Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Arterial Pressure: The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Hydrostatic Pressure: The pressure due to the weight of fluid.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Blood Pressure Determination: Techniques for measuring blood pressure.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Baroreflex: A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.Pressoreceptors: Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Central Venous Pressure: The blood pressure in the central large VEINS of the body. It is distinguished from peripheral venous pressure which occurs in an extremity.Transducers, Pressure: Transducers that are activated by pressure changes, e.g., blood pressure.Venous Pressure: The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory: Method in which repeated blood pressure readings are made while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It allows quantitative analysis of the high blood pressure load over time, can help distinguish between types of HYPERTENSION, and can assess the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Renal Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Pulmonary Wedge Pressure: The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.Atmospheric Pressure: The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Cardiovascular System: The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Pulse: The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Carotid Sinus: The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.Ventricular Pressure: The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.Natriuresis: Sodium excretion by URINATION.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Ganglionic Blockers: Agents having as their major action the interruption of neural transmission at nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Because their actions are so broad, including blocking of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, their therapeutic use has been largely supplanted by more specific drugs. They may still be used in the control of blood pressure in patients with acute dissecting aortic aneurysm and for the induction of hypotension in surgery.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Telemetry: Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Shock, Hemorrhagic: Acute hemorrhage or excessive fluid loss resulting in HYPOVOLEMIA.Blood Pressure Monitors: Devices for continuously measuring and displaying the arterial blood pressure.Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Sodium Chloride, Dietary: Sodium chloride used in foods.Hypertension, Renal: Persistent high BLOOD PRESSURE due to KIDNEY DISEASES, such as those involving the renal parenchyma, the renal vasculature, or tumors that secrete RENIN.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Sodium, Dietary: Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Autonomic Nervous System: The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.Lower Body Negative Pressure: External decompression applied to the lower body. It is used to study orthostatic intolerance and the effects of gravitation and acceleration, to produce simulated hemorrhage in physiologic research, to assess cardiovascular function, and to reduce abdominal stress during childbirth.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Renin-Angiotensin System: A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.Compliance: Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester: A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.Blood Circulation: The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Pulsatile Flow: Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.Diastole: Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.Laser-Doppler Flowmetry: A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.Trimethaphan: A nicotinic antagonist that has been used as a ganglionic blocker in hypertension, as an adjunct to anesthesia, and to induce hypotension during surgery.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Osmotic Pressure: The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Manometry: Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Diet, Sodium-Restricted: A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Supine Position: The posture of an individual lying face up.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Photoplethysmography: Plethysmographic determination in which the intensity of light reflected from the skin surface and the red cells below is measured to determine the blood volume of the respective area. There are two types, transmission and reflectance.Hypovolemia: An abnormally low volume of blood circulating through the body. It may result in hypovolemic shock (see SHOCK).Positive-Pressure Respiration: A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.Diuresis: An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Captopril: A potent and specific inhibitor of PEPTIDYL-DIPEPTIDASE A. It blocks the conversion of ANGIOTENSIN I to ANGIOTENSIN II, a vasoconstrictor and important regulator of arterial blood pressure. Captopril acts to suppress the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM and inhibits pressure responses to exogenous angiotensin.Splanchnic Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Losartan: An antagonist of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR with antihypertensive activity due to the reduced pressor effect of ANGIOTENSIN II.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Nitroglycerin: A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.Solitary Nucleus: GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Arginine Vasopressin: The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.Constriction: The act of constricting.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Forearm: Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Hypotension, Controlled: Procedure in which arterial blood pressure is intentionally reduced in order to control blood loss during surgery. This procedure is performed either pharmacologically or by pre-surgical removal of blood.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Radial Artery: The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Hypertension, Renovascular: Hypertension due to RENAL ARTERY OBSTRUCTION or compression.Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Hypotension, Orthostatic: A significant drop in BLOOD PRESSURE after assuming a standing position. Orthostatic hypotension is a finding, and defined as a 20-mm Hg decrease in systolic pressure or a 10-mm Hg decrease in diastolic pressure 3 minutes after the person has risen from supine to standing. Symptoms generally include DIZZINESS, blurred vision, and SYNCOPE.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.Hexamethonium: A nicotinic cholinergic antagonist often referred to as the prototypical ganglionic blocker. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It has been used for a variety of therapeutic purposes including hypertension but, like the other ganglionic blockers, it has been replaced by more specific drugs for most purposes, although it is widely used a research tool.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure: Manometric pressure of the CEREBROSPINAL FLUID as measured by lumbar, cerebroventricular, or cisternal puncture. Within the cranial cavity it is called INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Anesthetics, Intravenous: Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)Vasomotor System: The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Pentolinium Tartrate: A nicotinic antagonist that has been used as a ganglionic blocking agent in hypertension.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Portal Pressure: The venous pressure measured in the PORTAL VEIN.Vagotomy: The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Chlorisondamine: A nicotinic antagonist used primarily as a ganglionic blocker in animal research. It has been used as an antihypertensive agent but has been supplanted by more specific drugs in most clinical applications.Resuscitation: The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Bradycardia: Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.Clonidine: An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.Phentolamine: A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Desoxycorticosterone: A steroid metabolite that is the 11-deoxy derivative of CORTICOSTERONE and the 21-hydroxy derivative of PROGESTERONE.Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.TetrazolesAdrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Plasma Substitutes: Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.Shock: A pathological condition manifested by failure to perfuse or oxygenate vital organs.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Plethysmography: Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Brachial Artery: The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.Ephedrine: A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.Endothelin-1: A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Sphygmomanometers: Instruments for measuring arterial blood pressure consisting of an inflatable cuff, inflating bulb, and a gauge showing the blood pressure. (Stedman, 26th ed)Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Head-Down Tilt: Posture while lying with the head lower than the rest of the body. Extended time in this position is associated with temporary physiologic disturbances.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Fluid Therapy: Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.Enalapril: An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that is used to treat HYPERTENSION and HEART FAILURE.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Shock, Septic: Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Valsalva Maneuver: Forced expiratory effort against a closed GLOTTIS.Propofol: An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.

Development and validation of a novel method to derive central aortic systolic pressure from the radial pressure waveform using an n-point moving average method. (1/407)

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Medical management of stable coronary artery disease. (2/407)

All patients with stable coronary artery disease require medical therapy to prevent disease progression and recurrent cardiovascular events. Three classes of medication are essential to therapy: lipid-lowering, antihypertensive, and antiplatelet agents. Lipid-lowering therapy is necessary to decrease low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to a target level of less than 100 mg per dL, and physicians should consider a goal of less than 70 mg per dL for very high-risk patients. Statins have demonstrated clear benefits in morbidity and mortality in the secondary prevention of coronary artery disease; other medications that can be used in addition to statins to lower cholesterol include ezetimibe, fibrates, and nicotinic acid. Blood pressure therapy for patients with coronary artery disease should start with beta blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. If these medications are not tolerated, calcium channel blockers or angiotensin receptor blockers are acceptable alternatives. Aspirin is the first-line antiplatelet agent except in patients who have recently had a myocardial infarction or undergone stent placement, in which case clopidogrel is recommended. Anginal symptoms of coronary artery disease can be treated with beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, nitrates, or any combination of these. Familiarity with these medications and with the evidence supporting their use is essential to reducing morbidity and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease.  (+info)

Differential effects of late-life initiation of low-dose enalapril and losartan on diastolic function in senescent Fischer 344 x Brown Norway male rats. (3/407)

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Tolerance to central hypovolemia: the influence of oscillations in arterial pressure and cerebral blood velocity. (4/407)

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A flow-diverting stent is not a pressure-diverting stent. (5/407)

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Storm in a coffee cup: caffeine modifies brain activation to social signals of threat. (6/407)

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Implication of CD38 gene in podocyte epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and glomerular sclerosis. (7/407)

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Clinical importance of diastolic sonoelastographic scoring in the management of thyroid nodules. (8/407)

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Salusin-beta (Human) 4418-s 0.1 mg | 65.00 EURAla - Ile - Phe - Ile - Phe - Ile - Arg - Trp - Leu - Leu - Lys - Leu - Gly - His - His - Gly ...
