Cyanosis: A bluish or purplish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to an increase in the amount of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood or a structural defect in the hemoglobin molecule.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Oximetry: The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Methemoglobinemia: The presence of methemoglobin in the blood, resulting in cyanosis. A small amount of methemoglobin is present in the blood normally, but injury or toxic agents convert a larger proportion of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, which does not function reversibly as an oxygen carrier. Methemoglobinemia may be due to a defect in the enzyme NADH methemoglobin reductase (an autosomal recessive trait) or to an abnormality in hemoglobin M (an autosomal dominant trait). (Dorland, 27th ed)Altitude: A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous: The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide locally in the capillaries of a tissue by the application to the skin of a special set of electrodes. These electrodes contain photoelectric sensors capable of picking up the specific wavelengths of radiation emitted by oxygenated versus reduced hemoglobin.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Oxygen Inhalation Therapy: Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Partial Pressure: The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Altitude Sickness: Multiple symptoms associated with reduced oxygen at high ALTITUDE.Apnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Oxyhemoglobins: A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Sleep Apnea Syndromes: Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.Hypercapnia: A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Mountaineering: A sport involving mountain climbing techniques.Respiratory Insufficiency: Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Fontan Procedure: A procedure in which total right atrial or total caval blood flow is channeled directly into the pulmonary artery or into a small right ventricle that serves only as a conduit. The principal congenital malformations for which this operation is useful are TRICUSPID ATRESIA and single ventricle with pulmonary stenosis.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Positive-Pressure Respiration: A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Intermittent Positive-Pressure Ventilation: Application of positive pressure to the inspiratory phase when the patient has an artificial airway in place and is connected to a ventilator.Hypoventilation: A reduction in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli.Heart Bypass, Right: Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance to the right atrium directly to the pulmonary arteries, avoiding the right atrium and right ventricle (Dorland, 28th ed). This a permanent procedure often performed to bypass a congenitally deformed right atrium or right ventricle.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Osteoarthropathy, Secondary Hypertrophic: Symmetrical osteitis of the four limbs, chiefly localized to the phalanges and the terminal epiphyses of the long bones of the forearm and leg, sometimes extending to the proximal ends of the limbs and the flat bones, and accompanied by dorsal kyphosis and joint involvement. It is often secondary to chronic conditions of the lungs and heart. (Dorland, 27th ed)Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Midazolam: A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.Dyspnea: Difficult or labored breathing.Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Sleep Stages: Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Fenoterol: An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Neuromuscular Diseases: A general term encompassing lower MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and certain MUSCULAR DISEASES. Manifestations include MUSCLE WEAKNESS; FASCICULATION; muscle ATROPHY; SPASM; MYOKYMIA; MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, myalgias, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Sleep Apnea, Obstructive: A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)Hepatopulmonary Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by the clinical triad of advanced chronic liver disease, pulmonary vascular dilatations, and reduced arterial oxygenation (HYPOXEMIA) in the absence of intrinsic cardiopulmonary disease. This syndrome is common in the patients with LIVER CIRRHOSIS or portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL).Pulmonary Edema: Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.Ebstein Anomaly: A congenital heart defect characterized by downward or apical displacement of the TRICUSPID VALVE, usually with the septal and posterior leaflets being attached to the wall of the RIGHT VENTRICLE. It is characterized by a huge RIGHT ATRIUM and a small and less effective right ventricle.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Tetralogy of Fallot: A combination of congenital heart defects consisting of four key features including VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECTS; PULMONARY STENOSIS; RIGHT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY; and a dextro-positioned AORTA. In this condition, blood from both ventricles (oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor) is pumped into the body often causing CYANOSIS.Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio: The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)Arteriovenous Malformations: Abnormal formation of blood vessels that shunt arterial blood directly into veins without passing through the CAPILLARIES. They usually are crooked, dilated, and with thick vessel walls. A common type is the congenital arteriovenous fistula. The lack of blood flow and oxygen in the capillaries can lead to tissue damage in the affected areas.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.MethemoglobinReference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Vena Cava, Superior: The venous trunk which returns blood from the head, neck, upper extremities and chest.