery, just above the spot usually selected for the application of a ligature, and may ...
Artery. superior laryngeal artery. Nerve. recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagus. Actions. approximate the arytenoid ...
The infraorbital artery is an artery in the head that branches off the maxillary artery, emerging through the infraorbital ... transverse facial artery, and buccal artery. The four remaining branches arise from that portion of the maxillary artery which ... The infraorbital artery appears, from its direction, to be the continuation of the trunk of the maxillary artery, but often ... a branch of the facial artery; others run toward the nose, anastomosing with the dorsal nasal branch of the ophthalmic artery; ...
Vertebral artery dissection is one of the two types of dissection of the arteries in the neck. The other type, carotid artery ... Vertebral artery dissection is less common than carotid artery dissection (dissection of the large arteries in the front of the ... the arteries merge to form the basilar artery, which joins the circle of Willis. In total, three quarters of the artery are ... Vertebral artery dissection (VAD) is a flap-like tear of the inner lining of the vertebral artery, which is located in the neck ...
The central retinal artery (retinal artery) branches off the ophthalmic artery, running inferior to the optic nerve within its ... ACA (anterior communicating, Recurrent artery of Heubner, Orbitofrontal artery). *MCA (anterolateral central, Prefrontal artery ... The central retinal artery is formed from the proximal part of the hyaloid artery after atrophy of its distal part has formed ... However it should be remembered that the Cilio retinal artery itself is a branch of the Short Posterior Ciliary Arteries which ...
Definition of anterior superior alveolar arteries. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical ... anterior superior alveolar arteries. Definition: origin, infraorbital artery within intraorbital canal; distribution, through ...
The ulnar artery is located in the elbow, and it is one of the branches of the brachial artery. The ulnar artery leads down the ... At the wrist, branches of the ulnar and radial arteries join to form a network of vessels, which Continue Scrolling To Read ... The corresponding ulnar vein will parallel the brachial artery on its way back to the heart. ...
... a subclavian artery and inflated at a point distal to the junction of the subclavian artery and the internal mammary artery or ... into a subclavian artery and inflated at a point distal to the junction of the subclavian artery or internal mammary artery or ... Method for injecting angiographic dye into an internal mammary artery or graft. A catheter having and a balloon and a proximal ... An angiographic dye is delivered through the proximal port and flows into the internal mammary artery or graft. Method for ...
... and other substances build up in the walls of arteries. These deposits are called plaques. Over time, these ... hardening of the arteries, occurs when fat, cholesterol, ... Coronary Artery DiseaseRead more NIH MedlinePlus MagazineRead ... Hardening of the arteries; Arteriosclerosis; Plaque buildup - arteries; Hyperlipidemia - atherosclerosis; Cholesterol - ... In some cases, the plaque is part of a process that causes a weakening of the wall of an artery. This can lead to a bulge in an ...
Whats more, blocked arteries may also cut off blood flow to the brain. When the brain stops receiving enough fresh, oxygenated ... According to the AHA, "Experts believe HDL acts as a scavenger, carrying LDL cholesterol away from the arteries and back to the ... Cholesterol in the blood combines with other substances to create plaque, which then sticks to the walls of arteries. Over time ... In the case of narrow passageways, chest pain (also know as angina) is common, and when arteries are blocked completely, a ...
An artery is made up of several layers: an inner lining called the endothelium, an elastic membrane that allows the artery to ... In coronary artery bypass surgery (bypass surgery), a detour is built around the blockage with a healthy vein or artery, which ... Hardening of the arteries Heart disease A common type of arteriosclerosis found in medium and larger arteries in which raised ... It can cause a stroke if it completely blocks the brain (carotid) arteries. Atherosclerosis can also occur in the arteries of ...
The pulmonary arteries take blood from the heart to the lungs. ... The pulmonary arteries take blood from the heart to the lungs. ...
The largest blood vessels are arteries and veins, which have a thick, tough wall of connective tissue and and many layers of ... A study of the embryo reveals, moreover, that arteries and veins develop from small vessels constructed solely of endothelial ... Endothelial cells of developing arteries and veins express different cell-surface proteins, which may control the way in which ... Diagram of a small artery in cross section. The endothelial cells, although inconspicuous, are the fundamental component. ...
Carotid artery surgery is a procedure to treat carotid artery disease. ... Carotid artery surgery is a procedure to treat carotid artery disease.. The carotid artery brings needed blood to your brain ... Carotid artery surgery is done to restore proper blood flow to the brain. There are two procedures to treat a carotid artery ... You have one of these arteries on each side of your neck. Blood flow in this artery can become partly or totally blocked by ...
The interlobar arteries branch from the lobar arteries which branch from the segmental arteries, from the renal artery. ... Not to be confused with Pulmonary artery § Interlobar arteries of the lung, or Interlobular arteries. ... The interlobar arteries are vessels of the renal circulation which supply the renal lobes. ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Interlobar_arteries&oldid=870870199" ...
Short gastric arteries. This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Gastric arteries.. If an internal ... Related titles should be described in Gastric arteries, while unrelated titles should be moved to Gastric arteries ( ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gastric_arteries&oldid=647463915" ...
Blood supply to the stomach: left and right gastric artery, left and right gastro-omental artery and short gastric artery.[1] ... Short gastric arteries. The celiac artery and its branches; the stomach has been raised and the peritoneum removed. (Short ... The short gastric arteries consist of from five to seven small branches, which arise from the end of the splenic artery, and ... Unlike the gastroepiploics and the left and right gastric arteries, the short gastric arteries have poor anastomoses if the ...