Broch O. 1, Bein B. 1, Gruenewald M. 1, Carstens A. 1, Illies C. 1, Schöneich F. 2, Steinfath M. 1, Renner J. 1 ✉. 1 Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Germany; 2 Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Germany. ...
Tricuspid insufficiency is a disorder involving backward flow of blood across the tricuspid valve, which separates the right ventricle from the right atrium
Twenty patients, affected by mitral disease associated with tricuspid insufficiency and selected for mitral commissurotomy on the basis of clinical evidence of advanced heart disease, have been studied before and after surgery. The further course of the disease could be related to various clinical and pathophysiologic conditions, the importance of which in the selection of patients is stressed.. ...
From Summary: The development and the use of a chart for estimating the pressure losses in jet-engine combustion chambers are described. By means of the chart, the pressure losses due to fluid friction and to momentum changes in the air flow accompanying combustion can be separately evaluated. The over-all pressure losses computed from the pressure-loss chart are within 7 percent of the experimental values for the three types of combustion chambers considered herein.
Pre-operative Risk Factors and Clinical Outcomes Associated with Vasoplegia in Recipients of Orthotopic Heart Transplantation in the Contemporary Era. Writer and Curator: Larry H. Bernstein, MD, FCAP and Curator: Aviva Lev-Ari, PhD, RN Patarroyo M, Simbaqueba C, Shrestha K, Starling RC, Smedira N, Tang WH, Taylor DO. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2012 Mar;31(3):282-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healun.2011.10.010 Epub…
Looking for online definition of arterial pressure in the Medical Dictionary? arterial pressure explanation free. What is arterial pressure? Meaning of arterial pressure medical term. What does arterial pressure mean?
That we found a statistically significant difference between arterial and venous sampler filling times and a statistically significant relationship between MAP and filling times was not surprising, and we believe the difference between arterial and venous sampler filling times to be clinically important. Our results are consistent with a previous laboratory study, although our times differed from theirs.4 Our arterial group had a normal estimated MAP of 91 mm Hg and a mean filling time of 15 s/mL, whereas Johnson et al created a normal group using a simulation with a MAP of 93 mm Hg and measured a filling time of 16 s for a 2 mL sample. When filling time is converted to s/mL, the filling time equals 8 s/mL for the laboratory study, which is nearly twice as fast as our human group. This difference illustrates the importance of performing this study using human subjects. Some reasons for this difference may include various differences between human subjects and a laboratory simulation, such as ...
This paper considers the effect of excessive total pressure losses for heat transfer problems in fluid flows with a high circumferential swirl component. At RWTH Aachen University, a novel gas generator concept is under research. This design avoids some disadvantages of small gas turbines and uses a rotating combustion chamber. During the predesign of the rotating combustion chamber using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools, unexpected high total pressure losses were detected. To analyze this unknown phenomenon, a gas-dynamic model of the rotating combustion chamber has been developed to explain the unexpected high Rayleigh pressure losses. The derivation of the gas-dynamic model, the physical phenomenon related to the high total pressure losses in high-swirl combustion, the influencing factors, as well as thermodynamic interpretation of the Rayleigh pressure losses, are presented in this paper. In addition, the CFD results are validated by the gas-dynamic model derived. The results ...
Definition of artificial lung - Any of various devices designed to assist breathing or to behave like a lung; (in later use especially) a device connected to the
Blood pressure is what this is the effect of blood on the walls of blood vessels. In other words, increasing the pressure of the fluid in the circulatory system in comparison with the atmospheric indices.
Detects and locates quickly and reliably gas leaks and pressure losses in pipes, pressurised systems, etc. by forming highly visible bubbles when applied over any leak. ...
Relationship between the changes of perfused capillary density, when mean arterial pressure (MAP) was increased from the baseline to a MAP of 85 mmHg, with the
Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension (CTEPH) is a rare and potentially fatal form of elevated blood pressure in the lungs.
Pulmonary arterial pressure response to PGF2α without and with pretreatment with Nw-nitro-L-arginine(NNLA).Values are means±SE of 12 experiments.
At the University of Pittsburgh, researchers headed by William Federspiel, have been developing an artificial lung to overcome the limitations of
A normal range for mean arterial blood pressure is 70 to 110, according to GlobalRPh. A minimum of 60 is required to supply enough blood to nourish the coronary arteries, brain and kidneys. If mean...
Acute venous thromboembolism resolves in most cases. However, an estimated 0.5%-3.8% of pulmonary embolism (PE) survivors develop chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) resulting from mechanical obstruction of the pulmonary arteries [1-3]. Most patients with CTEPH have experienced a PE in their lifetime; however, up to 25% of patients have never reported a thrombotic event [4].
Sekhon, Ainslie and Griesdale identify cerebral autoregulation as one of the factors relevant to secondary brain injury after Hypoxic Ischaemic Brain Injury (HIBI). In order to discuss cerebral autoregulation in more detail it is necessary to first discuss mean arterial pressure. What is Mean Arterial Pressure? The mean arterial pressure is the average arterial…
Dr. Gustavo A. Heresi presents Serum CXC-Chemokine Ligand 10 is Associated with Severity of Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension, recorded live at the UC San Diego Health Sulpizio Cardiovascular Center National Proceedings: CTEPH 2017., TV Network
Patients who have completed the 16 weeks treatment of the CHEST-1 trial (study number 11348) will be asked to participate in this long term extension study with BAY63-2521. The aim of the long term study is to collect additional information to evaluate the safety and tolerability of BAY63-2521. Patients will be treated with open label medication on their individual optimal dose between 0,5 mg - 2,5 mg tid ...
Vasoplegia occurs in up to 16% of patients who undergo heart transplantation (HT) and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We present a case of a 61-year-old man with ischemic cardiomyopathy receiving sacubitril/valsartan (Entresto; Novartis, Cambridge, MA) who developed profound hypotension after HT. He was treated with intravenous methylene blue and high-dose vasopressors, but developed acute kidney injury requiring dialysis and a prolonged stay in the intensive care unit. This case supports a potent vasodilatory effect of sacubitril/valsartan, and if confirmed by other studies, might warrant consideration for withholding treatment while awaiting HT, particularly in patients with risk factors for vasoplegia ...
BACKGROUND:A central-to-radial arterial pressure gradient may occur after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), which, in some patients, may last for a prolonged time after CPB. Whenever there is a pressure gradient, the radial artery pressure measure may underestimate a more centrally measured systemic pre
Bayer HealthCare launched an educational website for US physicians about the rare, life-threatening condition chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH).
M L Quinn, N T Smith, J E Mandel, J F Martin, A M Schneider; AUTOMATIC CONTROL OF ARTERIAL PRESSURE IN THE OPERATING ROOM: SAFETY DURING EPISODES OF ARTIFACT AND HYPOTENSION ?. Anesthesiology 1988;69(3A):A327. Download citation file:. ...