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Heterotaxy Syndrome: Abnormal thoracoabdominal VISCERA arrangement (visceral heterotaxy) or malformation that involves additional CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS (e.g., heart isomerism; DEXTROCARDIA) and/or abnormal SPLEEN (e.g., asplenia and polysplenia). Irregularities with the central nervous system, the skeleton and urinary tract are often associated with the syndrome.Tibet: An autonomous region located in central Asia, within China.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult: A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Hyperoxia: An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.SulfhemoglobinCardiac Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart.Methylene Blue: A compound consisting of dark green crystals or crystalline powder, having a bronze-like luster. Solutions in water or alcohol have a deep blue color. Methylene blue is used as a bacteriologic stain and as an indicator. It inhibits GUANYLATE CYCLASE, and has been used to treat cyanide poisoning and to lower levels of METHEMOGLOBIN.Pulmonary Valve Stenosis: The pathologic narrowing of the orifice of the PULMONARY VALVE. This lesion restricts blood outflow from the RIGHT VENTRICLE to the PULMONARY ARTERY. When the trileaflet valve is fused into an imperforate membrane, the blockage is complete.Heart Septal Defects, Atrial: Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the ATRIAL SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. Classification of atrial septal defects is based on location of the communication and types of incomplete fusion of atrial septa with the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS in the fetal heart. They include ostium primum, ostium secundum, sinus venosus, and coronary sinus defects.Conscious Sedation: A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Pulmonary Veins: The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Jugular Veins: Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular: Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two lower chambers of the heart. Classification of ventricular septal defects is based on location of the communication, such as perimembranous, inlet, outlet (infundibular), central muscular, marginal muscular, or apical muscular defect.Fiber Optic Technology: The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.Benzocaine: A surface anesthetic that acts by preventing transmission of impulses along NERVE FIBERS and at NERVE ENDINGS.Hemodilution: Reduction of blood viscosity usually by the addition of cell free solutions. Used clinically (1) in states of impaired microcirculation, (2) for replacement of intraoperative blood loss without homologous blood transfusion, and (3) in cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Cytochrome-B(5) Reductase: A FLAVOPROTEIN oxidoreductase that occurs both as a soluble enzyme and a membrane-bound enzyme due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of a single mRNA. The soluble form is present mainly in ERYTHROCYTES and is involved in the reduction of METHEMOGLOBIN. The membrane-bound form of the enzyme is found primarily in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and outer mitochondrial membrane, where it participates in the desaturation of FATTY ACIDS; CHOLESTEROL biosynthesis and drug metabolism. A deficiency in the enzyme can result in METHEMOGLOBINEMIA.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Tricuspid Atresia: Absence of the orifice between the RIGHT ATRIUM and RIGHT VENTRICLE, with the presence of an atrial defect through which all the systemic venous return reaches the left heart. As a result, there is left ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR) because the right ventricle is absent or not functional.Singlet Oxygen: An excited state of molecular oxygen generated photochemically or chemically. Singlet oxygen reacts with a variety of biological molecules such as NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS; causing oxidative damages.Almitrine: A respiratory stimulant that enhances respiration by acting as an agonist of peripheral chemoreceptors located on the carotid bodies. The drug increases arterial oxygen tension while decreasing arterial carbon dioxide tension in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It may also prove useful in the treatment of nocturnal oxygen desaturation without impairing the quality of sleep.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Eisenmenger Complex: A condition associated with VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECT and other congenital heart defects that allow the mixing of pulmonary and systemic circulation, increase blood flow into the lung, and subsequent responses to low oxygen in blood. This complex is characterized by progressive PULMONARY HYPERTENSION; HYPERTROPHY of the RIGHT VENTRICLE; CYANOSIS; and ERYTHROCYTOSIS.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.Arteriovenous Fistula: An abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. An A-V fistula usually leads to the formation of a dilated sac-like connection, arteriovenous aneurysm. The locations and size of the shunts determine the degree of effects on the cardiovascular functions such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.Transposition of Great Vessels: A congenital cardiovascular malformation in which the AORTA arises entirely from the RIGHT VENTRICLE, and the PULMONARY ARTERY arises from the LEFT VENTRICLE. Consequently, the pulmonary and the systemic circulations are parallel and not sequential, so that the venous return from the peripheral circulation is re-circulated by the right ventricle via aorta to the systemic circulation without being oxygenated in the lungs. This is a potentially lethal form of heart disease in newborns and infants.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Protriptyline: Tricyclic antidepressant similar in action and side effects to IMIPRAMINE. It may produce excitation.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Pulmonary Heart Disease: Hypertrophy and dilation of the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart that is caused by PULMONARY HYPERTENSION. This condition is often associated with pulmonary parenchymal or vascular diseases, such as CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE and PULMONARY EMBOLISM.Masks: Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)Exercise Tolerance: The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.