ACA (anterior communicating, Recurrent artery of Heubner, Orbitofrontal artery). *MCA (anterolateral central, Prefrontal artery ... The anterior superior alveolar arteries originate from the infraorbital artery; they supply the upper incisors and canines; ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Anterior_superior_alveolar_arteries&oldid=825170711" ...
Deep lingual artery[edit]. The deep lingual artery (or ranine artery) is the terminal portion of the lingual artery after the ... Lingual artery. Depiction of the neck with muscles and arteries shown. The lingual artery arises from the external carotid ... The lingual artery arises from the external carotid between the superior thyroid artery and facial artery. It can be located ... ACA (anterior communicating, Recurrent artery of Heubner, Orbitofrontal artery). *MCA (anterolateral central, Prefrontal artery ...
Vertebral arteries. Branches. Pontine arteries, anterior inferior cerebellar (AICA) and superior cerebellar arteries, and ... ACA (anterior communicating, Recurrent artery of Heubner, Orbitofrontal artery). *MCA (anterolateral central, Prefrontal artery ... The basilar artery (/ˈbæz.ɪ.lər/)[1][2] is one of the arteries that supplies the brain with oxygen-rich blood. ... Basilar artery. The basilar artery lies at the front of the brainstem in the midline and is formed from the union of the two ...
The hyaloid artery is a branch of the ophthalmic artery, which is itself a branch of the internal carotid artery. It is ... Occasionally the artery may not fully regress, resulting in the condition persistent hyaloid artery. More commonly, small ... Its proximal portion remains as the central artery of the retina. Regression of the hyaloid artery leaves a clear central zone ... Free remnants can sometimes be seen as "floaters". An anterior remnant of the hyaloid artery can be seen in some people as ...
Renal artery stenosis, or narrowing of one or both renal arteries will lead to hypertension as the affected kidneys release ... Supernumerary renal arteries (two or more arteries to a single kidney) are the most common renovascular anomaly, occurrence ... Renal Artery Aneurysm at eMedicine *^ Aytac, Suat K.; Yigit, Hasan; Sancak, Tanzer; Ozcan, Hasan (2003). "Correlation between ... the right renal artery is normally longer than the left renal artery.[5][6] ...
Subsequently, they branch into chorionic arteries or intraplacental fetal arteries. The umbilical arteries are actually the ... the other being the pulmonary arteries. The pressure inside the umbilical artery is approximately 50 mmHg. The umbilical artery ... The umbilical artery is a paired artery (with one for each half of the body) that is found in the abdominal and pelvic regions ... The umbilical artery is found in the pelvis, and gives rise to the superior vesical arteries. In males, it may also give rise ...
Pericardiacophrenic artery. The phrenic nerve and its relations with the vagus nerve. (Pericardiacophrenic artery not labeled, ... The pericardiacophrenic artery is a long slender branch of the internal thoracic artery. It accompanies the phrenic nerve, ... It anastomoses with the musculophrenic and superior phrenic arteries. On their course through the thoracic cavity, the ... pericardiacophrenic arteries are located within and supply the fibrous pericardium.[1] Along with the musculophrenic arteries, ...
The supraduodenal artery is an artery which usually branches from the gastroduodenal artery.[1] ... Bianchi HF, Albanèse EF (1989). "The supraduodenal artery". Surgical and radiologic anatomy : SRA. 11 (1): 37-40. doi:10.1007/ ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Supraduodenal_artery&oldid=825194216" ...
The vaginal artery is an artery in females that supplies blood to the vagina and the base of the bladder. The vaginal artery is ... Some sources say that the vaginal artery can arise from the internal iliac artery or the uterine artery. However, the phrase ... The vaginal artery is frequently represented by two or three branches. Uterine artery This article incorporates text in the ... Some texts consider the inferior vesical artery to be found only in males, and that this structure in females is a vaginal ...
ACA (anterior communicating, Recurrent artery of Heubner, Orbitofrontal artery). *MCA (anterolateral central, Prefrontal artery ... The lacrimal artery is an artery that arises close to the optic foramen, and is one of the largest branches derived from the ... The lacrimal artery is sometimes derived from one of the anterior branches of the middle meningeal artery. ... The ophthalmic artery and its branches. (Lacrimal artery visible at center right.) ...
  • it ascends obliquely upward, backward, and to the right to the level of the upper border of the right sternoclavicular articulation, where it divides into the right common carotid artery and right subclavian arteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vertebral artery dissection ( VAD ) is a flap-like tear of the inner lining of the vertebral artery , which is located in the neck and supplies blood to the brain . (wikipedia.org)
  • The symptoms of vertebral artery dissection include head and neck pain and intermittent or permanent stroke symptoms such as difficulty speaking , impaired coordination and visual loss . (wikipedia.org)
  • Vertebral artery dissection is less common than carotid artery dissection (dissection of the large arteries in the front of the neck). (wikipedia.org)
  • Vertebral artery dissection is one of the two types of dissection of the arteries in the neck. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vertebral artery dissection is further classified as being either traumatic (caused by mechanical trauma to the neck) or spontaneous, and it may also be classified by the part of the artery involved: extracranial (the part outside the skull) and intracranial (the part inside the skull). (wikipedia.org)
  • Head pain occurs in 50-75% of all cases of vertebral artery dissection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vertebral artery supplies the part of the brain that lies in the posterior fossa of the skull, and this type of stroke is therefore called a posterior circulation infarct . (wikipedia.org)
  • It is therefore possible for the symptoms to occur on both sides, or for symptoms of carotid artery dissection to occur at the same time as those of vertebral artery dissection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The causes of vertebral artery dissection can be grouped under two main categories, spontaneous and traumatic. (wikipedia.org)
  • The central retinal artery is formed from the proximal part of the hyaloid artery after atrophy of its distal part has formed the hyaloid canal . (wikipedia.org)
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