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the doc is doing a translaminar MIDLINE t9-10 epidural sterioid injection. He raised the needle over the t9-10 interlaminar space and did an epidural
BACKGROUND Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is associated with proximal pulmonary artery obstruction and vascular remodeling. We hypothesized that pulmonary arterial smooth muscle (PASMC) and endothelial cells (PAEC) may actively contribute to remodeling of the proximal pulmonary vascular wall in CTEPH. Our present objective was to characterize PASMC and PAEC from large arteries of CTEPH patients and investigate their potential involvement in vascular remodeling. METHODS Primary cultures of proximal PAEC and PASMC from patients with CTEPH, with non-thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (PH) and lung donors have been established. PAEC and PASMC have been characterized by immunofluorescence using specific markers. Expression of smooth muscle specific markers within the pulmonary vascular wall has been studied by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Mitogenic activity and migratory capacity of PASMC and PAEC have been investigated in vitro. RESULTS PAEC express CD31 on their
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is an uncommon consequence of acute pulmonary embolism. We report CTEPH in a 58-year-old male who had pleurisy with a small haemorrhagic pleural effusion three months ago. The six-month course of
A deletion/insertion (Del/Ins) polymorphism of 28 base pairs (bp) in the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of fibrinogen alpha gene ( FGA) was associated with thromboembolic diseases, but the underlying me
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1. A satisfactory method for the direct determination of the pulmonary arterial pressure in rats is described.. 2. The arithmetical mean of the blood pressure in the pulmonary artery in a series of thirty-four normal albino rats under nembutal anesthesia is 256 mm. H20 (18.8 mm. Hg).. 3. Intravenous epinephrine causes an abrupt but briefly sustained rise in the pulmonary arterial pressure with a gradual return to normal.. ...
Read about the pulmonary thromboendarterectomy surgical procedure performed at UC San Diego and how it can help patients suffering from Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension (CTEPH).
If you care about your health, you should maintain normal weight. Use BMI Calculator to find out your Body Mass Index, which reveals if you are.... ...
AbeBooks.com: Arterial Pressure and Hypertension (Circulatory Physiology) (9780721643625) by Arthur C. Guyton and a great selection of similar New, Used and Collectible Books available now at great prices.
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a potentially curable condition [1]. The current treatment of choice for CTEPH is pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) in patients who are considered candidates for surgical therapy. However, some CTEPH patients have thrombotic disease that affects the distal segmental pulmonary artery branches, while others have major medical co-morbidities which make them less than optimal candidates for surgical PEA. So, what are the alternatives when there is an inadequate response to medical therapy with pulmonary vasodilating agents such as Riociguat? Angioplasty has been performed in most vascular beds with excellent results since Dr. Andreas Gruentzig paved the way for balloon angioplasty. However, experience with angioplasty in the pulmonary vasculature has been mostly limited to pediatric patients with congenital pulmonary artery stenosis.. A group from Boston had explored the possibility of performing pulmonary angioplasty to treat patients with CTEPH ...
The main findings of this study are as follows: In a large (n=1185), community-based sample of African ancestry, independent of confounders including mean arterial pressure (distending pressures), reflected waves (RI or Pb) accounted for more of the variation in PPc and LVMI than did Pf, whereas Pi accounted for more of the variation in PPc and LVMI than did aortic systolic pressure augmentation (AIx or Pa). The marked contrasting contributions of indexes of reflected waves, RI or Pb and AIx or Pa, as compared with Pf and Pi toward variations in PPc and LVMI were noted below as well as above the age threshold (50 years) when Pf or Pi began to increase as well as in women and men considered separately.. Several previous studies have reported on a relatively greater contribution of Pa as compared with Pi to age-related increases in PPc.24-26 However, it is now recognized that Pa may be confounded by considerable overlap between forward and backward waves and that there is a poor relationship ...
Mean arterial pressure. *pH arterial. *Heart rate. *Respiratory rate. *Sodium (serum). *Potassium (serum) ...
Pulmonary arterial pressure[edit]. Periodic oscillations of the pulmonary arterial pressure occur with respiration. Pulmonary ... Pulmonary arterial pressure[edit]. Pulmonary arterial pressure fluctuates with respiration and rises during REM sleep. ... Arterial blood gases[edit]. The Arterial blood gasses pCO2 increases by 3-7mmHg, pO2 drops by 3-9mmHg and SaO2 drops by 2% or ... Arterial blood gases[edit]. Hypoxemia due to hypoventilation is noted in REM sleep but this is less well studied than NREM ...
Arterial blood pressure falls. This destimulates baroreceptors in the carotid sinus and aortic arch which link to the nucleus ... whether the problem is primarily increased venous back pressure (preload), or failure to supply adequate arterial perfusion ( ... Binding to alpha-1 receptors results in systemic arterial vasoconstriction. This helps restore blood pressure but also ... This increase in volume or pressure backs up to the left atrium and then to the pulmonary veins. Increased volume or pressure ...
2 partial pressure in the arterial blood. In healthy individuals, the difference between arterial blood and expired gas CO. 2 ... represents the partial pressure of carbon dioxide measured by the capnogram as a function of time t. {\displaystyle t}. since ... represents the alveolar partial pressure of carbon dioxide.. *. α. {\displaystyle \alpha }. represents the inverse of the dead ... Capnography is the monitoring of the concentration or partial pressure of carbon dioxide (CO. 2) in the respiratory gases. Its ...
An ABG test measures the blood-gas tension values of the arterial partial pressure of oxygen, and the arterial partial pressure ... Arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2). 4.7-6.0 kPa. 35-45 mmHg[9]. The carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) is an ... Arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2). 10-13 kPa. 75-100 mmHg[9]. A low PaO2 indicates that the patient is not oxygenating ... An arterial-blood gas (ABG) test measures the amounts of arterial gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide. An ABG test ...
"Arterial blood pressure"), which defend the arterial blood pressure against changes, especially hypotension. ... is directly proportional to the arterial blood pressure, making this tissue an ancillary arterial blood pressure sensor. ... monitor the arterial blood pressure.[46] Rising pressure is detected when the walls of the arteries stretch due to an increase ... when the arterial blood pressure falls, or to slow down (bradycardia) when the pressure rises above set point.[13] Thus the ...
Arterial baroreceptors are reset to a higher pressure in hypertensive patients, and this peripheral resetting reverts to normal ... Cardiac output and peripheral resistance are the two determinants of arterial pressure. Cardiac output is determined by stroke ... Mark AL (December 1996). "The sympathetic nervous system in hypertension: a potential long-term regulator of arterial pressure ... Klabunde, Richard E. (2007). "Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts - Mean Arterial Pressure". Archived from the original on ...
Cardiac output and peripheral resistance are the two determinants of arterial pressure and so blood pressure is normally ... This causes the arterial pressure to rise as the cardiac output increases. Local autoregulatory mechanisms counteract this by ... As arterial pressure increases in response to high sodium chloride intake, urinary sodium excretion increases and the excretion ... A blood pressure test can be done in a health care provider's office or clinic. To track blood pressure readings over a period ...
Langsetmo, I.; Fedde, M.R.; Meyer, T.S.; Erickson, H.H. (September 2000). "Relationship of pulmonary arterial pressure to ... Pulmonary capillary transmural pressure is determined by pulmonary capillary pressure and airway pressure. The horse has very ... High pulmonary blood pressures[edit]. The most widely accepted theory is that high transmural pressures lead to pulmonary ... During inspiration, the high positive pressures in the pulmonary blood vessels pushing out are met by negative pressures ...
Decrease in partial pressure of alveolar CO2. Decrease in partial pressure of arterial CO2. Increase in blood pH, (respiratory ... that pressure on the vagus nerve causes changes to pulse rate and blood pressure and is dangerous in cases of carotid sinus ... In some versions the bear-hug is replaced by pressure on the neck in which case blackout is a hybrid of strangulation and self- ... This alone is enough to cause a blackout, but it is widely believed that the effect is enhanced if lung air pressure is ...