Pulse oximetry will show a normal oxygen saturation. Unlike the closely related Raynaud's phenomenon, cyanosis is continually ... The normal peripheral pulses rule out peripheral arterial occlusive disease, where arterial narrowing limits blood flow to the ... Acrocyanosis is characterized by peripheral cyanosis: persistent cyanosis of the hands or of the hands, feet, or face. The ... although hospitals opt to provide supplemental oxygen for precautionary measures. Pernio (Chilblains) Cyanosis Peripheral ...
... signs of low blood oxygen saturation, such as low concentrations of oxygen in arterial blood gas and cyanosis (bluish color of ... arterial blood gasses may show insufficient oxygen and excessive carbon dioxide even in someone receiving supplemental oxygen. ... Hypoxemia (low oxygen concentration in the arterial blood) typically becomes progressively worse over 24-48 hours after injury ... Monitoring, including keeping track of fluid balance, respiratory function, and oxygen saturation using pulse oximetry is also ...
It develops when arterial oxygen saturation drops below 85% or 75%. Acute cyanosis can be as a result of asphyxiation or ... Central cyanosis[edit]. Central cyanosis is often due to a circulatory or ventilatory problem that leads to poor blood ... Peripheral cyanosis[edit]. Peripheral cyanosis is the blue tint in fingers or extremities, due to an inadequate or obstructed ... Differential cyanosis[edit]. Differential cyanosis is the bluish coloration of the lower but not the upper extremity and the ...
... oxygen for 10 minutes.:141 If the cause of the cyanosis is poor oxygen saturation by the lungs, allowing the patient to breathe ... ability to saturate the blood with oxygen, and the partial pressure of oxygen in the arterial blood will rise (usually above ... and the partial pressure of oxygen will usually remain below 100 mmHg. In this case, the cyanosis is most likely due to blood ... A hyperoxia test is a test that is performed-usually on an infant-to determine whether the patient's cyanosis is due to lung ...
The defect, now a right-to-left shunt, causes reduced oxygen saturation in the arterial blood due to mixing of oxygenated blood ... Signs and symptoms of Eisenmenger syndrome include the following: Cyanosis (a blue tinge to the skin resulting from lack of ... This decreased saturation is sensed by the kidneys, resulting in a compensatory increase in erythropoietin production and an ... Reticulocytes are less efficient at carrying oxygen as mature red cells, and they are less deformable, causing impaired transit ...
... oxygen saturation should be above 92%. An SaO2 (arterial oxygen saturation) value below 90% causes hypoxia (which can also be ... Hypoxemia due to low SaO2 is indicated by cyanosis. Oxygen saturation can be measured in different tissues: Venous oxygen ... Peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) is an estimation of the oxygen saturation level usually measured with a pulse oximeter ... Oxygenation is commonly used to refer to medical oxygen saturation. In medicine, oxygen saturation (SO2), commonly referred to ...
Cyanosis of the hand in an elderly person with low oxygen saturation. ... Experimentally, oxygen diffusion becomes rate limiting (and lethal) when arterial oxygen partial pressure falls to 60 mmHg (5.3 ... Hypoxemia or hypoxemic hypoxia, a deficiency of oxygen in arterial blood. *Hypoxic hypoxia, a result of insufficient oxygen ... The reduction in the partial pressure of inspired oxygen at higher altitudes lowers the oxygen saturation of the blood, ...
Loss of consciousness results from critical hypoxia, when arterial oxygen saturation is less than 60%. "At oxygen ... Loss of consciousness may be accompanied by convulsions and is followed by cyanosis and cardiac arrest. About 7 minutes of ... After just two or three breaths of nitrogen, the oxygen concentration in the lungs would be low enough for some oxygen already ... or a low amount of oxygen, rather than atmospheric air (which is largely composed of nitrogen and oxygen). Examples of ...
Due to the low oxygen saturation of the blood, cyanosis will appear in peripheral areas: around the mouth and lips, fingertips ... Nasogastric tube (NG tube or simply NG) Intubation, oxygen mask, or nasal cannula Intravenous drip (IV) Arterial line Central ... Oxygen therapy is commonplace for hospitalized d-TGA patients. This may range from an oxygen mask resting on the bed nearby ... are not present and additional shunting is required to raise the oxygen saturation of the blood flowing eventually into the ...
Gonzales, G. F.; Salirrosas, A. (2005). "Arterial oxygen saturation in healthy newborns delivered at term in Cerro de Pasco ... A score of 10 is uncommon, due to the prevalence of transient cyanosis, and does not substantially differ from a score of 9. ... Oxygen saturation (see Pulse oximetry) also was lower at high altitude. Some ten years after initial publication[citation ... Transient cyanosis is common, particularly in babies born at high altitude. A study that compared babies born in Peru near sea ...
Exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia occurs during exercise when a trained individual exhibits an arterial oxygen saturation ... Other symptoms of hypoxemia may include cyanosis, digital clubbing, and symptoms that may relate to the cause of the hypoxemia ... The arterial oxygen partial pressure is obtained directly from an arterial blood gas determination. The oxygen contained in the ... in arterial blood, but also in terms of reduced content of oxygen (ml oxygen per dl blood) or percentage saturation of ...
... and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) < 85% in both genders. Migration to low altitude is curative, though not immediate, as ... cyanosis, and dilation of veins. CMS was first described in 1925 by Carlos Monge Medrano, a Peruvian doctor who specialised in ... which results in better arterial oxygenation and a lower heart rate. Oxygen therapy and training in slow breathing techniques ... due to the low oxygen levels at altitude, which increases the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood[1]. The increased levels of ...
... oxygen saturations below 92% or cyanosis (blue discoloration, usually of the lips), absence of audible breath sounds over the ... Fibrosis Emphysema Foreign Bodies of the Airway Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Heart Failure Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial ... Reduced oxygen saturation levels (but above 92%) are often encountered. Examination of the lungs with a stethoscope may reveal ... the more likely ventilation-perfusion mismatching will result in impaired gas exchange and low levels of oxygen in the blood ...
This can lead to lower-than-normal oxygen levels in the arterial blood that supplies the brain, organs, and tissues. However, ... This involves placing a catheter in the venous system of the heart and measuring pressures and oxygen saturations in the ... This causes signs of cyanosis. Heart of human embryo of about 35 days Atrial septal defect with left-to-right shunt ... then oxygen-rich blood can flow directly from the left side of the heart to mix with the oxygen-poor blood in the right side of ...
... oxygen saturation in arterial blood can drop to 95% or less under these conditions. Oxygen saturation this low is considered ... some conditions affecting the heme groups present in hemoglobin that can make the skin appear blue-a symptom called cyanosis. ... Increased oxygen consumption during sustained exercise reduces the oxygen saturation of venous blood, which can reach less than ... saturations less than 30%) may be rapidly fatal. A fetus, receiving oxygen via the placenta, is exposed to much lower oxygen ...
The aim is to keep thoracic pressure slightly raised to artificially raise arterial oxygen partial pressure or prevent it from ... 1979). "12.6 Decompression after an air or nitrogen-oxygen saturation dive". NOAA Diving Manual (2nd ed.). United States ... cyanosis The appearance of a blue or purple coloration of the skin or mucous membranes due to the tissues near the skin surface ... oxygen analyzer Instrument for measuring the partial pressure of oxygen in a gas mixture oxygen clean Cleaned for oxygen ...
The first symptoms are cyanosis that does not respond to oxygen administration or poor feeding. Peripheral pulses may be weak ... In addition, both the Blalock-Taussig and the Sano shunts expose the lungs to systemic arterial pressures, leading to long-term ... There is a considerable degree of venous mixing in the right ventricle, leading to lower oxygenation saturation. ... Air with less oxygen than normal is used for infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. These low oxygen levels increases ...
alveolar-arterial gradient. *hemoglobin. *oxygen-haemoglobin dissociation curve (Oxygen saturation. *2,3-BPG ... This difference also accounts for the presentation of cyanosis, the blue to purplish color that tissues develop during hypoxia. ... Oxygen saturation[edit]. In general, hemoglobin can be saturated with oxygen molecules (oxyhemoglobin), or desaturated with ... Oxygen binds in an "end-on bent" geometry where one oxygen atom binds to Fe and the other protrudes at an angle. When oxygen is ...