Dumler, F. (2009). "Dietary Sodium Intake and Arterial Blood Pressure". Journal of Renal Nutrition. 19 (1): 57-60. doi:10.1053/ ... the blood pressure of these individuals tends to be even more responsive to the blood pressure-raising effects of sodium than ... He, F. J.; Li, J.; Macgregor, G. A. (3 April 2013). "Effect of longer term modest salt reduction on blood pressure: Cochrane ... A low sodium diet results in a greater improvement in blood pressure in people with hypertension. The World Health Organization ...
Dumler, F (January 2009). "Dietary sodium intake and arterial blood pressure". Journal of Renal Nutrition. 19 (1): 57-60. doi: ... High blood pressure: Evidence shows an association between salt intakes and blood pressure among different populations and age ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) states that excess sodium can increase blood pressure and the risk for a ... In people with normal blood pressure, the decrease after lowering dietary salt intake was less than 1%. The effects in Asians ...
Mullan B. A.; Young I. S.; Fee H.; McCance D. R. (2002). "Ascorbic acid reduces blood pressure and arterial stiffness in type 2 ... Blood pressure control[edit]. Modulating and ameliorating diabetic complications may improve the overall quality of life for ... Other health problems compound the chronic complications of diabetes such as smoking, obesity, high blood pressure, elevated ... Mangoni AA, Sherwood RA, Swift CG, Jackson SHD (2002). "Folic acid enhances endothelial function and reduces blood pressure in ...
VO2 or arterial blood pressure in sports medicine or home care.[45] ... "Non-invasive monitoring of central blood pressure by electrical impedance tomography: first experimental evidence." Med. Biol. ...
Increases mean arterial pressure.. Angiotensin IVEdit. Arg , Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe. Angiotensin IV is a hexapeptide that, ... regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure by renin-angiotensin. • regulation of apoptotic process. • positive regulation ... Increases in systemic blood pressure will maintain renal perfusion pressure; however, constriction of the afferent and efferent ... decreased intrarenal blood pressure (,90mmHg systolic blood pressure[6] ) at the juxtaglomerular cells, or decreased delivery ...
Knight WD, Seth R, Boron J, Overton JM (2009). "Short-term physiological hyperleptinemia decreases arterial blood pressure". ... Hyperleptinemia produced by infusion or adenoviral gene transfer decreases blood pressure in rats. Leptin microinjections into ... but decreased after the administration of continuous positive airway pressure. In non-obese individuals, however, restful sleep ...
... decreases with increasing pressure due to the curvilinear relationship between arterial pressure and volume. Volume ( V {\ ... The transmission of the arterial pressure pulse does not give the true PWV as it is a sum of vectors of the incident and ... Nichols WW (January 2005). "Clinical measurement of arterial stiffness obtained from noninvasive pressure waveforms". Am. J. ... where pressure can be measured, and flow and arterial dimension measured through techniques such as A or M-mode ultrasound or ...
2007). "Aging enhances pressure-induced arterial superoxide formation". American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory ...
... arterial line management and central venous pressure monitoring; infusion of blood products; point of care testing using ... class of skills that are not included in the standard ACP skill-set are Venous Pressure Monitoring, Arterial & Central Line ... Venous pressure monitoring, Arterial & Central Line Monitoring, Chest Tube Management, transthoracic pacing, Blood Product ... Schedule 1 - CCP Licence Qualifications All ACP Skills and Endorsements arterial line placement. Schedule 2 - CCP Licence ...
"Cytomegalovirus infection causes an increase of arterial blood pressure". PLoS Pathog. 5 (5): e1000427. doi:10.1371/journal. ... A study published in 2009 links infection with CMV to high blood pressure in mice, and suggests that the result of CMV ... Kahl, M.; Siegel-Axel, D.; Stenglein, S. (2000-08-01). "Efficient Lytic Infection of Human Arterial Endothelial Cells by Human ... a protein known to contribute to high blood pressure. CMV encodes a protein, UL16, which is involved in the immune evasion of ...
Fritsch-Yelle, JM; Charles, JB; Jones, MM; Wood, ML (March 1996). "Microgravity decreases heart rate and arterial pressure in ... However, one crewmember experienced a 5-beat run of ventricular tachycardia during a lower-body negative pressure protocol, and ... The arrhythmias occurred during effort tests, extravehicular activities (EVAs), lower body negative pressure sessions, and ...
... and arterial vasoconstriction. Thus, it regulates the body's mean arterial blood pressure. Renin can be referred to as a ... A more detailed analysis of this line indicated plasma creatinine was also increased and males had lower mean arterial pressure ... A decrease in arterial blood pressure (that could be related to a decrease in blood volume) as detected by baroreceptors ( ... pressure-sensitive cells). This is the most direct causal link between blood pressure and renin secretion (the other two ...
Pulmonary arterial hypertension, elevated pressure in the pulmonary arteries. Most commonly it is idiopathic (i.e. of unknown ...
The baroreceptor reflex can correct for a change in arterial pressure by increasing or decreasing heart rate. In contrast, the ... This phenomenon occurred even if arterial blood pressure did not increase. He further observed that heart rate increased when ... Boron, Walter F.; Boulpaep, Emile L. (2011). "Chapter 23: Regulation of Arterial Pressure and Cardiac Output". Medical ... Low pressure receptor zones High pressure receptor zones Hakumäki MO (June 1987). "Seventy years of the Bainbridge reflex". ...
MAP = mean arterial pressure (in mmHg), the average pressure of blood as it leaves the heart ... During each heartbeat, systemic arterial blood pressure varies between a maximum (systolic) and a minimum (diastolic) pressure. ... The ideal blood pressure in the brachial artery, where standard blood pressure cuffs measure pressure, is ,120/80 mmHg. Other ... Since pressure is a function of force per unit area, (P = F/A), the larger the surface area, the lesser the pressure when an ...
"Dietary sodium and arterial blood pressure: evidence against genetic susceptibility". British Medical Journal. 291: 1525-8. doi ... High Blood Pressure. Excerpt from High Blood Pressure at your fingertips. Third edition: London: Class Publishing; 2004. Hart ... He was also the first doctor to routinely measure every patient's blood pressure and as a result was able to reduce premature ... Hart JT, Savage W, Fahey T. High Blood Pressure at Your Fingertips: The Comprehensive and Medically Accurate Manual on How to ...
Pulse oximeters should be used to monitor the level of arterial oxygen saturation that is the basic measure of hypoxic training ... Commonly used are air separation systems employing semi-permeable membrane technology or pressure swing adsorption or (PSAS). ... The therapeutic range of arterial oxygen desaturation for IHT is SpO2 = 75% - 88% and must be selected based upon the ... hypoxicators have a built-in pulse oximeter used to monitor and in some cases control the temporary reduction of arterial ...
Davis also developed a device that provided an uninterrupted measurement of arterial blood pressure that would not interfere ... Davis, R.C. (1957). "Continuous recording of arterial pressure: An analysis of the problem". Journal of Comparative and ... with the subject's true blood pressure, and he is credited with introducing the cathode-ray oscilloscope technique for ...
keywords = "Arterial pressure, Gaussian white noise, Sympathetic nerve activity, Transfer function",. author = "Toru Kawada and ... can reduce arterial pressure (AP) for more than a year. To examine whether the electrical stimulation from one baroreflex ... can reduce arterial pressure (AP) for more than a year. To examine whether the electrical stimulation from one baroreflex ... can reduce arterial pressure (AP) for more than a year. To examine whether the electrical stimulation from one baroreflex ...
... high systolic blood pressure and elevated bad cholesterol levels in asymptomatic individuals, according to a new study ... Non-calcified arterial plaque is associated with diabetes, ... Non-calcified arterial plaque is associated with diabetes, high ... CT angiography links arterial plaque with diabetes, blood pressure, cholesterol Published on June 3, 2015 ... Plaque that forms in the arterial walls can restrict blood flow and, in some cases, rupture, leading to potentially fatal heart ...
... arterial pressure translation, English dictionary definition of arterial pressure. Noun 1. arterial pressure - the pressure of ... arterial pressure is the product of cardiac output and vascular... ... Define arterial pressure. arterial pressure synonyms, arterial pressure pronunciation, ... arterial pressure. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia.. Related to arterial pressure: Arterial blood pressure ...
Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts: Mean Arterial Pressure, Richard E. Klabunde, Ph.D *^ Calculating the mean arterial pressure ... Total Peripheral Resistance = (Mean Arterial Pressure - Mean Venous Pressure) / Cardiac Output Therefore, Mean arterial ... In medicine, the mean arterial pressure (MAP) is an average blood pressure in an individual during a single cardiac cycle.[1] ... blood pressures:[5][6][7]. M. A. P. ≃. D. P. +. 1. 3. (. S. P. −. D. P. ). {\displaystyle MAP\simeq DP+{\frac {1}{3}}(SP-DP)}. ...
THE DETERMINATION OF ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE IN CLINICAL PRACTICE Br Med J 1905; 1 :968 ... THE DETERMINATION OF ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE IN CLINICAL PRACTICE. Br Med J 1905; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.2313.968 ...
There was an increase in mean arterial pressure when the nonspecific NO inhibitor NG-monomethyl-l-arginine (L-NMMA) was infused ... Blood pressure was recorded online (Windaq, DATAQ Instruments Inc) through the femoral arterial cannula. After a 45-minute ... Blood pressure was recorded online continuously. In some experiments, splenic arterial and venous blood flow was also recorded ... The venous cannula was used for infusing saline and drugs; the arterial cannula was used for monitoring blood pressure. Through ...
Raised arterial pressure in parents of proteinuric insulin dependent diabetics. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1987; 295 :515 ... Arterial pressure is raised early in the subset of insulin dependent diabetics at risk of later development of progressive ... There was a significant correlation between the mean arterial pressures in the proteinuric patients and the higher mean blood ... for systolic pressure and 8 mm Hg (95% confidence interval 0.8 to 15.2 mm Hg) for diastolic pressure. These differences were ...
A normal range for mean arterial blood pressure is 70 to 110, according to GlobalRPh. A minimum of 60 is required to supply ... mean arterial pressure = diastolic pressure + (1/3) × pulse pressure. Pulse pressure equals systolic minus diastolic pressure. ... Mean arterial pressure is critical because it is a time-weighted average of blood pressure readings in the large arteries ... If mean arterial pressure falls below 60 for an appreciable length of time, vital organs can be deprived of oxygen. There are ...
As in other species also in the anaesthetized rabbit the ventilatory minute volume increases with decreasing arterial oxygen ... pressure, thereby counteracting the fall of PAO2. The present paper... ... Oxygen Transport Pure Oxygen Minute Volume Anaesthetize Rabbit Arterial Oxygen Pressure These keywords were added by machine ... Schöne H., Wiemer W., Kiwull P. (1973) Role of the Carotid Chemoreflexes in the Regulation of Arterial Oxygen Pressure. In: ...
Blood Pressure) abbreviated? TA stands for Tension Arterial (Spanish: Blood Pressure). TA is defined as Tension Arterial ( ... Segun el criterio propuesto por la Guia K-DOQI se define como: "Un descenso de la tension arterial sistolica [mayor que o igual ... Es necesario ensenaremos a realizar la toma de tension arterial y del nivel de glucemia capilar antes de la toma de los ... S.v. "TA." Retrieved August 21 2019 from https://www.acronymfinder.com/Tension-Arterial-(Spanish%3a-Blood-Pressure)-(TA).html ...
... the evolution of pressure (P) in an arterial segment can be described as follows: where and are the corresponding space and ... A Novel Interpretation for Arterial Pulse Pressure Amplification in Health and Disease. Manuel R. Alfonso,1 Ricardo L. ... R. C. Cascaval, "A Boussinesq model for pressure and flow velocity waves in arterial segments," Mathematics and Computers in ... Arterial pressure waves have been described in one dimension using several approaches, such as lumped (Windkessel) or ...
Continuous monitoring of transduced pressures, arterial blood pressures, in particular, is part of the standard of ... Arterial Catheter Pressure Cable Corrosion Leading to Artifactual Diagnosis of Hypotension. Skidmore, Kimberly, MD; Chen, Joan ... Home , November 2002 - Volume 95 - Issue 5 , Arterial Catheter Pressure Cable Corrosion Leading to Artifa... ... Arterial Catheter Pressure Cable Corrosion Leading to Artifactual Diagnosis of Hypotension Anesthesia & Analgesia95(5):1192- ...
Higher aortic systolic blood pressure and greater arterial stiffness, in part due to reduced pulse pressure amplification and ... We then studied the effects of chronic smoking on blood pressure (BP), the aortic pressure waveform, and pulse pressure ... The influence of heart rate on augmentation index and central arterial pressure in humans. J Physiol. 2000; 525: 263-267. ... Mahmud A, Feely J. Acute effect of caffeine on arterial stiffness and aortic pressure waveform. Hypertension. 2001; 38: 227-231 ...
Find Woman Measuring Arterial Blood Pressure By stock images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock photos, ... woman measuring arterial blood pressure by her self, controlling blood pressure, hospital and medicine concept s ... pressure. arterial. cardiac. cardio. cardiovascular. care. check. clinic. doctor. elderly. hand. health. hospital. hypertension ...
Arterial stiffness, systolic blood pressure and logical treatment of arterial hypertension. Hypertension. 1990;15:339-347. ... Aortic Function in Arterial Hypertension Determined by Pressure-Diameter Relation. Effects of Diltiazem. Christodoulos ... Aortic Function in Arterial Hypertension Determined by Pressure-Diameter Relation. Christodoulos Stefanadis, John Dernellis, ... Aortic Function in Arterial Hypertension Determined by Pressure-Diameter Relation. Christodoulos Stefanadis, John Dernellis, ...
Abstract 17203: Increasing Age, Arterial Stiffness, and Ambulatory Blood Pressure. Marwah Abdalla, Laura DiCola, Paul Muntner, ... Abstract 17203: Increasing Age, Arterial Stiffness, and Ambulatory Blood Pressure. Marwah Abdalla, Laura DiCola, Paul Muntner, ... Abstract 17203: Increasing Age, Arterial Stiffness, and Ambulatory Blood Pressure. Marwah Abdalla, Laura DiCola, Paul Muntner, ... Background: Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and ...
Blood pressure Hypertension Pulse pressure Zheng L, Sun Z, Li J, et al. (July 2008). "Pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure ... Mean Arterial Pressure - Mean Venous Pressure) / Cardiac Output Therefore, Mean arterial pressure can be determined from: M A P ... Mean Arterial Pressure Calculator More Information on usage of the Mean Arterial Pressure. ... In medicine, the mean arterial pressure (MAP) is an average blood pressure in an individual during a single cardiac cycle. ...
Arterial Line Analysis Presentation - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or ... Descending limb of the arterial pressure trace as the pressure falls to that of the end diastolic pressure Dicrotic means twice ... The pressure transducer converts the patients arterial blood pressure oscillations into an electrical waveform that is readable ... Ventilated arterial swing. (A) = the expiratory phase or the period where the only pressure in the chest is due to PEEP. (B) = ...