The binding affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen is increased by the oxygen saturation of the molecule, with the first molecules ... This difference also accounts for the presentation of cyanosis, the blue to purplish color that tissues develop during hypoxia ... arterial, venous, or capillary) and analysis on hematology analyzer and CO-oximeter. Additionally, a new noninvasive hemoglobin ... Oxygen binds in an "end-on bent" geometry where one oxygen atom binds to Fe and the other protrudes at an angle. When oxygen is ...
Oxygen saturationEdit. In general, hemoglobin can be saturated with oxygen molecules (oxyhemoglobin), or desaturated with ... This difference also accounts for the presentation of cyanosis, the blue to purplish color that tissues develop during hypoxia. ... Laboratory hemoglobin test methods require a blood sample (arterial, venous, or capillary) and analysis on hematology analyzer ... Oxygen binds in an "end-on bent" geometry where one oxygen atom binds to Fe and the other protrudes at an angle. When oxygen is ...
Respiratory function tests indicate a diffusion defect that is associated with a decrease in arterial oxygen saturation made ... Affected patients present with a nonproductive cough that is associated with dyspnea, chest pain, and cyanosis. The disease ... Genetically transmitted respiratory disease characterized by rapidly progressive dyspnea and cyanosis, digital clubbing, ... arterial blood gas, recurrent infections, and exacerbation of symptoms. Also obtain a chest radiograph and an ECG. If right ...
His respiratory rate was 49 bpm with a peripheral oxygen saturation of 91% on room air. He had nasal flaring and retraction of ... His pulmonary arterial pressure was 38 mmHg. There was a mild to moderate increase of his right heart chambers. The left ... cyanosis, and digital hypocratism. Thoracic deformities, digital clubbing and heart involvement with sign of cor pulmonale are ... and cyanosis are observed. The laboratory evaluation of the patient includes blood cell counts, hemoculture, erythrocyte ...
It develops when arterial oxygen saturation drops below 85% or 75%. Acute cyanosis can be as a result of asphyxiation or ... Central cyanosis[edit]. Central cyanosis is often due to a circulatory or ventilatory problem that leads to poor blood ... Peripheral cyanosis[edit]. Peripheral cyanosis is the blue tint in fingers or extremities, due to an inadequate or obstructed ... Differential cyanosis[edit]. Differential cyanosis is the bluish coloration of the lower but not the upper extremity and the ...
The appearance of cyanosis depends upon the total amount of reduced hemoglobin rather than the ratio of ... Cyanosis is a bluish discoloration of the tissues that results when the absolute level of reduced hemoglobin in the capillary ... Central cyanosis - Central cyanosis is caused by reduced arterial oxygen saturation. Newborn infants normally have central ... Peripheral cyanosis - Patients with peripheral cyanosis have normal systemic arterial oxygen saturation and increased tissue ...
This topic will discuss the differential diagnosis and approach to the child with cyanosis.Cyanosis, a bluish purple ... Peripheral cyanosis - Patients with peripheral cyanosis have a normal systemic arterial oxygen saturation. However, increased ... Two mechanisms result in cyanosis: systemic arterial oxygen desaturation and increased oxygen extraction by the tissues. Based ... Central cyanosis - Central cyanosis is evident when systemic arterial concentration of deoxygenated hemoglobin (Hb) in the ...
... in which the fractional saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen is displayed as a function of the oxygen pressure in the alveoli ... Thus conventionally arterial blood is red and venous blood is blue. In cyanosis tissues are bluish because their blood is ... With the body at rest the tissues only remove about one-quarter of the available oxygen reaching them in arterial blood, the ... The complete combination is called oxygen saturation. The degree of combination depends on the pressure of the gas; in healthy ...
... from the arterial blood gas (ABG) analyzer. Accurate oxygen saturation determinations require co-oximeter measurements. ... other than cyanosis) or for patients who have methemoglobin levels >30%. Cyanosis alone does not require treatment. Methylene ... as with the calculated value from the arterial blood gas (ABG) analyzer. Accurate oxygen saturation determinations require co- ... Insufficient delivery of oxygen and destruction of red blood cells may cause cardiopulmonary complaints with the development of ...
The patients arterial oxygen saturation improved to 97% post-procedure, and the patients symptoms disappeared. PAVMs that are ... He had pronounced central cyanosis (upper panel, middle column) and digital clubbing. The blood haemoglobin concentration was ... 25.1 g/dl and arterial oxygen saturation was 76%. His chest x ray showed a large irregular shadow adjacent to the right ... Right heart catheterisation revealed normal pressures and saturations. Selective right pulmonary angiogram showed a large PAVM ...
Cyanosis is caused by. *Decreased arterial oxygen saturation *Inadequate alveolar ventilation *Airway obstruction *Structural ... oxygen environment and the saturation is again measured.. If the problem is in the lungs, the saturation should increase with ... If the problem is caused by cardiac disease, the saturation should not improve with the supplemental oxygen. This is because ... Oxygen can also be administered to the infant but if resisted can actually be counterproductive. Questions for Further ...
... from the arterial blood gas (ABG) analyzer. Accurate oxygen saturation determinations require co-oximeter measurements. ... other than cyanosis) or for patients who have methemoglobin levels >30%. Cyanosis alone does not require treatment. Methylene ... as with the calculated value from the arterial blood gas (ABG) analyzer. Accurate oxygen saturation determinations require co- ... Insufficient delivery of oxygen and destruction of red blood cells may cause cardiopulmonary complaints with the development of ...
Perioral cyanosis was noted and oxygen saturation measured by arterial blood gas was pO2 60 (normal: pO2 80--100). A chest ... resulting in transfer to the pediatric ICU for continuous infusion of anticonvulsants and monitoring of oxygen saturation. A ... The infant received oxygen therapy, intravenous dipyrone (0.1 mL every 6 hours) and phenytoin (10 mg every 12 hours), and ...
Cyanosis is when your skin turns blue or grayish because your blood isnt carrying enough oxygen. Cyanosis can signify a ... Blood oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry. *Arterial blood gas analysis (ABG). *Complete blood count (CBC) ... If you have cyanosis, its likely that youll receive oxygen therapy to help boost your blood oxygen levels quickly, but any ... Mild cyanosis may be difficult to detect even in light-skinned people. In fact, you might not notice the signs until the oxygen ...
In patients with cyanosis, arterial oxygen saturation should be assessed by percutaneous oximetry. In counselling, the ... was observed in those mothers with an arterial oxygen saturation of ⩽ 85%. ... Women whose condition imparts a high likelihood of fetal complications, such as those with cyanosis or on anticoagulants, must ... Further palliative or corrective surgery.Both maternal and fetal outcomes are improved by surgery to correct cyanosis, which ...
Oxygen saturation (Sao2) was 98% when breathing room air. There was neither murmur nor bruit over the thorax, but multiple ... But, because of the lack of dyspnoea, orthodeoxsia, cyanosis, and polycythaemia and normal room air arterial blood gas analysis ... Although chest radiography and arterial oxygen determination were subtle but typical, computed tomographic, sonographic, and ... Arterial blood gas showed pH 7.35, Pco2: 34.1 mm Hg, and Po2: 96.5 mm Hg when breathing room air (DA-ao2: 10.6 mm Hg). ...
... oxygen saturation should be above 92%. An SaO2 (arterial oxygen saturation) value below 90% causes hypoxia (which can also be ... Hypoxemia due to low SaO2 is indicated by cyanosis. Oxygen saturation can be measured in different tissues: Venous oxygen ... Peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) is an estimation of the oxygen saturation level usually measured with a pulse oximeter ... Oxygenation is commonly used to refer to medical oxygen saturation. In medicine, oxygen saturation (SO2), commonly referred to ...
Make research projects and school reports about cyanosis easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... When arterial oxygen saturation is normal, the extent to which the blood becomes desaturated as it flows through the skin ... Cyanosis is caused by a lack of oxygen in the blood. Cyanosis is associated with cold temperatures, heart failure, lung ... Cyanosis is associated with heart failure, lung diseases, the breathing of oxygen-deficient atmospheres, and asphyxia. Cyanosis ...
Supplemental oxygen for patients with cyanosis, respiratory distress, or hypoxemia (arterial oxygen saturation , 90%). ... Myocardial ischemia develops as a result of an imbalance between myocardial oxygen supply and demand and is most commonly due ... CBC: anemia can result in decreased oxygen supply to myocardium and subsequent ischemia. Although there are differing opinions ...