... several types of hypertension are insensitive to TZD reduction of arterial pressure and, further, TZD fail to reduce arterial ... several types of hypertension are insensitive to TZD reduction of arterial pressure and, further, TZD fail to reduce arterial ... This review 1) comprehensively describes findings associated with TZD reduction of arterial pressure; 2) differentiates between ... proposes a working model for TZD chronic reduction of arterial pressure through vascular dilation. ...
Having one cup of blueberries daily could help reduce blood pressure and arterial stiffness, both of which are linked to heart ... Diet and High Blood Pressure. High blood pressure or hypertension is defined as a blood pressure of above 140 mm Hg (systolic) ... The participants blood pressure, arterial stiffness and select blood biomarkers were recorded at the beginning and post the 8- ... Fruits to Help Lower Blood Pressure. Top reasons why you should eat fruits to lower blood pressure and reduce the risk of heart ...
Cortical arterial pressure (CAP) was obtained as a back pressure by temporary occlusion of the STA trunk after STA-MCA ... Systemic arterial blood pressure (SABP) was measured at the radial artery. The size of the STA was measured at the anastomotic ... The product of perfusion pressure (SABP-CAP) and square of the internal diameter of the STA was significantly correlated with ...
Adult systolic and diastolic blood pressures and arterial compliance as measured by pulse wave velocity in two arterial ... To examine the relation between disproportionate fetal growth and adult blood pressure and to investigate whether arterial ... Diastolic pressure fell by 1.9 mm Hg (95% CI 0.9 to 2.9) for each pound (454 g) gain in birth weight and by 2.4 mm Hg (95% CI ... Systolic blood pressure decreased by 2.7 mm Hg (95% CI 0.8 to 4.6) for each pound (454 g) gain in birth weight and by 3.4 mm Hg ...
Estimating Cardiac Output from Arterial Blood Pressure Waveforms: a Critical Evaluation using the MIMIC II Database. Computers ... Estimating Cardiac Output from Arterial Blood Pressure Waveforms: a Critical Evaluation using the MIMIC II Database. Computers ... Cardiac Output Estimation using Arterial Blood Pressure Waveforms. [MEng thesis]. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of ... based on features of the arterial blood pressure waveform. ... Cardiac Output Estimation from Arterial Blood Pressure ...
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2.2.1. Estimating Elevated Systolic Pulmonary Arterial Pressure. The sPAP was calculated as being the sum of the tricuspid ... Ascertaining serum levels of Eng in SSc patients with and without elevated systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (sPAP) and ... Serum Endoglin Levels in Patients Suffering from Systemic Sclerosis and Elevated Systolic Pulmonary Arterial Pressure. Paola ... Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is the main vascular complication in SSc, being an important cause of morbidity and the ...
  • 6,7) Furthermore, it is a consensus that an excessive sodium content intake is related to higher arterial pressure and to cardiovascular complications. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This model captures many key features of wave propagation in the systemic network and, in particular, pulse pressure amplification (PPA), which is a mechanical biomarker of cardiovascular risk. (hindawi.com)
  • Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and mortality. (ahajournals.org)
  • Total peripheral resistance, Wikipedia Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts: Mean Arterial Pressure, Richard E. Klabunde, Ph.D Physiology: 3/3ch7/s3ch7_4 - Essentials of Human Physiology Cardiovascular Physiology (page 3) Archived 2006-12-11 at the Wayback Machine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Variability in arterial pressure and cerebral blood flow has traditionally been interpreted as a marker of cardiovascular decompensation, and has been associated with negative clinical outcomes across varying time scales, from impending orthostatic syncope to an increased risk of stroke. (frontiersin.org)
  • Traditionally, clinicians have assessed the cardiovascular status of their patients with static "snapshot" techniques, such as radial pulse for heart rate, brachial sphygmomanometry for arterial pressure, and chest excursions for respiration rate. (frontiersin.org)
  • Strict blood pressure control in this group is strongly advocated to avoid other cardiovascular diseases correlated to hypertension. (diva-portal.org)
  • Patients who underwent cardiovascular surgeries with hemodynamics monitoring using arterial pressure-based CO (APCO) were eligible for this study. (springer.com)
  • Nicotinamide riboside , a dietary supplement available over the counter under the name NIAGEN®, (ChromaDex Inc) is an exogenous NAD+ precursor that reverses age-related arterial dysfunction in aged mice, suggesting that declining NAD+ may play a key role in cardiovascular aging. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Hemodynamic management of cardiovascular failure by using PCO(2) venous-arterial difference. (springer.com)
  • Diet has been reported to influence arterial blood pressure, and evidence indicates that the Mediterranean diet reduces cardiovascular mortality. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • 2. Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin (ANG) system (with captopril) and of the cardiovascular actions of vasopressin [with 1-(β-mercapto-β,β-cyclopentamethylenepropionic acid), 8- d -arginine vasopressin (d(CH 2 ) 5 DAVP)] had no hypotensive effects in sham-operated rats under any conditions, but antagonism of nicotinic ganglionic transmission (with pentolinium) caused a prompt fall in blood pressure. (portlandpress.com)
  • 5. The results indicate that, in chronically adrenalectomized rats drinking 1% NaCl, blood pressure is maintained by autonomic nervous and renin-ANG systems with no discernible contribution from the peripheral cardiovascular actions of vasopressin. (portlandpress.com)
  • Given that relaxin is present in the circulation during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy, when arterial pressure is lowest in women, relaxin may contribute to the relative cardiovascular protection observed in premenopausal women as compared with age-matched men and postmenopausal women. (eur.nl)
  • Background: Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) shows a better correlation to target organ damage and cardiovascular morbidity-mortality than office blood pressure. (ebscohost.com)
  • A loss of arterial elasticity and an increase in carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) has been associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity-mortality. (ebscohost.com)
  • Terminal hemodynamics and echocardiography imaging of Asj-2J mice also revealed that a 6-week rhENPP1 treatment normalized elevated arterial and left ventricular pressure, which translated into significant improvements in myocardial compliance, contractility, heart workload and global cardiovascular efficiency. (biologists.org)
  • This practice is common, safe, and so reliable that clinicians may question if it really is required to periodically check intraarterial pressure measurements against those obtained from a standard blood pressure cuff (1,2) . (lww.com)
  • Systolic blood pressure was also higher in individuals whose mother's intercristal pelvic diameter was small or whose mother's blood pressure had been raised during pregnancy but these effects were statistically independent of the effects of low birth weight and other measurements that indicate fetal growth retardation. (bmj.com)
  • Many papers report on the accuracy of the device in comparison with intra-arterial or with noninvasive but intermittent blood pressure measurements. (tudelft.nl)
  • For the assessment of beat-to-beat changes in blood pressure and assessment of blood pressure variability Finapres proved a reliable alternative for invasive measurements when mean and diastolic pressures are concerned. (tudelft.nl)
  • By taking accurate blood pressure measurements at different locations along your legs, your doctors can determine if you have any arterial narrowing and, if so, where. (harvard.edu)
  • In order to get accurate blood pressure measurements, your doctor uses a technique called Doppler ultrasound. (harvard.edu)
  • The method requires the measurements of pressure and flow and is based on fitting the pulse pressure (systolic minus diastolic pressure) predicted by the two-element windkessel model to the measured pulse pressure. (epfl.ch)
  • A correlation to blood pressure is described in literature and commonly demonstrated by discrete measurements with a sampling rate in the minute range. (arvojournals.org)
  • The measurements show clear dependencies between Mayer waves in retinal vessel width and arterial blood pressure. (arvojournals.org)
  • Thus, it was found that toe blood pressure measurements, alone or in combination with ankle blood pressure measurements, increase the sensitivity for finding early asymptomatic LEAD in diabetic subjects. (diva-portal.org)
  • No significant difference in reproducibility between measurements of absolute ankle- and toe blood pressure and indices was found, but a correlation between systemic (brachial) and toe blood pressure variations over time may suggest that indices are more correct in assessing peripheral arterial circulation. (diva-portal.org)