Reflex tachypnea results from the decreased arterial oxygen saturation and cardiovascular collapse, heralded by hypotension, ... Aspiration of gastric contents into the lungs causes cyanosis, tachycardia, hypotension, and pulmonary edema (similar to AFE). ... and pulse oximetry may show sudden drop in oxygen saturation. This is followed by profound hypotension and cardiovascular ... Oxygen is given immediately to prevent the initial acute hypoxia seen in AFE and to prevent subsequent severe neurologic ...
... and aortic oxygen saturation were available for the patients who underwent cardiac catheterisation. Mean pulmonary arterial ... Data on cardiac status included presence of cyanosis, pulmonary hypertension, and congestive heart failure. Measurements of ... and there was no significant difference between groups cp and cP in terms of aortic oxygen saturation (59.5 (18.9)% and 61.6 ( ... aortic oxygen saturation, haemoglobin, albumin, and venous pH were measured. ...
... of oxygen-poor blood from the right ventricle to the body results in a reduction in the arterial oxygen saturation so that ... When a newborn with significant cyanosis is first seen, he or she is often placed in supplemental oxygen. The increased oxygen ... The arterial oxygen saturation of babies with tetralogy of Fallot can suddenly drop markedly. This phenomenon, called a " ... which in turn lowers the arterial oxygen level since more oxygen-poor blood is shunted from the right ventricle to the aorta. ...
Cyanosis is the most specific predictor and the best clinical correlate of arterial oxygen saturation, but it is difficult to ... An arterial oxygen saturation of 90% generally corresponds to an arterial oxygen tension of 60-70 mm Hg, although this relation ... Sixty three (5.9%) had an arterial oxygen saturation ,90%. A logistic regression model showed that cyanosis, a rapid ... Using this model, 216 of the 1009 (20.1%) children whose arterial oxygen saturation was 90% would have received oxygen, 17 ( ...
... the measurement of hemoglobin oxygen saturation in either blood or tissue, depends on the Lambert-Beer relationship between ... Relationship of oxygen tension to hemoglobin oxygen saturation in arterial blood of normal men. J Appl Physiol 1952;4:873-885 ... The unreliability of cyanosis in the recognition of arterial anoxemia. Am J Med Sci 1947;214:l-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Photoelectric determination of arterial oxygen saturation in man. J Lab Clin Med 1949;34:387-401PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
... signs of low blood oxygen saturation, such as low concentrations of oxygen in arterial blood gas and cyanosis (bluish color of ... arterial blood gasses may show insufficient oxygen and excessive carbon dioxide even in someone receiving supplemental oxygen. ... Hypoxemia (low oxygen concentration in the arterial blood) typically becomes progressively worse over 24-48 hours after injury ... Monitoring, including keeping track of fluid balance, respiratory function, and oxygen saturation using pulse oximetry is also ...
Inhaled oxygen should be administered if the arterial oxygen saturation (Sao2) declines to ,90%. Finger pulse oximetry is ... 3. Supplemental oxygen for patients with cyanosis or respiratory distress; finger pulse oximetry or arterial blood gas ... or other high-risk features should receive supplemental oxygen. Adequate arterial oxygen saturation should be confirmed with ... determination to confirm adequate arterial oxygen saturation (Sao2 ,90%) and continued need for supplemental oxygen in the ...
Arterial oxygen saturation. Infants may be mildly desaturated from an obligate right-to-left shunt at the atrial level, or ... Reverse differential cyanosis with lower oxygen saturation in the right hand than in the feet has been reported in supracardiac ... decreased systemic oxygen saturation, and severely decreased systemic oxygen delivery. If profound, this may progress to ... Place infant on 100% oxygen and repeat ABG. A PaO2 less than 150 mmHg (or increase less than 100 mmHg) on 100% oxygen suggests ...
  • However in patients with arterial blood not saturated with oxygen, for example with lung or heart disease, stimulation of breathing or administration of oxygen should increase the oxygen carriage in the blood and be beneficial or life-saving. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Thus it is important to have rational guidelines both for the use of oxygen and for the referral of patients to specialist hospitals. (bmj.com)
  • With continued improvements in the diagnosis, preoperative management, refinement of surgical techniques and intra- and postoperative management strategies, the patients with Eisenmenger syndrome selected using a diagnostic-treatment-and-repair strategy are operable with safety and efficacy in the current era with advanced pulmonary arterial hypertension therapy. (rcjournal.com)
  • We aimed to analyze our single-center experience with patients requiring conversional laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) following a failed primary open or laparoscopic vertical banded gastroplasty (OVBG or LVBG, respectively). (qxmd.com)
  • Adult Fontan patients have an increased arterial stiffness assessed by a noninvasive technique. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Low arterial oxygen saturation postoperative time, age at surgery, white blood cells, TNFα and bilirubin level are associated with arterial stiffening in these patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The combination of blood parameters of the hepatic function and noninvasive measurements of arterial stiffness could be helpful in comprehensive care of patients with Fontan circulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The present study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of the noninvasive measurement of arterial stiffness to determine whether peripheral vascular function might be an early marker of impaired health status in patients with a single ventricle after Fontan procedure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For patients with Eisenmenger syndrome, air travel carries the risk of deep venous thrombosis, especially because this group of patients is predisposed to thrombotic events and compromised oxygen delivery at high altitudes . (medscape.com)
  • Patients present with cyanosis. (chw.org)
  • Pediatric patients suspected of having cyanosis should be assessed promptly by a pediatric cardiologist or by pediatric pulmonologist as dictated by clinical situation. (healio.com)
  • Oxygen has not been proven to have any consistent effect on the sensation of breathlessness in non-hypoxaemic patients. (bmj.com)
  • The guideline recommends aiming to achieve normal or near-normal oxygen saturation for all acutely ill patients apart from those at risk of hypercapnic respiratory failure or those receiving terminal palliative care. (bmj.com)
  • For critically ill patients, high concentration oxygen should be administered immediately ( table 1 and figure 1 ) and this should be recorded afterwards in the patient's health record. (bmj.com)
  • Oxygen should be prescribed to achieve a target saturation of 94-98% for most acutely ill patients or 88-92% or patient-specific target range for those at risk of hypercapnic respiratory failure ( tables 1 ⇓ ⇓ - 4 ). (bmj.com)
  • It is included as a subtype within group I patients, who have pulmonary arterial hypertension. (endocrinologyadvisor.com)
  • During the observational period 73 (29.7%) patients, considered optimal candidates, underwent Fontan completion for increasing cyanosis and (or) hematocrit and (or) fatigue with exertion. (elsevier.com)
  • It was also recognized that this was more frequent in patients anesthetized with a nitrous oxide-oxygen mixture. (asahq.org)
  • There were previous reports of a decrease in arterial oxygen saturation as measured by an ear oximeter when patients began to breathe room air, especially after a nitrous oxide-oxygen anesthetic. (asahq.org)
  • Ray followed this simple experiment with clinical observations in eight otherwise healthy patients undergoing gynecologic surgery who were anesthetized with 75% nitrous oxide-25% oxygen supplemented with sodium thiopental. (asahq.org)
  • The variability of change in oxygen saturation among the patients studied was attributed to differing levels of ventilation and lung volume. (asahq.org)
  • Depending on the degree of impairment, patients may benefit from oxygen therapy and pulmonary rehabilitation. (bmj.com)
  • Acute cyanosis can be as a result of asphyxiation or choking, and is one of the definite signs that respiration is being blocked. (wikipedia.org)
  • In children with an acute lower respiratory tract infection, simple physical signs that require minimal expertise to recognise can be used to determine oxygen therapy and to aid in screening for referral. (bmj.com)
  • UA and NSTEMI are acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) that are characterized by an imbalance between myocardial oxygen supply and demand. (ahajournals.org)
  • Because acute cyanide poisoning may impact multiple organ systems in addition the highly oxygen sensitive central nervous and cardiovascular systems, initial clinical signs may be nonspecific and vague such as headache, nausea, vomiting, anxiety, agitation, and confusion. (calpoison.org)
  • We investigated the effect of post-extubation noninvasive CPAP mask application on the alveolar arterial oxygen difference [(A-a) DO2 ] after pediatric laparoscopic surgery. (qxmd.com)
  • Handheld pulse oximeters measures the SpO2 level, arterial blood pressure, and pulse rate of an individual sensor connected to finger or an ear lobe or forehead and by connecting neonatal sensor and infant sensor in children and new born babies. (marketresearchreports.biz)
  • The body maintains a stable level of oxygen saturation for the most part by chemical processes of aerobic metabolism associated with breathing. (wikipedia.org)