  • Furthermore, toe blood pressure measurements can be performed using either the great toe or dig II and a strong concordance is found between these measurements. (diva-portal.org)
  • In addition, since the pole-test, another non-invasive method to measure peripheral blood pressure which is less sensitive to the presence of mediasclerosis compared to ABI, correlated significantly with toe blood pressure measurements this method may be used as an alternative screening method in subjects with previously known LEAD. (diva-portal.org)
  • Simultaneous measurements in 2 and 8 mm cerebral depth were performed in each patient during lower (35 mm Hg) and higher (45 mm Hg) levels (random order) of arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2). (uzh.ch)
  • The algorithm was then validated against manual artifact identification in 54 anesthesia records and 41,384 arterial line measurements. (deepdyve.com)
  • Timely diagnosis and control of high arterial blood pressure (AP) are crucial for preventing life-threatening complications and end-organ damage but have been hamperedby the lack of nondisruptive monitors for 24-hour (including essential nighttime) AP tracking. (sbir.gov)
  • Timely diagnosis and control of high arterial blood pressure (AP) are crucial for preventing life-threatening complications and end-organ damage but have been hampered by the lack of nondisruptive monitors for 24-hour (including essential nighttime) AP tracking. (sbir.gov)
  • Additionally, they measured heart rate, diastolic and systolic blood pressure, and mean arterial pressure at the brachial artery in the upper arm. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There was an increase in mean arterial pressure when the nonspecific NO inhibitor N G -monomethyl- l -arginine (L-NMMA) was infused via the splenic artery but not when the same dose was administered systemically. (ahajournals.org)
  • To this end, numerical simulations were performed using acquired central pressure signals from different subject groups (young, adults, and hypertensive) as input and then comparing the output of the model with measured radial artery pressure waveforms. (hindawi.com)
  • the stiffer the artery, the faster a pressure wave travels through it and the extent to which the arterial wave is reflected from the periphery. (ahajournals.org)
  • McVeigh et al, 10 using invasive methods, demonstrated abnormalities in the brachial artery pressure waveforms of chronic smokers. (ahajournals.org)
  • Detecting pressure changes inside an artery from the outside is difficult, whereas volume and flow changes of the artery can well be determined by using e.g. light, echography, impedance, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • These volume changes must be transformed into pressure, because of the non-linearity of the elastic components of the arterial wall as well as the non-elastic parts of the smooth muscles of the finger artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • The method is to unload the arterial wall in order to linearize this phenomenon with a counter pressure as high as the pressure inside the artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radial artery pressure waveforms were obtained non-invasively by applanation tonometry. (nih.gov)
  • To recover the geometry of the artery in its zero-pressure state which is required for a fluid-structure interaction simulation we utilize inverse finite elastostatics. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To demonstrate the importance in recovering the zero-pressure state of the artery in hemodynamic simulations we compute the time varying flow field with compliant walls for the original and the zero-pressure state corrected geometric configurations of the carotid bifurcation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This technique is possible due to the ability of our pressure transducer to detect the changes in pressure in the cuff caused by the pulsing of blood in the artery of measurement. (instructables.com)
  • 2. The arithmetical mean of the blood pressure in the pulmonary artery in a series of thirty-four normal albino rats under nembutal anesthesia is 256 mm. (rupress.org)
  • Cerebral blood flow velocity (determined by transcranial Doppler) and arterial blood pressure (determined by noninvasive servo-controlled plethysmograph) were recorded in 20 patients with carotid artery stenosis and 18 age-matched controls. (ovid.com)
  • Apparatus is disclosed for non-invasively monitoring a subject's blood pressure, in which a flexible diaphragm that encloses a fluid-filled chamber is compressed against tissue overlying an artery, with sufficient force to compress the artery. (google.com)
  • A first, relatively slow servo control system optimizes the amount of artery compression, which occurs at a mean transmural pressure of about zero, by modulating the volume of fluid within the chamber and noting the resulting effect on the pressure within the chamber. (google.com)
  • Since different pressure effects are realized according to the amount of artery compression, an appropriate control signal can be produced that provides the optimum mean diaphragm pressure. (google.com)
  • In addition, a second, relatively fast servo control system supplies the fluid to and from the chamber, so as to compensate for pressure variations within artery. (google.com)
  • If the pressure in the cuff is less than the systolic ABP and greater than the diastolic pressure, during systole the artery under the cuff will snap open and closed. (vetstream.com)
  • Pressure and flow were calculated in the ascending aorta, thoracic aorta, common carotid, and iliac artery. (epfl.ch)
  • Whenever there is a pressure gradient, the radial artery pressure measure may underestimate a more centrally measured systemic pressure, which may result in a misguided therapeutic strategy. (ovid.com)
  • Patients with a significant pressure gradient had a smaller weight (71.0 ± 16.9 vs 79.3 ± 17.3 kg, P = 0.041), a smaller height (162.0 ± 9.6 vs 166.3 ± 8.6 cm, P = 0.047), a smaller radial artery diameter (0.24 ± 0.03 vs 0.29 ± 0.05 cm, P P = 0.007). (ovid.com)
  • We find that the artery, under these conditions, is flattened during diastole, and the inflow during systole is not of sufficient duration to maintain the distal pressure, supposing the resistance to outflow is unchanged. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The pressure within the armlet at first does not deform the artery, but expresses blood from, and increases the peripheral resistance in, the mass of tissue it encloses, by compressing the capillaries and obstructing the peripheral exits. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • RESULTS Nitrate concentrations in the pulmonary artery bore a significant relation to mean pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary to systemic systolic pressure ratio, and pulmonary to systemic flow ratio. (bmj.com)
  • We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, single-center pilot study on the effect of niacin on pulmonary artery pressure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of percutaneous transluminal renal artery angioplasty (PTRA) with stenting on endothelial function and arterial blood pressure in patients with renal artery stenosis (RAS). (uzh.ch)
  • There was a significant correlation between the mean arterial pressures in the proteinuric patients and the higher mean blood pressure in their parents. (bmj.com)
  • In this regard, TZD reduce arterial pressure in some hypertensive patients, while TZD lack efficacy in others, i.e., "responders" and "nonresponders," respectively ( Table 1b ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Indeed, as great as 20% of hypertensive patients are resistant to TZD arterial pressure reduction (Dudenbostel et al. (frontiersin.org)
  • Ascertaining serum levels of Eng in SSc patients with and without elevated systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (sPAP) and comparing them with that of healthy volunteers. (hindawi.com)
  • The concept has quickly found wide acceptance in anesthesia and critical care: The evaluation of Pulse Pressure Variation (PPV) allows for goal-directed fluid management in sedated and ventilated patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • 0.01) in blood pressure values and in MMPs levels in all patients with CBTs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • During IPPB/O 2 , cardiac output was definitely lowered without a significant decrease in arterial Pco 2 in the patients with airflow obstruction. (bmj.com)
  • Patients aged at least 18 years who underwent ambulatory blood pressure monitoring between March 2013 and June 2015 were enrolled. (scirp.org)
  • The results of the ambulatory monitoring found 61.4% of the patients with hypertension and 37.7% with normal blood pressure. (scirp.org)
  • Although in-office medical setting blood pressure check is the most common practice for most patients, it does not detect a number of clinical forms. (scirp.org)
  • Grading of dynamic autoregulation with the use of undisturbed recordings of arterial blood pressure and cerebral blood flow velocity might provide a safer technique for assessment of patients in whom a sudden drop of arterial blood pressure is not desirable, such as patients with heart or autonomic failure. (ovid.com)
  • Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that infusion with remifentanil prevented an increase in hemodynamic pressure during tourniquet inflation in elderly patients under sevoflurane/N 2 O general anesthesia. (medsci.org)
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether a higher level of partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) within the normal range in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery had a similar organ-protective effect. (medworm.com)
  • A central-to-radial arterial pressure gradient may occur after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), which, in some patients, may last for a prolonged time after CPB. (ovid.com)
  • The threshold for using a central site for blood pressure monitoring should be low in small, high-risk patients undergoing longer surgical interventions to avoid inappropriate administration of vasopressors and/or inotropic agents. (ovid.com)
  • The aim of the present thesis was to assess the occurrence of early lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD) in patients with diabetes and to assess novel potential risk markers for development or worsening of LEAD in the same patients. (diva-portal.org)
  • 12 measured serial arterial blood concentrations of enflurane in 14 patients, and found no difference between patients breathing nitrous oxide or nitrous oxide-free gas mixtures. (asahq.org)
  • We measured arterial and end-tidal partial pressures of sevoflurane in patients after induction of anesthesia to determine the existence and magnitude of the second gas effect. (asahq.org)
  • Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Patients with Diabetes: Analysis of a 40,000-Patient Database in Spain. (ebscohost.com)
  • Methods: Among 232 patients with ASD and severe PAH (systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (SPAP)≥70 mm Hg measured with right heart catheterization), 85 patients (21M/64F) undergoing closure of ASD were followed up. (omicsonline.org)
  • In this study, the efficacy of a recombinant human ENPP1 protein therapeutic (rhENPP1) was tested in Enpp1 asj-2J homozygous mice ( Asj-2J or Asj-2J hom), a model previously described to show extensive mineralization in the arterial vasculature, similar to GACI patients. (biologists.org)
  • Therefore we measured plasma nitrate using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to study its relation to mean pulmonary arterial pressure in patients with ventricular septal defect (VSD) as a representative intracardiac shunt disease. (bmj.com)
  • We hypothesized that immediate-release niacin would reduce right ventricular systolic pressure in patients with pulmonary hypertension in a randomized, double-blinded, single-dose provocation study. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In patients with PAH, thromboxane A 2 is elevated while prostacyclin is diminished, leading to the high pulmonary pressures and resistance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Eighteen of these patients received treatment with high-pressure, intermittent pneumatic compression (HPIPC) 60 minutes twice daily for 16 weeks, and 16 subjects received standard care consisting of an exercise regimen of walking for 20 minutes twice daily for 16 weeks. (woundsresearch.com)
  • Home monitoring service improves mean arterial pressure in patients with essential hypertension. (solvingdisparities.org)
  • This is the first study to (i) demonstrate that relaxin contributes to the sexual dimorphism of arterial pressure in mice and (ii) document the changes in the arterial pressure profile of pregnant relaxin KO mice. (eur.nl)
  • Our study suggests that cognition in hypertensive individuals is more likely related to the underlying functional changes in the arterial structure, rather than simply to the blood pressure level", adds Hajjar. (emory.edu)
  • Continuous noninvasive arterial blood pressure measurement (CNAP) combines the advantages of the following two clinical "gold standards": it measures blood pressure (BP) continuously in real-time like the invasive arterial catheter system (IBP) and it is non-invasive like the standard upper arm sphygmomanometer (NBP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Like in other fields of innovation, the use of small but powerful microcomputers and digital signal processors facilitates the development of efficient blood pressure measurement instruments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parsippany, NJ, USA) for the measurement of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The automated oscillometric technique (oscillometry) can be used as a method for non-invasive measurement of arterial blood pressure (ABP). (vetstream.com)
  • Doppler ultrasound techniques (Dopplers) Blood pressure: Doppler ultrasound and oscillometry are relatively widely used in small animal practice for non-invasive measurement of ABP. (vetstream.com)
  • We investigated the temporal correlation of retinal vessel width and arterial blood pressure in the range of the low frequency waves in a multimodal measurement study to gain an understanding of the temporal relation. (arvojournals.org)
  • Simultaneously, the arterial blood pressure was recorded by a continuous blood pressure measurement device (Finapres Medical Systems B.V., Amsterdam, NL). (arvojournals.org)
  • The measurement of arterial pressure in man. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This invention relates to an automatic apparatus for the measurement of the arterial pressure which comprises, within a casing, an ultrasonic emitter-receiver as well as a piezo-electric pressure detector. (google.com)
  • The present invention has for its object an apparatus for the automatic measurement of the arterial pressure of a patient. (google.com)
  • Another detecting method for the arterial pulsations for the indirect measurement of the systolic and diastolic pressure is the use of ultrasonic waves. (google.com)
  • The advantages of this method are its insensibility to the external noises and that it permits the measurement of the pressure even in the cases where the known methods which measure the arterial noises can not be used due to the low level of those noises (as is the case with children or hypotensive adults). (google.com)
  • Blood pressure measurement is part of routine surveillance during antenatal care. (springer.com)
  • Since the sixties, several second-trimester studies have been reported on the use of blood pressure measurement for preeclampsia screening. (springer.com)
  • Thus, noninvasive devices have to find a way to transform the peripheral volume signal to arterial pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is estimated to affect 8-20 million Americans. (woundsresearch.com)
  • Continuous noninvasive arterial pressure (CNAP) is the method of measuring arterial blood pressure in real-time without any interruptions (continuously) and without cannulating the human body (noninvasive). (wikipedia.org)
  • In all other inpatient and outpatient surgeries intermittent, noninvasive blood pressure (NBP) monitoring is the standard of care. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arterial Catheter Pressure Cable Corrosion Leading to Artifa. (lww.com)
  • The arterial catheter transducer (Transpac IV Monitoring Kit, Abbott Critical Care Systems, North Chicago, IL) was zeroed to atmospheric pressure and the tubing cleared of bubbles. (lww.com)
  • After observing that movement of the tubing produced appropriate changes in the tracing on the monitor (AS/3 Anesthesia Monitoring System, Datex-Engstrom-Ohmeda, Andover, MA), the radial arterial catheter was placed on the left side, which is the side away from the radiologists. (lww.com)
  • There was no substantial change in arterial catheter or cuff pressure response to tracheal intubation. (lww.com)
  • The arterial catheter is connected to a 1000ml flush bag of NaCl and pressurised to 300mmHg (also required for KVO running @ 3ml/hr). (scribd.com)
  • 1) Hypertensive models that are sensitive and insensitive to TZD arterial pressure reduction. (frontiersin.org)
  • High blood pressure may be the first sign of a hypertensive disorder and is a diagnostic tool. (springer.com)
  • The augmentation index, a measure of arterial wave reflection in the aorta, was measured by applanation tonometry (Sphygmocor). (ahajournals.org)
  • At rest, grading of dynamic autoregulation was estimated from the impulse response of the blood pressure-velocity dynamic relationship. (ovid.com)
  • ΔP is the change in pressure across the systemic circulation from its beginning to its end. (wikipedia.org)
  • arterial High blood pressure (Arterial hypertension), arterial circulation, angina pectoris, additional treatment of the not insulino-dependent diabetes, balance or re - balance the cholesterol, the herpes, anti-oxidizing, stimulated the immunizing system, anti-ageing, prevention and the treatment of the infections. (conua.com)
  • Niacin induces the release of vasodilating prostaglandins, for which receptors are present within the pulmonary arterial circulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fluid status Vessel pathology Cannulation quality (including thrombus, phlebitis and/ or vasospasm) Reflection waves throughout the arterial tree (more evident in the more distal catheters). (scribd.com)
  • If the resistance to outflow is increased, no such distal fall of pressure occurs. (royalsocietypublishing.org)